• ~,.. ~;:,_;_~_,m.,
Punta Princesa, Cebu City. Tel. 2722813
"~..'III.. I~ •• I~~ ~ '•• ~"I~I~XTS ~
@ X~'''~~"''{i:'t'¥m"", 0%l'0fu~!;·*kW ~" ~W<fm_~" """it" 0« W::~ill.Th,. ~~"
TAPE CORRECTION
I~~~~' ~~
2. Pull Correction:
(To be added or sUbtracted)
4. Slope Correction:
(To be subtracted only)
TAPE CORRECTION
a) Add correction when measuring distances perpendicular, somewhat less than one
b) Subtract correction when laying out tape length from the line AB. With d as
distances center and the length of tape as radius,
the head chainman describe the arc ED
of a circle, setting pins at the
intersections band c of the arc with the
line AB. The rear chainman stationed at
o A or B determines the location of the
a) Subtract correction when measuring intersections band c on line. The point a
distances is established midway between band c.
b) Add correction when laying out distances
S3
TAPE CORRECTION
c c'
r: y! A 0'"    
1"""'8
i *f,
ii
A..oo~...."
'~~~~,
B
a'a b
If the necessary distance from the
3:4:5 Method
line AS is short, perpendicular AA' = BB'
are erected by either using 3:4:5 method
of the chord bisection method to clear
the obstacle. The line A'B' is then
chained, and its length is taken as that of
AB.
A / .. ~.<:~:>~~'" •
Let C be a point from A and Bare
visible. AC and BC are measured. CD
1. Swing offsets: and CE bears to CB: that is CD/CA =
CEICB. It will generally be convenient to
make this a simple ratio such as 1/2 of
1/3. The triangles ACB and DCE are
similar. DE is measured and AS is
computed.
At'/
.~i.tl'"iI
attached the end of the tape to one end
of the line as at B and describes an arc
with center S and radius 100 m. The
rear chainman stationed at A lines in the rll~anteTperature<()t~5·9·,.a@us$djl)l)f
endiof the tape with some distant object stan9a~l~ngth.1lt20·QunderaP4IIAf§~g,
as 0 and directs the setting of pins a1 Cr9$csezliQnClI"are<l.of,l~pe.,is • • Q.Q~~q;pm;,.
points a and b where the end of the tape CQefficfe!1t()ltheyrMex:e~n$iM>I~
crossed line AO. A point C midway Q.009011~WC,.M~dtllu$ • ofela$tic~Y.(jf,tllP~ls,
between a b lies on the perpendicular 2x1mkg1Crl1 2. ' , ",
CB. A pin is set at C, and the distances
BC and CA are measured to obtain the G)[)eterllline.the•• errot•• of .the.,tapedu#.to
necessary data for computing the length changeintempera1ure. ,. ' ",' '. '
of AS, ® DetElfrninelheerrprduetotension, ••'.','
® Oetenninethe correetedlengthofthe line.
84
TAPE CORRECTION
(j)..¢oIl1IM~lhesl!lnd?~.terilp· • • • • • ·
~· • ··G9IllP~~me.t()!al • telTlp>Wq'El(;tiOn
® CQmPlJf~the.{icllTE!CflenglhJ:iflh~·IiI1~;·
A$QrmtAA~W~~$t~rm@l4eg.MdW!l$f@hd.
l$bep:Q<l42m:IQO)?n~>tf1~nJhe$t<1ln~~rd Solution:
.lE!gg1:tt~t~r:Jop~ry@.t£!rnP~r~fw~6fR~~Q·{:l[l9
CD Standard temperature:
• ~~~t~~~~~iri~r~~~~~aW~~~e~td· Cr=K(Tz Ts)L
• 19~~7~.~4.m···long.M.~n.(l~S7!Ye<J.·~~mp:.Of +0.00205 =0.0000116(31.8 Ts)(50)
.~~~[t·:~~~~~lIfs°6;~.~~~j~··idi~ji:~~I .• o.f 31.8  Ts = 3.53
qj\P~I~!QElme$!Md~Jem@@tt!rEf; . Ts = 28.27'C (standard temp.)
TAPE CORRECTION
@ Tota/error:
Too shortby =30  29.992
Too short by =0.008 m
 472.90 (0.008)
7iot'aJ error 30
Total error = 0.126 m. (to be subtraded)
TAPE CORRECTION
Solution: Solution:
CD Actual length: CD Crosssectional area:
Cr = K(T2  Tl) Ll A(1OOX100X7.86) = 267
Cr =0.ססOO16(30  2OX30·002) 1000 .
Cr =0.00348 m (too long) A = 0.034 sq.m. W1"f1:
Actual length of tape during measurement
=30.002 + 0.00348 ® Total correction:
=30.00548 m. Cr=K(T2' Tl)L jt1
® True area: Cr= 7 x 107 (20 • 15X1,l:1J
Therefore the tape is 0.00548 mtoo long Cr =0.00035 m.
Forthe 144.95mside:
7iotal error =144.95(0.00548)
30 =0.26 m. Pull correction:
. (P2 P1)L
True length = 144.95 + 0.026 Cp= AE
True length = 144.976 m
C  (16 ·10)(100)
For the 113 m side: p  0.034 (2) 106
A~pm.~tEleIJap~W~jghl~gA·f$~}$@f
~tMdatQI~rglll.Ulld~r~ • pUII.~f?@~UPP9rt~·
forfull.. . I~l"\gth, • • .• • TMta~ • • ..v~$U95~ . . . I~
m~asyHrt9.Allne~~~·§§m.IMg.l?~~·smWm
f~~elgW~n~~flder~$te~f1~ . P\,ltIQf19t<~;
AsslJming.I:.=.2•• l(.·.1()~ . k9tcmZ•• ~@ll1e • uriil
'Il¢ighl.m.$I~I.t()be7.9X1(t3.kglbrn3.
®•• ·.Oalermina.·me·crosssticllonal.atea·Ofthe
®~8IuleI16@~~@n,
®Compuletl'lEl1ruelElng!tiW1beb(lseli®•....
S7
TAPE CORRECTION
Solution:
<D Crosssectional area of tape:
w=AL Ys
1.45 = A(3000)(7.9) x 10.3
A = 0.061 cml
@ Pull Correction:
(P Psi L
Cp=xE
_ (105X30)
Cp  0.061 (2 x 106)
Cp =+ 0.00123
Total Correction = 0.00123 (938.55)
30
Total Correction = + 0.038 m.
@ Correct length ofline:
Corrected length = 938.55 + 0.038
Corrected length = 938.588 m.
Ill'll'• •••
@ •••. ·Per~rm(oe.·lIl$·hOrtzOO~I.dlStatt¢.,.
Solution:
~~~~jbg~~ •.•j~611~~~~.~h~/i~i~ <D Total correction per tape length:
Gr= K (T2· T1) L1
jsmown•• 19be.5(JnV.19@@?9·¢'Tl1~t~p~ Cr= 0.0000116 (15 ·10)(30)
wasusedtome<l$lJre<.~ljffll'Wtti¢l't\¥~s@YQg
l[).pe.532@.meter~l@g~~·tl1~Jelll~Wt~ Gr= + 0.00174 rn
W<ls.35·c, • • ~t€lITl1If\~.~.@IQ\Vil'l9:·>i.· .• · ·.••·•·•·•· · ..
PUll correction:
0!•• • ternper~tureC9ttecti6rll¢nap~·l®$tti<> •••••••• (P2 ,P1)L1
®TelJ1~raflJreCllrre¢ticmJprfh~fTlffll!l~rE:!9 .
WilfuL·································· Cp AE
@)1\C~edlength()ff&ljne...• _ (75 • 50)(30)
Cp 6.50 (200 x 103)
Solution: Cp =+ 0.00058 rn
<D Temperature correction per tape length:
Cr=K(T Ts)L
Sag Correction:
Cr = 0.0000116 (35 20)(50)
Cr =0.0087 m. too long
. .lL 2
Cs= 24 p2
® Temperature correction for the measured r _ (0.075 x 9.81)2 (30)3
line: vs 24 (75)2
ft· :1··· ,.  532.28 (0.0087) . r'\.!J)
loa correCdon  50 C !, .  Cs =0.10827 m
Total correction =+ 0.0926 m. \. ""0
Total correction per tape length:
@ Corrected length ofline:
COrrected length =532.28 + 0.0926 C =0.00174 + 0.00058 ·0.10827
Corrected length =532.3726 m. C=· 0.10595 m
S8
TAPE CORRECTION
Il,.'.
Solution:
CD Sag correction:
w2 L3
 CS1 = 24 p2
(0.04j2(100)3
CS1 = 24 ~15)2 . =0.296 m.
_ (0.04) (24.95)3 =0 005
CS2'" 24 (15)2 . .
Total sag correction =6(0.296) + 0.005
Total sag correction = 1.781 (too short)
59
TAPE CORRECTION.
~_9·008
100.00068
6  0.011
x=4.36 kg.
x 0.01032
Tension applied =14 +~4.36'~·~·'~·· ,) ~ .', ~:., 6=llO11
Tension applied = 18.36 kg. x= 5.63 kg
',k Tension applied =14 + 5.63
® Tension applied at 40.6'. Tension applied = 19.63 kg
Temperature correction:
Cr=K(T2 T,}L
Cr= 0.0000116 (40.6  32) 100
Cr=O.00998
0.006
r·~98}
100.0000
0.00402 {' 4
100.00198 14
~_ 0.00402
4  0.006
x= 2.68 kg GJ Compute the correctiartdue to the applied
pulfofS kg. ,'" .'
Tension to be applied =10 + 2.68 @ Compute the cortecUOn due to weight.ot
Tension to be applied = 12.68 kg tape. '
@ Compute the true length of the measured
@ Tension applied at 30'C: lineAB ,due to the combined effects of
Temperature coffection: tension, sag arid temperature.
Cr=K(T2 T,}L
Cr =0.0000116 (30  32) 100
Cr=0.00232
S10
TAPE CORRECTION
Solution:
CD Error in area:
(99.962 _ (1002)
~~~I~~~!~~n~~~~i~I~~at~jl~_\\~~ A  2.25
A=2.2482 hectares
.~~5f:o~~~~~~~Ii~~~~"'1~11;1~~l~'~.·
..' .. .
6~3,893,5dI9talj(18~S;&/<'" .
Enur in area =2.25  2.2482~.l\
Errorin area =0.0018 hectares,
Error in area = 0.0018 x10000 ~\
@p~lerl11IMltlE!pa¢¢taClor+< Error in area = 18 sq.m.
~·< •. [)~t~rmjlie· • I'l~mbefgf.p~c~s.·fCll'~~¢,,·new
•
une,> Note: 1 hectare =1000 sq.m.
~.·• •. Oetennineme·pjfltanc:eMlbe.fleWljne. @ Value of x:
Solution: ~~5 x =220.45  220.406
CD Pace factor: x =0.02 m.
142 + 145 + 145.5 + 146
N0.0 f paces = 5
k,t'::'l:1, ® Corrected distance:
No. of paces = 144.625" " '
100 1:.; L :. /. Correct distance = 165.2 _1:.2 (0.01)
Pace factor =144.625 = 0.691
Correct distance =165.167 m.
S·Il
TAPE CORRECTION
@ Unit weight of tape:
_ 0.204 w...fAE
PN
\i)•• • 8()rnpqte.the.O()rrnlJl•• t~~$IQI1.wh~hwin • b~ J
PN Ps
·. ·.• •. .•
....•. ~ppU®t~~t~®SlJPPA.~~9pV~r.twq 16 =0.204 w'./'0.05(2)106'
. . ·Sl.IPP()rtsillord~tt()fl1aketr~tape~~alt£>
·.it$•. n()[llill~I.I~ngtb •.VjI'l~ll~IlPP()rtE!d.ptJly'~t ~
~~~~.~f~~~ ~~4$t~I • _1~ ~.~6~~~
•.•. t@)~9hourit$ • leo91h.und~r.~.ll\at\!j~rd·PW
•. 0.:
w=0.784 kg
w= =0.026 kglm
· • •pt$·§.·kg•• wilh.•!J'tEl•. rnod~N~.9felastiglyfS
.• ·~ • x.1~kgf(@fW"ldaieaOf.Q,06(:mf • • • • • •.• • ·•• •· ® Cross sectional area:
_ 0.204 w...fAE
·®•• • Aste~tapei$30:lt1 .•• ~ogu@era • ~nd~@.· PN
•.• • • • • plJu • • ~f.9 • • • k~, • • • With•• • ~ • • • %J~~I~nt • • ett)$lh. J PNPs
·(:.lilli'~_'1
me¢M·P9IIlt~~ • tl)9~ls.W~.~ff®!·.()f$a~Wlll·
18 = O.204[~O.OO25)(40i...fAE
W=279.02
~
•.••.••.. ·.M.~I@i~W~pYlffil~l()l'lg~~9f;l§flIW¥lP~. AE =77854.67
d~Mo.tI'lE!M~lj¢atl@Qft~I$IMdi~¢M~1
••.t6.t6.M....(feterlnio~lhe9~il·W~i9htcitt~e. A = 77854.67 = 0039 rrf
2 x 106 . c
•• iaPE!•• j~
taM·.MQ(I~ltl~ ()f•• elast@fy.Qf••
~*lQ~Mtcnt.>
®Urid$ra$tandardpullQf~~g,Jhel@el
tapej~4QlTl"()(lg,An9rm~IJ~n~i9Q:qf
1&.k9rll~~~s • m¢••
~I()ng~~qiJ9f.~h~ • • l~Il$··
··()ff$e;t.t~~en~pt.pf.·~~·.· • • lfm~t~w(#Stm·· .0) ..• Det~rminelli~ IEltlgll1 of the fine in meters if
llqZ#·kgfril,•• •arld.E • =••z•)(•• j06•• • kglciril%) ... .there were 3 tallies'S phis aildthe last pin
Qeletrlline .• • it~ • • cr(Jss • • $ecll()nlll.··ar~.· • . in. \ was9>·Iil,Jromtheend of tile Hne. The
s:(P::Il'l{ ...•..• tapeMectwas so. m.IOhg. .• . .
TAPE CORRECTION
E
MISTAKES Em=
r;,
are inaccuracies in measurements
which occur because some aspect of a 1"1"
surveying operation is performed by the 3. Standard deviation:
Geodetic Engineer with carelessness,
poor judgment and improper execution.
4. Standard error:
1. Systematic Error
2. Accidental Error
1. Instrumental Error
2. Natural Error
3. Personal Error
1. The weights are inversely proportional
to the square of the corresponding
~ probabl errors.
1. Probable Error a
single observation:
Weighted Observation
340.22 (1) = 340.220
®Whaflsttleweightnfr(lqte2a$$~mI6g ~.30 (0.25) = 85.075
. • •. . .• • ·.•. ~ig~t·.¢f·.·.l'O.Ut~ • 1•.• I~.~ql¥l.I§ •.1.•·..•. • . . ·.. .•.•. . . . . .·.•• . · 340.26 (0.1111) = 37.803
.• ~• • Detem1ine1hemos1~b'eValueof.diff. 340.32 (0.0625) = 21.270
jnel~'ffltl$l'I.< Sum = 484.368
• 'W•. • !fW~.·~I£tlfatio/' • 9fa~h • ls.~@,4f.m;'M\at
••..• ·.isth~elev~TIWL(lf~M2asslJrnlllgiti~
. ··fjigheftMhaMW . . 484.368 i'/";
Most Probable Value = 1.4236 .• ',: .
4 W1 = 16 Wz = 36 W3 = 64 W4
W1 = 4 Wz =9 W3 = 16 W4
Assume W1 =1
1
WZ=4"
Wz =0.25
1 \D Compute lfle probable weight oftrtal 3..
W3=g
® Determine the most probable diff. in
W3=0.111 elevatiOn. . .
1 ® Compute the elevation of B if .elevation of
W4 =16 AIs 1000 with Bhigher than A,
W4 =0.0625
SlS
Solution: Solution:
ill Weight of trial 3:
CD Probable error:
The weights are also proportional to the Mean value
number of observation.
··120.68 + 120.84 + 120.76 + 120.64
Weight of trial 3 = 6. ~ = 4
Mean value =120.73
@ Probable diff. in elevation:
@ Elevation of B: ..  fiV2
Standard deViation =" ~
Elev. ofB =1000 '10520.208
Elev. of B = 1520.208 m.
. = ~0.0236
Standard deviation 3
@ Standrad error:
Standard deviation
Standard error = {;;
±0.0887
Standard error = {4
Standard error =± 0.0443 ["11,\
516
1 •
Iftiglf!tma2Z; At ;i)i'<1
Three iridepen<lentJilieof levelsarerunJrom "M()bserveO•• afi91~s • 9faW~nfll~ar~ • • as
.BM1t~BM~.R<JuteAjS6 kll'l, 1~,rOt1tee 1$ follOWS: .. A"'34'20'36~<B"'49~t6'34·
... '..' ' .
4 knt long andrpute Pis 8 km 8y muff! A,
¢7®'?2'41~
.:~JS~~·;~~ej~~~a~~~Y:y:~'.:~.:;'
SHOm. shoveBM,. ···TM eJevatloo{jfBM1 Is
6M2>'" . .... . ...
.0)Using the weighted mean valUes,WtiaLis
the weight~froufeB. ' .
00 Whatls the PrPfutblevalue 9ftheVil!lgtited.
niEian. .•. . ••. . .
@ . WhatJstheelevalion ofB~; . . Soiution:
Solution: G) Probable value of angle C:
G) Weight of route A:
ROUTE DISTANCE DIFF. IN ELEV. Sum of all angles = 180'
A 6 82.27 34'20'36" +49'16'34" +96'22'41"
B 4 82.40
C. 8 82.10 =179'59'51"
1 1 1 = =
Error 180' ·179'59'51" 09" (too small)
LCD =24
6 4 8 F" L) . 9
CorrectlOn =
Weight computations 3
24 Correction =3"
A W1 =6=4
24
B W2=4"=6 Probable value of angle C = 96'22'41" +3"
24 Probable value of angle C = 96'22'44"
C W3=a=3
Solution:
ANGLE OBSERVED WEJGHT
VALUE
1
A 86'15.20" 6= 0.167
1
8 134'44'35" 2=0.SO
1
C 75'48'SO" 2=0.SO
1
0 167'02.05" 6= 0.167
1
E 76'08'SO" 4=0.25
Solution:
Sum = 539'59'40" 1.584 G) Probable value of angle A:
A+8+C=41 +77+63=181'
CORRECTION ADJUSTED
Error= 181' 180' =01'
ANGLES Error= 60 mins.
LCD of 5, 6and 2 is 30
O.~~~O) = 2.11" 86'15'22.11"
Sta. Weight Correction
O.~~O) = 6.31" 134'44'41.31" I c~v( 6
A ~. 4.~ = 6 ~:;..; Z6 (50) = 13.84'
0.~.~O)=6.31" 75'48'56.31"
8 30 = 5 16 (60) =11.54'
6
O.~~~O) = 2.11" 167'02'07.11" C 30 = 15 15 (60) = 34.62'
2 26 26 50'
O.~~O) = 3.16" 76'08'53.16"
Corrected value ofA =41'  13.84'
Sum 20" 540'00'00" Corrected value of A=40'46.16'
518
Solution:
Solution: ill Average mean value:
ill Probable value ofangle A: Average value (mean)
A + B + C= 39 + 65 + 75 = 179' 200.58 + 200.40 + 200.38 + 200.46
Error =180'  179' =01' =
4
Error =60 mins. Average value (mean) = 200.455
LCD of3, 4 and 2 is 12
® Probable error of the mean:
Sta. Weight Correction
12 4 /
A =4
3 13 (60)= 18.46 Length V V2
3 200.58 200.58  200.455 = +0.125 0.015625
B 12 =3 13 (50) = 13.85
4 200.40 200.40  200.455 =  0.055 0.003025
12 =6 6 200.38 200.38  200.455 =  0.075 0.005625
C 2 13 (50) =27.69
200.46 200.46  200.455 = +0.005 0.000025
13 60
,,£V2 =0.0243
Corrected value of A = 39' + 18.46'
Corrected value of A = 39'18.46'
519
V
XV1)
Probable error of mean =0.6745 ..n(n
2
Probable error= 0.6745
 r""iV2
\I n(n:1)
P.E. =0.6745
v 0.0243
4(3} Probable error =0.6745
~0.0236
4{3}
PE =±0.03 Probable error =± 0.0299
Precision =6681.83
..y0.0236
.. 1 Standard deviation = 3
PreCISion =6682
Standard deviation =± 0.0887
® Standard error.
Standard deviation
Standard error = {;
±O.OBB?
Standard error = {4 =± 0.0443
Solution:
CD Probable error.
Mean value
120.68 + 120.84 + 120.76 + 120.64
= 4
Mean value = 120.73
Residual V V2
CD What is thewelghfofroute 3as$uming the
120.68 • 120.73 =·0.05 0.0025 weightof route f equal tD 1.
