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Fundamental Characteristics of Test Facility for Micro

Hydroelectric Power Generation System


T. Sakurai1 , H.Funato2 and S.Ogasawara3
1 Tomoyuki Sakurai and 2 Hirohito
Funato/Utsunomiya University Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering 7-1-2 Yoto,
Utsunomiya, Tochigi, Japan 321-8585
3
Ogasawara Satoshi/Hokkaido University Department of System Science and Informatics zyonishi 9-chome kita-ku kita14,
Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan 060-0814

Abstract-This paper proposes a test facility for micro hydraulic Therefore its pressure head and velocity head can be calculated
generation system. Micro hydraulic generation system is very using measured pressure and flow. A general-purpose
difficult to exam their characteristics including hydraulic turbine centrifugal pump is used as reversible pump-turbine. The
because water flow in various conditions is necessary but it is very centrifugal pump is one of the most popular pumps which can
difficult to realize in laboratory. In this paper water flow is generate pressure by centrifugal force caused by the turn of the
realized using general purpose pump that can add pressure to impeller. The exit of the reversible pump-turbine is connected
water flow to simulate water drop. From obtained experimental with the hose to a water tank. The provided machine energy by a
results, a simulation model of hydro turbine was built in order to hydraulic turbine is sent to an IPM synchronous generator
establish high efficiency control system. through the shaft then electric power is generated. A torque
meter is installed between a hydraulic turbine and IPM
Index Terms - Micro hydroelectric power generation, IPM synchronous generator so that efficiency of hydraulic turbine
synchronous generator, turbine model, MPPT. and IPM synchronous generator can be measured separately.
Ratings of the centrifugal pump used as a hydraulic turbine and
I. INTRODUCTION the rating of IPM synchronous generator as motor operation is
Recently global warming becomes big problem. Therefore the shown in table 1.
development of the clean energy that does not discharge CO2 is The electric connection of micro hydroelectric power
strongly expected. Micro hydroelectric power generation is one generation system is shown in Fig.3. A general-purpose inverter
of the attract choices (1) ~ (4). Micro hydraulic power generation is drives submersible pump and a diode rectifier is connected to dc
with small, simple facilities and has stable output. The authors bus to establish the bus voltage. A PWM rectifier is connected to
have studied a new micro hydraulic power generation with IPM synchronous generator. Because it is difficulty to make a
simple mechanism and high efficiency. The proposed system big effective head physically in experiments, the water pump
was tested in a real river (5)(6). Micro hydraulic generation system with variable pump speed with inverter can raise pressure and
is very difficult to exam their characteristics including hydraulic give effective head equivalently. A PWM rectifier is used to
turbine because water flow in various conditions is necessary realize variable-speed operation of the IPM synchronous
but it is very difficult to realize in laboratory. This paper generator and load is connected to the dc bus. Because the
proposes a new test facility for micro hydraulic generation generated power is not controlled in the experimental system, a
system. In this system, a water flow is realized using general diode rectifier is connected in parallel to resistive load. The
purpose pump that can add pressure to water flow to simulate diode rectifier supplies the difference between load power and
water drop. Fundamental characteristics are obtained using the generated power. Therefore in case of no generation power, the
proposed facility toward high efficiency micro hydraulic load power is supplied entirely by the diode rectifier. Then the
generation system. increase of generated power cause decrease of supply power
from diode rectifier. The generated power is measured by the
II. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION digital power meter inserted between the IPM synchronous
Outline of the proposed test facility for micro hydroelectric generator and PWM rectifier. The controller is composed of
power generation system is shown in Fig.1. The top right corner FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) combined with CPU
of Fig.1 shows the inside of the generation system box core so that position–sensor less control and maximum power
connected to a hydraulic turbine. Configuration of the test tracking control can be implemented in the near future(6) (7).
facility is show in Fig.2. The water tank can save water then the
saved water is drawn in general purpose submersible pump and III. EXPERIMENT RESULT
supplied to a hydraulic turbine through the hose. Pressure gauge As shown in Fig.2, effective head is equivalently realized by
and flow meter are installed in the upper part at the hose. pressurized water flow made by submersible pump with
pressure gauge flow meter
hydraulic
turbine H = h + hp+ hv + hla. (1)

