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Homework 8

Sections 5.1,5.2,5.3

1. Let T be the transformation from R2 to R2 given by reflection across the line y = x . Find each real
eigenvalue, and describe each eigenspace.
2. For each of the matrices below, find its eigenvalues, as well as a basis of each eigenspace.
 
" # 0 1 1
1 2
(a) (b) 2 1 2
 
2 1
3 3 2

3. Diagonalize the following matrices:


 
" # 2 −2 −2
2 3
(a) (b) 3 −3 −2
 
4 1
2 −2 −2

4. Let A be a matrix all of whose rows add to the same number c . For example, such a matrix with c = 6
might look like:  
1 2 3
 0 6 0 .
 

−1 4 3

(a) Show that c is an eigenvalue for any such matrix A (Hint: Find a vector x such that Ax is the vector
of row sums of A .)
(b) Now suppose that A is a matrix all of whose columns add to the same number c . Explain why c must
also be an eigenvalue of A . (Hint: It will be difficult to find an eigenvector here, but you should use
properties of transposes, as well as the previous problem.).
5. Show that if λ is an eigenvalue of A , then λ2 is an eigenvalue of A2 .

6. Consider the following matrix:  


4 2 3 3
 
0 2 h 3
A=
0 0

 4 14
0 0 0 2

(a) Determine the characteristic polynomial of A, and the algebraic multiplicities of the eigenvalues of A .
(b) For which values of h is the eigenspace for λ = 4 two-dimensional?
(c) For which values of h is the eigenspace for λ = 2 two-dimensional?
(d) Based on your answers, is A ever diagonalizable?

7. The following questions are true/false. If the statement is false, give a counterexample explaining why it is
false, and if it is true, explain why. Note that quoting a theorem or example from class or homework suffices
as justification.
(a) An n × n matrix always has n distinct eigenvalues.
(b) If Av = λv for some vector v , then λ is an eigenvalue of A .
(c) The eigenvalues of an (upper or lower) triangular matrix are always the entries on the main diagonal.
(d) If a square matrix A has a repeated eigenvalue, then it is not diagonalizable.