120.84 120.73 =+0.11 0.0121 ® What is the .sum of the weighted
120.76 120.73 =+0.03 0.0009 obserVation. .
120.64 120.73 = 0.09 0.OOB1 @ What i$ the most probable value of the
LV2 =0.0236 elevatlon.
520
Solution:
CD Weight ofroute 3:
The weights are inversely proportional to
the square of the corresponding probable
errors.
" K
1 J/1 = (2)2 .
K 'J
W3= (6)2
"~, PE = ~ 0.000038
5(4)
= 00009'1
± . v
S21
. PE = 0.6745
GT
'\J ~ ..
W2 E,2
~= W
PE = 0 6'745'" J0.000075
' \ { 5(4) £:2 = 1.00(0.00131)2
PE =to.OO131 2.98
E=tO.OOO76
® Most probable value ofthe two sets:
Probable value Probable error
.;. 571.183 Ei =0.00093
"1571.188 E2=0,oo131
. 1
K
'2 =/ K
W1 =E2
W1 Ei 2 = W2 Ei
W1 (0,00093Y = W2 (0.00131)2
Ass. W2 = 1
Ei ') k r.
..••fd!:··~;W·:J:~1
Wi (0,OOO93Y =1 (0,OO131j,2
Wi = 1.98
Weight/
W1 = 1,98
" ' c:~F:'~~;11
.~ .. poC
t','
I·'
Wt. x value
1130.94
i l ! !f~jl:l!lll~~;l.
W2 = 1.00
Sum= W=. 298"'.'.'1
.
571.188
  . .,"
1702.18.:'//
li'_liiil~ii:!~1
1702.128
Most probable value ofthe two sets = ~ Solution:
Most probable value ofthe two sets = 571.184 G) Probable error:
40'31' + 40'34' +40'36'
Mean value = 3
@ Probable error ofthe general mean:
K Mean value =40'33.7'
W=E2
K Residual v ? V2
W1=2 40'31'  40'33.7' = 2.7 7.29
E1 40'34' 40'33.7' = t{).3 0.09
2
E2 _ W1 E1 40'36' 40'33.7 = +2.3 5.29
 W
E2_ W2E l }:. V2 =12.67
 W
522
52
Probable error =0.6745 ." ~
_f12.67
Probable error =0.6745 " 3(3=1)
Probable error = ± 0.98 Probable efTDr= 0.6745 ~ = ± 0.039
® Standard deviation:
@ Standard error.
52
Standard deviation = " ;;'::1 fiV2
Standard deviation =" ~
ii;Atili1:~' 11'1~;
Solution:
Average value (mean)
141.60 + 141.80 + 141.70
= 3 (j)Flrldthepr°bable¥~I»~\)faogleA.
Average value (mean) = 141.70 @ FiMthepto~~~I~Y~19~f>1~r~I~B,< .,
@tIMt!'leproMPi¢VaI4¢~f~OglE~% ,',
V v2
141.60 ·141.70 =·0.10 +0.01 Solution:
141.80 141.70 = +0.10 +0.01 Error= 180· (39' +65' +75')
141.70141.70= 0 o .Error = 01'
Error = 50' (too smalQ
S·23
. Weight
Solution:
CD Corrected angle A:
A 39' 12 =6
2 Angles Value Weight Corrections
A 92' 12/6 =6 6/15 (60) =24'
B 65' 12=4 B 88' 12/4 =3 3/15 (60) =12'
3 C 71' 12/3 =4 4/15 (60) =16'
o 110' 12/6 = 2 2/15 (50) =..!
C 75' 12 = 3
4 15 00'
13 Error =(92 + 88 +71 +110)  360
Error =01' = 60' (too big)
Correction Corrected Angles Corrected angle A = 92' ·24'
Corrected angle A = 91'36'
6
13 (50) =27.69' 39' 27'41" ® Corrected angle B:
Correded angle B =88' • 12'
1~ (50) = 18.46' 65'18' 28" Corrected angle 8 = 87'48'
® Corrected angle C:
3 Correctedangle C= 71' • 16'
13 (50) =13.85' 75' 13'51"
Correctedangle C = 70' 44'
50'
Solution:
CD Probable value of angle A:
Sum ofinterior angles = (n· 2)180
Sum ofinferior angles = (5· 2)(180)
Sum ofinterior angles = 540'
@•• • qO/tlflM~m~#Jffep(#1.val®(Jt.ittg~.!} •.• Sum = 110' +98' + 108' +120' +105'
.~ • • GOI1)P~t~lhe(;Orr¢¢t#lv~lpe9f.~leEl.·i·<.·· Sum=541'
·®••··CornplJ@ftle90rrec!ed·vBll.le.ofangle.Q... Error =0l' or 50' (to be subtracted)
S24
(1).. f)eleWIM1heWeight.(lfr@W.@lTIber.g.
® ·Oelertrilne fhemO$fpt()Pabledlffe$/1¢eJo
elevatioll, .. .
® P~t~it1e.tnelnosfprOb@IEleIWalion·tJfQ
lnmetars.· . .
S25
Solution:
CD Weight ofroute no. 2.:
W1D1 = W2D2 = waDa = W4 D4
Assume:
W1 =6
6(2)= W2 (6)
W2=2 Solution:
2(6) = wa (4) Determine first the weight of each route
wa =3 111
3(4) =w4 (8) 10 16 40
w4 = 1.5
Weight ofroute 2 = 2 To find the weight, divide the L.C.D. by its
distance.
@ Probable difference in elev:
Route Weight WI. x Diff in elevation CD Probable weight of route B:
1 6 6(0.86) =5.16 ROUTE LENGTH WEIGHT
2 2 2(0.69) =1.38 A 10 160 =16
10
3 3 3(0.75) =2.25
4 1.5 1.5(1.02) =1.53 B 16 160 = 10
  16
12.5 10.32
C 40 160 =4
40
Probable diff. in elev. = 1102~52 Sum=3O
Probable diff. in elev. = 6.826
Weight ofroute B= 10
@ Probable elevation of C:
Probable elevation ofC= 825 + 0.82 @ Probable difference in elevation:
Probable elevation of C = 825.82 16(632.81) = 10124.96
10(632.67) = 6326.78
4(633.30) = 2533.28
18984.86
·.I.• [dlrr2;~lull~lfll_·.
i I• • •;'
·~~~.··.O•·.••·n. ~.$ · ., 4v
•.••.•. '.•. •.•.•.•·.•.•. '.·.•L.• ..•·.•.•.1•• .~ t >.>
~• .• •.• • •.·•.~~I~i
6i• • • • • • • • •
. ·• .E.•.·••.• •.•.•.•.•.•.•.• . ·•. ••. •. I.I. •.••. : ..• 1.•11..• •.k1.•·. .•.• .•.•.L.•.•.• . E
l.·•. .•
U.
~~~:~»<i~
Solution:
® Probable weighted mean:
Line Diff. in Elev. Weight
Solution: 1 41.16 6
CD Probable error of the resulting computation: 2 41.20 4
3 41.12 3
PE =..J (b Eh)2 + (h Eb)2 13
b =314.60
WI. x Diff. in Elev. V WV2
h=92.60 6(41.16)=246.96 0 o
Eb =+0.16 4(41.20) =164.80 +0.04 0.0064
Eh =0.14 3(41.12)=123.36 0.04 0.0048
.~ 535.12 0.0112
PE =..J[314.6(0.14)]2 + [92.60(0.16)~
V1 =41.1641.16=0
PE =+46.47
V2 =41.20  41.16 = +0.04
V3=41.12 ~ 41.16 = 0.04
@ Probable error of the sum of the sides: .
535.12
PE =..J (PE1)2 + (PE2)2 + (PE3)2 + (PE4)2 Weighted mean = ~ = 41.16
8M,
· hted d·ff.·
Wieig I '1436.36
I .meev.=~
@ Bevation of 8M3:
Elev. of 8M3 = 143.636 + 30.162
Bev. of 8M3 = 173.798 m.
~., .
S28
il.ipillelB
@ Error in elevation of 8 using route 4:
Error in route 4 =364.60  364.37
Error in route 4 = 0.23 m
@ Adjusted elevation of 8M2 using route 4:
Solution: Correction for 8M2 =2 5 (023)
CD Weighted elevation of 8:
6
Correction for 8M2 =0.096 m.
A Corrected £Iev. of 8M2 = 349.86 + 0.96
Corrected Bev. of 8M2 =349.956
Solution: Solution:
CD Difference in elevation:
CD Sealevel distance:
Vertical angle =90'  83'14'20"
Reduction factor =1  ~ Vertical angle =6'45'40"
Diff. in elevation = 1486.72 Sin 6'45'40"
· I 1 993.9 Diff. in elevation =175.03 m.
ReductJon lactor =  6400000
Reduction faqtor= 0.99984 @ Scale factor:
Sea level distance =6846.34 (0.99984) Grid distance =Geodetic length
x scale factor
Sea level distance =6845,24 m.
5279.67
Scale factor = 5280
@ Grid distance:
Scale factor =0.9999375
Combination factor
=0.9998756(0.9999000) @ Grid factor'
=0.9997756 Grid factor = elevation factor x scale factor
Grid factor = 0.9999642(0.9999424)
Grid distance =10000(0.9997756) Grid factor =0.9999066
Grid distance =9997.756 m. Grid distance =3296.43(0.9999066)
Grid distance =3296.12 m.
530
LEVEliNG
1. Dumpy Level
2. Wye Level
LEVELING
8. Variation of temperature:
This could be eliminated by protecting
the level from the sun while making
observations.
1. Confusion of numbers in reading and
recording.
9. Earth's curvature: 2. Recording B.S. on the F.S. column and
This could be eliminated by balancing viceversa.
each backsight and foresight distance, or 3. Faulty additions and subtractions.
. apply the computed correction. 4. Rod not held on the same point for both
10. Atmospheric refraction: B.S. and F.S.
This could be eliminated by balancing 5. Wrong reading of the vernier when the
each backsight and foresight distance, target rod is used.
also take short sights well above ground 6 Not having target set properly when the
and take backsight and foresight long rod is used.
readings qUick succession.
S31A
lEVELING
R =radius of earth
R::6400km.
K2
h =2R
Horizonrul Lint!
h = K2 (1000)
2(6400)
h =0.078 K2
hr~
7
h = 1 (0.078 K2)
Horizontal Line = a straight line tangent to a r 7
level surface. hr =0.011 K2
Level Surface =a curved surface every her = h  hr
element of which is normal to the plumb her = 0.078 K2  0.011 K2
line.
Level line = a line in a level surface.
DERIVATION OF
C.URVATURE and ~
REFRAqTION CORRECTION
Conditions:
lEVELING
Since h1, h, and h2 are vertical heights, and considering the effects of
curvature and refraction at A and S, as reckoned from a tangent (horizontal) line at
sea level vertically below C, the figure can be reconstructed in its plane sense.
Hoeizontal Line
h =h2  0·067Oi + 0
1
~2O2 (h l  h2)  0.0670 102 + 0.067Dt2
532
LEVEUNG
Inm~.pla~ • beIOW$Ho~s.adlffer~ntial.levelln9
frorlt~rct1.ITla.rt<.to~nomer.~nph • rnark,al?(lg'
ea®llqerepr~$~n~~~~rShUnthe~etualr()d
r~~din~· • • • Tbe • dj~~~n • • of•• lbtl.Jjeh:lwork•• is
indica~~,pythe.nlJrnber.oft1,Jllllng.polnts·
ill, 90rnPlItet/lE!el~YliijortpfTP2'
@ 9ptnplJleth~ele¥~ti@Qf,~~.w
® '. ()o@i.JteJneelevau®mJPs·
Solution:
Note: H.I. = Elev. + B.S.
Elev. = H.I.  F.S.
BM,
Sta. B.S. H.I. F.S. Elev. El,33.971
lEVELING
® Elevation of 8M2:
Elevation of 8M 2 =327.07 m.
lEVEliNG
® Bevation ofTPi
Elevation of TP2 = 227.66 m.
® Elevation ofBMi
..
Elevation ofBM2 = 224.88 m.
0.62 2.37
,
·3.50
..
~···1.24
BM.
M~09&.tMJ()ll9Wlng.(l~$crlRfl®.lothemtfu.()f
(J)·>What•. . . j~ . •'.t@•• • diff¢ri3nce•• · in .··elevallon· .prMIEl.~¥l'll.hQt~~C9mp~I~· • tPel~Y@()r1, • • • A·
betW~~~$ta1k>o5~6d2, • •.• ' \ l~vellS$l;!t4PBll~~r~dlngcrlg.~~5l'rl.I$
@jyomputelh&l'll&Y<ltioopfTF'ti . tilken•• on•• a.tlench•• mal'l<..llie.~levam)l'l.6fWhjch
@ c:ornput~theeleva~Cll1of8M:( iS12·13qrn·Atth~tlegihrying()f~e@et6tl~
Solution: prBfl'ed'••l®•• WdJeadjn~,lsg·Q?5~.·.~~m·fl'9hj.
ml:ll:>egin~jl1g,)tis1·~1TI'l1·aJepm·,ifi$
STA BS FS IFS ELEV {l;702m.atpem.and~1m.,thet()~~at!lng$
HI
BM, 0.95 226.45 225.50 ~te • l.2~1 • nl;~@.O.7§2.lil. • r~spe¢tj@M·.·.()(ja
rocklh~tistlQtoPlll1e,tMtPdrl;!~qiMl~
1 3.0 223.50
0.p55•• lTl.•• Jh~·.le\l&liS,me{l·remo\lM.ahead,$et
2
TP, 3.13 228.94 0.64
2.3 224.2
225.81
ea
upand•• aroqf dingqt.1.95Z.m· i QbseNed,
the}odsljllbelngh~ld()nlherock,Ttte
*.
3 2.7 226.2 readjllgs • al()h~.th~.PtOfil#.~re.thenrll~lJrn¢d;
4 2.8 226.1 90m.• ftoll'llhebegir,"jl1gofth~ljn~/therod
5 3.1 225.8 reading.ls.1AS$.m.! ·'ZO.rn.• frorn••IHe.beginniog
6 0.5 228.4 of•• tile ·linl;!.tM.·readil19.is • 1AM.I'Il.,•• ~IlCllly • 1(iO
7 0.8 228.1 rn·frornt@p~9InningQfthemnethe@j
TPo 2.16 229.82 1.28 227.66 readfngfs2J9611l. .
8 0.9 228.9
(i). COrnPlJtethEle~vationatJhepQlnt60rn.
9 1.2 228.6
10 1.7 228.1
fr°rn.lhe.t¥9inning•• oflhe.line.
® CompUI~.the.eIeVatiOn.l)f.the.tumjn9.pol{lt
11 2.8 227.0 @ CornPufe lhe difference in &/evation ala
TP~ 0.82 228.27 2.37 227.45 P<Jlflt.·1~0I11;·.ar1d • 81•• lTl..• fTorn.the·\:ieginning
TPA 1.35 226.12 3.50 224.88 oftheHne.
12 3.0 223.1
BMo 1.24 224.88
8.41 9.03
5·]5
lEVELING
LEVELING
® Difference in elevation betwwen 8M1 and STA. Rise Fall Reduce Level
TP2: 346.75
BM 1
'
E,ev.o f TP  764.44 + 765.56 1 +0.860 347.61
2 2
Elev. of TP2 :: 765.00 2 +1.153 348.763
Diff. in elevation:: 765  749.06 3 +0.059 348.822
Diff. in elevation:: 15.94 m. 4 1.046 347.776
BM, +0.672 348.448
2.744 1.046
Rise:: 3.7552.895
Rise:: 0.860 m.
'l'b~ • fCtI19Wing • • @()w,s•• • fl•• • t<lbtllate(j•• • d~ta • • ()f Rise:: 2.895 1.742
Rise:: 1.15Jm.
~VE!lil'iS·.r()t~~.#Slng.ri~~.~nd.fall.rnettiod .. Rise:: 1.742 1.683
Ris~ :: 0.059 m.
Fall:: 1.683  2.729
Fall :: 1.046 m.
Rise:: 2.729 2.057
Rise:: 0.672 m.
Rise at station 2:: 1.153 m.
lEVELING
LEVEliNG
Solution:
CD Difference in elevation between 8 and C
with instrument set up near B:
Mean rod reading on 8: ~.llne.9ftev~IS.1(lkCll· • • §ng.WE\ft4n()vet~ff.
8 =2.283 +2.284 +2.286 +2.283 ••
9~Otlll~ • • <§Ia,rting•• f~~m ~1 • Wlf~.·.·~I~Y~~An
m 4 .:!f·§<I11Elt~r~·.· • • • • rhe·•• $le~li()n • • Qf•• ~M?·.\y~s
8m =2.284 m. •
tomput~~ • lR••.tl¢•• H.·~~·m·\ It•• wa$•• f()ung9ut
tJQ',Y~Y~r • ttJat•• tIle•• ~Yel.settIEls.5.rl11'!l.b~~n.
fbe•• in~lanf.Af.ey~rt • ba,d($ighf•• r~a.ding,.me.Wd
Mean rod reading on C:
C =1.675 + 1.674 + 1.677 + 1.674 + 1.677 + 1.678
~tlttl~~ •. 2•• mrn••
if•• th~ • • ~c;k~ight.<1nd • • fo(esjghl
d:islanl;ElheveanE\verage100m.< FindJhe
m 6 (x)rte~teJevati6l'ldfaM2·<· .. . .
Cm = 1.676 m.
lEVEliNG
Solution:
CD Diff. in elevation between Aand B:
l.ine ofsif<hr
"       
rll...::lII' 0 C ~    I 
{/{)ri:oftwl {iue
CD What is the true difference in elevation
betWeen A and6? ..•.. ..... ...• .... .....'. .... .
x ® With tl)elevel inthe..samepqsiijonat D; to
what rod reading on B shouldJhe Une of
sight be adjusted. • '.' . i ..... '...' .
(3). Whatls the corresponding rod reading on A
for a hotizontalline of sight Withlnsltument
still at D? .
Solution:
CD True diff. in elevation between Aand B:
1.505 + x = 2.054  e
x+ e:: 0.549·
x + 0.938  e =1.449 e
x e =0.511 B O.99lm
x+ e:: 0.549
Ik~"7'I1 x
2x =1.06
x = 0.53 m. (diff. in elevation)
1.103 + e :: 0.991 + e + x
x=O.112m.
54Q
lEVElIN~
® Rod reading on B with level at D: <D•• C()(nplJW.·.tM•• • lfiffet¢nte • • • jry•• • ~leya. I. io.•.•.n
pelwi¥rrAalldEL/
~ • 'Nhat~~ould • ~~.tbecoIT@tJ()(tf'l<:l9Jngon
A.to•• g~tl • • ~ • • leM~I • • line•• of.si9htwth.~e
1I'1$II'\1ltlflllt$~llsiHupat~1
® • Whllt.~hPul~ • h~lYe9~~ • lhtl••rellpln9••pn§
..........ilhJhein$t!'ul'MntatA16 giYe a leVelline
QfsJghtT .
Solution:
CD Diff. in elevation between A and B:
0.568 + e1 =e2 + 0.289 + 0.112
0.568 + e1 =~ +0.401
e2  e1 = 0.167 Hori:.onwl finf'
..11"'1:.... = 0 d  }  e
~~
12 72 LlTll' of :nghl
e2 = 6e1
6e1 • e1 =0.167
5e1 =0.167
e1 = 0.0334 m.
~ = 6(0.0334)
__~:~_ __ \_O~_
e2 =0.2004
line Of5ight
lEVEliNG
kOint••M.l$••~~ldiS~~I.1r6fu.~lh.·.A.1nd.~f.Whil~.
RB =2.140 + ez
RB = 2.140 + 0.038
Pj$f.50%a:w~y JrgfJlAl:lI()ngthe~~flSi()n
Qfllt1~AElaod1~~27m;fr9ma. . ... RB = 2.178m.
•~ • • De!ermjn.~.th!3.true • difference••irlElI:Vatfon
b~WJeen~~ndB><.
·.@.f.)eterlllit1~me~rt't:lt.,n,.~.·r9(j.J'B.a9illgatB
WilhmelJjsfCJJmemsti~alg.< . , '.' .•
~ • • O~in~tpe.~~dlllg·9I).rQ(i~.f9r.a • Attigo®~m4 • 1WElliils~q@«¥I.W.J~re~~
·••··• ··sfIUatP.
• • • no[iiM@lirleof•
. • ~lght.With.the·.im~!ttiment
. .. §urVey.lng.pgmp~1I~y,.ttie:tW9·P91t1t$A.aMB.pt
Cl¢e~inr0ti9h·tert'''ill~ree"chl:lil>tanc:e • 2900
Soluticm: 1TI·•• • frqrtj •.• a••·.miTlt••PQint.Pi • • fr°ITl .• ·.\Yhic:~ •.• th~·
G) Difference in elevation between A and B: .ll)~$~r~d • veijl~!.~~S!G)Ai$.t.~ .•~9'.~nq19.
