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Problems Introduction Page 1 of 6

Introduction
Twenty-six example problems have been prepared to demonstrate how to use the various SAP2000
commands and features. The problems may help improve your understanding of the sequence for using the
commands and how the commands relate to one another during the modeling process. The following table
identifies the problem name and structure type being modeled, the features involved in the model, and some of
the key commands used to complete the model. The list of commands is intended to help you locate an
example(s) that demonstrates use of a command. The listed commands are not the only commands used in
the problem.

Problem Name
and Features Demonstrated Command Usage Demonstrated
Structure Type
Assign > Area > Automatic Area Mesh
Assign > Frame Loads > Point
Assign > Frame > Releases/Partial Fixity
Assign > Frame > Frame Sections
Assign > Frame Loads > Distributed
Assign > Joint Loads > Forces
Define > Area Sections
n Grid lines Define > Combinations
A n Divide frames Define > Coordinate Systems/Grids
Concrete Wall Define > Load Cases
and Steel Frame n Frame releases Define > Materials
n Steel Design Design > Steel Frame Design >
View/Revise Overwrites
Display > Show Forces/Stresses > Joint
Draw > Quick Draw Area
Edit > Divide Frames
File > New Model > 2D Frames - Portal
Options > Preferences > Steel Frame
Design
Assign > Assign to Groups
Assign > Joint Loads > Forces
n Groups Define > Area Sections
n Section Cuts Define > Combinations
B
Define > Load Cases
Concrete Wall n Load Combinations Define > Materials
n Linear Replication Display > Analysis Results Tables
Edit > Replicate - Linear
File > New Model > Wall - Shear Wall
Assign > Area > Automatic Area Mesh
Assign > Area Loads > Uniform (Shell)
Assign > Frame > Frame Sections
Assign > Joint > Constraints
Assign > Joint > Restraints
Define > Analysis Cases - Modal
Define > Area Sections
Define > Coordinate Systems/Grids
C Define > Frame Sections
n Diaphragm
Truss Frame Define > Load Cases
Constraint Define > Materials
n Design Optimization Design > Steel Frame Design > Display
n Automatic Area Design Info
Mesh Design > Steel Frame Design > Start
Design/Check of Structure
n Mode Shapes Design > Steel Frame Design > Verify All
n New Model (not Members Passed
from template, Design > Steel Frame Design > Verify

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Problems Introduction Page 2 of 6

started from scratch) Analysis vs Design Sections


n Linear Replication Draw > Draw Frame/Cable/Tendon
Draw > Draw Rectangular Area
n Mirror Replication Edit > Divide Frames
n Radial Replication Edit > Replicate - Linear
Edit > Replicate - Mirror
n Steel Design
Edit > Replicate - Radial
File > New Model > Blank
Options > Preferences >
Dimensions/Tolerances
Options > Preferences > Steel Frame
Design
Start Animation
Assign > Frame > Frame Sections
Assign > Joint > Local Axes
Assign > Joint > Restraints
D n Radial Replication Assign > Joint Loads > Forces
Inclined Support n Rotated Support Define > Materials
Display > Show Forces/Stresses > Joint
Edit > Replicate - Radial
File > New Model > Beam
Assign > Joint > Restraints
Assign > Joint Loads > Forces
Define > Analysis Cases - Nonlinear, P-
Delta
n Draw Special Joint Define > Frame Sections
E
n Geometric Nonlinear Define > Load Cases
Cables in
P-Delta Define > Materials
Tension
Draw > Draw Frame/Cable/Tendon
n Move
Draw > Draw Special Joint
Edit > Move
File > New Model > Grid Only
View > Show Grid, None
Assign > Area Loads > Surface Pressure
(All)
F
n Hydrostatic Loading Assign > Joint > Restraints
Wall Resisting
Assign > Joint Patterns
Hydrostatic n Joint Patterns Define > Joint Patterns
Pressure
Define > Materials
File > New Model > Wall - Shear Wall
Assign > Frame > Frame Sections
n New Model from Assign > Joint Loads > Displacements
G
Define > Materials
Frame with Template
Display > Show Forces/Stresses > Joint
Support n Support File > New Model > 2D Frames - Portal
Displacement Displacement Options > Preferences >
Dimensions/Tolerances
Assign > Frame > Frame Sections
Assign > Frame Loads > Distributed
Define > Frame Sections
Define > Load Cases
n Concrete Design Define > Materials
H
Design > Concrete Frame Design >
Reinforced n New Model From Display Design Info
Concrete Beam Template Design > Concrete Frame Design > Select
Design Combos
Design > Concrete Frame Design > Start
Design/ Check of Structure
File > New Model > Beam