submersible The head at the hydraulic turbine input becomes


pump water hose

IPM Ht = h + hp + hv − hlb. (2)


torque
synchronous
meter
generator
hlb is the head of loss of the hose from a pressure gauge to a
hydraulic turbine. The water flowing into the hydraulic turbine
turns the runner anticlockwise direction seeing from the
water tank generator side and generates electricity. Because IPM
hydraulic synchronous generator is operated by simple V/f control, speed
turbine of IPM synchronous generator and hydraulic turbine is decided
by PWM rectifier frequency. Because IPM synchronous
Fig.1. Outline of the micro hydroelectric power generation system. generator has 6 poles and the frequency of the PWM rectifier
can be regulated input from 0 to 50Hz, this means revolving
pressure gauge flow meter
speed can be controlled from 0 to 1,000 rpm.
water tank water hose
: water flow The relationship between water flow Q and revolving speed of
shaft torque meter 1.2 m submersible pump under fixed generator frequency fg is shown
in Fig.4. Fig.4 (a) shows pressure P and (b) shows total head H.
Total head H is calculated from Eq. (1). From Fig.4, it is clear
that increase of revolving speed of submersible pump causes
submersible pump hydraulic turbine IPM synchronous generator increase of water flow and pressure. This results in increase of
total head. In Fig.(4) (a), when water flow Q is 200l/min, the
Fig.2. Configuration of the test facility micro hydroelectric power generation higher the generator frequency become, the bigger the resistance
system. of hydraulic turbine becomes. On the other hand, when water
TABLE I flow Q is almost 500l/min, the resistance of the hydraulic
RATIONS OF HYDRAULIC TURBINE AND GENERATOR turbine at fg of 10Hz is higher than that at fg of 40Hz. In Fig.(4)
hydraulic turbine IPM synchronous generator (b), the shape of curve is quite similar to that in Fig.4 (a) so that
discharge 0.5 m3/min rated power as motor operation 1.5 kW it is clear that total head depends on pressure head.
total head 12.7 m frequency 72.5 Hz The ratio of each head for total head at fg of 20Hz are shown in
water power 1.85 kW poles 6 Fig.5. The increase of revolving speed causes the increase of
pump eff. 55 %
total head. As mentioned previously, the increase of total head is
caused by increase of pressure. From Fig.5, it is clear that the
PWM higher the total head becomes, the smaller the ratio of potential
Rec. head becomes and the bigger the ratio of pressure head becomes
Load because potential head is constant. The ratio of velocity head is
Inv. power very small (less than 2%) so that the velocity head will be
meter
ignored in the following of this paper.
Characteristics of hydraulic turbine in case of fixed generator
frequency fg (fg=10, 20, 30, 40, 50Hz) are shown in Fig.6. The
IPMSG
horizontal axis is the head Ht. The left vertical axis is power and
submersible pump hydraulic turbine the right vertical axis is efficiency. The hydraulic turbine input
power Pi, hydraulic turbine output power Pt and hydraulic
Fig.3. Electric connection. turbine efficiency ηt=PtPi are plotted in each graph. Hydraulic
turbine input power Pi is calculated by Pi=9.8QHt. In the
adjustable speed. Frequency of submersible pump can be following, “head” means hydraulic turbine input head Ht.
regulated from 0 to 50Hz. The height from the hose of the upper Hydraulic turbine output power Pt is calculated by the product of
part duct to a hydraulic turbine is 1.41m as shown in Fig.2. This revolving speed and toque measured by toque meter. From
becomes potential head h. Pressure head hp and velocity head hv experimental results, it is clear that input and output power of
can calculate from pressure P and flow Q measured with a hydraulic turbine increase linearly. The characteristics of
pressure gauge and the flow meter in the hose. hla is the loss of hydraulic turbine efficiency change depending on frequency as
head of the hose from a submersible pump to a pressure gauge. It shown in Fig.6. From Fig.6(a), (b) and (c) maximum efficiency
can be calculate from shape of the hose and the water flow of the point can be observed at 2.3m of the head at 10Hz of fg, 2.2m of
hose. Total head H of the whole system is the head at 20Hz of fg and 4.1m of the head at 30Hz of fg
0.09 hydraulic turbine input power so that part of loss power is
fg=50Hz
0.08 supplied from PWM rectifier. The generator efficiency is
fg=40Hz
0.07 calculated only when the generator output power becomes
fg=30Hz
positive. From Fig.7, generator input power and output power
pressure P [MPa]

