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Region III
San Fernando East District
Nuestra Señora Del Pilar Integrated School
Brgy. Del Pilar, City of San Fernando, Pampanga

Name of Student: ____________________________________ Parent’s Signature: ____________

Parent/Guardian: _____________________________________


(Grade 12)
Quarter 1 – Week 4


A. Content Standard:
The learner acquires knowledge of appropriate reading strategies for a better
understanding of academic texts
B. Performance Standard:
The learner produces a detailed abstract of information gathered from the various
academic texts read
C. Learning Competency/ Most Essential Learning Competencies (MELC)
MELC No. 6 –
Uses various techniques in summarizing a variety of academic text
MELC No. 7 –
Outline reading texts in various discipline

 Specific Objectives:
At the end of the lesson, the learners should be able to:

1. Determine the purpose of summarizing;

2. Discuss the features of summarizing;
3. State the main idea or key information of a text;
4. Apply effective strategies in summarizing.


Basics of Summarizing


A. References
English for the Globalized Classroom Series English for Academic and
Professional Purposes by Paolo Niño M. Valdez, Ph.D

Communicate Today English for Academic and Professional Purposes for

Senior High School by Jessie Saraza Barrot, Ph.D. and Philippe John
Fresnillo Sipacio

B. Other Learning/Instructional Materials


A. Reviewing previous lesson or presenting the new lesson

 Let’s Warm Up

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Tick the column that determines how often you practice what the following
statements say. Do this as objectively as possible.

Usually Sometimes Seldom Never

1. I establish my reading
purpose before I summarize.
2. I make sure that I fully
understand the text before I
3. I use my own words in my
4. I include only the key ideas
when summarizing.
5. I highlight keywords and
phrases and make
annotations when
6. I refrain from adding
comments in summarizing.
7. I vary sentence structure
when writing a summary in
paragraph form.
8. I use reporting verbs for my
9. I cite sources.
10. I eliminate redundant ideas
from the summary.

Scoring Score Level of Proficiency

Usually – 3 points 28-30 Advanced
Sometimes – 2 points 25-27 Proficient
Seldom – 1 point 23-24 Approaching Proficiency
Never - 0 20 and below Beginning Proficiency

B. Establishing a purpose for the lesson

Suppose you told your friend that you just watched a great film, and
your friend asks what the story is. What would you do? Would you tell the
story as it is from the opening scene to the end credits or would you simply
talk about the essential parts of the movie? You’ll probably agree that the
latter is the more practical choice, and you are correct. More often than not,
the gist or the most significant or important part is what is given out to provide
a background, not only in talking about movie plots but also in writing
academic and professional papers.

C. Presenting examples/instances of the new lesson

An Example of Summarizing

Original text:
America has changed dramatically during recent years. Not only has the number of
graduates in traditional engineering disciplines such as mechanical, civil, electrical,
chemical, and aeronautical engineering declined, but in most of the premier American
universities engineering curricula now concentrate on and encourage largely the study of
engineering science.  As a result, there are declining offerings in engineering subjects
dealing with infrastructure, the environment, and related issues, and greater concentration
on high technology subjects, largely supporting increasingly complex scientific

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developments. While the latter is important, it should not be at the expense of more
traditional engineering.
Rapidly developing economies such as China and India, as well as other industrial
countries in Europe and Asia, continue to encourage and advance the teaching of
engineering. Both China and India, respectively, graduate six and eight times as many
traditional engineers as does the United States. Other industrial countries at minimum
maintain their output, while America suffers an increasingly serious decline in the number of
engineering graduates and a lack of well-educated engineers. (169 words)

One-paragraph Summary:
In a 2008 Faculty Newsletter article, “Change in Education: The cost of sacrificing
fundamentals,” MIT Professor Emeritus Ernst G. Frankel expresses his concerns regarding
the current state of American engineering education.  He notes that the number of students
focusing on traditional areas of engineering has decreased while the number interested in
the high-technology end of the field has increased.   Frankel points out that other industrial
nations produce far more traditionally-trained engineers than we do, and believes we have
fallen seriously behind. (81 words)

D. Discussing new concepts and practicing new skills #1


As an important skill in critical reading, summarizing is often used to

determine the essential ideas in a book, article, book chapter, an article or
parts of an article. These essential ideas include the gist or main idea, useful
information, or key words or phrases that help you meet your reading
purpose. Summarizing is generally done after reading. However, it can be
done as well while reading a text.