Bj~f1·~'·ftevM9nClfCjs~t1()'mlobe
342.pqm.abQ\I~~~lev~kPollltCjsm
b~~rjA~l'ldEl;<" ...' .. ... .
effect.Of
2.5'+
f~79.27I
~··qWllPl.lt~thw.pjffer~llp~ in Jllevation
.beweM13 and.q.•• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •·.·•·•·
@ Compuletheel~vatlonmk'"
x + 0.296 + e =0.910 + e
x= 0.910 . 0.296
x= 0.614m. Solution:
CD Diff. in elevation between Aand B:
@ Error in rod reading at B with instrument
still at P:
tL

S42
LEVEliNG
@ Elevation of C:
Elev. C = Elev. B  111.:356
Elev. C = 601.62  111.2,56
Elev. C = 490.264 m.
LEVELING
Solution:
CD Oiff. in elevation ot A and 8:
LEVELING
~1 75m 175m
Obstruction = 705  701.05
Obstruction = 3.95 m.
Solution:
CD Obstruction of the line of sight at hill B:
h = h + O2 (h 1  h2)  0 067 0 0
2 0 1 + D;, . 1 2
lEVEliNG
Thr~(h!!I~%a,jMPhM~IWM9Mqf
6~nl,,6@5.'W • ~~4 • 600••
m>respe¢ijMelY.•·•• ~• •~
in•• betWeeilAEll'ld··C~nd.·is·10~rit·fJ;9Il1Aa!l<l·
h =0. + 01~~ (h1· hi)·0.067 01~ 12krn·®rn(k·
15
h=620 +12 + 15 (680620) (1).<Con~ideriJ@ • • tne.• •
effect•• of.curVamrea.riiI·
.·.·.refraction.cotrEl%iorl,.whatisth~·creat~nce .
·0.067 (12)(15) %obstrycti91l.of•. • th.~ .• line • • of•• siQht•• al•• B
h= 641.27m. consldenngtt\alCisvlslblefromA . .
S46
lEVELING
A B
625
=600 12[(660) • (600 + xll
+x+ 10+12
,  0.067 (10)912)
h = h.. + 0, (h • 0) . 0 067 0 n..
"L D, +~ . ,.....L
25 = x+ 12 (60  x) _8.04
h = 600 12 (660.600).0067 (10)(12) 22
+ 10 + 12 .
33.04 = x + 32.73·0.545 x
h = 624.69 < 625
x= 0.68 m.
Obstruction = 625 624.69
Obstruction = 0.31 m.
fQuthillsA,I3.¢arldq~f$lfisl~i~htline.
tMele\'~tiClnsareA;(~1~m,B::;23~ro}
G.:;'•• ~H • rn.~rld.P • "'.3~~.l1J;.·te~~etlv~Iy. • • Th~
di$lanc~s()fB)Catldqfr6111~~re12k1tl,
4$l@anq§Ol<J"tl·fElsp~lively.¢onsidering
tMElff®f.Of•• (jlJrv!lltirEl • ~M • • tE!ft'a(jtioll•• ()f•• ll1e
h=625+5
MM.
h=630 (j) .p()ll1pute•• th$·t$I~ht • PfM4al•• tPWElf$•• ()n·A
h, = 660 +x $nd{)Josighf()v€r~ilrld8~j~~31T1.
h2 =600+x >c!elll'llnce'......:: .'. ...••.•.• •••••..•.•.••••
h = h + 0, (h , • 0) _0 067 D n.. @•• • ¢dmpute•• th&•• ¢I¢va@Q8t.th~ • lin~ • ot.siSht
2 0 , +~ . ,.....L 13tWWiltlth$inMallaliofl9ttheElQlJal
= 600 . 12 [(660 + x)  (600 + xl) tie@11$9ft9Wet~tA<1l@O; ' ...
630 +x + (10 + 12) ~. .C()rnplJt~ • the • heighl•• qf.lo~r • $t.A·.WlltJ•• a
0.067 (10)(12) ch.ara[1¢eoC3ri'lCaFP$omafPWlIlbe
30 =x+ 12~0). 0.067 (10)(12) . lf.tM.hei9ptgfIWWat.p.i$
Visibfe.jJ'°lTi.A••
2m. .. . .
x= 5.31 m.
LEVELING
= 396 15 [(247 + xl· (396 +x)] 317 = 398 15 [247 +x 398]
317 +x+ 45 + 15 + 45 + 15
 0.067 (45)(15) ·0.067 (45)(15)
317 = 396 + x 37.25  45.225 317 =378 + 0.25x  37.75  45.225
x= 3.475m. x= 7.9m.
qonsidElrir.g¢[/tVatureand·re~Oli()(j@ctiol1
aftnE!earth@~.· .. .. '.' ..'
LEVE1I1G
Solution: Solution:
CD Correction for CUNature only: CD Oiff. in elevation between Band C:
Corrected F.S. = 238.17  236.35
Corrected F.S. = 1.82 m.
Error in F.S. reading = 1.86  1.82
Error in F.S. reading = 0.04
CUNature and refraction correction =0.04
CUNature and refraction = curvature  refraction
0.04 = 0.048 • x
L~~·}.A.{8:1·5'
h e & . ""':2600"'..;
1
x = 0.008 refraction correction .!
, ,'"
ElfN.219.42m
lEVELING
®Gornpul~>th~<qff'fElre6Qe in ~HNaliQn
bEltvl~enA,gr9~,> .• •. . • .
i:ID.Pmnput¢•• tf\~.)differEll#¢e '>lnelElYaI160
pel>veenl\~nd8··) Miradorhilhvfth.an. elev9tionofp26rn,iSoll.a
@'.Comput!3c.ftIe·.ElIEl\l()ti()n.of.~i •.
lifle•• ~Elwee8.A~ror() • ~ill • ~hlh$~· .• el~YWipry·.i~
Solution: 660.·m·.9nd•• Q()thedr()lhillna...i'19.<3f1.~IW<:l~!Ofl
Of.60Qtii.·•• • Di~I~n~.()H.1ir~~orhiUfml'll)\tirQl'll
Dift. in elevation between A and B;
hHljsl0kfl1argdistaryCe8fMir~dorniRfrPm
G)
<D CompUte.theQbS!tuciIQtlqMMllM9lsltM
at.• Miragor.mll•• VItlElr·.o~~eiyjq~Q.1ftlEldqll
hlll.fr()Ill~WOl'a.tlill, • • • • • •.• • • • • • • • • • .• / • . ).<...< .
® \foIhaf.would.betheDejghlof.ElqY~lm~rs·
tRe.~reQled.9t.i\uror~.hill.affij·cmhe9ral~IH
$o•• • that.Cal~eqr~I • • hill,lwror~Nll.lln~
Miradorhilj.wil'•• beirtervisi~l~wilh?·.4rfi~
t<>wererected.ft.the.~QP.of.MiW~%blll? •.• •.• >••
LEVEliNG
LEVEliNG
LEVEliNG
P#i~g.M.$llgineers • lfw~l,tMreilqiM.on.arod
8qfu·~WW~S9b$IW"edt(l~~.2·~1t:n·Th~
.\)\;jbble·was••lf)l(el@·.ttlry•. ~·ll·p~~~Qll.·lbe • leVElI
·t\.lbE!aM.thE!rOd•• @Mingihdr$$~Wz.a74rrl.
ii) • D~te®lr@.t® .• ~ngletl1at.tl1~.blJbbl~.()fl.lh13 •
•·.·.·.···lul)¢WM•• qeYiMi!d•• d(je.tO.M.inM~aseln
M~f()(jljl#<ljol!lbYfu9\@9fD~I$I~C()Il~
ijpW~rdin$ec()fld~¢f*c.«· •.. . •.••
·~ • ·.·P13~wjn~.m~.all~@M"~1~9r~11~Sp~Gl3.
i:iflhelubeirlsecondSofar&>
.·&>•.•.• D~teri1ijOO··t@r@iU$Qf • @&afOr$•• 6ftHe
:i~yelt~pejf@@~P;~c~@th~hibei$ @.·.Gprn@~.mll.COlTec~Oll.fbbl:l.~pplied.tq.tb~.
<MOmmlong. . . ~~vatl()nOfBM2
®.•• ~OIl1P9tethecorrecte9.elElvftiOnofBM2.··.
Solution: &:i•• Cornpme.tl1E!.correc!ed.elev<ltionofBM3·····
CD Angle the bubble on the tube was deviated
due to an increase in the rod reading: Solution:
CD Correction to be applied to BMi
~:F=
,
Station Distance Observed
Ikm) Elevation
R\ iR BM 1 0 1oo.00m.
~8~ BM? 4 121.42 m.
BMo 6 131.64m.
BM 1 10 100.15 m.
LEVELING
@ Adjusted elevation of B:
Corrected diff. in elev. =475.31 + 12.03
Corrected diff. in e/ev. =487.34 m.
Adjusted elev. of B =1584 +487.34
Adjusted elev. of B =2071.34 m.
Solution: Solution:
CD Uncorrected difference in elevation CD Barometric reading at Mount Apo at
belYieen A and B: 10:30 AM:
76 76
z =19122 log h~ 19122 log h Barometric
2
76 76 Station Time Reading Air
z =19122 log 65.53 1912210g 69.39 .(cmofHq) Temp.
Mt. Arm 9:25 74.73 8.3'C
z =1230.95  755,64
z =475.31 m.
Mt. Mayan 10:30 68.96 He
Mt.Apo 10:57 74.57 6.rC
74.57
= 12.03 m.
554
lEVEliNG
COMPASS SURVEYING
COMPASS SURVEYING
1. The compass reading is not very accurate. From the figure shows a compass having
a NS and EW calibration. In using a compass,
2. The needle is unreliable especially with always sight the object with. the north end of
the presence of local attractions, such as the compass and the compass needle when
electric wires, metals, magnets that may pivoted and brought to rest gives the magnetic
render it practically useless. bearing.
Magnerit.Norrh
COMPASS SURVEYING
Solution:
<D True azimuth of the line:
COMPASS SURVEYING
Solution:
Sum of all interior angles of a closed
polygon.
= =
(n 2) 180 (5  2) 180 540'
Value of each inferior angle = ~O
Value of each inferior angle = 108
TN
MN
N. 73"00' W. . . S. 72'15 E. ..
\DP®lput~fl'le~@l'ing9fljMIilQ.
®¢PmPlJleth~~eanjjg(jfII~¢p.
@ ()QfflPute(!lEl6ij<IDngb1Hh~.DI: .• • •
Solution:
Be
CD
N.43'40· E
S. 64'20' E
223'40'
295'40'
E~
\~7'Jo,3 '30 B
Aw
DE S.7'40'W 7'40'
AE S.79'4Q'W 79'40'
AB N.28'20'W 151'40' 60'
A
COMPASS SURVEYING
COMPASS SURVEYING
Solution:
CD Deflection angle at C:
Solution:
Station Interior Anales
A 180 L
Ar__ ~~
B
C
180+R
180 L
0 180L
E 180 L
C =180'  142'54' F 180 L
C=37'06'R G 180 L
COMPASS SURVEYING
B
S62
COMPASS SURVEYING
Solution:
D
TN
'MN B
,
,,
,
0'32'
B
A
CD Leal attraction at A: B
Lcal attraction at A= 69'  68'19'
Leal attraction at A = 0'41' E
® Local attraction at B:
Local attraction at B = 68'19'  61'
Local attraction at B = 1"19' W
@ Local attraction at C:
A
[Dcal attraction at C= 39'50'  39'41'
Local attraction at C = 09' W
c
AB=BC= CA
Area = (AB)(AC)
2 S'In 60'
The side A~ of an equilafenilfleld' ABC with' 69280 _ (AB)2 Sin 60'
an ~rea of 692:80 ~q",ri>hasamag1leti:C 2
bearing of N 48:45' Fin>1930 wheil the AB=40m.
magn~lic declination WB$O'52' E. A$sumeB
and C is on. the north eastsidji, . . .. . 1
A1 = 3" (692.80)
CD FInd the true bearing of A6.·••••. '. . A1 =230.93
® .Find the length of AD with pOint Don the A 40 (x) Sin 60'
line Be and makillg the area of thetl'iangle
1 2
ABD one third of the Whole area. . x= 13.3 m.
@ Compute the bearing of line AD. (AD)2 = (40)2 + (13.3)2.2(40)(13.3) Cos 60'
(AD)2 = 1245 .
AD= 36.3m.
S63
COMPASS SURVEYING
Solution:
CD Bearing of line ED:
COMP'SS SURVEYING
156'01 '
Solution:
COMPASS SURVEYING
CD Error ofmisclosure:
Error ofmisclosure =541'  540'
Errorofmisclosure =1'00'
COMPASS SURVnlNG
2. Lower plate:
a. Outer plate
b. Lower clamp
c. Outer spindle
Transit  it is an instrument of designed 3. Leveling plate group:
primarily for measuring horizontal and . a. Lower clamp and tangent screw
vertical angle. b. Leveling screws
c. Leveling head
d. Foot plate
Line of collimation  a line segment joining
the intersection of the cross hairs and the
optical center of the objective~ens when in
1. Engineer's transit  a transit provided proper adjustment.
with vertical circle and a long level tube on
Line of sight the line joining the intersection
its telescope.
of the cross hairs and the optical center of
2. Plain transit: a transit without a vertical the objective lens, regardless of whether it
circle and telescope level. is in adjustment or not. When in
adjustment, the line of sight and the line of
3. City transit  a transit without a compass
collimation can be termed either of the
and having a Ushaped one piece
other.
standard.
Focusing  consists in the adjustment of the
4. Mining transit  a transit provided with an
eyepiece and the objective so that the
auxiliary telescope, a reflector for
cross hairs and the image can be seen
illuminating the cross hairs and a diagonal
clearly at the same time.
prismatic eyepiece for upward sighting, 60'
above the horizon.
5. Theodolite  a transit designed for
surveying of high precision.
6. Geodimeter  a transit which can measure 1. The adjustment of the plate bubble
distances using the principles of the speed 2. The adjustment of the vertical cross h'air
of light. 3. The adjustment of the line of sight
4. The adjustment of the standards
5. The adjustment of the telescope bubble
Three principal subsidivions of a 6. The adjustment of the vertical vernier
transit and parts under each
subd ivision:
Four adjustments of the transit
which is not ordinarii performed:
1. Upper plate:
a. Telescope and telescope level 7. To make the line of sight as defined by the
b. Telescope standard horizontal hair coincide with the optical
c. Telescope clamp and tangent screw
axis.
d. Vertical circle and vertical vernier 8. To make the axis of the objective slide
e. Plate levels, compass box, upper perpendicular to the. horizontal axis.
tangent screw 9 .To center the eyepiece slide.
f. Vernier and inner spindle 10. To make the axis of the striding level
parallel to the horizontal axis.
868
Object: To make the horizontal axis Object: To make the axis of the telescope
perpendicular to t he vertical axis. level parallel to the line of sight.
Test & Correction: Use the twoPeg Test Test: Level the instrument first by means
method. Select two point A and B of the plate levels and then by
say, 60 m. apart. Set up the transit means of the telescope bubble,
close to A so that when the rod is center the telescope bubble
held upon it, the eyepiece will be carefully and observe if the vernier
about a quarter of an inch from the reads zero. If not proceed as
rod. Look through the telescope follows.
with the wrong end  to at the rod
and find the rod reading at the cross Correction: Slightly loosen the capstan
hair if visible. If not take the screws holding the vernier and shift
reading by means of a pencil point the vernier lightly by tapping lightly
opposite the center of field of view. with a pencil until the zeros
Tum the telescope toward Band coincide.
take a rod reading on it. Subtract
one reading from the other to secure
the apparent difference in elevation
betWeen the two pegs. The transit
is then taken to B and the operation
is repeated. The mean of the two
apparent difference in elevation is
the true difference in elevation
between the two pegs. The rod
reading on A with the instrument
1. Nonadjustment, eccentricity of circle, and
still at B, is then computed. With errors of graduation.
the computed value for the rod 2. Changes due to temperature and wind.
reading at A known, the end of the
telescope bubble tube is raised or 3. Uneven setting of tripod
lowered by means of the adjusting 4. Poor focusing (parallax) ,
screws until the telescope bubble
5. Inaccurate setting over a point
is centered.
6. Irregular refraction of atmosphere
6. Adjustment of the vertical circle and
vernier.
Object: To make the vernier read zero when
the telescope bubble is centered.
Vernier
571
M E2 =T  E1
T:: M E2 +E1
T:: M (E2  E1)
T = M E (sec h2 sec h1)
T=ME'
~
:clan
e Une of sight
:clan h
Line ofcolIimorion .
... /... y
Line ofsighl
1
To measure an angle by repetition means
Line of sighl to measure it several times, allowing the
Line ofcoUimatiofl vernier to remain clamped at each time at the
previous reading instead of setting it back at
zero when sighting at the backsight.
A '=~~.
Let us say that there is an error of the axis The telescope is again plunged and point
of the bubble tube fro its position by an amount D is established on the ground. Point 0 is
"e". If the telescope is rotated at 180', the erroneous by an amount 2e from the
position of the axis of the bubble tube is now prolongation of line AB. The line of sight is
doubled as shown in the figure, with reference adjusted' by an amount e. backwards that is
to its original, position in order to adjust the determine first the location of E, that is
bubble just move it at half this value. DE = 1/4 CD.
Liue of coli/marion
574
t@$ln!~letllr@t.vefui~rbftnElhbfifOIl~I<:irA~
A vernier is a device for measuring the
fractional part of one of the smallest divisions :~ • ~~~ffa~~~~I~~~d~~t~.am.~ • •19·4q'·
of a graduated scale more accurately than can
be estimated by eye. The amount by which. ® ·.Wh~t~lbesJJl~II¢§~diYi$jPn.qfth~Ci~!e? •.
the smallest division on the vemier differs from ®Ho~ • • rnanY • diVi$iprl$ • • iltElthere.·.bn!b~··
the smallest division on the vemier differs from YEirl1iE!t? . ..
the smallest division on graduated scale
determines the least count of the vemier. Solution:
CD Number ofdivisions on the vernier:
Nv = number of divisions on the vernier
Least Count: Ns =number of divisions' of the scale
Lv =least count of vemier
S Ls = least reading of circle
L=
N
L = length of vemier
where L = least count
S = smallest division on scale For retrograde vernier,
N = Number of divisions on the vemier Nv= Ns1
From Equation ®
Ls=Ns+1
3
From Equation CD
Ls = 1180
Ns
S75
lia,.
Ns2 + Ns = 3540
Ns 1 ±...j'(1?.4(.3540)
 2
Ns = 59 divisions
Nv= Ns + 1
Nv=59+1 Solution:
Nv = 60 divisions on the vernier
VERNIER
Nv IIIIIIIIII~III'IIJ~
Ls
 3 I I Ii 1
Co<nad""", 1ST 156' ISS'
60 CIRCLE
LS="3
Ls = 20' smallest division of the circle L=30"
5=60=20'
3
S
L=N
30=20 (60)
N
pesigr.a1q~i!ernjei.bi • ~~ • ~mWilft~.~@t N = 40 divisions on the vernier which is
readinQofaO'(m.th~sCl:lI~ .••.. lll~§t®El~·~lrlg··
of1Q()'3Z30"; '..'. .... .. equivalent to 39 divisions on the
scale.
Solution: Since there are 7 spaces on the vernier,
only 6 spaces on the circle will give us the
r15Spaces,
coincide reading. Coincide reading on the
scale:: 155'40'
10
II
I.. 5
95,1 ,
96
C""ad",,,
100
0
'I' 5
fj i i '
10
Itlll~ Itl tltI~' tltltltI" ,)tltI 6 (20):: 157'40'.
LI4Spaces
5
L=N
O~n.a~rogradevemi~rf(ll'li • VernWrh~v(OQ
30 =20(60) ale$tteadiOS.Qf.• gQ.~%,aM.~ •. I~ast • ~~(flryg • in
N the .Circle.of • 3Q•• inln•••• lfldicale.a.·re~9hl$ • 9f
N =40 spaces in the vernier 150'34'20... (3lVelher~lngofm~·C()irCi~.jr1
N 1 =39 spaces in the scale the stelle. > ..'
14 spaces = 14 (20) = 280'
=4'40' Solution:
VERNIER
Reading on scale coincide is
10<Y20' 4'40' = 95'40'
S
L=N
20 = 30(60)
N
N = 90 spaces on the vemier which is ·.tJe~igQa·f()@ed.v~rni~r.fClr~d~~Wlth.~ • I~~
equivalent to 91 spaces on the scale. r$adln9pf2{)'~q • U'l£!••~~ .•• ·.1ll~~tr~t~.?.r~Mi~9
flf1()()'~Zillcl()t:kWi$edjr~Glltln.<> . ....
There are 13 spaces on the vernier,
therefore 14 spaoes on the scale must be Solution:
laid out to determine the coincide.