0.06 fg=20Hz
0.05 fg=10Hz
increase approximately linearly. In case of Fig.7(a), the
generator output power becomes negative to all head region so
0.04
that it is impossible to get electric power. From Figs.7(b), (c),
0.03
(d) and (e), generator efficiency increases according to the
0.02
increase of the head. From Fig.7(d), the maximum generator
0.01 efficiency of 76% and more then 300W generator output power
0 are obtained. In these experiments, the generator efficiency is
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 lower than its maximum efficiency because the voltage
flow Q [l/min] coefficient of V/f control was not optimized. Therefore the
(a) pressure VS. flow generator efficiency may be improved if optimized coefficient is
12.00 fg=50Hz employed.
fg=40Hz Each power and efficiency of hydraulic turbine and generator
10.00
fg=30Hz for fixed generator frequency fg are shown in Fig.8. These
fg=20Hz curves are calculated from Fig.6 and 7. The horizontal axes are
total head H [m]

8.00
fg=10Hz the head Ht. Fig.8(a) shows the hydraulic turbine output power
6.00 Pt, (b) shows the generator output power Pg, (c) shows the
hydraulic turbine efficiency ηt and (d) shows the generator
4.00
efficiency ηg. From Fig.8(a), it clear that the slope of the
2.00 hydraulic turbine output power depends on generator frequency.
This result in the optimum operation frequency should be
0.00 selected to get the maximum output power from hydraulic
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 turbine at a certain head. In Fig.8(b) the similar result was
flow Q [l/min] obtained because generator output power depends on turbine
output power. From Fig.8(c), it is observed that each operation
(b) total head VS. flow
speed has optimum head to get maximum efficiency of
Fig.4. Flow characteristic (constant generator frequency) hydraulic turbine. In Fig.8(d), the higher the head becomes, the
100% more the efficiency improved.
Each power and efficiency of hydraulic turbine and generator
80% loss of for fixed head are shown in Fig.9. The horizontal axis is the
head [m]
generator frequency fg. Fig.9(a) shows hydraulic turbine output
60% velocity
head [m] power Pt, (b) shows generator output power Pg, (c) shows
40% pressure hydraulic turbine efficiency ηt and (d) shows generator
head [m] efficiency ηg respectively. Because it is difficult to make
20% potential
head [m] experiments at fixed head, Fig.9 is obtained from Fig.8 to
0% observe power and efficiency at certain head. From Fig.9(a),
1.24 2.09 3.26 4.64 6.11 7.80 9.38
when the head is over 3m, there is the optimum frequency to get
total head H [m] maximum turbine output power. The higher the head becomes,
Fig.5. Ratio of each head (generator frequency fg = 20 Hz) the higher the optimum frequency is. Similar result can be
observed for IPM generator output power from Fig.9(b). From
respectively. In case of Fig.6(d) and (e), maximum efficiency Fig.9(c), the optimum generator frequencies fg to get maximum
point can not be observed because there may be at the higher hydraulic turbine efficiency become 24Hz, 30Hz, 37 Hz and
head. From Fig.6(d), the output power of 402W is obtained at 42Hz for the heads of 3m, 5m, 7m and 9m respectively. From
the head of 9.25m. Fig.9(d), the optimum generator frequencies fg to get maximum
Characteristics of generator in case of fixed generator generator become 30Hz and 40Hz for the heads of 5m and 7m
frequency fg (fg=10, 20, 30, 40, 50Hz) are shown in Fig.7. The respectively.
horizontal axis is the head Ht. The left vertical axis is power and IV. SIMULATION MODEL OF HYDRO TURBINE FOR MXIMUM
efficiency. The generator input power (= hydraulic turbine EFFICIENCY
output power Pt), the output power Pg and efficiency ηg=Pg/Pt
are plotted in each graph. The generator power is measured by From obtained result, a simulation model of hydro turbine can
digital power meter. In the case when the generator power is be built in order to establish maximum efficiency control. Using
negative in Fig.7(a), the generator loss is not covered by established simulations, the control algorithm can be considered
900 0 .6 50 0

