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I a C -O L /S S ,I .a T /D a . .

CHAPTER
18

T ic l g

CHAPTER OUTLINE

Wha I Mean b T ic ?

T e and R e fE e

R e f Admini ai n
P a
I aa
Oa
Pa a

D e and Re ne
T T :T LD50 T

E c e i n f Chemical f m he B d
D a C a b L
O a R R a
C R a

Te a gen , M agen , and Ca cin gen


T a
M a
Ca
C a T a Ca Ca
T D Ca

N cleic Acid
F N A
T P a S N A
T D b H
DNA, G ,a C
C R a

P ein S n he i

The Gene ic C de
M a DNA Da a
I Ra a
U a L
C a
A a DNA

Ame Te
G T Ca

Addi i nal S ce f Inf ma i n

Ke d

Q e i n and P blem
I a V /S S ,I .

HUMANS HAVE BEEN FAMILIAR WITH THE HARMFUL EFFECTS OF ANIMAL VENOMS
AND POISONOUS PLANTS FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS. T a
a a a .T a a
ab Eb a ( a 1500 B.C.), b a
a a E .T a 1,000 ,
a a ab .F a , ,
G S a (470
399 B.C.); a ,a a a C ; , b
a a a a a a ;a a a b a aa a ,
a a a a a .D R a E a
M A a R a a , a a
a .T B a a Ia a
a .
N b a a a
a a a b
a a .O a
a a a F Fa Ma .I
1809, a , a a a
a a a a a b
a b .
T a , a b a
a a b a , a ,a a .
Pa a ab b a
.I a , a a
b a .W a a a b a
a a a a a .

Wha I Mean b T ic ?
A b a a b a a ab a .O
b a a a a a a a ( a
[ ] )a a b a . Ma
b a , ab a ,a a a a
a b a ab .T b a a a
a :S ab a ;
a a , a . , b
A a a a ,
a a ab . P i n a a a
b a , a a .T in
b a .T a b .
A a , a ,a a
a a a a a a a .I
a a b a a a a
a a .
A , , a a ab
b a .F a a b
- a ,a a a a a
a a b a .B a a a a
ab a , a
a .

T e and R e fE e
T a a b a
.T a
, b , a a
b a ( a, , ), a b a a a
a a .
E a a a b a a ,a
a a ab a .
A a , a ac e e e a
a a b .I a a ,
a a a b a .O a
a b , a a
a b a a a .
A ch nic a
a a ( a a ) a
.T
a, a a a ,a
.G a , a a a
a a a a b a b a a
a a a .T a
500 a b a a a
a a a .I 500 a a
a 1 a , , a b .
L , 500 50- a a
, a b a .

R e f Admini ai n
Pe c ane
T a b a a a a
a a ( e c ane ). T
a , a a a .
G a , a a a a
; a ,a a a
b a a bab a ab a a
a .I a a a a a
a a a . Ab a a
a ab a a ; a , a a a
a a a a b a
a a a a .
D a a a ab .F
a , DDT a a a a a
a a a a ,b
a a a .T a
b a DDT ab b a a a b a
a ,a a a
a b a a a a a a a .
Inhala i n
E a a a ab
inhala i n; , a b a a a
a a a a a
.T a a a a a a a
a a a a a a a
a ba a a - a .
T U.S. O a Sa a H a A 1970
a a a a ab
aa a a
.S a , Na i nal In i e f Occ a i nal
Safe and Heal h (NIOSH) a a b a a .
T O a Sa a H a A 1970
ab a a a a .
Ea a a a a a a
a a a ab a a a , a
a a ime- eigh ed a e age (TWA)* a a
a 8- a a a 40- ,
b a a a a .I a , a a
a a a a a a ab
a .T h - e me e limi (STEL)
a a b .
N a a a , 60
b a STEL a a a
a (TLV) a . STEL a
a a a b a
- a a a . TLV a
0.0002 ,a ,
5,000 ab . Table 18.1 TLV
a a .

O al
T a a a a b a
a b . Ma a a
a a a ab b a a a , a b
a a b b (Fig e 18.1). A
b , a b b aa b .
T a a a a
a a a a a a a ab b
b a .
Ab a a a a a a
a a a .S a a
ab b a ;b a a a (a H
a a 2), Hende n-Ha elbalch e a i n a b
a a - , - b
a a ab ab .T a ba (a H
a a 6) a a a a a ab b
a .
T a a - a a a
a ba a a .T Ha
a a a a ba 50% a Ka Kb,
.L H, Ka a Kb a b a a
a a a .B a Ka = 14 Kb,
a a , a b a a .
*T - a a (TWA) a a a a a
a a a a a a .