VERNIER
Therefore the reading on scale
= 150'30'  l' = 143'30'
, 14 spaces = T.
; 1 spaces =30 min.
L=§.
N
IJifiiJlli1i
Solution:
30 =20 (60)
N
N = 40 division in the vemier
N 1 = 39 spaces in the scale
VERNIER
30 15 0 15 30 Oiff. in reading =100'32'30" • 100'20"
Oiff. in reading = 12'30".
12'30"·25 spaces in the vemier,
Solution:
Solution:
CD Correction due to line ofsight:
ActyiF~ng@~ard$W.~!todElt~rmltleth$
lltimlJ1~ • (;)fl~Ae;.··Witl1.~ • fransit.at.st<lti()!'lA,.
LUte 0/ ~e.sjQht~ • pqlnt•• ¢.Wfll1:tl;i~.on.the • leff.pO~itfpll.
ofpPlnteandnl~$Yt~dayem9alatlgl$atg
collimation
Line of
collimation
of
(j) What is the value "e" in seconds, ..
® If this transit is used to
layout a straight
line by prolonging a line. AS by setting up·
the transit at siJcceedingpolnts A BandC
and plunging the telescope.lftl'le
'Alhat.~ltorwould.~.intro<luce~nthe.m~s~r~~
procedure were such that each. backsighl Mri4ontal.~ggle.lfthr<lllgl1non,adjustm~m ••• th~
were taken with .tha telescope at normal hl)r.izgnl~taxlswer~h'rClinedO~rWlmtM:
position, what would be the angular error in hblitClhlal.
the segment CD, ... ....
@ What is the offset diStance from the true
prolongation of lirl!! AS. from point () .• if
AB=BC",CD= 50m. . .
Solution:
A B Solution:
CD Error with one sight at the same elevation:
E =e (tan h:1 tan h1)
E=0.05 (tan 45'  tan 0')
E= 05'
A B
® Error with both sights are 45',
E=e (tan h2  tan h1)
E=05 (tan 45'  tan 45')
E=O
D
@ Error with one sight is +45' and the other
is45':
CD Value of "e": E =05 [tan 45'  tan (45))
E =e (sec h2  sec h1) E= 05(1 + 1)
8.79" = e (sec 60'  sec 45') E= 10'
e" == 15"
S80
.~~1$~f:~zd~r~\~~I~.~~~;~~~~.~ffi~P:~~~.
of.elevatiol1.pfll1e~rst.poim·js.4f·~.0'\Yll'[~fh~t.
In•• Pr(ll<lngil1ga•• straigntnl1~lhetraO$ills$et.at
~, • a•~ck$jgm.~.tat<etl.a~A.··~Mt~et~lesg~w,·
.i$'plun~~d.t9 • P,•• 3O(l·I1'l;ir.·~ctv!lr.Cl:I.of.8 . ••. 1fW~
·~~~i:!t~1o~$e~Wd1~'6fWo~i~~~~~~dw~i.· ·V~iB?'a.Xhr.W~fejl1cll~~d.·p·Withth~.tr:Ue
•
yert~!.jn.a vElrticalplan~ • makirlg9W•• WiW.1he
prbba[)l~ln911n~flOn9n~tr~n$VE!r$~~ls;Jt ·~jrectien.of.fhe.fine•• what.y.'0ullL@•• the•• lihe?f
Wa$fouM9Yt~~erm~AAuremel1tl'wme l!rrQl'inthelocaledposltionofQ. . ...
instl'l.lrnent•• h~s .• an • Elrr()fjnltle • •line••. ()f.• ~i~ht.·
WhiChls•• defleqted • tQ•• t~~.~gtrt.9fthe • • llne.pf ill Wb,•• and • Bareat•• th~ • same•• ~evafion, • but
Cplnrnation••by•. an·~mQ9~t .• I3q~<ll • ftl.15·,<.lnt~t;l. thf:l.vel1~al.anglefr°rTl •.~• ~Q9js+1AW . • • .·•• ·•·
·.l?~er .c~se, • sttidingleY$I • v&~.H~.~ • • t(') • • C~~k. ®.. ffA,·.B.~ndC • are.alli'l.ttb~$<lll1e.eleVatl<lnf···
.~ •.• ·li.lhe••Vertlcal.an91.~*9fIl·B.t9·.A..~M.frorn6
~~~~dcJ~~~~6~Wg~eJ@r~~~~~1oa;j~ toCis+1S'? . ..
~n~ottfJ~ltiln$Yer$~~XI$jnJerm$?f Solution:
• ~~idt;jons' .• • TMMQ[Jl<lrY~IIJ~o/rm~~i"i§19ri c
Solution: B
CD Error due to line ofsight deflected to the
right: CD Linear error if A and B are at the same
elevation:
E1 = e (sec h2  sec h1)
E= etan h
E1 =15" (sec 63'58'  sec 42'30') E=01tan15'
E, = 13.83" E= 0.268'
x
@ Eror due to transverse axis with left end tan E= 300
higher: x = 300 tan 0.268'
E2 =e (tan h2 tan h,) Note: tan l' = 0.0003
e =2 (10) x = 0.024 m. linear offset
e =20" ® Linear error if A, Band C are all at the
E2 =20 (tan 63'58'  tan 42'30') same elevation:
E2 =22.62" = There is no error
Solution:
.(1) Radius of the chimney:
@ Elevation of 8: Solution:
tan 24'25' =2.8 <D Emor in horizontal angle:
x
E = e (tan h2 Ian h1)
x=6.17m.
200  x =193.83 m. E =04' [tan 50' • tan (3D')]
DB 193.83 E= 7'4,6"
Sin 155'35' =Sin 7'56'
DB =580.52 fl. @ Angular error ofline:
h = 580.52 Stin 16'29'
h= 164.71 m. c
Elevation of B = 261.60 t 5 t 164.71
Elevation of B = 431,21 m. A
<!51
B I
I
I
I
1
x=4(0.145)
x= 0.03625
CD The horizontal axis of a· transit was
inclined at 4'wilhthehOlMihilildueto Sin e = tan e =0.03625
250
nOIl"adjuslmeill.. The first5lgh.t.bada
vertical angle Of 50', lhenext had;;' 30'; e =30"
Oetermine the error in themeasur~d
horizontal angle. .
Angular error =2(30'}
@ Atransitis set upatB ;:Inda backsightat Angular error = 60"
A. By daublaraversal twopoiills Cand I)
~.t a distanceequill to 0.145hi,were
established. IfBe =250 m. and BD = 150 @ Magnifying power:
m. (app.), how much is the aiigtilarerrorof 5'15'
the line of sight from true position: . .. . M.P. = 09'
TRIANGUIiTiON
1. Station Adjustment
2. Figure Adjustment Angle CAD = 180'  49'30'  33'  34'30'
Angle CAD = 63'
C~...l_'..hD·
Assume CD = 1
BC 1
1. Sum of angles about a station = 360'
Sin 72' = Sin 75'
2. Sum of three angles in each triangle = 180'
BC= 0.985
BD 1
Sin 33' =Sin 75'
BD= 0.564
585
TRIANGUlaTION
C'b.l.L.."'oD
AC __ 1_ 0.636 0.749
Sin 34'30'  Sin 63' Sin B =Sin 49'30'
AC =0.636 B=40'13'
Angle ABC = 40'13'
Consider triangle ABC:
A
Solution:
CD Distance BC:
84'30'
Using Sine Law:
0.564 0.749 A ~...J...:;::::'""""'B
Sin A =Sin 37'30'
A = 27'17' BC 500
Angle BAD =27'17' Sin 79'30' Sin 47'30'
BC =666.81 m.
586
RIANGUlATION
@ Distance BD: AD 1
BD 500 Sin 80' =Sin 40'
Sin 28'30' =Sin 67' AD = 1.532
·BD = 259.18m.
AB 1
@ Distance CD: Sin 50' =Sin 50'
(CDf =(8<12 + (BDf AB= 1.0
•2(BC)(BD) Cos 31'30'
(CO)2 =(666.81'f +(259.18)2
·2(666.81 )(259.18) Cos 31'30' (BD)2 =(AB)2 + (AD)2 • 2(AB)(AD) Cos 20'
CD = 465.94 m.
(BD)2 = (1)2 + (1.532)2·2(1)(1.532) Cos 20'
BD=0.684
AD BD
Sin (50 + 0) =Sin 20'
1.532 _ 0.684
Sin (50 + 8)  Sin 20'
50 + 8= 130'
8 = 80' (angle CBD)
@ Angle BOA.'
11_lllllil~'llli!jii;
Solution:
CD Angle CBD: BOA = 180  (20 + 130)
BOA =30'
A
@ Ang/eBDC:
TRIANGlllATlON
~
Two stations A and l:lare 540 in. apart. From
the following triangulation staflansCand Don
opposite sicies of AB, lhe fol19Wing angles
were observet!. " ' . .. '.' . ., '.
..,.
.',' ',.,'._ ,',., ,',
A 540m B
AngleACD=54'12' .'
M9le ace
~ 4fZ4' '. a ~ 180' • 54'12'·49'18'
An9leADg=49'18' ...' .
a~ 76'30'
Angle BOC:: 47'12'
~~ 180' ·41'24'·47'12'
~ ~91'24'
0~54'12'+41'24'
o ~95'36'
@ Distance CD:
Using Sine Law
Considering triangle AOC:
CD _ AC
Sin 76'30'  Sin 49'18'
CO= 1283AC
c c
Considering triangle COB:
CD _ BC
sin 91'24'  Sin 47'12'
CD = 1.362 BC
CO = 1.362 (353.38)
CD = 481.30 m.
@ Distance AC:
1.283 AC =1.362 BC
AC= 1.062 BC
AC = 1.062 (353.38)
AC = 375.38 m.
888
TRIANGUlaTION
® AngleDAC:
Angle DAC + 42' + 30' + 78' : 180
Angle DAC : 30'
OM.. >
cao>
• .~• • • PqmMt~~M~l~.~; • • •i• • • • • • • • • • ·•• • • .• > . T~~.q~~~ljn~ • • AI? • ()f.a.lri@941~I!M • $Y$IMtis
~~lijl_~6~1IJ··< egY~to4()Q • nl·.~~g· • • • §taliptlS.G~r~ • R·~r~
Qthllr.p()inf~.pfth~triMgglation • $Y5@JJ.• • • T~e
al1gles•• ob§erV~dfr<lrtiA.~nd • •~ • ~r~.~sfollAW~.
Solution: Angle.[)/l$.*2r3Q\~ngleGA13·#.78'30·,.an9r~
CD Angle BOA: CBA=:$2'~H~~qgl~1:$C:#~:~Q'.>· .
c
Solution:.
CD Distance CB:
B A
TRIANGULAnON
A:·,I.d.B.are.tw(}.polnt$·IOcaledQll~acn~t1k
ofa.riy~r·13lld.n~rtl1~abut1nElntsllf(ipmp~d
brldg~· • Wd~tflrrnirflltsdi$l?nC~,~~~$~lirfl
CO 180.m.•• 10llQ.W<lSE:lS@bli$l)ed·onp0E:l9~®.
of\herjVet13r@tl'leJrl3nsltwa$~~II.lPat c
statjl)qs•• C.··iln~·Oandtti~.aZiJ11Utb • w¢rff·.t~kElii··
asfollOws: .. .. . .... .
@ Distance BD:
Considering triangle COB:
Using Sine Law
180 BD
Sin 25' =Sin 80'
BD = 419.45 m,
@ Distance AB:
Consider triangle ABO:
Using Cosine Law
Solution:
(ABf =(210.18j2 + (419.45)2
N
 2 (210.18)(419.45) Cos 14'
AB =221.43m.
TRIANGUlaTION
123.65_ 366
Sin 12.8'  Sin a
. _366 Sin 12.8'
A,&..I...~B SIn a  123.65
c=500
a=41'
S91
TRIANGUlaTION
450 PA Solution:
Sin 45' =Sin 41' CD Distance CO:
PA =450 Sin 41'
Sin 45' D
~
PA =417.55 mm
30' B
@ Azimuth of PA:
A C
N
u_~p
A
~~p
Azimuth of AP = 274'
Azimuth ofPA =274' 180'
Azimuth of PA = 94'
~.~ . '
AD 300
....
.,. Sin.15' = Sin 135'
. .
AD = 109.81 m.
,,
I ,
\lY.30 e
, ,
\ (CO)2 = (600)2 + (109.81)2
'.....,...,'  2 (600)(109.81) Cos 6.34'
" , " .I"
\~I
P
 p _.' ." CO = 491.01 m.
592
TRIANGUlAnOI
® Distance AP:
c
Solution:
CD Angle of intersection FEC:
Angle FEC = 77'10'
p
TRIANGUlATION
~
B
Be ~ 737m C
Considering ABC:
Using Sine Law
AB 2355.45
Sin 30' = Sin 125'
AS = 1437.74 m.
Be 2355.45
Sin 25' = Sin 125'
BC:;; 1215.23m.
TRIANGUlAnON
A
11_.it
p
lIilllliill:
Using Sine Law
Sin B Sin 9'10'
1500 = 242.90
I:E4i."lli~l,
·@·.·PPttiP@:i~M~~g~······"'······
B =70'47'
Using Cosine Law Solution:
(ACf =(1500f + (1ooW CD Angle ACB:
 2(1500)(1000) Cos 140'
AC =2355.45 m. B
c
c
TRIANGULATION
7.46 24614
Sin a. = Sin 178'
a = 00' 2.18"
{I, = 180' 110'30'  01 '22" 216'43'20"
= 69'31' 22"
{I,
B
0= 180' 178' 0'2.18"
o = 1'59' 57.82" A
@ Distance AP:
AP 17560
Sin 69'31' 22" = Sin 110'30' Using Cosine Law:
(AB)2 = (4.50)2 +(18642)2
AP = 17562,61 m.
. 2(4.50)(18642)Cos 58'12' 30"
AB = 18639.63 m,
@ Distance PB:
PB 24614 @ Angle BA Ecc. A:
Sin 1'59' 57.82" = Sin 178'
B
PB = 24606.55 m.
InatriansUlati06~Il~@ttl§SfatlOJ'\(~cc;Al
IsoCCllpi¢~jl1st~~~()fll)l!tM~~tatj96A;
ObserVationsar~ thenmade·lo • tffie·.staliori.A
amt lostatiooB, T@otJsaNatl<>llareas
f\:flloWs:i> . . ..
Ecc.A
AZIMQTHOlSIAN.GS
158~3mS(l" .4.50fu,<
Using Sine Law:
216'43'20" 18642,OOm;
18642 18639.63
Sin e = Sin 158'12' 30"
<D Find the distance AB. ...
~ Find thEl angle BA Ecc. A . e =121'46'47.6"
@ Compute the aZimuth of AB.
S96
TRIAIGUlAnOI
Ecc.A
TRIANGULATION
0.63717 Solution:
tan y =3.37372 CD Angle ABP:
y= 10'41'42.23"
Angle peA = 10'41' 42.23" B
® Azimuth of BP:
@ Angle ACP:
Angle ACP = 8
Angle ACP =19'18'
S98
TRIANGULATION
® Distance AC:
TN
p
~
["05'54.2"
.~~~W.$I~~6~S.~Wl~~0~.· • ~~~i6le.~~~~~~~tr~.1
cO(:@nMt~$9t¢QttWA • M~OQtlP.N9rthlOg$ •
~M4QP~Q·§Mlil1Q~,]Q~#~Ii#1AA~@ c
~flWJtb<t@l'iQ¢tthQf·lhe.·.IJ~eAtQ·a.are.
l$~;$§ • m,.<l#d?$$'?Q~ • ~~~ • t~@~¢lw~M"~$· Using Sine Law:
m~~$ijt~~hM~6m~I~MI~$.~f~ah9lW AC 895.86
.. ••
U~#~r:I·'~]i~D'ji ~?·$" • ,~r9i ~?Q.I~ . Sin 54'14' 37.8" =Sin 45'17' 46.4"
AC =1022.86 m.
mq®lP~t~IM~i#lal1¢ij~¢)
®Pl:ll'li,@~~~~~i$l(l~A(;·> ® Coordinates of comer C:
··~ • • • ~r~~'~~~j"cp6rd't@~~Qt¢QrMt • 9••bY·· STA. LINE BEARING DISTANCE
A AB N. 55'20'32" E 895.86
Solution:
CD Distance BC:
B BC S. 1'05'54.2" W. 1243.01
TN
TRIANGUlaTION
AB Sin L2 CD Sin LS
Sin L7 Sin L8
CD =.:...A=B=S.::.,:in=L:..:.1=S.::.,:in=L::.:3
A. Angle condition equations.
Sin L4 Sin L6
AB Sin L2 AB Sin L1 Sin L3 Sin L5
Sin L7 Sin L4 Sin L8 Sin L6
Sin L1 Sin L3 Sin LS Sin L7
=1
Sin L2 Sin L4 Sin L6 Sin L8
A"..I.::..:..L:.~D Strength of Figure:
TRIANGULATION
Station B:
Angle 2 = 59'10'05"
Angle 4 = 60'29'10"
Angle 11 = 240'21'00"
360'00'15"
15"
Error= =05"
3
Adjusted angle 2 = 59'10'00"
Adjusted angle 4 = 60'29'05"
Adjusted angle 11 = 240'20'55"
360'00'00"
Station C:
Angle 3 = 62'25'10"
Angle 5 = 59'25'10"
Angle 8 = 63'10'08"
Angle 14 =174'59'24"
o 359'59'52"
Error = OS"
08'
Correction = = 02"
4
Adjusted angle 3 = 62'25'12"
Adjusted angle 5 = 59'25'12"
Adjusted angle 8 = 63'10'10"
Adjusted angle 14 =174'59'26"
360'00'00"
Station 0:
11111lIIi181;';';
Angle 6 = 60'05'10"
Angle 7 = 71'40'20"
Angle 12 =22S'14'52"
360'QO'03"
Solution: Error = 03"
CD Corrected value of angle 3: 03"
Correction =3 =01"
Station Adjustment:
Station A:
Adjusted angle 6 = 60'05'09"
58'25'15" + 301'34'49" =360'00'04"
Adjusted angle 7 = 71'40'01"
Error =04'
Adjusted angle 12 =22S'14'50"
04'
Correction ="2 =02' 360'00'00"
Station E:
Adjusted angle: Angle 9 = 45'10'20"
Angle 1 = 58'25'15"  02" = 58'25'13" Angle 13 =314'49'42"
Angle 10 = 301'34'49"  02" = 301'34'47" 360'00'02"
360'00'00" Error = 02"
S101
TRIANGUlATION
02"
Correction = =01 "
2
Adjusted angle 9= 45'10'19"
Adjusted angle 13 = 314'49'41" FrOl1lthegivencjl1Clgril~teral.~f!$mTh99s~~re
360'00'00" OC()UPie~• i:l@.. .all.•. Ii~~~ .• ~f~.ql:j~~t¥~~i",·.~~m
qi~tk>ij~t: . , · "::<::::;:</:::;:;::.::',:::.>\
Figure Adjustment
Considering triangle ABC
Angle 1 = 58'25'13"
Angle 2 = 59'10'00"
Angle 3 = 62'25'12"
180'00'25"
Error =25"
Adjusted Angle 1 =58'25'05"  08" =58'25'05"
Adjusted Angle 2 =59'10'00"  08" =59'09'52"
Adjusted Angle 3 =62'25'12"  09" = ~
AI::::.....i:...:::....l~
180'QO'00" Baseline = 1420 m
Corrected value ofangle 3 = 62'25'03"
111.ti'(lli'~~
® Corrected value of angle 6:
Considering triangle BCD
Angle 4 = 60'29'05"
Angle 5 = 59'25'12"
Angle 6 = 60'05'09" Solution:
179'59'26" CD Constant F:
Error = 34" OC
Constant F = 0
Adjusted angle 4 = 60'29'05" + 12" = 60'29'17" o = 10 (no. of directions observed forward
Adjusted angle 5 =59'25'12" + 11" = 59'25'23" and backward not including Ab)
Adjusted angle 6 =60'05'09" + 11" = ~ C= (n'  s' + 1) + (n  25 + 3)
180'00'00" n' = no. of lines observed in both
Corrected angle 6 =60'05'20" directions.
n'=6
@ Corrected value of angle 9: s' = no. of occupied stations
Considering triangle COE: s'=4
Angle 7 = 71'40'01" n = total no. of lines in the figure including
Angle 8 = 63'10'10" known lines
Angle 9 = 45'10'19" n=6
180'00'30" s = total no. of stations
Error =30" 5=4
C= (6 4 + 1) +[6  2(4) +3)
. =3
CorrectIOn 30" =10" C=3+1
C=4
Adjusted angle 7 = 71'39'51" DC
Adjusted angle 8 = 63'10'00" F=O
Adjusted angle 9 = 45'10'09" F= 104
180'00'00" 10
F= 0.60
Corrected angle 9 =45'10'09"
S102
TRIUGUIlTION
TRIANGULATION
DC)
R= ( C
2 2
L(~A +~A~B+~B) R = (0 ~.~ L (Ill + ~A t1B+ Ili)
R = 0.60(9.92) R =0.60(5.96)
R= 5.952 R=3.58
Considering triangle ABC and BCD with BC Consider triangles ABO and BCD with BD
as common side: as common side.