Summarizing is an important skill because it helps you:

 Deepen your understanding of the text;

 Learn to identify relevant information or key ideas;
 Combine details or examples that support the main idea/s;
 Concentrate on the gist or main idea and key words presented in the
text; and,
 Capture the key ideas in the text and put them together clearly and

You are not summarizing when you

 Write down everything;

 Write down ideas from the text word-for-word;
 Write down incoherent and irrelevant ideas;
 Write down ideas that are not stated in the text; or,
 Write down a summary that has the same length or is longer than the
original text.

E. Discussing new concepts and practicing new skills #2


1. Clarify your purpose before you read.

2. Read the text and understand the meaning. Do not stop reading until you
understand the message conveyed by the author. Locate the gist or main idea of
the text, which can usually be found either at the beginning, in the middle, or in
the end.
3. Select the underline or circle the key ideas and phrases while reading; another
strategy is to annotate the text.

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4. Write all the key ideas and phrases you identified on the margins or on your
notebook in a bullet or outline form.
5. Without looking at the text, identify the connections of these key ideas and
phrases using a concept map.
6. List your ideas in sentence form in a concept map.
7. Combine the sentences into a paragraph. Use appropriate transitional devices to
improve cohesion.
8. Ensure that you do not copy a single sentence from the original text.
9. Refrain from adding comments about the text. Stick to the ideas it presents.
10. Edit the draft of your summary by eliminating redundant ideas.
11. Compare your output with the original text to ensure accuracy.
12. Record the details of the original source (author’s name/s, date of publication,
title, publisher, place o publishing, and URL (if online). It is not necessary to
indicate the page number/s of the original text in citing sources in summaries.
13. Format your summary properly. When you combine your summaries in a
paragraph, use different formats to show variety in writing.


The three formats that you may use in writing summaries are idea heading,
author heading, and date heading.

1. Idea Heading Format

In this format, the summarized idea comes before the citation.


2. Author Heading Format

In this format, the summarized idea comes after the citation. The author’s
name/s is/are connected by an appropriate reporting verb.


3. Date Heading Format

In this format, the summarized idea comes after the date when the material
was published.


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F. Developing mastery
Write S if the statement describes good summarizing and N if not.
_______1. Sean copied everything from the book.
_______2. Tomas extracted the key ideas in the text.
_______3. Red concentrated on the important details.
_______4. Anita looked for key words and phrases.
_______5. Sen simplified ideas.
_______6. Kai revised the main idea.
_______7. To add more information, Alexa added her analysis and comments to
the ideas of the author.
_______8. Maria wrote down the general and specific ideas of the text.
_______9. Sean added some of his related research to the information presented in
the text.
_______10. Lalaine extended the message of the text and included some of her

G. Finding practical applications of concepts and skills in daily living

Why is it important to learn how to summarize properly?

H. Making generalizations and abstractions about the lesson

Summarizing is an important skill in critical reading, summarizing is often used to determine

the essential ideas in a book, article, book chapter, an article or parts of an article. These
essential ideas include the gist or main idea, useful information, or key words or phrases that
help you meet your reading purpose. Summarizing is generally done after reading. However,
it can be done as well while reading a text.

I. Evaluating learning
Activity 1: Select and underline the key ideas and phrases while reading the following texts.

A. The Challenge of Stability and Security in West Africa

This book seeks to critically examine the challenges of fragility and security in West
Africa, along with the factors of resilience. It seeks to investigate key drivers of conflict and
violence, and the way in which they impact the countries of the subregion. Along with
emerging threats and challenges, these include the challenge of youth inclusion; migration;
regional imbalances; extractives; the fragility of political institutions and managing the
competition for power; security; and land. The book explores how the subregion, under the
auspices of the regional organization ECOWAS has become a pioneer on the continent in
terms of addressing regional challenges. This book also seeks to identify key lessons in the
dynamics of resilience against political violence and civil war, drawn from countries such as
Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Cote d’Ivoire that can be useful for countries around the world in
the midst of similar situations. Finally, it draws on knowledge and findings from a series
background papers written by leading experts, and provides insights from the perspectives
of academics and development practitioners.

