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New Testament 3 Pauline Theology

Reading Paul
Early church to 'Lutheran' Paul
● Clement (~95AD) – accepted Paul, early support for Paul
● Epiphanius – against Paul – Paul was a lover jilted by a priest's daughter and thus anti-Jew
● Marcion – high view of Paul – NT corpus was Luke and 10 Pauline epistles
● Augustine – projects self-understand and struggles on to Paul (Westerholm: Luther recovers
Augustine's reading of Paul)
● Luther
○ Faith no good works is decisive in our relationship with God
○ Law shows our sinfulness, drives us to the Saviour
○ Justified by faith, not by works
○ simul justus, simul peccator (at once a sinner and at the same time justified)
○ Christians shouldn't think about the law in relationship to God, it is only helpful for
identifying and judging sin.
Modern times
● F.C. Baur and the Tubingen school
○ Big division between Paul and Jerusalem church
○ Paul: Gentile, universal, law free and Hellenistic
○ This division became test of canonicity, hence 1 four epistles (Rom, 1 & 2 Cor, Gal) are
the only legitimate epistles
● Liberal school
○ Wrede – Jesus got gospel right, Paul stuffed it up. Jesus as Christus Victor
○ Bultmann – gospel is the call to authentic human living
- decision is crucial
- Paul wrote applied theology in each epistle
● Jewish Paul
○ Apocalyptic (Albert Schweitzer)
■ Paul's disappointment that Kingdom of God hadn't arrive drove his 'in Christ'
theology to be central and crucial
○ Diaspora or Hellenistic (Montefiore)
○ Pharasaic Judaism
■ Stendahl
● Augustine and Luther's issues weren't Paul's they were projecting on to him
● Salvation history is fundamental aspect of Pauline theology, JBF developed to
include Gentiles
■ Sanders
● on Judaism 'obedience maintains one's position in the covenant, but it does not
earn God's grace as such.'
● Paul's thinking moved from 'solution to plight'
● Paul's critique of Judaism is that it is not Christianity
■ Dunn
● Paul against 'Jewish intention to safeguard the privilege of covenant status being
dissipated or contaminated by non-Jews'
● 'JBF was Paul's answer to the question: How is it that Gentiles can be equally

New Testament 3 Pauline Theology

acceptable to God?'
● 'works of the law' ≠ 'good works'
■ Wright
● Israel was to redeem the world from Adam's sin
● JC is the new Israel and lives out the role she never did, death & resurrection
● Resurrection was a metaphor for return from exile
● Justificiation is sign of covenant membership