~~ BD AB
Jin 78'  Sin 60' Sin 37' = Sin 53'
= AB Sin 78' BD =AB Sin 37'
BC
Sin 60' Sin 53'
CD BC CD BD
Sin 48' = Sin 88' Sin 48' = Sin 44'
 BC Sin 48'
CD  Sin 88'
eo
CD _ Sin 48'
 Sin 44'
= AB Sin 78' Sin 48' =AB Sin 37' Sin 48'
CD CD
Sin 60' Sin 88' Sin 53' Sin 54'
The distance angles are 60' and 78' for Distance angles of triangle ABO are 37'
triangle ABC and 48' and 88' (or BCD and 53' and for triangle BCD are 44' and
48'
log Sin 60'00'00" = 9.937530632
log Sin60'OO'01" = 9.937531847 log Sin 37'00'00" = 9.779463025
1215 log Sin 37'00'01" = 9.779465819
~A = 1.215 2794
log Sin 78'00'00" = 9.990404394
log Sin 78'00'01" = 9.990404842 IlA = 2.794
448 log Sin 53'00'00" = 9.902348617
Il B = 0.448 log Sin 53'00'01" = 9.902350203
(Ili + ~A ~B + Ili) 1586
= (1.215)2 +(1.215)(0.448) + (O.44W
~B=1.586
(Ili + IlA IlB + Ili) = 2.22
log Sin 48'00'00" = 9.871073458 (Ill +IlA ~B + Ili)
log Sin 48'00'01" = 9;871075354 =(2.794)2 + (2.794)(1.586) + (1.586)2
1896 (Ill + IlA IlB + ~i) = 14.75
IlA = 1.896
log Sin 44'00'00"::: 9.841771273
log Sin 88'00'00" = 9.999735359 log Sin 44'00'01" = 9.841773454
log Sin 88'00'01" = 9.999735432 2181
073
Il B = 0.073 IlA =2.181
(Ill + IlA IlB + Ili)
=(t.896)2 + (1.896)(0.073) + (0.073)2 log Sin 48'00'00· = 9.871073458
log Sin 48'00'01" = 9.871075354·
(t1l + IlA Il B+Ili) =3.74
1896
L (Ill + IlA IlB + Ili) = 2.22 + 3.74
Il B=:.896
L (Il/ + IlA IlB +Ili) = 5.96
5104
TRIANGUlaTION
L3+ L4 = L7 + L8
44'52' 00" 75'12' 13"
A O'u.... ..L.~B
TRlAliGUlADON
Check:
L1 23'44' 35" L8 38'44' 06"
L8 38'44' 06" L.7 75'12' 13"
Gtv~nthe~uCidrilateral.shownYJfjichh~~·qeerl
L2 42'19' 06" L.6 26'25' 22" adjU$t~d • u~lng·.IJrgle.C9ndi~()~, • • • ltl$rMUire~
L7 75'12'13" L.8 . 39'37' 49" 1(l.a<lj\l!lI.tl)e•• l3rtglElslJ$ing·tb¢$j~ClQMitil>O, .
180'00'00" 180'00'00"
ZD99mPutelheadju$te~~~glCl~' ...i
L1 23'44' 35" L.3 44'52' 00" ®i.9omp\lte.ttmadjU!;ted.arl~Ie.~ .• • • •. ·.· · · · .
@PQmp\.ltetf)eadjllsted.al1gl~6. .
L2 42'19' 06' L4 69'04'19"
L3 44 '52' 00" L.5 39'37' 49"
L.4 69'04'19" L.6 26'25; 52" L.1 =39'3749"
180'00' 00" 180'00'00" L.2 = 26'25' 52"
Angle 4 = 69'04'19"
L3 = 75'12' 13"
L4 = 38'44' 06"
@ Angle 7 = 75'12'13"
L5 =23'44' 35"
@ Strength of figure factor. L6 = 42'19' 06"
D=10 L7 = 44'52' 00"
n'=6
L8 =69'04' 19"
n=6
Sum = 360'00' 00"
s=4
s'=4
C =(n'  s +4) +(n  2s +3)
C = (6  4 + 4) + (6  8 + 3)
C=4
F=DC
o
F= 10 4
10
F =0,60 (Strength offigure factor) Aif'o"........................ .......... .........:.J..:.~B
Solution:
CD Adjusted angle 3: .
Sin L.2 Sin L4 Sin L6 Sin L8
~~'= 1
Sin L1 Sin L3 Sin L5 Sin L.7
TRIANGUlATION
Difference =49.81
49.81 '
0=8
0=6.23
(J = 19.95
8 (j) WhiCh. of InemilOWing equation dOes not
(J = 2.49 ®ltsfy the figure shown.
. 6.23 a) L2 + L3 =L7 + L6
Correcllon =2,49
b) .L1 + L8 =L4 + L5
Correction = 2.5" say 2" c) L1 + L2 + L3 + L4 = 180'
d) L1 + L8 + L6 + L7 = 180'
5·107
TRIANGUlATION
F=DC
. 0
F=104
10
F= 0.60
Answer:
G) c
@ b
Values of D @ b
S108
TRIANGUlATION
@ Fraction F:
F=OC
o
o =no. of directions observed(forward and
backward) not including the known
D side.
0=24
F0 C 24 9

E  0  24
F= 0.625
@ Strength of figure R:
R= F(!::>} + ~A ~B + ~i)
R = 0.625(5.02)
R= 3.14
Solution:
CD Value of C: CD Compute the adjU$tedvalue of angle Aby
n' =no. of lines observed in both directions diWibuting lhespherical excess and the
including known side remalning error equally. .
n'= 13 @ Compute the adjusted value of angle B by
n =total no. of lines in figure unciuding distributing the spherical excess and the
known side remaining error equally. .
n =13 @ Compute the adjusted value of angle Cby
s' =no. of occupied stations distributing the spherical excess and the
s' =7 remaining error equally.
s =total no. of stations
s=7 Solution:
A
C =(n'  s' + 1) + (n  2s + 3) e=R2 Sin01"
C=(137+1) + [132(7)+3] A =be Sin A
C=7+2 2
C=9 b 35965.47
Sin 56'10'30" = Sin 62'04'11"
b =33814.89
5109
SPHERICAl EXCESS
A = be Sin A
2
33814.89 (35965.47) Sin 61'45'20"
A= 2
The interior angles in triangle ABC are
A = 53568365b.2 m2 A "'. 57'30' 29", B ::: 65'17'27" • and
" A C =57'12' 16". The distance from A to B is
e = R2 Sin 01" equal'to 180,420 m, ASsuming fh~ average
.' 535683650.2 radius Qf curvature is 6400 km. ',
e"= (6372000)2 Sin 01"
[."=2.72" CD Compute the area of fhe triangl~;
@ Compute the second term of the spherical
61'45'20" excess. , '
56'10'30" @ Compute Ihe total spherical eXcess,
62'04'11"
Solution:
180'00'01" G) Area of triangle:
180'00'02.72" B
Error =1.72"
1.72
1st Carr. = 3
1st Corr. =0.573 (added)
A
2.72
2nd Corr. =3
2nd Corr. =0.907 (to be subtracted) ~~ .... c
Using Sine Law:
61'45'20" + 0.573"  0.907 = 61'45' 19.676" b 180420
56'10'30" t 0.573" ·0.907 = 56'10' 29.676" Sin 65'17' 27" = Sin 57'12' 16"
62'04'11" t 0.573"  0.907 = 62'04' 10.676" b =194978.94 m.
180'00' 00" A bcSin A
rea=Z
B A 194978.94 (180420) Sin 57'30' 29"
rea 2
6
Area = 14836 x 10 rrf
SPIIIBICIl EXCESS
a
=
180420 (j)()omPOle • the.adjlJ~tedvalue • ofMgle.A.PY
Sin 57'30' 29" Sin 57'12' 16" 91~WputingmemmericaL~X(\{Jssandthe
a =181033.49 m. ~i:lrnlng:e@tequ~:"IY,>
·®·.Cp!l'lp~t~ • • the.9djl.lste9Wlue•• ofan~le~ • W•
Second tent . . . . .•··.·.4iS1riblJti/lg • lhe.spherj"al•• til)(ee$$~l'ld • • m~·
a2 =32773 x 1tl6 ••.•..•..• @l)airyins~tI"QreqUEln}" '. .
b2 =38017 x 106 • ~• • • Gompute•• t/)e.adJustedv~J~~Qf.~r~J~Cby .
••.•.•.•. •. . g~trll?~ljlls • . th~ • $P~~ig~I.·~~e;;san~ • the
c? =32551 x 106 tElll'lafl'ling error eqU(lny. '. .. ..... .'
W =40960000 x 106
Area = 14836 x 106 Solution:
B
Area
2nd term = R2 Sin 01" .24W
(a2
+ ~ + c?)
14836 x 106
2nd term =40960000x1 06 Sin 01"
A
(32773+38017+32551)106]
[ 24(4096ססOO)106
·~_ ....... c
, ( 103341 )
2nd tenn = 74.7106" 24(40900000)
C 5260
2nd term = 0.00785" =
Sin 52'03'17" Sin 88'33'05"
C = 4149.3$ m.
® Total spherical excess: log m = 1.40658 ·10
m = 2.55023 x109
Area [ a2+~+c2] e"=mbc Sin A
e" =W Sin 01" 1 + 24 W
e' = 2.55023 x 10,9 (5260)(4149.35) Sin 39'23'40
e" =74.7106 + 0.OD7e5 e"= 0.035"
d' =74.71845" A = 39'23'40"
B = 88'33'05"
C = 52'03'17"
180'· 00'02"
180',00,00.035"
Error= 1.965
First Correction: 1,~5 ::; 0.655"
SPHERICAl EXCESS
m = 2.536 x 10.9
log m =1.40415·10
_b c_
Sin B  Sin C
b 3012
Sin 63'44'59" = Sin 79'59'57"
b = 2743.05 m.
o e" = 2 A
R Sin 01"
.I'fR'IS known.
Second Correction
~""""E 0.012
=3
A = 0.004" (spherical excess,subtracted
e"= R2 Sin 01" from each angle)
Arc 1" =180 ~600) 79'59'57" ' 0.996" • 0.004" =79'59'56"
bcSin A , 63'44'59",0.996"  0.004" =63'44'58"
A =  2  (area oftnangle) 36'15'07"·0.995",0.004" =~
180'00' 00"
e =m bcSin A
1
m= 2RNArc1" CD Adjusted value of angle E = 79'59'56"
1 ® Adjusted value ofangle N = 63'44'58"
m= 1t
2(6378160)(6376032) 180(3600) @ Adjusted value of angle L =36'15'06"
5112
AREA OF CLOSED
TRAVERSE
In any closed traversed, there is always an
error. No survey is geometrically perfect, until
proper adjustment are made. For a closed
traversed, the sum of the north and south
latitudes should always be zero.
BALANCING A SURVEY
Latitude of any line  is the projection on a
north and south lines. It may be called as 1. Compass rule  the correction to be
north or positive latitude and south or applied to the latitude or departure of any
negative latitude. course is to the total correction in latitude
or departure as the length of the course is
Departure of any line  is the projection on to the length of the traverse.
the east and west line. West departure is
sometimes called negative departure and 2. Transit rule  the correction to be applied
East departure is sometimes called to the latitude or departure of any course is
positive departure. to the total correction in latitude or
departure as the latitude or departure of that
coUrse is to the arithmetical sum of all the
C DEPARTURE B latitudes or departures in the traverse
without regards to sign.
LL =error in latitude
LO =error in departure
A
Dist = Latitud~ .
Cos Bearrng
O' t _ Departure
IS  Sin Bearing
5113
A=A1+A2+A3 or
d1d2 Sin a
A1 = 2
·A  d3d4Sin {!,
2 2
 dsd s Sin l2I
A3  2
4 Area by Double Meridian Distance
2 Area by Rule of Thumb Method Double Meridian Distance of line BC is the
sum of meridian distances of the two
2A = [Y1 (X1  X2) + Y2 (X1  X3) + Y3 (X2  ~) extremeties.
+ Y4 (X3  Xs) + Ys(~  X1)]
3 Area by coordinates
~ .'...x j....A~· c
D.M.D. of BC = EB + FC
H······:':$·f,····
Latitude of BC = EF
CD 2A = • [Y1 (xs  X2) + Y2(X1  X3) 1. D.M.D. of the first course is equal to
+Y3 (X2 • X4) + Y4 (X4  Xs) + Ys (~ • X1)] the departure of that course.
2. D.MD. of any other course is equal to
or the DMD of the preceding course, plus
the departure of the preceding course
@ 2A = Yt X1+ Y3Y2 + X4Y3 + XSY4 + X1YS plus the departure of the course itself:
• XtY2 • X2Y3  Y3Y4 . X4YS· XSY1 3. D.M.D. of the last course IS
numerically equal to the departure of
the last course but opposite in sign.
5114
Solution: Solution:
Lines Bearina Distances LAT DEP CD Error of closure:
AB Due North 400.00m !+400. 0
BC N45' E 800.00m +565. +565.69 Distances LAT DEP
Lines Bearinll
CD 860' E 700.00m 3SO. +606.22
AB N.53'3TE. 59.82m +35.62 +48.06 '
DE S2Q'W 600.00m 563.8 205.21
BC S.66'54'E. 70.38 m  27.61 +64.74
EA S86'S9'W 966.34m  SO.86 965.00 37.30
CD S.29'Oaw. 76.62m. 66.93
Penmeter  3466.34 +1.01 +1.7
DA N.S2'OOW. 9S.75m +58.95  7S.45
400 + 565.69 +3S0 + 563.82 + SO.86 = 1930.37
302.57 +94.S7 +112.aO
ill Correction of latitude on line CD using  94.54  112.75
transit rule: +0.03 +O.OS
fm_ 3SO.00
1.01  1930.37
Ceo =0.18 Error ofclosure = V (0.03)2 +(0.05)2
error of closure = 0.0583
@ Linear error ofclosure:
LEG = V (1.01~ +(1.7)2 ® Precesion of linear measurement:
LEG = 1.97740
.. 0.0583
PrecIsion =302.S7
@ Relative error or precision:
• 1.97740 1
Relative error =3466.34 Precision =5190
. 1 Precision = 1:5190
RelatIVe error = 1753
@ Area in acres:
•~~i~I.~~;t$h:~d~~~~~~~ijjjti~.lf~~~.
!ljid$s.$reshOW!l: '. >.•• • • • • •.• • .•.
... . . . •. . . . •••.. •. •••••• ~
+3S.61
 27.61
 66.94
+48.0S
+64.73
 37.31
+48.0S
+160.83
+188.25
+1711.06
4440.46
12601.46
+58.94  75.47 +75,47 +4448.20
o 0 2A 10882.72
A =5441.36 m2
Corrected Latitude:
..f_ 249.40
0.68 1868.94
'~liiiii~1
C=O.09
Corrected lat =249.40 •0.09
Corrected lat = 249.31
• H•HW?~;~r:W~M~P<!~~&§;~pg;p~@]jjn~
• ·••·•• ·.t~~.¢~tt~~J~m~p~ll.h~9~rmrt~@9f~.
·.·.bYAAmM~~rn@>····
@AgW@ij#~yijr~$1lj~~llj~@I~W4M<
.• • •·•• • •i$t.lI~W>·.·i·...···.//·>.·./ •. H: • · •·•·• • • •.•.• • .•. . . .
;!lll:t~'Jl'
•·• • • • •~~'~il~l~eEl~.~ll~0te
Solution: \'\1"1,
CD Correction of latitude and departure AB:
Corrected Latitude:
_C__ 483.52
(+) 0.44  2915.80
C=+0.07 Solution:
Corrected lat =326.87 +0.07 CD Corrected latitude of DE by comp~ss rule:
Corrected lat =326.94 .L._ 518.40 .... .. . .
/0.56  2628.5
Corrected Departure: "",
E = +0.11
C 483.53 ll?t
0.37 =2915.80
C=O.06 Corrected latitude of DE =259.2 + 0.11
Corrected dep = 356.30 +0.06 Corrected latitude of DE =259.31
Corrected dep = 356.36
® Correctedlatitude of DE by transit rule:
® Correction of departure and latitude BC: E 259.2
Corrected Departure: .. ;KJ.56 = 1726.8
C 364.20 E=+0.08
 0.42 =1842.64
C=O.08 Corrected latitude of DE =259.2 + 0.08.
Corrected dep =364.20·0.08 Corrected latitude of DE =259.28
90rrected dep =364.12
Sl17
@ Area by DMD:'''<i
Using Sine Law:~ ,: ,.,
X 824.63
Sin S7'32' = Sin 63'26'
X= 777.88
Y 824.63
Sin 59'02':: Sin 63'26'
Y=790.56 .f:. 'Y)
a= 1265.02  790.56
a=474.46
b=1131.37777.88 ~ ("7"
Farline 1 2: b::: 353.49 J/
r'
· 400 (,
@ DPD offine 3  4:
Line BC:
Latitude Departure
From the given technical description of a lot. .£L_ 30.98 .£L_ 591.19
20.5 1357.44 3.93  2126.25
LINES BEARINGS DISTANCES C2 = 0.47 C2 = 1.09
AB N.48'20'E. 529.60 m.
BC N.87"OO'E. 592.00 m.
CD S.7'59'E. 563.60 m. Line CD:
DE S.80'OO'W. 753.40 m. Latitude Departure
EA N.48'12'W. 428.20 m. ~_ 558.14 ~_ 78.28
20.5 1357.44 3.93  2126.25
CD Find thE! corrected bearing of line BC using C3 =8.42 C3 =0.15
transit rule.
@ Find the corrected bearing of line DE using
transit rule. Line DE:
@ Find the corrected distance of line EA Latitude Departure
using transit rule. ~_ 130.83 ~_ 74.95
20.5 1357.44 3.93  2126.25
C4 = 1.98 C4 = 1.37
Solution:
CD Corrected bearing of line BC using transit
rule: Line EA:
Latitude Departure
Lines Bearina Distance LAT DEP ~_ 285.41 ~_ 319.21
AB N.48'20'E. 529.60 +352.08 +395.62 20.5 1357.44 3.93  2126.25
BC N.8TOO'E. 592.00 +30.98 +591.19 Cs = 4.31 Cs = 0.59
CD S.7'59'E. 563.60 558.14 +78.28
DE S.80'OO'W 753.40 130.83 741.95
EA N.48'12'W. 428.20 +285.41 319.21 LINES CORRECTED LATITUDES
+668.47 +1065.09 AS \ 352.08 + 5.32 = + 357.40
688.97 1061.16 BC r 30.98 + 0.47 = + 31.45
Error = ('20.5 +.3.93 CD . 558.1#8.42 = 549.72
DE 130.83+1.98 = 128.85
if" 668.47 1065.09;\,<· /I"",
EA T 285.41 + 4.31 = + 289,72
688.97 .1Q2.1.12
1357.44 2126.25 o
LINES CORRECTED DEPARTURES
Corrections using transit rule: AB I. 395.62  0.73 = + 394.89
Line BC:
In the traverse table below shows the Latitude Departure
Latitudes and Departures of the closed
traverse. ~_ 74.56 f2. _115.93
2.75  211.81 10  273.40
LINES LAT. DEP. C2 = 0.97 C2 =4.24
AB  36.13 25.77
BC + 74.56 115.93
CD + 12.82 +0.39 Line CD:
DE + 19.90 +61.74 LatitUde Departure
EA  68.40 +69.57 ~_ 12.82 f.a. _ 0.39
2.75  211.81 10  273.40
CD Compute the corrected bearing of line BC
using transit rule. C3 = 0.16 C3 = 0.01
@ Comp.ute the corrected distance of line EA
using transit rule. . Line DE:
@ Compute the area of the traverse by
balancing the traverse by transit rule. Latitude Departure
~_ 19.90 ~_ 61.74
Solution: 2.75  211.81 10  273.40
CD Corrected bearing of line Be using transit C4 =0.26 C4 = 2.26
rule:
LINES LAT. DEP.
36.13 . Line EA:
AB  25.77
BC + 74.56 115.93 Latitude Departure
CD + 12.82 + 0.39 ~_ 68.40 ~_ 69.57
DE + 19.90 +61.74 2.75  211.81 10  273.40
EA  68.40 +69.57 Cs = 0.89 Cs =2.55
+ 107.28 + 131.70
~ 141.70
+ 2.75 10.00
S120D
. BC  111.69
tan beanng = + 73.59
.. ~ ''
Bearing BC = NS6'37' W
,
@ . Corrected distance Qf line EA:
tAT DEP
AB 843.58
A closed ·traverse has the following data: ~=~ =
15.73 1870.57 7.79 2184.89
AB =299(0.0084092) AB =843.58(0.0035654)
LINES DISTANCE BEARING
AB =2:51 (to be subtracted AB =3.01 (to be subtracted)
AB 895 S. 70'29' E.
