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THE POWER PLANT BUILDING

Chapter 4
1. Determine the amount of sand in m3 required for a 5 m3 of 1:2:4 concrete mixture,
given the following properties:
Material Relative density Density, kg/m3
Cement 3.50 1300
Sand 2.75 1700
Gravel 2.25 1500
As per recommendation, use 25 liters of water per bag of cement. Assume one
bag of cement contains 0.03 m3.

Solution:
Formula to be used:
ρx Vx (ratio)
Vx =
SG( ρwater )

Where:
x = cement (c), sand (s), gravel (g)
Thus:

(1300 kg/m 3 )(0.03 m 3 )(1)


Vc = = 0.111430 m3/batch
(3.50)(100 0 kg/m 3 )

(1700 kg/m 3 )(0.03 m 3 )(2)


Vs = 3 = 0.037091 m3/batch
(2.75)(100 0 kg/m )

(1500 kg/m 3 )(0.03 m 3 )(4)


Vg = = 0.080000 m3/batch
(2.25)(100 0 kg/m 3 )

1 m3
Vw = (25 li)( ) = 0.02500 m3/batch
0.001 li

Vtotal = 0.153234 m3/batch

Total no. of batches:


5 m3
=
0.153234 m 3 /batch

= 32.63 say 33 batches


Total no. of sand
= (33 batches)( 0.03 m3)(2)
= 1.98 m3 say 2 m3

2. Determine the shape and weight of a radial brick chimney column will be made
for a 36 × 1.50 chimney.

Solution:

Estimating table 4-3; page 100, from Morse textbook

top wall thickness ........ 180 to 230 mm (use 190 mm)

R2 = r2 + ttop = 750 mm + 190 mm = 940 mm = 0.94 m

H 36 m
= = 24
d2 1.5 m

Estimating table 4-3; page 100, from Morse textbook


(by interpolation between 20 and 30)

24 - 20
Batter = ( )(23 – 20) + 20 = 21.2 mm per m
30 - 20
R1 - R2
= Batter = 21.2 mm/m
H

R1 – R2 = (21.2 mm/m)(36 m) = 763 mm

R1 = 763 mm + 940 mm = 1703 mm = 1.7 m

From table 4-3; page 100, from Morse textbook


Minimum wall thickness at the base, mm (9.25H)

tbottom = (9.25)(36)

= 333 mm (use 322 mm for 1 ½ brick)

r1 = R1 - tbottom

= 1.7 m – 0.322 m

r1 = 1.38 m

Outside Conical Volume:

π
Vo = (R12 + R22 + R1 R2) H
3

π
= [1.72 + 0.942 + (1.7)(0.94)] (36)
3

Vo = 203.95 m3
Inside Conical Volume:

π
Vi = (r12 + r22 + r1r2) H
3

π
= [1.382 + 0.752 + (1.38)(0.75)] (36)
3

Vi = 133.08 m3

Volume of Masonry = Vo - Vi

= 203.95 m3 - 133.08 m3

Volume of Masonry = 70.87 m3

Assume brick masonry common ( ρ = 1922 kg/m3)

Chimney weight:

m= ρ v

= (1922 kg/m3)(70.87 m3)

= 136,212 kg
3. A 39.5 m high chimney of radial brick masonry is described by the following top
and bottom dimensions: D2 = 1.90 m, d2 = 1.50 m, D1 = 3.2 m, d1 = 2.3 m.
Uniform batter, weight 180 metric tons. Find the maximum compressive stress
under 160 km/hr wind load. Will a base crack be opened to windward?

Solution:

(a.) Amount due to wind load:

100H 2
Pwh = (2R2 + R1) = Wz
3

=
(100 )(39.5 m) 2
[2(0.95 m + 1.6 m]
3

Pwh = 182,029.70 kg - m

Pwh 182,029.70 kg - m
z= = = 1.01 m
W (180 tons)(100 0 kg / ton)

kern radius:

R 2 + r2 (1.6 m) 2 + (1.15 m) 2
k= = = 0.61 m
4R 4(1.6 m)

maximum value of z:

R r 1.6m 1.15 m
y= (2 + ) = ( )(2 + ) = 1.09 m
4 R 4 1.6 m

compressive stress:

W (180 tons)(100 0 kg/ton)


fc = = = 46,299.62 kg/m2
π (R 1 - r1 )
2 2
π (1.6 2 - 1.15 2 )

= 46,299.62 kg/m2

= 454.2 kN/m2 or 454.2 kPa

Maximum compressive stress:


z z z-k 2
fz = fc [(1 + k ) - (1 - k )( y - k ) ]

1.01 m 1.01 m 1.01 m - 0.61 m 2


= (454.2 kPa)[( 1 + ) - (1 - )( ) ]
0.61 m 0.61 m 1.09 m - 0.61 m

fz = 1413.10 kPa

(b.) Since z is greater


than k, a crack will open but a chimney will still be safe since

z < y or y > z > k

4. In the need for a standby electric power unit due to frequent power outages, a
500 kW diesel generator set weighing 5000 kgs, was selected for the service.
The diesel engine drive is rated 670 hp at 1800 rpm, 6-cylinder, and a base
length of 3.8 meters and width of 1.5 meters.

Determine the volume and size of the foundation required and its base

Dimension, if the bearing capacity is 5000 kg/m3.

Solution:

The given base length of 3.80 m is only that of the engine. Since the base length

of the whole unit is not known, a rectangular foundation will be used.

Wf =