Table 18.1
TLV f S me C mm nl Enc n e ed En i nmen al
Chemical
C m nd TLV ( m) mg/M3

B a 100
Ca b 10,000 18,000
Ca b 35 40
C 0.5 1.5
C 0.1 0.3
C 2 9.8
F a 20 30
Ga 300 900
H a 50 180
M a 200 260
O 0.1 0.2
S 2 5
T 50 270

Da a : CDC, NIOSH P G C a Ha a .

Fig e 18.1 T a a a .

EXAMPLE 18.1

B a a a a .W
, b ab b a ?

S l i n
T a b a a ,
H -Ha ba a , a b a :

T Ka b a 6.28 10 5. I Ka 4.2.
T a a a , b
H a (a H a a 2) a Ka b
a ( Ka = 4.2).
S b H -Ha ba a

a a

O b a a ;
99% b a - b , - .
T a a , b
H (a H a a 6) a Ka b
a ( Ka = 4.2).
S b H -Ha ba a

a a

I , 1% b a - , -
b .W a b a a b
ab b a .

Pa en e al
A a b b a a a
a a a a
.T a b a ab
( , , a , ) a a
a a a a a a a
b .S a a a , a ,
b a a a a a
(a a ).

D e and Re ne
T a
a .T a a a a a
a b a a a a
ab a .T a a ( b
a ) a d e. T e ne
a a a a a .
T a , a a b
a .T a b a a
a b a .T a a
a a a (1) a a a
a , (2) a a
a a ,a (3) a a a
a a .T
a a a a ab a a a
.
T a aa a aa a,a
a a a a a a .T
aa a a a b a
a a a .A a a a
a a b a a a a
ab b b a a a
a a a a. A a a a
.T b a a a a a a
.W ( a a a
)a ,a a Fig e 18.2 ba .T
a a :
a b - a a a ,a
a a a .I
a , a a .I F 18.2, a A
a Bb a a LD50 (LD a a ), b a B
a a a a b a A. C a a a
a a a .I a,a a
a a , a a a a
.T a a a a aaa a a
b a 50% a a a .

Fig e 18.2 T a .C a A a a a a
a .C a B a a a a .

Te ing f T ici : The LD50 Te


S 1920, a a a a
a b LD50 e . I , a
b a a a ab a a a .T
a LD50 a a 50%
a a a . T LD50 a a a
Table 18.2. C a LD50 a a a a
a .T a LD50 a , a
b a .F a , LD50 a a -B a
0.009 / , a a a 130 / .T a a
a a -B a a 10,000 a a a a .
T LD50 a Tab 18.2 a a a
a a .O a a a a
b a .F a , a a 10,000
(TCDD) a a .B a
, LD50 a a , a a , a b a a
a a a a b a 50% a a
a .N , a a a
bab a .P ,a b a a
a a b a , .
T a a a a a b a
LD50 a b a a a a.
F a , , LD50 a ,a a a , 800
/ a a , 500 /
b ,a 45 / a .
T a a a b a b aa a a
a a a .
T a a a LC50,
a a b a 50% a
a a a . T LD50
LC50 a a a a a ab .

Table 18.2
LD50 Val e f Selec ed Chemical

Chemical LD50 (mg/kg)*

S a 29,700
E a 14,000
V a 3,310
S 3,000
Ma a ( ) 1,200
A 1,000
Ca 130
DDT ( ) 100
A 48
S 2
N 1
A a -B 0.009
D (TCDD) 0.001
B 0.00001

*F a .

E c e i n f Chemical f m he B d
De i ca i n f Chemical b he Li e
B a a ab a a , a a
a a a .T a a
a b b a a a
a a a a a , a a a .

O ida i n Red c i n Reac i n


E a ( a [CH3CH2OH]) b a a a .
A a a b a , a ab b
b a a a .T ,
aa a a , a a ,
a a ,a ab a a .
C a a b .T
a a a a a
.A a - a
a a b a
.
T a a a a
a b .F a , a ( a [CH3OH])
a a (HCHO). M
a a b , a a ,a
a .I a a a b ,b a
a , a .E a a
a a a a a a
(CH2OHCH2OH; a ) .B a a
a a a ,
a b a a ,
b b a a b a a .

C ling Reac i n
T P-450 a a a
.T a a- b b a a
a b a , , a .F a ,
b (C6H6), a a , a ,a a
a b a .I b , b
a .T P-450
, b a .T b
a ,a a a a a ,
, a b a a
a .