BC S. 26'28' E. BC =281.99(0.0084092) . BC = 140.39(0.0035654)
315
CD 875 S. 65'33' W. BC =2.37 (subtracted) BC =0.50 (subtracted)
DE 410 N.45'31' W. CD =362.16(0.0084092) CD =796.53(0.0035654)
EA 650 N. 10'00' E. CD =3.05 (subtracted) CD =2.84 (added)
DE =287.29(0.0084092) DE =292.52(0.0035654)
<D Find the· corrected bearing of line BC by DE =+2.42 (added) DE = 1.04 (added)
using Transit Rule. EA =640.13(0.0084092) EA:: 112.87(0.0035654)
® Find the corrected bearing of line CD by EA =+5.38 (added) EA =0.40 (subtracted)
using Transit Rule. 15.73 7.79
@ Find the corrected bearing of line EA by
using Transit Rule.
CORRECTED
Lines LAT DEP LAT DEP @ Corrected bearing for line EA:
AB  299 +843.58 296.49 +840.57 ta be' +112.47
BC 281.99 +140.39 279.62 +13989 n anng = + 645.51
CD 362.16 796.53 359.11 799.37
Bearing = N. 9' 53' 01" E
DE +287.29 292.52 +289.71 293.56
EA +640.13 +112.87 +645.51 +112.47
943.15 1089.05
+927.42 +1096.84
1870.57 2184.89 Sum of lat & dep.
: 15.73 +7.79 Error
S12]
i$Cpmputelhe b~arinsqfline4.t.
·~· •. ··.ColTlPu~ .•thE!.dlstal'l~9f •~l®.4 ••• 1.••••
tID9Wl1PW
t$vetse.e ·the51t~~WWI(l~~9l)}'
... . ... . fhe B
Solution:
A'
The sketch shows that the traverse lines 1  2
and 3  4 crossed each other, hence we could From Plane Trigonometry: 74.85
not adopt the DMD method of determining its
area. Area of triangle ABC =~ a c sin B
G
r. . .
~
Ind 5 ". 2
B
@ Distance of line 5  1:
53.51
Distance (5  1) Sin 54'20'
A Civil Engineer, in his haste, forgot to record Distance (5 1):: 65,86 m,
the data of the closing line of his traverse, the
field noles of which reflects the following @ Area enclosed by the traverse:
record. A _ (65.86)2 Sin 16' Sin 80:40'
1 2Sin 83'20'
A1 :: 593.91 sq.m.
Using Sine Law:
5
(j) Compute the bearing of line 5 1.
@ Compute the distance oHine 5 1. .
@ Compute the area enclosed by the
traverse.
Solution:
Sketch the traverse and nnd out if the lines do
not intersect each other, if so, then application
of DMD in determining the area will not suffice.
5
x _ 65.86
Sin 80'40'  Sin 83'20'
4 x:: 65.43
y 65.86
Sin 16' :: Sin 83'20'
Y:: 18.28 m.
3
Distance 4 to 0:: 108.64  18.28
Distance 4to 0:: 90.36
I (j) Bearing of line 5  1: Distance 2 to 0:: 140.25  65.43
Distance 2 to 0:: 74.82
Lines Bearinq Distance LAT DEP
 90.36 (74.82) Sin 83'20'
1 2 S 30'20' E 140.25 110.02 +86.99 Ar 2
23 S51'57' W 77.52 47.78  61.04 A2 :: 3357.49 sq.m.
34 N49'10'W 65.10 +42.57 ~.26  65.10(77.52)Sio 101'07'
45 N45'00' E 108.64 +76.82 +76.82 A3 2
51 +38.41 53.51 A3 =2475.90 sq.m.
53.51 Total A:: A1 + A2 + A3
tan bearing (5 1):: 38.41
A:: 593.91 +3357.49 + 2475.90
Bearing (5 1):: N 54'20' W A :: 6427.30 sq.m.
8124
Solution:
cD Location of the point of intersection of the
overlapping areas from corner 4 of lot
PSU171211:
AC 33.86
Sin 87'18' =Sin 53'30'
AC=42.08
The point of intersection from comer 4
= 56.65 ·42.08
= 14.57
B
li.lilill1ll
~CteS.···· ».. .
1
('
S12~
Solution:
CD DMD afline 3  4:
@ DPDafline4 5:
Solution:
I!rll.ill~
CD Bearing DA: Solution:
CD Bearing of line 4.  1:
LINES BEARING DISTANCES
AB S.8'S1'W. 126.90 m. Line: LAT DEP O'v1D Double
BC N.1S'S1'W. 90.20 m. Area
CD N. 32'27' E. 110.80 m. 12 +104.1( +60.10 +60.10 3760102.4
DA   23 + 18.75 +88.23 +208.43 +3908.06
34  74.97 +46.84 +343.5 25752.20
Line LAT DEP lJv1D 2A
4 1 47.88 195.17 +195.17  9344.74
AB 125.3£ 19.52 19.52 +2447.61 2A = 3728913.53
BC +8S.36  29.14  68.18  5819.84
CD +93.50  59.45  37.87  3540.85 ' 195.17
DE  53.47 10.79 +10.79  576.94 tangentbeanng = 47.88
2A = 7490.02 tangent bearing =S. 76'13' W
A = 3745.01 m2
5127
® Area = 1,864,456.77
Area = 186.45 hectares
fr9mth~~Wem~~#9fl~ry9<h~ymSIM
fplloWil'lgr.lB1a ,C()fJ1Pule'fhejfq1IriWing(> ..
® Area oflot:
Solution:
® DMD of line DE: CD Area of the triangular lot:
AB +469.84 +469.84 B
Be +112.87 +1052.55
CD 1099.62 +65.8
DE  21.86 1055.68
EA +538.77  538.77
c
5130
A=A, +A 2 +A 3
A =667.41 m2
@ Bearing of CB:
22 44.60
Sin 8 =Sin 110'
c
8 =27'37'
B
Bearing of CB = N. 27'37' E.
D
5131
MISSING DATA
MISSING DATA
<D G®JpqtElth~fJil§singsi(jEl~P
~QomPllt<ltherllis$l@sideQA .. ",., ,,'•• ',.,
~ • • C®@t~.tfIe.~r~a.of.tfIe • (()~itlMre$ .•,
MISSING DATA
0) FindlhedisfahooDAinmeters,
@ • • FilldthedistandeCtlinr1lefers:
@FiodtM<ilreM6sQ,m,
Solution:
CD Distance DA in meters,'
,,=180 (15'36' +69'11')
,,=95'13' c
Using Cosine Law,' DA _ 30,17
(AC)2 = (2422)2 + (15.92)2 Sin 74'04'  Sin 22'45'
 2(24.22)(15.92) Cos 95'13' DA= 75.02m.
AC =30.17
® Distance CD in meters:
30.17 CD
Sin 22'45' =Sin 83'11'
CD= 77.47
@ Area in sq.m:
MISSING DATA
0). Q()/1'\plJt~ffl¢loW~09!tll)tttiet~~;
@ .QptlJp~te:thei)~n1~thQflitj~.9A' • • • • "•• • '• ".
@~llte:tl'w!!lreai:lftl'w!klOOllcre$. .
Solution:
<D Total length of traverse:
Solution:
N
MISSING DATA
(j) • • • COlTll?ute.~.~te~.(lf.~k)tirlacre$·
~q()mput~th~mi$Sing~l$~np~9:tM~1.g.
@GqnlPu!$JhemlssiQ99~f1jnpe(1f1jnl'l4<t ®ql>l'fJPlJlE!fh~affl~Qf:~MA9tj~SQQ~r~
Solution:
CD Area of the lot:
.®.. ¢Bi'le.IDe.djstahce.6flin~.~
• .• 3,•• • • • • • • ·•
@ . COll1putE!!tlE!~i$~o®mll~~3"4·
Solution:
CD Area of lot in square meters:
4
A 216.60(116.40) Sin 34'
rea = 2
216.60(174.40) Sin 24'
+ 2 4
Area = 14731.50 m2
A  14731.50  142(260) Sin 36' 260(240) Sin 62'
rea  4047 Area  2 + 2
Area = 3.64 acres Area =38,398.48 sq.m. ".
® Distance 1  2:
(1  2)2 =(216.60)2 + (116.40)2 ® Distance 2  3:
·2(216.60)(116.40) Cos 34' (2  3)2 =(142)2 + (26W  2(142)(260) Cos 36'
Distance 1 2 =136.60 m, Une (2  3) =167.41 m.
® Distance 4  1: ® Distance 3  4.
(4'1)2 =(174.40)2 +(216.60)2 (3  4)2 = (260)2 +(24W  2(260)(240) Cos 62'
 2(174.40)(216.60) Cos 24' Une (3  4) =258.09 m.
Distance 4  1 =91,17 m.
S136
MISSING DATA
~~'eI!ijt~I~I~~tlS~b~!hiClbS0~
·1·.··.~I~:I·~~.a;I~~8.10t .• • •. . .
Solution:
Solution: CD Area of closed traversed:
CD Area of lot:
MISSING DATA
e = 74' 28'
11 = 180·45' • 74'28' A
11 = 60'32'
Bearing of 31 is N 60'32' W
D
AD=BE
BE 100
Sin 77' =Sin 41'
BE = 148.52 m.
® Areaoflot:
_ (25Of· (150)2
A  2 (cot 77' + cot 62')
A =26,226.84 sq.m.
BC 100
Sin 62' =Sin 41'
BC = 134.58 m.
E
Closing Line
S138
MISSING DATA
MISSING DATA
CD Distance BC:
Using Cosine Law:
(AC)2 = (75~ + (77.45~  2(75)(77.45) Cos 22'45'
In.!he•• surveY•• ofl3..()~$~d§t • willl·.flve.@dll$,
AC=30.16 m. ~M • f~lIE)wi~g • ~~til~r~.gliJe9.Wher~ • I(l•• all·•• m~
Sin" Sin 22'45' ~~ril1~.llf'ldAlstM~ciflillsjq~8"X'cllJ:l1th8"
T = 30.16 I~Q~~$()f~~~s;4f§~n95+.t~.mnittecl· • • • • •·
" =74'05'
74'05'  57'58' = 16'Or
l..lNSS> . ElEARlNG<
1)2 ···S73'21'E<
Bearing (AC)= S 16'07' E •·· · • ·•• S4l))1Q\E·.·•. • • ·
Angle B4C = 16'07' + 15'36' · · • S2ef4ZW)·
Angle BAC =31'43' • ·•· • • ·N14'20~W)··
Angle BCA =69'11' 16'07'
Angle BCA =53'04'
ill ¢0mPute.tI'l~.qi$¥tn®pfll~.e.4." • 1,
® qolTIpQle.tI1~di~t~Il(;eQHllle4 • • ~.
Using Sine Law, @" ()ornplit~·tfu!·l.li~~~otline$.· • 1•.
Considering triangle ABC:
30.16 BC
Sin 95'13' =Sin 31'43'
BC= 15,92m.
@ Distance AB:
30.16 AB 4
Sin 95'13' = Sin 53'04'
AB= 24.21 m. Solution:
CD Distance of line 4 . 1:
® Area by DMD method:
Linel Bearina Distance LAT DEP
12 S 73'21' E 247.20 70.83 +236.83
Line Bearinas Distances LAT DEP 23 S40'10' E 154.30 117.91 +99.53
AB S 15'36'W 24.21 m 23.32  6.51 34 S26'42' W 611.90 546.65 274.94
BC S69'11' E 15.92 m ·5.66 +14.88
CD N57'58' E 75.45 m 41.07 +65.66
DA S80'43'W 75.00m 12.00  74.03 tan bearing = o/J
. 61.42
Line~ LAT DEP DMD Double tan beanng= 735.39
Alea Bearing (4 1) =N4'47' W
AB 23.32 6.51 6.51 +151.81
Be  5.66 +14.88 1.86 10.53 Distance (4 1) = Si~~47'
CD +41.07 +65.66 +82:40 +3384.17 ·t 61.42
DIS ance =Sin 4'47'
DA 12.09 74.03 +74.03 895.02
2A =630.43 Distance =746.53 m.
A=1315.22 rTf
5140
MISSING DATA
@ Distance of line 4• 5:
Consider triangle 1 4  5:
r~~
[
100
Bearing CD = S. 30'58' E.
Atrapei4jd~lll*tabc~~astrefbH(lwiM
.~niqElld~p~fln~ho~~.be'9V1· • • A6~tBrey
cqncrele.~4I1diry9j$tq~~¢pn~tru!!Ie4Prl • fhe
·.slladedporli()f1.a$ • • shO/,ni•• • \¥h~rei~ •••••• th~
.9(Jlller$tQne··f".@n•• be'p~~~(j.~y • ~JI$Unng
•. 45.nt.ftpl'l1Clllo~gCI) • t~en.3p·m . .·frol1l..C[).
[hebliildlng?lIMHKfallsaJonglhe
$UPdlVl$io?lIn~.m~l.mVtd~$.Wfflr~p~oldal • tPt
.• into.tWb.• equal.afl!as..•• ·GKis·par~llel.toC[}.and
is5fu.#omit. .... . ....
Lf_~
A  8 0     ..  0
5141
MISSING DATA
LM=~mbi+nb12
m+n
LM= 1(80)2+1(20)2
1+1
LM=58.3Om.
x= 80 58.30
x=21.70
x 60
y= 100
_ 100 (21.70)
y 60
y=36.17
.
Triangle FGI is similar to MCD
25 _36.17
a 21.70
a=15m.
fi2 = (25f + (15)2
b = 29.15 m.
MISSING DATA
V
x
mp 12 +nbl
m+n
V
x
2{4(0)2 + (1)(200f
2+1
x=346.41 m.
DE=BC
BC 200
Sin 56' =Sin 60'
BC = 191.46 m,
@ Area:
Area =(PI + ~) h
2
h =191.46 Sin 64'
h =172.08 m. (j) ·Find.o~ijp®~ib@l¢fI9t1l.pt.~ .•••
@)' Andtlnepq~$lblEl)bearing.ofDS .•
A= (200 + 4ooX172.08) ~•.' 8@.,:)notnEl(P()~$ibl~.bllatlrtg • QfD,E.
2
A= 51625 sq.m. Solution:
CD .One possible length of EA:
A =51625
4047 Lines Bearing Distance LAT DEP
A= 12.76 acres AB S30'W 500 433.01 '250
Be S 5'04' E 720  717.19 +63.59
CD Due west 592  592.00
DA ~ ....  ..  +1150.2 +778.41
5143
MISSING DATA
First Possible
Position
.B
.,.::..__,~i',...,c
,, "
,, ""
, ""
'\ "
\ " /
fl.' ',t'
'b\, ! ;'
\ : ,If
, ' ,
\~/ Second Possible
,E Position
,,
I
. 778.41
tan beanng DA = 1150.2
tan bearing DA = N34'05' E
. 778.41
Distance DA = Sin 34'05'
Distance DA = 1389.03
Considering triangle AED:
Sin" Sin 14'05'
1389.03 = 800
" =25'
a = 180  14'05  25'
a= 140'55'
AE 800
Sin 140'55 =Sin 14'05 Comers 1 and 4 can be divided on ·tflElgr6und;
AE =2072.72 m. The engineer is to reset comers ~ alld3where
they were originally and determine the titie
® One possible bearing of DE: bearings of all the courses. Dalenf survey
2072.72 800 unknown. Upon runnhiS araJidom line, the
~ = Sin 14'05' random line missed the !iue comer by 1.5 m.
f!,= 39'05' The bearing from the end of the random line to
Bearing DE =34 '05' +39'05' comer 4 was S62'30' E.
Bearing. DE =N. 73'10' E.
Compute the bearing of line. 4  1.
(j)
® Second possible bearing of DE @ Compute the distance ofline 4 • 1.
= S. 5' E. @ What was the magnetic declination at the
time of the original survey?
5144
MISSING DATA
Solution:
SUBDMSION OF AREAS
CD Bearing ofline 4  1:
36.82
tan bearing (4  ~) = 148.36
Division line
Bearing (4 1) =S 13'56' W
Since it is difficult to approximate the
@ Distance of line 4· 1: actual position of the subdivision line, it is
36.82 therefore advisable to solve for the bearing
Distance (4 1) =Sin 13'56
and distance of line 3 to 1. Knowing the
Distance (4 1) =152.91 m. bearing of the line 31 and 34, '" could be
computed. let us say A1 =2000 sq.m.
@ Magnetic declination: only, so we still have 3000 sq.m. more to
f12 =(1.5)2 +(152.91 'f be added in order to obtain the required
 2(1.5)(152.91) Cos 103'34' area. A2 therefore would be equal to
h = 153.27 m. 5000  2000 =3000 sq.m. Knowing the
Sin 103'34' _ Sin '" distance "a" and the angle "', we could
153.27  1.5 compute the distance "b" from the relation.
'" =0'33'
abSin '"
Since the random line is supposed to be the A2 =2
true position of 1  4 based on true bearing, A, + A2 =5000 sq.m.
then the magnetic declination during the (the required area to be cut off!
survey is 0'33' E.
5145
SDlomSION
)
/
b) To cut off an area by a line whose
direction is given.
2 3
Given values:
SUBDIVISION
~lfh~.~ra~l~a~lj~Q~.~j $esr~~iea • •
541.71 714.68
(j).·..·.•m~~I~iA~e~t~~aio~th~h~@1¢~··· Sin e = Sin 60'
fu~~~~~q.> e =41'02'
•
®....••~tj• t~0 ~~~jS ~~j ~lM'dl:~IT· • li~~.·
• Gf•• • Bearing of diving line BD = S. 78'58' E
@ ·PomI'MElth~t~f\9tfjPfthEl~jViqifflJlil'l~W··············
Solution:
(1) Distance CD:
c ,4.let~b@lIge~b~3~ttfMsht$m~sri~rn~y,
Aa,'N;4S·~,169m,IQng,~q~mt9~M9Qm.
il$!;lilli.
APEisIObe2l~oMhelotal~rfta9flh~~r
Thet6titf!3r~of@l/(Jfi$.11,~~,&~nW.··· ... ..
$·~~¥ml~~lhe~i~~rGElffqmg@A.Y • •.•·•
@q9ImW~lt\~beactr~pO!O~AP'
~¢Ol'YlPllt&thedjs1anceOE. . . ..
.
A Solution:
CD Distance OA:
A= 81g x Sin.60'
190000 180 ~n 60' x
x= 541.71 m.
SUBDIVISION
Solution: Solution:
CD Area of/of: (j) Distance DE:
S148
SUBDIVISION
Solution:
cD Area of AFE:
(AE)(43) Sin 45' = .!(95)(88) Sin 45'
272 A _ 7_...."
AE = 27.77 m.
SUBDIVISION
' .
G?tl1ElIO(i$t6@divideasuchlhaftM
M¢~.ottH~$()uthem®~lohW:Rul~be
•. • •· • • •·41q,QPQ.lll{.•·•• GQl'tlPlJtflJf1~P9~~i<l~.9fth~·
i')tb~r~tl~()N~l'ldIJtldit\gliri~jfth~Jine
·iltaHs~ICgm¢rapft@lol·t1<~r&$$the
;ig:..::1'l~w
·•~• • ~:8¥tl.~medf1he • div~,og •
·q}J<Pomp~~.tbl'l.~i1numQfthedividing.iine·
ljrie? • • .• •
ill
'O\lM®rth
QOmpytettle•• ril@;ing•• dlstance•• @C•• is•• the
ar~.Qf.tl1¢IQtls·43560$gm.
Solution: @ CQIllPEJtMMtli$@'l~qfCD.
CD Location ofx from corner 1: ® @rnptJteihebeiilirigCO.
2
Solution:
CD Distance Be:
S150
SUBDIVISION
200
tan =
lil
300
lil = 33.69'
Ll = 45' . 33.69' .S4bdi\lide•• the.r()t•• ha'liri~ • • thEl9ivllrttecMiC<l1
Ll = 11.31' de~MPtjon>l/)t() . • MO·.~qW!I • • llrt1JM.·.'oY • ~•. ·lir~·
paralleltQthe sideA6' .... '.' ....''.' .
. =200
Sin 3369' x
x= 360.56 m.
_200(300}
A1 2
A1 = 30,000
A2 = 43560 • 30000
A2 =13,560 m2
A2 = x (BC) Sin f3 .(1) CO/llPu~the.area9fthe~hQleWtirl~C~$?
2 ~ • C()l'llPtJtTtn~.leJ'l9!hpftbe ~lyi~#rig~h~ . • • • /.·.
13560 = 360.56 (Be) Sin 11.31' ®CoiJJPl.Jtelhem~jng$ideBCL«> .
2
BC = 383,53 m.