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B. Deliberation and Development: Rethinking the Role of Voice and Collective Action in
Unequal Societies

“Deliberation is the process by which a group of people, each with equal voice, can “
via a process of discussion and debate” reach an agreement.

Deliberation and Development attempts to do two things. First, it rethinks the role of
deliberation in development and shows that it has potential well beyond a narrow focus on
participatory projects. Deliberation, if properly instituted, has the potential to have a
transformative effect on many if not all aspects of development, and especially in addressing
problems of collective action, coordination, and entrenched inequality. This has broad
implications both at the global and local level.

Second, the book demonstrates that taking deliberation seriously calls for a different
approach to both research and policy design and requires a much greater emphasis on the
processes by which decisions are made, rather than an exclusive focus on the outcomes.
Deliberation and Development contributes to a broader literature to understand the role of
communicative processes in development.”

Activity 2: Read each passage. Highlight or underline necessary information. Write your

1. If you are reading this right now, you are

taking part in the wonder of literacy. Because _______________________________________
of printed words, people can send
information across both time and space. _______________________________________
Ideas are put in writing and sent to readers
across thousands of miles and years. Because _______________________________________
of writing, the words of distant people can
influence events, offer knowledge, and _______________________________________
change the world. Much of the credit for the
development of this phenomenon can be
attributed to one man.

2. Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum

Gutenberg, better known as Johannes _______________________________________
Gutenberg, was born in the German city
of Mainz. Though most of Gutenberg’s early _______________________________________
life is a mystery, historians believe that he
studied at the University of Erfurt in 1418 and _______________________________________
spent much of his young adult life practicing
the profession of his father: goldsmithing. _______________________________________
Gutenberg borrowed money from investors in
1439 and found himself in financial trouble.

3. In the year 1439 the city in which

Gutenberg lived was planning to exhibit its _______________________________________
large collection from Emperor Charlemagne
(a famous ruler who had united much _______________________________________
of Western Europe around 800 AD). The

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exhibit was expected to bring many visitors to _______________________________________
the town, so Gutenberg took investments and
created polished metal mirrors which were to _______________________________________
be sold to the visitors (it was a common belief
at that time that mirrors were able to capture _______________________________________
holy light from religious relics). The mirrors
which Gutenberg produced probably would _______________________________________
have sold well, but due to severe flooding the
event was delayed by one year. The impatient _______________________________________
investors demanded that Gutenberg return
their investments, but he had already spent
the money on producing the unsaleable
mirrors. He was trapped in a difficult
situation. Gutenberg decided to share his
greatest secret with them.

4. This secret would forever change the

world, all of history, and even the process of _______________________________________
keeping history. It’s been argued that
Gutenberg’s idea was one of the greatest of _______________________________________
all mankind. This one idea would lead to the
spread of countless others. It would play a _______________________________________
key role in the development of the
Renaissance, Reformation, the Age of _______________________________________
Enlightenment, and the Scientific Revolution.
This idea would bring learning to the masses.
Gutenberg had created the mechanical
printing press with movable type.

5. Before the spread of Gutenberg’s idea,

_____________________________________ literature was handwritten. That means that
each copy of the bible and all of its 73 books
_____________________________________ were tediously hand scribed, and this was done
before the invention of the ballpoint pen. Given
_____________________________________ the amount of detail that went into each text,
creating a single copy of a bible could take
_____________________________________ years. Because of the effort that went into
producing them, books were extremely rare and
valuable. Because of the value of books, there
was little reason for common people to learn to
read or write since it was unlikely that they
would ever handle a book in their lifetimes.
Gutenberg’s invention would change that. His
printing press allowed literature to be produced
on a mass scale. His movable metal type could
be arranged once to form a page, and he could
print the page again and again.