Te a gen , M agen , and Ca cin gen


T a a a a a a
a a a .I a , a
b a a a a a a 10 a a
.T b a ca cin gen
( a a a a ), e a gen ( a a a b
b a a b ), a m agen ( a a a
a ab a a a ab
ab a ). S a a b a a
a , a a a .

Te a gen
F a , b a a
a a .D a ,
a b a a ,a b, , a ,a
a a a .I b a a
, ab a a .E a a
a Table 18.3.
P bab a a ,a a a
b a a a a E a
Ja a 1960 a 1961. O ba a a , a a
a a a a a a
a W G a . I 1961, b a a a a
a .I a a b a 34 a 50
a , b a ab a
b a .A a 10,000
a b a .
T a a a b U Sa ,
a a Fa K ,a a F a
D A a .D.K a a a a
b a a a a a ,
a , a a.A a ,
20 a bab b U Sa .
A a a b b a a A a (
a ), a a . I 1988, F a D
A a a A a a a , a a
ab a ,a a ab a b a
a a .A a a a a b
a a 1,000 b b
1982 a 1986.
O a a a
a .C a a a a a
a a .I a a
ab a a ,a a
ab , a a a a .
C a a a a .S a a
a b ab , ,a b (a) (a
a ), a a a a
a b .B a a a a a a a a a
a a a , a
a a a a a a
b .

Table 18.3
Te a genic and M agenic S b ance
Te a gen M agen

A (A ) A a
Ca (C ) B (a)
C ba (C ) L a a
M (H ) N a (HNO2)
D b O (O3)
P a b T (2,3- b ) a
R a
T a

M agen
M a a a a a ba a
a a DNA, a a a a a a
.C a DNA a a b b ab b
a a ,a a .C a DNA a a
m a i n .E a a a Tab 18.3.

Ca cin gen
C a a a a a a a
a ab a , b a malignan m .
C a a a a a a
a .T a ,a
a a b , .
T a aa a benign m a
a .B , a a ,
a .
Chemical Tha Ca e Cance
C a a a a a a ,
a a a a
a a . B 2000, a a 50 a a b
a a a (Table 18.4). A 166
a b a a ab a a b a a .A
a , a a a a a a a a b
a a .
A a a 1775, a b a
a a E a . La a
a 3,4-b (a) ,a a a a, a
a .

M a 3,4-b (a) a a
a a ab (PAH ). PAH a b ,a
a a b b a . (T a a b
a b a a PAH a
a .) O a a a a b ,
a a b a , a , a a-
a,a a a a a .
O a a b b a
a a a a a a . I 1895, a G a
a a b a ba a a a
- a a . I 1937, a a 2- a a ,
a , a ba a .
S , a a , b , a
a a a a a- , a b
a ba a a a .

Table 18.4
S b ance Kn n be H man Ca cin gen
A a H man Pa ill ma Vi e : S me Geni al-
M c al T e
A B a C
4-A b M aa
A a M C a P a (S M a U a AT a
P a a A a M (PUVA)
C a P a )
M a O (U a a M T a )
M a Ga
A C ,I a 2-Na a
Ab Ne n (See I ni ing Radia i n)
A a N C
B Ra
B S a, C a (R ab S )
B a B C S T ba (S T ba -R a
E )
1,3-B a
1,4-B a D a a (M a ) S a Ra a (S U a Ra a
R a E )
Ca a Ca C S
C a b S I a A M C a
S A
1-(2-C ) -3-(4- ) 1-
a (M CCNU)
S a S b ,E (S
U a Ra a -R a E )
b (C )E a T a -G a
C M E
Ta
C H a a C 2,3,7,8-T a b - - (TCDD);
D
C a Ta P (S C a Ta a C a Ta
P )
T a
C a Ta (S C a Ta a C a Ta P ) T D (S I Ra a )
C O E T ba S (S T ba -R a
E )
C a
C A V C
D b U a Ra a ,B a S UV
Ra a (S U a Ra a -
R a E )
E
E ,S a
E O W D
He a i i B Vi X-Radia i n and Gamma Radia i n (See
I ni ing Radia i n)
He a i i C Vi

Da a : Na a I E a H a S E A a R
Ca , 2007.