Solution:
@ Distance of CD: (j) Area of whole lot:
(CD)2 =(360.56)2 + (383.53)2
 2(360.56}(383.53) Cos 11.31'
CD= 76.80m
@ Beating of CD:
383.53. _ 76.80
Sina Sin 11.31'
u = 78'21'
Bearing BD =45' + 11'19'
Bearing BD =56'19' ~ .
Bearing BD =S.56'19' W.
Bearing DB = N. 56'19' E.
A~ ",B
b}.b 2
A= 1
2 (cot e + cot ~)
_ (200)2  (100)2
A  2 (cot 62' + cot 70')
A = 16747.06 m2
4047
c
A=4.14 acres
Bearing CD =N. 45'20' W.
5151
SUBDIVISION
10·
V nb mb}
x
2
1 +
m+n
A 2 Sin 30'
A= 925416.58 m2
1252.92 1461.05
Sfn II = Sin 80'
II =57'37
\D qomputetH~16catj§n • • ()ttM•• ~iVidWIUn~
·fr()lTIcorner2.jfthe~ividingline~tarls.fr0f11 Bearing of dividing line: (ll + 30')
comer 1. > =N 87'37' E from corner 1
@ ColtlPute.th~.leryslh()fthedjyjdlpgljne ••••••••••••
@ CQl'l'lPtlt~.·We • b~rlng • Of•• the•• diViding•. nn¢
frorncotrlei't. .. .
5152
SUBDIVISION
Solution:
CD Side 4 1:
x
_..y nb 2
1 + mt>i
m+n
x
V 3(300}2 + 2(150)2
3+2
x= 251 m.
SUBDIVISION
Solution: Solution:
G) Area of whole Jof: G) Distance of dividing line from comer B:
N
B
3600
¢+~D
An area of 200()OO rnZ ls to be $egregatedfr~m
the northern portion of triangUlar 101 ABC. fr~m
camerA bearing and distancieot AS is
N. 50' E., 900 m., Be is due South and CA Is
N.42'E. . 580.18 672.70
ill Compute Ihe distance of the dividing line Sin e :;: Sin SO'
from comer 8 along~ne BC. .. e:;: 41'21'
@ Compute the length of the dMdingljne~ SO' + 41'21':;: 91'21'
® Compute the bearing of the dividing line Bearing:;: S, 88'39' E.
from comer A.
S154
SUBDIVISION
;.. <:>:::,:":":::::::::>::::::
SUBDIVISION
The area of the lotis moreor lessHlOO sq.m; @ Distance of other end of dividing line from
If !he lot Is to be subdivided into two parts comer 2:
such thaUhedivldltig li/remuSlslM atthemld Using Sine Law:
point of line 4 1 and must be parallel to line to a _ 32.61
1·2 oftheboundary. ... . Sin 31'33'  Sin 90'24'
a= 17,06m,
CD What is the diS1ance of the subdividing
line? . . ....
@ What is the area of the lot subdivided on
the eastern part? .
® What is the dIstance of the other end of the
dividing line from comer 2 of the lot? .
89'36'
Solution:
CD Distance of dividing line:
Using Cosine Law:
y2 =(17.06)2 + (27.72)2 • 2(17.06)(27.72)
Cos 90'14'
y= 32.61 m.
a =58'03'
fJ = 180'  89'36'
fJ =90'24'
a = 180'  90'24'  58'03'
ct =31'33'
SUBDIVISION
_.... ~,;;~ ,
.li.~ill~ii~8~~4,e~
Length of dividing line
Using Cosine Law:
(abj2 =(32.61}2 + (26.28)2
 2(32.61 }(26.28) Cos 58'03'23"
W<¢rw@~~et~~I~gmpttl}¢~q~l~~IM@~J ab= 29,11 m.
[~~.II'J
® Bearing of dividing line from mid· point of
line 2  3:
Solution:
CD Length of dividing line:
89'36'
4
89'36'
4
32.61 _ 29.11
Sin a  Sin 58'03'23"
a= 71'55'
 17.06 (27.72) Sin 90'14'
A1 2 AZimuth of ba:: 268'57'
A1 :: 236.45 m2 ~
Az :: 600  236.45 AZimuth of ba:: 19T02'
A2 :: 363.55 m2
Bearing ab :: S 7'02' W
Using Cosine Law:
(4· a}2 :: (17.06)2 + (27.72)2 @ Bearing and distance from T  1 to comer
• 2(17.06)(27.72) Cos 90'14' "b":
, 4  a :: 32.61 m.
LINES BEARING DISTANCE
Using Sine Law: 1 NTOO'E 27,89
17.06 _ 32.61
Sin e  Sin 90'14' 2
e == 31'32'37" 2 N88'47' E 34.12
3
 32.61 (x) Sin 58'03'23" 3 S 1'27' E 27.72
A2  2 4
4 S88'57'W 38.22
363.55 :: x (32.61) s~n 58'03'23"
1
x== 26.28 m.
S157
SUBDIVISION
LINES
T 1
3
NorthinCls
21433.61
LIM
EastinQS
19445.32
~
itilA.Vi
SU~~IVii~6~I~ilnj~~(2)~U~l~~rts;
3 21441.04 19462.37 pmvtel~d!.flj~t• ~.$qpdiYjding.·!l9~·.rnu$t.Staff·<lt
th~cMWlj/'l~9n!@~M()1Mu®~rYljn~; .....
Coordinates ofb:
4 21413.33 19463.07
~ ~
b 21412.85 19436.79 Solution:
CD Distance of the subdividing line:
T 1 21433.65 19445.32
21412.85 ~
b  20.76  8.53
. 8.53
tan beanng = 20.76
Bearing (T  1to b) = S. 22'20' W.
SUBDIVISION
Northinas Eastinas
Cor. 3 42935.27 34584.29
~ ~
A 42921.41 34584.64
Northinas Eastinas
BBM#1 43095.02 34691.42
~  144.64 IJ =69'08' +7'
1 42906.87 34546.78 IJ =76'08'
1 :t....2L.§.8. LMQ  (x)(36.88) Sin 76'Q8'
Ar 2
2 42934.55 34550.18
2 .:t......D..ZZ .t...M..11 263.55 = x (36.88);in 76'08'
3 42935.27 34584.29
3 :JJ..J..Q .t.QlQ x= 14.72 m.
4 42907.57 34584.99
4 =.Q1Q  38.21 Using Cosine Law:
1 42906.87 34546.78 (AB}2 = (14. 72f + (36.88)2
 2(14.72)(36.88) Cos 76'08'
AB= 36.28 m.
5159
SUBDIVISION
or ;;,
<X
Bearing of subdividing line ~
B N 88'47' E
=80'43' +7' 4
=N.8T43'E
I
BEARING DISTANCE
BBM#20 S. 37'33' W. 237.32
···l~~~~I.o~~.I#I~~i.~~~P\iM m.lqt • 1
2
2
N, 07'00' E.
N. 88'47' E.
27.89
34.12
···a~IN~·.··.·.· 3
'N:Q7'QQ\~,> 3 S. 01'27' E. 27.72
·······N:ea~4nlS'·· 4
4 S,88'57' W. 38.22
"'S,Q1T2ne:
1
.1.· . j.:
Northinos Eastinqs
BBM#20 43095,02 34691.42
~ ~
1 42906.87 34546.78
1 42906.87 34546.78
2 .:!:.2ZM ±...MQ
2 42934.55 34550.18
3 :t......Q.ll :!:...M..11
3 42935.27 34584.29
4 :....11J!1 2:..JUQ
4 42907.57 34584.99
1 =...QlQ ::..Ja21
42906.87 34546.78
5160
SUBDIVISION
. 34.46
tan beanng =13.14
Bearing = S. 69'08' E.
.l}'iA,iI. . ::(>:::::::::::::::::
fJ =69'OS' + 7'
1~I!JtBII'I11
fJ = 76'08'
SUBDmSIOI
98]1,
·piVenbe,()wl$.fb~tecnni()aLde$¢@fi~nofa
m•
IBh·.~aVi~g • •~l'l· • • an~a • • ·6~Q·~?$9m< • J li$
f~q4ir~tQ~p~qiVipethl~1?tiht()lVm~qH~
1
20 are~s.siJcbthat·.th~Y·?"ill~~veElql!~lf'B~I~gEl
l. 40+\3.... ~1(l1l~lMUr~q,P'@lph~jQ~$~~~~{.<
!I 3 f.........4~
IJNES·· .. l:lEARINGi .
• • N7~·2~'g,·········
·$39'$1'1:'
I
I
·S4$T4e'W/
I
• • • ·N3~r52W
~;'j:l;]ll~ I}o
I ' I
N1&~50'W····
I I I
(j) Compute the distance of the ofher end(jf
~hl
58001
I the dividing line from COtner B..
® Compute the distance of the <lMdll1g line.
® Compute the bearing of the dividing Hne.
 (20 + x)(98  y)
A,. 2
 (x + 75.3) Y
Ar 2
A1 =A2
5162
SUBDMSION
E
 19.625 (9.21) Sin 00'43'
A1 2
A1 =89.75 m2
A2 = ~.56 • 89.75
22.63 21.72
A2 = 230.53 m3 Sin a =Sin 53'2T
a= 56'49'
(BG)2 = (9.625}2 + (9.21}2
·2(19.625)(9.21) Cos 00'43' Azimuth of FG = 253'23' + 56'49'
BG =22.63 m. Azimuth of FG = 310'12'
19.625 22.63
Sin e =Sin 96'43'
8 =59'2T
/!, = 112'54'·59'27
/!, =53'2T
A  {FB) (22.63) Sin 53'2T
2 2 <D Compute the area at thetdt. ", ',.
230.53 = (FB) (22.63J Sin 53'2T @ In, the same lot; a dividing line is drawn
from comer 5 to the midpOint of line 2 • 3.
FB= 25,36m. Rnd lheazitnuthof the divk:iing line.
@ Find the distance of the diViding line.
5163
SUBDIVISION
SUBDIVISION
mfJn911'l~C1l~9f~chl<lh A  60(25)
1 2
. ~..•..Fln~tIl~ •. ~j~I~~pfm~d!@llnQ.ljn~,·······
@. ·Fi~~@!ltl~~ijg.tJfthEl.djyiding.line.· A, = 750 sq.m.
A2 =2586.50  750
A2 =1836.50 sq.m.
Solution: 60
G) Area ofeach lot: tan 0=
25
0=67'23'
LINES BEARING DISTANCES AF= FB cos 0
AS N 15'30' E 60.00 25 .
BC S82'23' E 72.69 FB = cos 67'23'
m S 1T20'E 44.83 FB = 65.01 m.
DE S70'36'W 56.45 Considering triangle BFG:
EA N74'30'W 50.00 Bearing of FB: NTOT W
 65.01 (BG) Sin 75'16'
A2  2
__.1l!?36.50)
BG  65.01 Sin 75'16'
BG =58.42 m.
5165
SUBDIVISION
lll'ilESA21MUTH .··QISTANCI;
••••••••••. •· • • • •··zn:r •> Using Cosine Law:
>? = (9.55)2 + (14.02}2
 2(9.55)(14.02) Cos 71'40'
x= 14.27 m.
The centerline of the' proposed service roM
cro~es at 9.55 m. from corner 4 along the line Using Sine Law:
3·4 and runs in adirection afN3'45' E. 14.02 14.27
Sin", =Sin 71'40'
1 0=68'5"
f3 = 180'  71'40'·68'51'
f!,=39'29'
AB 14.27
Sin 50'31' = Sin 88'06'
AB::: 11.02m.
SUBDIVISIOI
SUBDIVISION
X 68.50
2 Sin 0'45' = Sin 104'07'
X=0.92m.
y 68.50
Sin 75'08' =Sin 104'Or
Y=68.27
h1 =0.92 Sin 75'53'
h1 =0.89m.
~ =10 0.89
~=9.11 m.
Distance ofline F  5:
2
4
' 60.03
tangentb eanng =33.01
F  5 =68.27· 0.67 +0.22
Bearing =N61'1 Z E F 5 =67.82 m.
. . 60.03
Distance =Sin 61'12' Distance DE:
Distance = 68.50 m. DE =67.82  7.86·6.89
DE=53.07
5168
SUBDIVISION
68.27
sCl,g
5Z054'
"L.jE
D
Proposed Road Right of ffily
A=A1 +A2 +A 3
A=688 +60.56 + 550.65
A =1299.21 sq.m.
A
5·169
SUBDIVISION
SUBOIVISIOI
LOTA:
SUBDIVISION
SUBDIVISION
STRAIGHTENING ABOUNDARY
o
FG 152.16
Sin 32'25' ::: Sin 40'41
FG::: 125.09 m.
BG 855.96 p
Sin 33'13'::: Sin 39'54'
BG::: 731.00 D
BF =731 125.09
BF= 605.91
Since A2 is greater than A1 move the new·
The dividing line is 446.93 m. from corner property line to A2.
A along the line AD and 605.91 m. from
corner B along the line Be. A
I
E 1
A:::Ar A1
~
Z A::: ab Sin 0
2
D
5173
A =A I A2
A =5492  2518
A = 2974 sq.m.
N Solution:
G) Distance EB:
Solve for the line EB:
LINES LAT
BC 100.27 Cos 13'10' = +97.86
B CD 91.26 Cos 0'11' = +91.26
DE 112.48 Cos 27'39' = +97.59
+28.71
.AI = 375  8.37
AI=366,63
15.86 LINES DEP
tan a = 366.63
BC 100,27 Sin 13'10' =  22.84
0.=2'29' CD 91.26 Sin 0'11' = 0.25
366.63 DE 112,48 Sin 27'39' = +52.20
AH = Cos2'2fJ
AH = 366,97 m, 25.07
c
T~~ • foll()wm~I$.~ • • $ef9f.n()t~$l}fahl%®9~(
l>9Ql1dary.of.apl~·.9f.IaM ..·.··lt•• ls~e$~ • lQ••
str<ti9ht~n • • jhi$ • crBglMI•• • bp~nd~ry>II~~ • • ~Y • A
~~~~~Mlqsa.$tralght.llr)~l"\jnhil19ft@l~·.t9tfl~
. .lihe/:F. . .•.
n<f}
<D Find the distanceEB. .
® Find the distance along EF frompo!ntE to
the point where the new Une cuts EF, .. .
ti>,
B
B
@ Bearing ofBX:
. 29.07
tan beanng (EB) = 286.71 Using Cosine Law:
Bearing (EB) =S 5'55' W (BX)2 = (6322)2 + (288.25)2
• 2(63.22)(288.25) Cos 102'
286.71 (BX? = 3996.77 + 83088.06 + 7577.56
Distance (EB) = Cos 5'55'
(BX)2 = 94662.39
Distance (EB) = 288.25 m.
BX=307.67
hs
Methods of computlnq Areas of IrreqUli1r
Boundaries at Re ular Intervals
A d d B d d C
a} Trapezoidal Rule
d = common interval
h1 =first offset
hn = last offset
d d d d
h1 + hn ]
A = d [ 2 + h2 +h3 +h4 For the next two inteNal
d
A2 =3[h 3 +hs +4h 41
A=d [h hn +I,h]
1
;
hs = last offset
h1 = first offset
I,h=h2 +h3 +h 4 h2 and h4 = even offset
h3 = odd offset
I,h = sum of intermediate offsets.
d
A = 3 [(h , +hn) +2I,h odd +4 I,h even]
5177
@ Trapezoidal Rule:
A =d [h 1 ; hn + h2 + h3 + h4 + hs + h6]
A series of perpendicular offsets were taken
.ftom a lralls~ ijne 10 a curved bOUllldaryline. d=9m .
These offsets were taken 9 meters apart and h1 =2m.
were taken .In the folQ.Wlng order: 2m., 3;2 m.,
hn = 7 m.
4 m., 15 m.,S in.4.5m~, 6 m., 7m,Deleml.ine
the area included between theJransilline and
the curved uSIng: ... . . ..
A = 9 [(2 ; 7) + 3.2 + 4 + 3.5 + 5 + 4.5 + 6]
A =9(30.7)
A = 276.3 sq.m.
A1 = ~ [2 + 6 + 2(9) + 4(11.2)]
A1 "3(70.8) CD Trapezoidal RUle.
A1 "212.40 sq.m. Simpson's One· Third RUle.
A2 = (6; 7)9 Compute the difference between
Trapezoidal Rule and Simpson's One·
A2 = 58.8 sq.m. Third Rule.
Solution: Solution:
<D Trapezoidal Rule: <D Trapezoidal Rule:
2 Lh]
A=d [h 2 + h +
d=20
h1 = 12.22
hn = 10.35
Lh =11.32 + 8.82 +6.52 + 16.38
d Lh=43.04
A = 2" (h 1 + hn + 2 LhinlJ
6
A= 2" [5.60 + 2.70 + 2 (6.40 + 7.90 + 6.20 A= 20 [C 2.22 ; 10.35) + 43.04]
+ 7.50 + 9.50 + 12.30 + 10.80)1 A = 1086.50 sq.m.
A = 388.50m2
@ Simpson's One Third Rule:
@ Simpson's OneThird Rule:
(Treat the last area as trapezoid)
d
A = 3" (h 1 +hn + 2 Lhodd +4 Lheven) d
A1 = 3" [(h1 + hn) +2 Lhodd +4 Lhevenl
6
A =3" [5.60 + 2.70 + 2(7.90 + 7.50 + 12.30) h1 = 12.22
+ 4(6.40 + 6.20 + 9.50 + 10.80)] hn = 16.38 .
A = 390.60m2 d=20
Lhood=8.82
® Difference between Trapezoidal Rule and Lheven =11.32 + 6.52 =17.84
Simpson's OneThird Rule:
Difference in area = 390.60· 388.50 20
Difference in area = 2.1 m2 A1 =3" [12.22 + 16.38 + 2(8.82) + 4(17.84)] .
A1 = 784 sq.m.
(16.38 + 10.35) (20)
Ar . 2
A2 = 267.30 sq.m.
A =A 1 +A 2
A =784 + 267.30
A = 1051.30 sq.m.
® Difference in area:
Difference in area = 1086.50 • 1051.30
Difference in area = 35.20 m2
5179
PLANE TABLE
PlANE TABLE
Points a, band c are the plotted points The location of points A and B are plotted
of A, Band C on the ground. With the on the plane table sheet at "a" and "b" as
straight edge of the alidade placed along shown in the figure. These points must be
line "ab", tum the table until a backsight at plotted using convenient scale. The plane
A is taken as shown in the figure 1, with table is then set up over point C on the ground
point "a" towards point "A" on the ground. which points A and Sare visible. The board is
Clamp the table, then take a foresight to then oriented by either compass or by
point C and draw a line passing through estimation. Point "c" corresponding to C on
"b". Reset the straight edge of the alidade the ground is plotted by. estimation on the
at line "ab", tum the table and backsight at plane table sheet. Point D is also established
point "S' with "b" towards point "B" as on the ground with the distance C to D
shown on figure 2. Clamp the table and estimated. With the table at "c", foresights are
take a foresight towards point C and draw taken on A, Sand Dand lines are drawn on the
a line passing through point "a". The two sheet. The corresponding position of D is
lines drawn intersects at point "e". Set the plotted on the sheet as "d". The table is then
straight edge along the line "ec" and take a transformed to station D and is oriented
backsight at C. Clamped the table. Then tentatively by backsighting at C. Foresights
draw resection lines through "a" and "b", are taken on points A and B and lines are
these two lines will intersect each other at drawn intersecting the previous lines drawn
point "P", then point sought. before, say at points e' and f. The line joining
e' and f is parallel to the AB. With the straight
edge of the alidade placed along line ef, a
point Eat some distance from the table is set
on the line of sight. The alidade is then moved
to the line ab and the board is turned until the
same point E is sighted. The plane table is
now properly oriented. Sy section through a
and b, the correct position of the plane table is
plotted at P.
A 8
~\7
'\ /'
\ /
\" ,/
S·lSl
PlANE TABLE
\\ "#..<~~~><:~}~;~~:,!
resection are made convenient.
6. Checks on the location of plotted points
[ZJ....
,'
~
a'
iNTERSEcnON
e
a
wrrn PLANE TABLE
are obtained readily.
7. The amount of office work is relatively
small.
1.!?~j)'\~./
1. Plane table is very cumbersome and
several accessories must be carried.
.... .. 2. Considerable time is required for the
topographer to gain J::roficiency.
E
3. The time required in the field is relatively
GRAPIDCAl TRJAN(iIJl..ATlON large.
4. The usefulness of the method is limited to
relatively open country.
5182
PlaNE TABlE
Sight the vertical crosshair on a well 6. (For Alidade having a Fixed Vertical
defined point about 100 m. away and Vernier). .To make the vertical vernier
swing the telescope through a small angle read zero when the Line of Sight is
(vertical). If the point appears to depart horizontal.
from the vertical crosshair loosen two
adjacent screws of the crosshair ring, and With the board level, center the bubble
rotate the ring in the telescope tube until by of the telescope level. If the vertical
further trial the point sighted traverses the vernier does not read zero, loosen it and
entire length of the hair. move it until it will read zero.
