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Lesson

Required Oven Temperature


5
(Module 5)
for Bakery Products

Successful production of baked products requires an understanding of the


baking process. The baking process describes the changes happening to the
ingredients at each stage of the process and is basically the same in all baked
products. It is important to understand and learn how to control them.
1. Creation of dough or batter
When flour and other dry ingredients are mixed with liquid ingredients,
dough or batter is being produced. Batters are mixtures that can be poured
or dropped from a spoon while dough is thick and firm enough to be kneaded
or rolled.

2. Formation and expansion of gases


When the yeast, baking soda, and baking powder activated in the
mixture, gas (carbon dioxide) will be released (Gisslen, 2001). During the
process of mixing, the gas – air and carbon dioxide – will then be incorporated
into the dough and batter. Yeast and baking powder, on the other hand,
expand and form gases rapidly when heated inside the oven. When the dough
moisture is heated, steam is then formed.

3. Trapping of the gases in air cells


Because of the firm and stronghold mixture of dough, gases that are
formed and expanded are trapped in an elastic structure created by the dough
protein (Gisslen, 2001). This elastic structure is very important. Without
gluten and egg protein, gases might escape from the dough and will produce
a weak leavening effect to dough.

4. Gelatinization of starches
During this stage, the starch expands and becomes firmer when
absorbs moisture usually at about 60°C (140°F).

5. Coagulation of proteins

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Coagulation of protein is important. It ensures that gas is trapped
inside the mixture. When the mixture reaches a temperature of about 74°
165°F), the process of coagulation of gluten and egg protein process begins.

6. Evaporation of some of the water


During the baking process, water evaporation takes place in preparing
bakery products, the amount of water that evaporates should also be
maintained because the weight of the baked products should be considered.

7. Melting of fats
Fats or shortening usually melt at different temperature. When they
melt, the trapped gas will be released.

8. Formation and browning of crust


When the water in dough evaporates and makes it dry, crust is formed.
Moreover, when sugar is heated, changes may occur especially with the color.
It usually turns into brown and caramelizing happens. Caramel adds flavor
to the mixture.

elow are important things to remember related with oven temperature.

■ Breads, which are classified as leaner breads, with water, flour, and
yeast as ingredients, are baked at approximately 400°F to 425°F.

■ Bread with more eggs and fats that commonly known as rich bread are
baked at a lower temperature.

■ Breads that are mixed with less than ½ cup sugar are baked at 375°F
for 350°F if mixed with more.

Oven Temperature Conversions


The unit used for the oven temperature varies from one country to another.
Some countries use degrees Celsius, others use degrees Fahrenheit. The following
are the steps to follow when converting Fahrenheit to Celsius vice versa. The answers
may need to be round o to the closest option available in the oven.

Here are the steps on how to convert Fahrenheit to Celsius.

1. Subtract 32 to the Fahrenheit temperature. °C=300°F – 32

2. Multiply the answer by 5. °C=268 x 5

°C=1340÷9

3. Divide it by 9. °C=148.9 or 149

To convert Celsius to Fahrenheit, these steps must be applied.


4. Multiply degrees Celsius by 9. °F=230°C x 9

5. Divide the answer by 5. °F=2070 + 5

6. Then add 32. °F=414 + 32


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°F=446