O a a a a - a a
a , a a b b a .
T b b a
N=N .A a b a a .
R ,a b , FD&C Y N . 3, ba
b a a a a a a .
C a a a a a a b a .F
a , a a a (CH2 = CHC ),
a a ,
a - a .I a a a a
a a a a
a a a a
a .
I aa ab b a a a a
a a .C a a a a a a
a .M a a a a a a a b ,
, a , ,a a .
Ca a a a a a a
a a .A a -B, a a a ,
a a .F a a a
a , , a , ,a .I
a a a a a
b .

The De el men f Cance


M ab a a a
a b ,b a b a
. Ma a a a b a a a
a .F a , a
a a 1940 , b a a a 25 a a
a a b a a a a b
.S a , ab a b
a 20 a a .
S a a a a a a
b ; a , a a a a a
ab b a a .O a a a a
a a a b .T ,
a a b ,a ,
a ,a a a b a .
H a .T a a a
a a ,a a
a a a .I a a a
a a - .
I , a ini ia i n, a a b
a a DNA a a ,a a , a ab a
.I a b a a DNA
a b a a b b DNA. T
a b ab a a a ,
a a .S b a a ab
a a a a ca cin gen ; b (a) a
a a a a b ab a a a .
Ca a b a a a a a a
ima di ec -ac ing ca cin gen ; a a
b ( ) a a a a
b a a .
T ab a a a a a a .
A a a a a a a
, a a
a a a , a , a
a .P a a
( ). T ab a b a a a
a .
T W H a O a a a a a
a a a b a a a
75% 80% a a .A a 5% a a b
a b a .C a ba 30%
a , 25% 30%, a a 10% 15%, a
a a 5% 10%. Ca a 1
A a a a (1,437,180 2008), a a
a a .A
a a a ab 70 a ,
b a a b a a .F a , U
Sa , - a a a b 1996 a 2003 a 66%. Ma
a b a
a .

N cleic Acid
T an cleic acid a a
a a a b .T a a :
de ib n cleic acid (DNA) a ib n cleic acid (RNA). DNA
a n cle , a RNA a
c la m, a .

F nc i n f N cleic Acid
DNA a RNA a b a a a
a a a .T
a a a a a
a a , a a , a .T a
DNA, a RNA , a
b .C a a
DNA a a b a a ,
, a aa a .

The P ima S c e f N cleic Acid


I a a a a a a
a a a a a a , a
a a a a n cle ide . DNA
a a a a a .
Ea a a a : (1) a a , (2)
a - a ba , a (3) a a
(Fig e 18.3). T a a , b b (Fig e
18.4). T b a a a b 2,
b a a a a a OH a b a
a .A a a , a DNA b ,
a a RNA b .

Fig e 18.3 N a a . Ea a a
a a , a ba , a a a .
Fig e 18.4 T b a b a ab 2, b a a Ha a
a OH a b a Ha .Rb RNA; b
DNA.

Fig e 18.5 O ba a ,a a a a , a
, ,a a a .

T ba a a Fig e 18.5.
T ba a (A) a a (G) a b - ba
a a a a .T (C), (T),
a a a - ba a b a
a .P a a ba b a
a a a .A , a ,a a
b DNA a RNA. T DNA, a a
RNA.
T a a a
Fig e 18.6. T a b a
a OH a b 5; a
b ba OH a b 1. Wa
a a b a .W b
- a a , a a
b OH ab 3 a
(Fig e 18.7). T a a a a
ba b a .

The D ble Heli


T ba a a , a
a , a .L ,
a a a a a . A DNA a
a a a a d ble heli , a
a a b a a a a a .T a a
ba b a a ,a a ba b
b (Fig e 18.8a). I a
a a G ba , a a b b a C ba a ;
a , a A ba a a b b a T ba . T a a
a a a a a Ca G
a a A a T DNA a a a a (Fig e
18.8b). A b a a a , a a
a DNA a a
a . T C-G (a G-C) ba a a
b b , A-T (a T-A) ba a b
(F 18.8a a 18.8b). Fig e 18.8c a a -
DNA.
Fig e 18.6 T a a .

DNA, Gene , and Ch m me


T DNA a a
a ch m me (Fig e 18.9). T
b a .H a a 46; a a
b 23 .
L b DNA a , gene
a a aa
a b a a a a .W a
DNA a a
a a .P , , a
a a a a a ,
b a a a .H a a a a
80,000 .
Fig e 18.7 A - a DNA a , a a a a
a ba b .
Fig e 18.8 (a) A a a b - DNA. H b
b a (A) a (T) a b (C) a a (G) a
. (b) T a a a DNA a b
ba a :A (a ) a (a )
b ; a (a ) a (a ) b .T
a a (1.1 ) aa a .( )A a -
DNA. P .
Fig e 18.9 C , a ,a a DNA.