generator input-output power [W]


generator input-output power [W]
g ener at or i npu t p ow er P t
[W]
turbin e inpu t po we r P i
power[W]
800 40 0
700 turbin e o utp ut p ow er P t 0 .5 g ener at or o utp ut pow e r P g
input-outputpower

g ener at or efficien cy η g

efficiency
turbin e efficien cy η t 30 0

bine efficiency
600 0 .4
500 20 0
turbineinput-output

400 Pi 0 .3
Pt

turbine
10 0
300
200
ηt 0 .2 0

tur
100
turbine

0 .1 - 1 00
0 Pt Pg
-1 0 0 0 - 2 00
0 .0 0 2 .0 0 4 .0 0 6 .0 0 8 .0 0 1 0 .0 0 0.00 2 .0 0 4 .0 0 6 .0 0 8 .0 0 1 0 .00

tu rb ine inpu t hea d H t [m ] t urbine inpu t hea d H t [m ]

(a) generator frequency fg = 10 Hz (a) generator frequency fg = 10 Hz


900 0 .6 50 0 0 .8

[W] power [W]


[W]
power[W]

800

generator input-output power


Pi 40 0 0 .7
700 0 .5
input-output power

0 .6

efficiency
generatorefficiency
30 0

tur bine efficiency


turbine efficiency
600
ηt 0 .4 0 .5

generator input-output
turbineinput-output

500 20 0
400 0 .3 0 .4
Pt

generator
300 10 0
0 .3
200 0 .2
0
0 .2
turbine

100 Pt 0 .1
0
-10 0 Pg ηg 0 .1
-1 0 0 0 -20 0 0
0 .0 0 2 .0 0 4 .0 0 6 .0 0 8 .0 0 1 0 .0 0 0.0 0 2 .0 0 4.00 6.00 8 .00 1 0 .00
tu rbine inpu t head H t [m ] turb ine inpu t hea d H t [m ]
(b) generator frequency fg = 20 Hz (b) generator frequency fg = 20 Hz
900 0 .6 50 0 0 .8

power [W]
[W]
turbine input-output power [W]

800 0 .7
0 .5 generator input-output power 40 0
700 ηt ηg 0 .6

efficiency
30 0
efficiency
bine efficiency

generatorefficiency
600
0 .4 0 .5
generator input-output
500 20 0
Pi
[W]

400 0 .3 0 .4
10 0
turbine

generator
300 0 .3
0 .2 Pt
tur

200 0 0 .2
100 0 .1
0 Pt
-10 0 Pg 0 .1
-1 0 0 0 -20 0 0
0 .0 0 2 .0 0 4 .0 0 6 .0 0 8 .0 0 1 0 .0 0 0.0 0 2 .0 0 4.00 6.00 8 .0 0 1 0 .0 0

tu rb ine inpu t hea d H t [m ] turb ine inpu t hea d H t [m ]


(c) generator frequency fg = 30 Hz (c) generator frequency fg = 30 Hz
900 0 .6 50 0 0.8
power [W]
[W]
input-output power [W]

800
generator input-output power

40 0 0.7
700 0 .5
ηt

efficiency
ηg 0.6

generator efficiency
bine efficiency

30 0
efficiency

600
0 .4 0.5
generator input-output
turbine input-output

500 20 0
[W]

400 0 .3 0.4

generator
10 0
turbine

300 0.3
200 Pi 0 .2 Pt
tur

0 0.2
100
0 .1 - 1 00
0 Pt Pg 0.1
-1 0 0 0 - 2 00 0
0 .0 0 2 .0 0 4 .0 0 6 .0 0 8 .0 0 1 0 .0 0 0.00 2 .0 0 4 .0 0 6 .0 0 8 .0 0 1 0.0 0

tu rb ine inpu t hea d H t [m ] tu rbin e inp ut hea d H t [m ]