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Problems Introduction Page 3 of 6

Assign > Frame > Output Stations


Assign > Frame > Frame Sections
Assign > Frame Loads > Distributed
n Response Define > Combinations
I Combinations Define > Frame Sections
Prestressed Define > Load Cases
n Output Stations
Concrete Beam Define > Materials
n Prestressing Display > Show Forces/Stresses >
Frame/Cable/Tendon
Draw > Frame/Cable/Tendons - Tendon
File > New Model > Beam
Assign > Frame > Frame Sections
Assign > Joint > Masses
Assign > Joint > Springs
Assign > Joint Loads > Forces
n Divide Frames Define > Frame Sections
J Define > Load Cases
n Response
Beam on Elastic Define > Materials
Foundation Combinations Display > Show Forces/Stresses>
n Springs Frame/Cable/Tendon
Edit > Divide Frames
File > New Model > Beam
Options > Preferences >
Dimensions/Tolerances
Assign > Frame > Frame Sections
Assign > Frame > Distributed
Assign > Joint Loads > Forces
n New Model From Define > Load Cases
K Template Define > Materials
Steel Moment n Steel Design Design > Steel Frame Design > Start
Frame Design/Check of Structure
n Unbraced Length
Design > Steel Frame Design >
Ratio View/Revise Overwrites
Display > Show Tables
File > New Model > 2D Frames - Portal
Assign > Frame > Frame Sections
Assign > Joint Loads > Forces
Define > Analysis Cases - Time History,
n Mode Shapes Periodic
L
n Modal Time History Define > Frame Sections
Periodic Loading
Analysis (Periodic) Define > Functions > Time History
Define > Materials
Display > Show Plot Functions
File > New Model > 2D Frames - Portal
Assign > Joint Restraints
Assign > Joint Loads > Forces
Define > Area Sections
M
n Mesh Area Objects Define > Materials
Flat Plate in the
Display > Show Forces/Stresses > Joint
X-Y Plane with a n Trick Problem Draw > Draw Rectangular Area
Twist
Edit > Mesh Areas
File > New Model >
Grid Only
Assign > Assign to Groups
Assign > Frame > Frame Sections
Assign > Joint > Constraints
Assign > Joint > Restraints
Assign > Joint Loads > Forces
Define > Analysis Cases - Modal,
n Diaphragm Nonlinear, Time History

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Problems Introduction Page 4 of 6

Constraint Define > Area Sections


n Groups Define > Frame Sections
Define > Materials
N n Section Cuts Define > Section Cuts
Frame Shear Display > Show Tables
Wall Intersection Draw > Quick Draw Area
File > New Model > 2D Frames - Portal
Options > Preferences >
Dimensions/Tolerances
Assign > Area > Sections
Assign > Area Loads > Uniform (All)
Assign > Frame > Frame Sections
n Base (Seismic)
Assign > Joint > Constraints
Isolation
Define > Analysis Cases - Buckling
n Diaphragm Define > Area Sections
Constraint Define > Functions > Time History
O n Ritz Vectors Define > Link/Support Properties
Isolated Building Define > Load Cases
n Dynamic Analysis
Nonlinear Time Define > Materials
History Analysis n Mode Shapes Display > Show Tables
n Link Elements Display > Show Plot Functions
Draw > Draw 1 Joint Link
n Modal Nonlinear Draw > Draw Frame/Cable/Tendon
Time History Draw > Quick Draw Area
Analysis Edit > Replicate - Linear
File > New Model > 3D Frame - Open
Frame Building
Assign > Frame Loads > Points
Assign > Frame > Automatic Frame
Subdivide
Assign > Joint > Restraints
P n Buckling Analysis Assign > Joint Loads > Forces
Critical Buckling Define > Analysis Cases - Nonlinear, P-
Load n P-Delta Delta
Define > Frame Sections
Define > Load Cases
Define > Materials
File > New Model > Grid Only
Assign > Joint > Masses
Assign > Joint > Restraints
Assign > Joint Loads > Forces
n Concrete Moment
Define > Analysis Cases - Modal,
Frame
Nonlinear, Time History
n Create Time History Define > Frame Sections
Video Define > Functions > Time History
n Dynamic Analysis Define > Link/Support Properties - Damper
Q Define > Link/Support Properties - Rubber
n Mode Shapes
Three Frames Isolator
n New Model From Define > Materials
Template Draw > Draw 1 Joint Link
n Link Elements
Draw > Draw 2 Joint Link Element
Draw > Quick Draw Frame/Cable/Tendon
n Nonlinear Time File > Create Video > Multi-Step Animation
History Analysis Video
File > New Model >- 2D Frames - Portal
Start Animation
Assign > Frame > Output Stations
Assign > Joint > Restraints
Define > Analysis Cases - Moving Load
Define > Bridge Loads > Bridge