DNA a b a ba a a
a .T ba a DNA
a a a a
; a a a
. Ea a b a a .T DNA
a ,a ,
a a ,ab ,a , a ba .T DNA a a
a a a a a a
a a a a , , , a .

Cell Re lica i n
T b - DNA a C aWa
a a a b
a .T a b a
a . A A ba a a a a T ba ,
a a C ba a a a a G ba .J b a ,
b a b (Fig e 18.10). Ea a
a a a , a , a a a
a .N , a a a
DNA, a a a ba a b b
: A T, T A, C G, a G C. I a , a DNA
a , a a .
Fig e 18.10 I DNA a , b a a ,a a a a a a
a a .C a a a a a ,
DNA a a a a .

P ein S n he i
P a a RNA.
A a , a RNA b ,a ba a a (U),
a (A), a (G), a (C) (F 18.5). T a
RNA a a DNA (F 18.3): b
a ba b , a a b b
ba . RNA a a a DNA
a a 75 a a ba a . RNA
a a a a a a b -
.
P a :
I ,
an c i i n, a a RNA
a .A DNA b
aa a ,a ba a a a
a a RNA. T ba
RNA, a RNA ( RNA), ba
DNA a ( a a a
DNA, RNA a b a a a ) (Fig e 18.11).

Fig e 18.11 (a) I a ,a DNA b ,a a a a


a RNA. N a a a (A) DNA, RNA
a b a (U). (b) T ba a b DNA a RNA.

EXAMPLE 18.2

S ba RNA a b
a DNA ba :
-T-A-C-G-G-T-T-C-A-C-
-A-T-G-C-C-A-A-G-T-G- a a

S l i n
T ba a a : A-U, T-A, G-C, a C-G. T RNA
a ba :
-U-A-C-G-G-U-U-C-A-C-
N a DNA
RNA.

PRACTICE EXERCISE 18.1

S ba DNA a a a
a RNA:
-C-G-G-U-A-U-C-U-A-

An e
DNA: - G - C - C - A - T - A - G - A - T -

T an la i n a a b
DNA a a .T ,
RNA a a a a a
a , b a a
ib me . Ta a a a a a
RNA a a RNA ( RNA), a b
a a b RNA. Ea RNA a a -
ba a a an ic d n, a
a .T -ba a RNA a , a
c d n, RNA b a
a RNA.
G b RNA a , a RNA
a a a a a a
a a RNA .F a , ba a a
Fig e 18.12a, A-U-G, a RNA a
U-A-C a a a a (M )
RNA, RNA a a b
a .S a ,a RNA
b a a aa (P ) RNA , U-U-U.
A b b a a ,a
aa RNA (Fig e 18.12b). W a a
a , a a (G ), a b a , RNA
a RNA (Fig e 18.12c). T a a
b , a RNA a a
a a a a .I a , RNA a b
a b a a a a
.W , aa
RNA (Fig e 18.12d).
Fig e 18.12 T a a a . (a) A RNA a a U-A-C
a a (M ) RNA a , a b
A-U-G. A RNA a a A-A-A b a a
aa (P ) RNA , U-U-U. (b) A b b M a P ,a
M aa RNA. A a a , a a (G ), b RNA
, G-A-A. ( ) T RNA a U-A-C a a RNA.
( )W , aa RNA.
The Gene ic C de
R a a a a a a -
ba RNA .T a (Table 18.5)
gene ic c de. A a 64 b -ba a b
ba RNA (43 4 4 4 = 64). B a a
a a 20 a a , a
; a , a a a a a b a .
S a a a a .T
AUG b a a a a a
.M a a 100,000 a
b a .
I a a b a , a , a a a ,a
a a a a b .I
a ab ( a ) , a a a ;
a a , a b ,a a .I
a a ( ), a a a
a a a a a a
b b a a a a a a, a,
b . T ab a b b a
a a a a b ,b a
a a a .
Ma a a a a a
a , , ba a, , ,a a a a b
.A a a a a
a a a a , a a a a
a a a a a a a a a
a a .

