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Assignment 1

Submission date: 10.3.2020


Question 1: Write the differences between vacuum tube & transistor.
The electron tube appeared earlier, the transistor appeared after replacing the electron tube, now has
been basically eliminated.

However, the electronic tube has its own nonlinear characteristics, and the human ear to this kind of
nonlinear processing after the sound is more like, so there are some USES in the audio amplifier above,
and are used for high-end audio equipment.

The electron tube was one of the earliest electrical signal amplifiers.

The cathode electron emission portion, the control grid, the accelerating grid, and the anode (plate)
leads are welded to the tube base and enclosed in the glass container (generally the glass tube).

The electric field is used to inject the electronic modulation signal into the control gate in the vacuum,
and the signal data of different parameters after the signal amplification or feedback oscillation is
obtained at the anode.

Early applied to electronic products such as television, radio amplifier, in recent years gradually be
replaced by the amplifier and integrated circuit of semiconductor materials, but in some high fidelity
audio equipment at present, still using low noise and high stable coefficient of tube as the audio power
amplifier device (Hong Kong person use vacuum tube power amplifier for "bravery").

Transistors (transistor) is a solid-state semiconductor devices, a rectification, rectification, amplification,


switch, voltage regulator, signal modulation and other functions.

As a variable current switch, the transistor can control the output current based on the input voltage.

Different from ordinary mechanical switches (such as Relay and switch), transistors use
telecommunication signals to control their opening and closing, and the switching speed can be very
fast, the switching speed in the laboratory can reach more than 100GHz.

Question 2: What are the different types of memory devices? Write the differences between
RAM & ROM.
memory devices:SARM,DRAM,ROM,EEPROM
1.ROM, short for readonly Memory, is a type of solid-state semiconductor Memory that can Only Read
out data stored in advance. The feature is that once the data is stored, it cannot be changed or deleted.
It is usually used in electronic or computer systems that do not require frequent changes to the data,
and the data does not disappear when the power is turned off.

2. Random access memory (RAM), also known as "random access memory", is internal memory that
exchanges data directly with the CPU, also known as main memory. It can be read and written at any
time, and is fast, often serving as a temporary data storage medium for operating systems or other
running programs.

Question 3: Explain transducer, signal conditioner & op-amp.


Transducer:Sensor (English name: sensor) is a kind of detecting device, which can feel the measured
information and transform it into an electrical signal or other required information output according to a
certain rule, so as to meet the requirements of information transmission, processing, storage, display,
recording and control.

Signal conditioner :Signal conditioning is a data acquisition process, signal conditioning is used to
perform the process of the instrument. To convert an electrical or mechanical signal (input signal) into
another (output signal). The aim is to amplify and convert this signal into a form that is easily identifiable
and compatible with data acquisition or machine control.

Op-amp:Operational amplifiers (" operational amplifiers ") are circuit units with high magnification. In
the actual circuit, the feedback network is usually combined to form some functional modules. It is an
amplifier with a special coupling circuit and feedback. Its output signal can be the input signal plus,
minus or differential, integral and other mathematical operations. Due to its early application in analog
computers to achieve mathematical operations, hence the name "operational amplifier".

Question 4: Explain second order low pass filter with block diagram.

Question 5: Draw the block diagram of flash ADC & sigma delta converter.
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