(d) generator frequency fg = 40 Hz (d) generator frequency fg = 40 Hz
900 0 .6 500 0.8
power [W] power [W]
[W][W]

800
0 .5 400 0.7
700 ηt
power

ηg
generator input-output

0.6
tur bine efficiency

300
efficiency
turbine efficiency

generator efficiency

600
power

0 .4
0.5
generator input-output

500
input-output

200
turbineinput-output

400 0 .3 0.4
100
generator

300 0.3
200 0 .2
0 Pt
Pi 0.2
turbine

100
0 .1 -100 0.1
0 Pt Pg
-1 0 0 0 -200 0
0 .0 0 2 .0 0 4 .0 0 6 .0 0 8 .0 0 1 0 .0 0 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00
tu rbine inpu t h ead H t [m ] turbine input head Ht [m]
(e) generator frequency fg = 50 Hz (e) generator frequency fg = 50 Hz
Fig.6. Characteristic of hydraulic turbine. Fig.7. Characteristic of generator.
500 500
fg=50Hz
fg=50Hz 400

turbine output power Pt [W]


400 fg=40Hz
fg=40Hz 300
turbine power P t [W]

fg=30Hz
fg=30Hz 200
300 fg=20Hz
fg=20Hz 100
fg=10Hz
fg=10Hz 0
200 H
-100 t=9m
Ht=9m
-200 Ht=7m
Ht=7m
100
-300 Ht=5m
Ht=5m
0 -400 Ht=3m
Ht=3m
-500 Ht=1m
Ht=1m
-100 -600
0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

turbine input head Ht [m] generator frequency fg [Hz]

(a) turbine power VS. head (a) turbine power VS. generator frequency
350 400
300 fg=50Hz
fg=50Hz 300

generator output power Pg [W]


250 fg=40Hz
fg=40Hz
generator powegr P g [W]

200
200 fg=30Hz
fg=30Hz 100
fg=20Hz
150 fg=20Hz 0
fg=10Hz
100 fg=10Hz -100 Ht=9m
50 Ht=9m
-200 H
0 t=7m
Ht=7m
-300 Ht=5m
-50 Ht=5m
-100 -400 Ht=3m
Ht=3m
-150 -500 Ht=1m
Ht=1m
-200 -600
0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

turbine input head Ht [m] generator frequency fg [Hz]


(b) generator power VS. head (b) generator power VS. generator frequency
0.6f =10Hz
0.6 ffg=20Hz 0.6
fg=10Hz
g g=20Hz ffg=30Hz
g=30Hz ffg=40Hz
g=40Hz ffg=50Hz
g=50Hz
Ht=9m
Ht=9m
0.5 0.5 Ht=7m
Ht=7m
turbine efficiency ηt

Ht=5m
turbine efficiency ηt

Ht=5m
0.4 0.4 Ht=3m
Ht=3m
0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1

0 0.0
0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
turbine input head Ht [m] generator frequency fg [Hz]
(c) turbine efficiency VS. head (c) turbine efficiency VS. head
0.8 0.8
ffg=20Hz
g=50Hz Ht=9m
0.7 0.7 Ht=9m
ffg=30Hz
g=40Hz
generator efficiency ηg

generator efficiency η g

0.6 0.6 Ht=7m


Ht=7m
ffg=40Hz
g=30Hz Ht=5m
0.5 0.5 H =5m
t
ffg=50Hz
g=20Hz
0.4 0.4
0.3 0.3
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.1
0 0.0
0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
turbine input head Ht [m] generator frequency fg [Hz]
(d) generator efficiency VS. head (d) generator efficiency VS. head
Fig.8. Power and efficiency VS. Head (fg parameter). Fig.9. Power and efficiency VS. Head (Ht parameter).
hydro turbine model

Fig.10. One example of simulation

and testes, then the result can be feedback to experiments to REFERENCES


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