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Problems Introduction Page 5 of 6

Responses
Define > Bridge Loads > Lanes
Define > Bridge Loads > Vehicle Classes
Define > Bridge Loads > Vehicles
n Divide Frames Define > Frame Sections
R
Define > Materials
Bridge with n Bridge Loads Display > Show Forces/Stresses >
Moving Load
n Output Stations Frame/Cable/Tendon
Display > Show Influence Lines
Edit > Divide Frames
Edit > Move
File > New Model > 2D Frames - Portal
Assign > Assign to Groups
Assign > Joint > Restraints
Assign > Joint Loads > Forces
n Change Labels Define > Area Sections
n Section Cuts Define > Materials
S Define > Section Cuts
n Mesh Areas
Finite Element Display > Show Tables
Model of Steel n New Model (From Display > Show Forces/Stresses > Shell
Beam with Web Scratch, Not From Draw > Draw Rectangular Area
Opening Template) Edit > Change Labels
n Stress Contours For
Edit > Mesh Areas
Edit > Replicate - Linear
Shells
File > New Model > Grid Only
View > Set 2D View
View > Set Limits
T n New Model From Edit > Add to Model from Template
Domed Template File > New Model > Shells - Cylinder
Cylindrical File > New Model > Shells - Dome
n Add To Model from
Structure Template
Assign > Area Loads > Uniform (Shell)
Assign > Joint > Restraints
Define > Combinations
Define > Load Cases
Define > Materials
n Add To Model From Draw > Draw Quad Area
Template Edit > Add to Model from Template
U Edit > Mesh Areas
n Response
Barrel Vaulted Edit > Move
Structure Combinations Edit > Replicate - Mirror
n New Model From File > New Model > Shells - Barrel Shell
Template File > New Model > Wall - Shear Wall
View > Set 2D View
View > Set Limits
View > Show All
View > Show Grid
View > Show Selection Only
Assign > Frame > Frame Sections
Assign > Frame Loads > Temperature
n Grid Lines Assign > Joint > Restraints
V
Define > Coordinate Systems/Grids
Temperature n Temperature Define > Load Cases
Loading Loading Define > Materials
Display > Show Forces/Stresses > Joint
File > New Model > 2D Frames - Portal
Assign > Frame > Frame Sections
Assign > Frame Loads > Point
W n Divide Frames Assign > Frame Loads > Distributed

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Problems Introduction Page 6 of 6

Simple Beam n Trapezoidal Loads Define > Load Cases


with Trapezoidal (Distributed Loads) Define > Materials
Loads Edit > Divide Frames
File > New Model > Beam
Assign > Area Loads > Uniform (Shell)
Assign > Frame > Frame Sections
Define > Area Sections
Define > Coordinate Systems/Grids
Define > Frame Sections
Define > Load Cases
Define > Materials
n Divide Frames Design > Steel Frame Design > Start
X n Grid Lines Design/Check of Structures
Through Truss Draw > Quick Draw Area Element
Bridge n Linear Replication Draw > Quick Draw Braces
n Steel Design Draw > Quick Draw Frame/Cable/Tendon
Edit > Divide Frames
Edit > Move
Edit > Replicate - Linear
File > New Model > 2D Frames - Vertical
Truss
Options > Preferences > Steel Frame
Design
Assign > Joint > Masses
Y n Draw Special Joint Assign > Joint > Springs
Response n Dynamic Analysis Define > Analysis Cases - Response
Spectrum Spectrum
Analysis for n Mode Shapes Define > Functions > Response Spectrum
Single Degree of n Response Spectrum Display > Show Forces/Stresses > Joints
Freedom System Analysis Draw > Draw Special Joint
File > New Model > Grid Only
Assign > Frame > Frame Sections
Assign > Joint > Constraints
n Diaphragm Assign > Joint > Masses
Constraint Assign > Joint > Restraints
Define > Analysis Cases - Response
n Dynamic Analysis
Spectrum
n Grid Lines Define > Area Sections
Z n Mesh Areas Define > Coordinate Systems/Grids
Response Define > Frame Sections
Spectrum n Mode Shapes Define > Functions > Response Spectrum
Analysis n New Model From Define > Materials
Template Draw > Draw Rectangular Area
Draw > Quick Draw Area Element
n Linear Replication
Draw > Quick Draw Frame/Cable/Tendon
n Response Edit > Mesh Areas
Spectrum Analysis Edit > Replicate - Linear
File > New Model > 3D Frame - Open
Frame Building

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