6. The first major text that Gutenberg produced

_____________________________________ was a 42 line copy of the bible. Scholars
estimate that Gutenberg produced between
_____________________________________ 165 and 185 of these bibles, which sold out
almost immediately. Most copies went to
_____________________________________ churches and universities, though one was sold
to a private individual. Copies are known to

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_____________________________________ have sold for 30 florins (about three years of
wages for a clerk at the time), which may seem
_____________________________________ expensive but was much cheaper than a hand
produced copy. Purchasing a Gutenberg Bible in
_____________________________________ the 1450s would have been a good investment
if you and your descendants were able to
maintain it. Only twenty-one complete
Gutenberg Bibles exist today and the last one
traded hands in 1987 for 4.9 million dollars, the
highest price ever paid for a book at the time.

7. Gutenberg’s brilliant idea would soon change

_____________________________________ the world, but in the short term he bungled a
large and risky investment. He found himself in
_____________________________________ financial trouble once again and was sued by
one of his investors, who accused Gutenberg of
_____________________________________ mismanaging money meant for the production
of books. The courts ruled against Gutenberg
and he lost the shop that he had created. He
was effectively bankrupt.

8. Though he had failed as a businessman, the

_____________________________________ technologies that he had created spread rapidly.
As these printing technologies spread, news and
_____________________________________ books began to travel much faster than
previously possible. The world has not been the
_____________________________________ same since. Though Gutenberg was financially
unsuccessful in his own lifetime, he made the
world a much richer place.

J. Additional activities for application or remediation

Read each question carefully and choose the best answer. Refer to the text if
necessary. Write your answer on the provided space. 

1. Which of the following expresses the correct order of events?  __________

a) Gutenberg was born in Mainz, invested in mirrors, and then became a goldsmith.  
b) Gutenberg created the printing press, printed the bible, and then invented the metal  
c) Gutenberg went to college, revealed his press, and then invested in shiny mirrors.  
d) Gutenberg studied goldsmithing, invented the printing press, and then lost his shop.

2. Which best explains why Gutenberg’s plan to sell mirrors failed? __________

a) The mirrors were less popular than he had expected.  
b) Flooding delayed the event for an entire year.  
c) Too many other people had the same idea.  
d) Newly invented glass mirrors rendered his metal mirrors obsolete.
3. Which of the following did Gutenberg invent? __________
a) Reflective mirrors                    b) The printing press with movable type  
c) Written language                     d) Scientific inquiry  

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4. Which is not listed in the text as a movement to which Gutenberg’s idea contributed?  
a) The Great Schism                    b) The Scientific Revolution
c) The Renaissance                     d) The Age of Enlightenment __________
5. Which of the following is best supported by evidence from the text?  
a) Gutenberg’s idea was a tremendous success that made him incredibly wealthy.  
b) Gutenberg’s idea didn’t catch on in his lifetime, but grew very popular after his death.
c) Gutenberg’s idea did not make him rich but spread very quickly.
d) Gutenberg’s idea did not catch on right away but made him incredibly rich over time. __________
6. Which best explains why most people were illiterate during Gutenberg’s time?  
a) Books were rare and very expensive.  
b) The public school system had not yet been created.  
c) Writing had not yet been invented.
d) Emperor Charlemagne made reading and writing illegal for common people. __________
7. Which best expresses the main idea of this text?  
a) To describe what life was like during the Middle Ages  
b) To persuade people to read and write more
c) To chart the spread of printing technologies across Europe  
d) To provide biographical information about Johannes Gutenberg __________
8. Which best explains why so few of Gutenberg’s bibles were sold to private individuals?
a) Gutenberg wanted to use his talents to help churches and universities.  
b) Gutenberg’s Bible was pretty expensive and most people couldn’t read.  
c) Most Europeans were not religious and did not care about the bible.  
d) Gutenberg’s investors forbade him from selling the bibles to private individuals.  __________
9. Which of the following titles best expresses the main idea of this text?
a) Investing Wisely: Turning Your Good Ideas into Money
b) How to Make Books Using the Gutenberg Method
c) The City of Mainz: Life  in Medieval Germany
d) Gutenberg: A Man Who Changed the World
10. Why was Gutenberg’s invention important? Use information from the text to support
your response. Make your point, quote text, explain the quote and connect it.


11. Was Gutenberg successful? Use information from the text to support your response.
Make your point, quote text, explain the quote and connect it.

Prepared by:


Teacher II

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