Table 18.5
The Gene ic C de
Mechani m f DNA Damage
I a a , - a a ,a a a a
a a DNA. S a a b a
DNA ba b - a a a
a a a DNA ba . Fig e 18.13
a a DNA a b a a .
I ni ing Radia i n
I a a , a X- a a a , a b a DNA a .
I a a , a DNA a , a
b a a a ba b . D , a b a
a b .
Ul a i le Ligh
U a ( - a a ) a
a DNA ba .T a a a
a a a a .
Chemical
C a a a a DNA b a DNA ba a
(a ), b b a
( aa ), b a b a a - .
O a a a (NaNO2),
a a a a a
a ,b a, ba , a a .W a
a , a (HNO2) b a a .

Fig e 18.13 DNA a a b a a a a .

A a a F 18.5 a ba
DNA a , a a a a a a (
NH2). W a a ba , a a a
( OH). W a b , ba a
a a a a .M
a ba DNA a
.
N a a b ab a a a
ba a. I , F a D A a a
a a a
a ba .

Alk la i n f DNA
A a a a a a a a a ( -
a ) a .
N a a b a a a
ab b a .I -
1950 , N,N- a (DMN), a b a a
, a b a . DMN a a
b , ba , a ba a a
.
A a a a .T a ab a
a a b a a a a ab a a a a a DNA.
T a a ab a DMN
a :

T CH3+ a a a ba DNA
.O a a a a
ab a ba a ,
a 7-N- a .
T CH3+ a a a a , 3-
a .

I a aa a a , CH3+ a a a a ,
6-O- a .

T a a a b a a
b a a a .T
a a ; . Ea
DNA a a DNA a a
a ab b ( a a )a
a a .G a a a , a ,
b a ba a ; a a a a .

Ame Te
I -1970 , E a P A (EPA) b a
a a a a a a a
.T EPA a - a a : (1)
a a a , (2) a , (3) a ,
a (4) aa a .B a a a a ab EPA
, a a .B a
a a a b a a ab , EPA a
a a b a .
T a a a a a
a a a a a a a .O a
a a a a a ab a a b a a .F a , a
b a 3.6 1,000 a a
a a - a a a a.
A a aa b a a
a a a a ab , a a a
a a .B a a a a
, a a a a a 20
a a b .
I a a -a - a b ,
a a .T ab a b a
a a a a a a a ,a a a
a b a a a
a a a b a a
a .T a a a a a b b
Na a Ca I ab a a a a
a .
I a aa ,a a a a a a a
a a a .F a ,b a a a
a b a , b a a
a .R a (2 4 a ) a a ; ,
a a a , a
3 5 a .I a a b
a b , a a a b a
a .T a a (1) a
b a a a a , (2) b a a
a a a a a , a (3) a
a a .P a a a a
a b a a a a a a a .
Y a a a a a ba a
. T Ame e Sa e a h ba a
a .A a ,
a a a a a .T A
a a a a a
a , , a a a a a a a b a
a a .
T ba a a a A a b a
a a ab a a .I ab
, ba a a .I , ba aa
a a a a a a
, .A a b Fig e 18.14,
a a a .I a
a a , ba a .I a a , a
a ,a ba a a a a
a .T ba a
a a a a .
B a a b a a a a
a a a a (a a 90% a a b ),
A a a a .I a
a a a a A ,
a a a .

Fig e 18.14 T A a .
Table 18.6
A Ranking f Ha a d Acc ding he Deg ee f Ri k
Ha a d Ann al Ri k*
C a (1 / a ) 3.6 1,000
A a 2.8 1,000
M a 2.4 10,000
P a 2.2 10,000
A , a U Sa 2.0 10,000
H a 1.1 10,000
A , 2 100,000
Ra a , a 2 100,000
E 5.3 1,000,000
D a a EPA 6 10,000,000

*P bab .

T a , a a
,b ab a a b a a
a a a a a .N , a b
( a a)a .B
( b a a a )
a a .O a a a ab ,
a a a a a .
I a b b a ,a e e
a e men a .I a a
a a b a, a a b
, ,a a
b .O a b
aa .
T a a a a
,a b a a a .T
a aa a ,a a a bab .
T1990 C a A A a a a a a
a a 1 1 a , a a a a
a 1 1 a .T F
a D A a a a a a a
a .B a a , a
a a a a a bab
(Table 18.6).

Gene ic Te f Cance
G b a a a a b
a a a ab a a U Sa .A a
, ba
b a a a a a
a a .M a , b a
a a a aa I
a a a a b a
b a a a. A a , a a a a
a DNA a a
a .
N a a
a a a a a
a a .R
a a a a
a a b a PAH a
a a a , a .
A a a a a a
b a a a b ,a b
a a a ab . N , b a
a a b b a
a a a a b
a a .

Addi i nal S ce f Inf ma i n

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