3. (For alidade of Tube in Sleeve Type). 7. (For Alidade hav~ng a movable Vertical
Vernier with Control Level). To make
To make the line of sight coincide with
the axis of the Telescope Sleeve. the axis of the Vernier Control Level
parallel to the axis of the Telescope
Sight the intersection of the cross when the Vernier reads zero.
hairs on some well define point. Rotate Center the bubble of the telescope
the telescope in the sleeve through 180'. If level, and move the vernier by means of its
the crosshairs have apparently moved tangent screw until it reads zero, if it is off
away from the point bring each hair center move it to the center by means of
halfway back to its origin position by the capstan screws at the end of the
means of the capstan screws, holding the control level tube.
. crosshair ring. The adjustment is made
by manipulating opposite screws, bringing
8. (For Alidade having Tangent
first one crosshair and then the other to its
movement to Vertical Vernier Arm).
estimated correct position. Again sight on
This type of vernier needs no
the point and repeat the test.
adjustment.
SI83
TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY
TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY
3. On unifonn slopes, the contour lines are 6. As contour lines represents level lines,
spaced unifonnly. they are perpendicular to the line of
steepest slope. They are perpendicular to
ridge and valley lines where they cross
such lines.
3. End of a Ridge
4. End of a Valley
S186
TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY
TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY
Solution:
G) Height of each pole: 0.2171 t 48.91 = 0.571  69.36y + 2210.98
0.3531· 69.26y+ 2162.07 = 0
r     3 0  ..... 1 196.5 t 6124.8 = 0
Y = 196.5 ~ (196.5j2· 4(6124.8)
2
196.5 ± 118.8
y= 2
y= 38.85 m.
~:: 0.2171 t 48.91
~ =0.217(38.85)2 t 48.91
~xI2LxI2 h= 19.40 m.
~
Height of each pole =19.41 + 1.50
25"
Height of each pole = 20,90 m.
h cot 25'
~
. @ Distance of the transit from the nearest
30' comer:
Distance of transit from nearest comer
h cot 30'
= 19.40 cot 30'
= 33.60m.
3x2 = 1800
x2 =900
@ Distance of the transit from the farthest
x =30 comer:
Distance of transit from farthest comer
(1) (h cot 25')2 =1 + (15)2 = 19.40 cot 25'
4.6h2 = 1 + 225 = 41.60 m,
CD ~ = 0.2171 + 48.91
(2) h2 = 0.57;  69.36y + 2210.98
5188
ROUTE SURVEYING
3. Location;survey
STADIA SURVEYING
V= (d +f+ c) Sin"
STADIA SURVEYING
D, =K8, +R
fJ< =KS2 +R
fJ< . D1 =(KS2 + R) • (K81+ R)
K(~,S1}=fJ<D1
n..  D.
K=~
82 .81
200  60
K=
2.001  0.600
K = 99.93 (stadia inteNal factor)
f
H=: S cos 2 0 + (f + c) cos 0
I
H=99.93 (3.56) cos2 3'1T + (0.30) cos 3,17'
H= 354.88 m.
Horizontal distance DF = 354,88 m,
f sin 20 .
I=D:...;1:..=..:...60=_D=200_ _  I V= /S2+(f+c}SIn 0
STADIA SURVEYING
Solution:
CD Stadia interval factor:
s
D =t + (f + c)
/
tI
200 = (2.001) + (f + c)
f
60 =~ (0.600) + f + C
f Sin 20 . I
V= i S2 + (f+ c) Sin 0
Sin 13' +.
030 S·In.
65'
140 =(1.401) f
V= 98.69(2.42) 2
V= 26.90m.
!/ =99.93 (stadia interval factor)
5192
STADIA SURVEYING
@ Elev.ofD: Solution:
f
f Sin2fil . :=99.5
I
V=iS.2+(f+'C)Slnfil
f + c = 0 (interior focusing)
V= 99.93(2.12) Sin ~'44' + (0.30) Sin 4'22' .
V=16.11 CD Inclined stadia distance:
Elev. D= 100 + H/+ 16.11 HI
Elev. D = 116.11 f
D=:SCOSfil+(f+c)
I
@ Horizontal distance:
f
D=99.5(2.50) cos 23'34' + 0
H=: Scos2 fil + (f + e) cos fil
I D= 228m,
H =99.93(2.12) cos2 4'21 + (0.30) cos 4'22'
H=210.92m.
® Difference in elevation between the two
stations:
f Sin 2fil .
V=jS2+ (f+ e) Sin fil
~;~IIII~~II~~~'i~~'\rtJI~
... at~~h~lt.Wi'h • •~lJ • lqt~t@lfP¢ijSlj@.t~I$¢Qp~.
. V= 91.16 m.
DEAB =2.25 + 91.16  1.45
@g~#Ylllg~~mg~@~W~lf@19fgf~~($, • 'M
~r~~~o1t6')t~~$~~I6~.r~~~~:~~.~g.*~:0~
th~y~ijl¢~IM91~9g11~ty~#i$h?~'~M,
•. . DEAB = 91.96 m.
··1··••••~~~~l~.1$1~~.~~~~eril1~~~~~.·
5193
STADIA SURVOING
: =::~~;Km beM."poinl' A
rod held at B:
Ha = 100.8 (0.236) cos 2 8'08'
+ 0.381 cos 8'08'
@ Find the' horizontaHdtstance from the Ha= 23.69m.
lraHsit to !herod held at S, .'.."
Solution:
1330
~'~~~:r'w~:~',)
up at A and wtlh the line of sighftlotiibntal.
took rod readings at poinls13 and C whiCh is
;300 m. and 80rruespectively, . ...> . . . . . •
... 1 7361 8~4
a
. Wtlh· rod' at ·the·stadlaloterveJw.a$
B I recorded 10 be 3.001 m. and withth~rod afC
the stadia interval wastecOrded 10 be. o.aOorll.
SA = 1.330 1.020 the distance from the inslrumen'ttothe
SA = 0.31 principal ·foco.s was recorded to be 0;30 m,
Sa = 1.972 1.736 Then they went to survey other points With
Sa = 0.236 some of the data recorded as follows witnthe
transit at point Of the two paints E aridf were
CD Length of line AB: sighted. ." ..
f
H = ~ S cos 2 13 + (f + e) cos '" Rod al E Stadia interval :::: 225 m.
I
HA = 100.8 (1.330· 1.020) cos 2 15'35' Vertical angle = +4'30'
+ 0.381 cos 15'35' Rod at F Stadia interval = 3,56 m.
HA = 29.36 m. Vertical angle =  3'30' .
Ha = 100.8 (0.236) cos 2 8'08'
®•
+ 0.381 cos 8'08' ~ . Compute the stadia jnlerval~ctot. •.
Ha = 23.69 m. Compute the horizontal distance DE. .. .
HAa = 29.36 + 23.69 @ Compute the difference in' elevatiOn
HAa = 53.05 between E and F assuming elevation of
0= 350.42 m. above sea level.
5194
STADIA SURVEYING
Solution: f Sin 20 .
V =, S 2 + (f + c) Sin I2l
CD Stadia inteNal factor.
f
S = ~ S + (f+ c) V =99.95(2.25) Si; 9' +0.30 Sin 4'30'
I
fI
300 = (3.001) + (f + c) V= 17.61 m.
H.I.
J
f Sin 20 .
V =, S 2 + (f + c) Sin"
f . V=21.70m.
{., =~ S Cos2 0 + (f + c) Cos 0
I Elev. F = 350.42 + HI V HI
H= 99.95(2.25) Cos2 4'30' + (0.30) Cos 4'30' Elev. F = 350.42  21.70
H= 223.80m,
Elev. F = 328.72 m.
HYDROGRAPHIC SURIEfI.NG
\Rallge Lille
::',' ,;'\t\l~
\ Baal
'~l ..."''''''.'.
6
\>'oJ.
I I I 1
. \ .stadia all boat
: :
~~~  ~ ~~
II .
' ~
 .•~=:r', .0
t I I ~. I
I
I
I
I
I
I
~~~~ ~
,"
I
I
II
~~
.  . ,&"
I~ I ~
5196
HYBROGRAPHICSURIEYING
1. VerticalvelocityculVe method:
Measurements of horizontal velocity
are made at 0.5 beneath the surface and at
each tenth of the depth from the surface to
as near the bed of stream as the meter will
operate. If the stream is relatively shallow,
measurements are taken at each one fifth
of the depth. These measured velocities
are plotted as abscissas and the
Hydrographic maps  is similar to the respective'depths as ordinates. A smooth
ordinary topographic map but it has its own curve drawn through the plotted points
particular symbols. The amount and kind defines the velocity at each point in the
of informations shown on the hydrographic vertical. The are under this curve is equal
map varies with the use of the map. to the product of the mean velocity and the
total depth in that vertical line. This area
may be computed by using aplanimeter or
A hydrographic map contains the by Simpson's One Third Rule. The
following informations: vertical velocity curve method gives us the
most precise method of determining mean
1. Data used for elevation. velocity but requires only too much time.
2. High and low water lines.
2. Twotenths and Eighttenths Method:
3. Soundings usually in feet and tenths, with The current meter is lowered
a decimal point occupying the exact downward at 0.2 and 0.8 of the total depth
plolted location of the point. where observations are made. The mean
4. Lines of equal depths, interpolated from of this two velocities is taken as the mean
soundings. On navigation charts the horizontal velocity in that vertical.
interval of line of equal depth is equal to
one fanthom or six feet. 3 Sixtenths Method:
5. Conventional signs for land features as in Only one observation is made at a
topographic maps. distance below the water surface equal to
0.6 the total depth of the stream. The
6. Light houses, navigation lights, bouys, velocity obtained at that particular depth is
etc., either shown by conventional signs or considered to be the mean velocity of
leIters on the map. vertical.
8197
HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING
a) English:
41.65+ 0.00281 + 1.811
C= s n
1+ ..JR(41.65 + 0.0~281).
23 +0.00155 +1
c= s n
1 + ~ (23 + 0.00155)
{R s
Computi~ values of C by
Manning's Formula:
Rl/6
C=
n Suppressed Weir
Q::: CLH3/2
Discharge = Area x Velocity
8199
HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING
1. Hook gauge
2. 8taff gauge
Discharge measurements are made for the
3. WireWeight gauge
following purposes:
4. Float gauges
5. Automatic gauges
1. To determine a particular flow without
6. Piezometers
regard to stage of stream.
7. Plumb bob
2. To determine flows for several definite
gage readings throughout the range of
stage, in order to plot a rating curve for the
Instruments used for measuring
station. From this curve the discharge for
the velocit of flow:
any subsequent period is computed from
the curVe of water stage developed in the
recording gage. 1. Floats
a) surface float
3. To obtain a formula or coefficient of dams,
or rating flumes. b) subsurface float
c) rod float
5200
HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING
HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING
2. CrossSection Method:
The outline of the water line is
obtained as in the contour method. The
water line is then plotted and divided into
approximate trapezoids and triangles.
Soundings are taken along the boundary
lines between each station and are plotted The' areas A1, A2, etc. are determined
on cross section paper. A perpendicular by using a planimeter and h represents t~e
distances between sections are then contours interval. Area below A5 IS
obtained by the end area method. The neglected.
summation of these partial volumes gives
the total volume. b) prismoid,1 Formula:
L
V =6(A +4A", +A2)
. Two General Methods of Determining
the Capacity of a Lake or Reservoir:
In this case the midqle area Am is the Area
1. Contour Method: A2 and ~ while L is equivalent to 2h.
a) Endarea method
b) Prismoidal formula
2. Parallel CrossSection Method:
a) Endarea method
b) Prismoidal formula
a) Endarea method:
a) Endarea method:
HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING
b) Pismoidal Formula:
The problem arises here in the
determination of Am. since the distances
between parallel sections are not equal, it
is therefore necessary to evaluate or
interpolate the values of Am.
Solution:
CD Total discharge:
V1 =!!J.
6 (A l +4Am + A2)
V2 =b2
6 (A2 +4Am + A3)
v = (0.32 + 0.22)
V3 =&
a 2
6 (A3 +4Am + At)
Va =0.27 m/sec
V4 =·~(At +4Am +As) l / _ (0.40 +0.24)
Vb  2
Vs =b5.
6 (As +4Am + Ae,) Vb =0.32 m/sec
Vc = 0.21 m/sec
h
Vs =W (~+4Am +A7)
Velocity:
 (0 +0.27)
V1 2
V1 = 0.135
5203
HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING
 (0.27 + 0.32)
Vr 2
V2 = 0.295
_(0.32 + 0.21)
V3 2
V3 = 0.265
\I _ 0 + 0.21
V4  2
V4 = 0.105
.0;739
Discharge: Q =AV 0.720···
Q1 = 15 (0.135) = 2.03
~ = 43.5 (0.295) = 12.83 1243
OJ = 39.75 (0.265) = 10.53 0.852
C4 = 10 (0.105) = 1.05 0,524
.0.473
Total Q = 2.03 + 12.83 + 10.53 + 1.05 0.469
Total Q= 26.44 cu.m.lsec.
1 cU.m. = 1000 liters
Total Q = 26440 liters/sec (j) Compute the veloCity at distance of 30 m.
from l.P. .
@ Total area: ® . Compute the discharge in ~tersfsec.· .
 12(2.5) @ .• Compute lliemean veloCity in section. . ..
A1
A1 = 15.00 Solution:
 (2.5 +3:3)(15) (j) Velocity at distance of 30 m. from IP.
Ar 2
A2 =43.50
A (3.3 + 2)(15)
3 2
A3 = 39.75
A4=~¥
A4 = 10.00 V= 0.739 + 0.720
2
Total area: V= 0.7295
A = A1 + A2 + A3 + A4
A = 15 +43.5 +39.75 + 10 @ Discharge in liters/sec:
A = 108.25 sq.m. Va =045
Vb =0.739; 0.720 =0.7295
® Mean velocity:
Q V =1.251 ; 1.243 = 1.2465
c
V=f1
Vd =0.852
v=}644 Va =0.524
108.25
V  0.473+ 0.469 0.471
V =O. 244 mlsec. f 2
S204
HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING
V1 = 0 + ~.45 =0.225
V7 = 0.47~ + 0 =0.2355
A1 = 10.5~1.25}=6.5625
A = (1.25)
2
+p.7} 10 14.75
A = (1.7 +;.3) 10 = 20 cD • • • GOrrlpu~.th¢VeIOMy~la.~J$@H;~Qf···· • •16·
3 rn·frQ(l1\ME:'/
A4 = (2.3 +;85) 10 =25.75 @ Deternljn~the8iS@.~tge9~tffl~~et.
@ .. O~term1nEl.!hel'llMIl·VEllocJtYl)lltlllll'i'l~
.•••••.•.
As = (2.85 +;.55) 10 = 22
Solution:
CD Velocity at distance of 16 m. from WE
As = (1.55 +20.9) 10 = 12.25
A7 = 8.35~0.90} =3.7575
Q=AV
HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING
Vc  0.232 @
55 + 0.022 0, =A 1V,
0, :: 3.2 (0.0342)
Vc :: 0.1148 mls
_ @§l 0, :: 0.10944
Vd  0.232 52 + 0.022 ~ :: 8 (0.0916)
V _ (0.1782 + 0.1446)
4 2 V::.Q
A
V4 = 0.1614 mls
V= 4.4508
~ 36.8
Vs = 2
V:: 0.1209 mls
Vs = 0.0723 mls
A  1.6 (4)
, 2
A1 = 3.2
A  (1.6 + 2.4)(4)
2 2 The areas bounded by the water line Of a
A2 =8 reservoir is determined by using a planimeter.
A _ (2.4 + 3.2) 4 The contour interval is 2m.· A, <z .20,400 sq.m.,
3 2 A 2 " 18,600 sq.m., A3 ",. 14,300 sq,m.,
A3 = 11.2 A4 = 10,200 sq.m., As:: a,ODO sq.m. and
A _ (3.2 + 2)4 Ae '" 4,000 sq.m. Determine the following:
4 2
G) Ehd area method.
A4 = 10.4
® Prismoidal formula.
As ::fHl @ What is the difference of capacity of the
2
As =4 ~~Sr:f~~ using End area aM by Prlsmoldal
5206
HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING
Solution:
cD End area method:
2
V1 =2" (20400 + 18600) = 39000
2
V2 =2"(18600 + 14300) = 32900
@ Prismoidal formula:
V1 = ~ [20400 +4(18600} + 143001
V1 = 72733.33
V2 = ~ [14300 + 4(10200} + 80001
V2 :: 42066.67
2
V3 =2" (8000 + 4000)
V3 :: 12000
SECTION 2
Prismoidal Formula
=V1 +V2 +V3 •
= 72733.33 + 42066.67 + 12000
:: 126800 m3
HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING
HYDROGRAPHIC SOVEYI.I
V3 = 7870 Cu.m.
Am
V4 =5 (314 + 314)
V4 = 3140 cu.m.
Total volume = V1 + V2 + V3 + V4
V= 1386.67 + 10381.33 + 7870 +3140
V= 22,778 cU.m.
@ Difference in capacity:
A =4.5(10) (4.5+9)(11) (9+9)(12)
m 2 + 2 + 2 Difference in capacity =26685  22778
+ (9 +3.5) (11) (3.5 +2) (5) £.@l Difference in capacity =3,907 cU.m.
2 + 2 + 2
Am = 22.5 + 74.25 + 54 + 68.75 + 13.75 + 3
Am = 236.25 sq.m.
5·209
A
'" +a + 150' +41'30' +35'30':; 360
1Il+·a:;133'
a:; (133' Ill)
Sin l?J:; 1.02 Sin (133' l?J)
Sin III :; 1.02 (Sin 133' Cos III  Cos 133' Sin Ill)
B
Sin III :; 0.746 Cos III +0.696 Sin III
0.304 Sin III :; 0.746 Cos III
tan Ill:; 2.454
l?J:; 67'50'
Solution:
a:; 133'  67'50'
CD Distance AB:
c a:; 65'10'
A
850 _ AB
Sin 41'30'  Sin 70'40'
AB:; 1210.45 m.
® Distance BD:
B
C
BD 760
Sin 79'20'  Sin 35'30'
BD =1286.14 m.
A
Solution: Solution:
CD Angle YlA: CD Angle CDA:
c
z
x
A B
@ Distance BC:
Solution: BC 615
CD Angle DCB:
Sin 59'33' Sin 43'
D BC:: 777.38 m,
E
In the accompanying figure, A, Band C
are three known control stations and P is
the position of a sounding vessel which
is to be located. If b : ;: 6;925.50 m.,
e: 6,708.40 m, angle BAG: 112'45'25", angle
B alpha: 25'32'40", and angle beta: 45'35'50",
(Cllfllf\l\ Station)
BD 615 B
Sin 0 ::Sin43'
:: 615 Sin 0
BD
Sin 43'
BD :: 901.76 Sin 0
80 625
Sin {J :: Sin 42'30'
BD:: 925.12 Sin {J
Solution:
CD Angle x:
B
AP _ 6708.40
Sin x Sin 25'32'40" Solution:
AP = 15557.11 Sin x CD Length of AO:
AP _ 6925.50
Sin y  Sin 45'35'50"
AP = 9693.62 Sin y
9693.62 Sin y= 15557.11 Sin y
Sin y = 1.605 Sin x CD
x + (360 112'45'25'') + Y
+ 45'35'50" + 25'32'40" = 360
y= 41'36'55"  x @
® Angle ACO:
Solution:
CD Distance BC:
fJ = 97'11'21" • 52'13'34.41"
fJ =.44'57'46.59" D
= 15346.22 + 15338.47
Ave. AO 2
Ave. AO = 15342.32 m.
B
8 =180'  20'05'53"·52'13'34.41"
8 = 107'40'32.5"
BC 615
OB 6671.50 Sin 59'34 =Sin 43'
Sin 107'40'32.5" Sin 20'05'53" BC =777.52 m,
OB =18498.33
@ Distance BD:
" =180·35'06'08"·44'57'46.59" BD 615
,,= 99'56'5.41" Sin 77'26' =Sin 43'
_ _O_C 12481.70 BD =880.16 m.
Sin 99'56'5.41"  Sin 35'06'08"
OC =21380.42 m. ;t Distance BE:
BE 625
Sin 65'26; =Sin 42'30'
BE =841.37 m.
5214
MINE SURVEYING
a horizontal plane.
Dip· the vertical angle between the plane of
the vein and horizontal plane measured
perpendicular to tne strike.
Outcrop . the pornon of the vein exposed at
the ground surface.
Drift . an inclined passage driven in a
. particular direction. D
Sin fII = BC
AC
CD
tan43'40'=. BC
.A.~ttJba$.~.$t~kePf.N, • 10'1$fW.• Mda.dlp••hf BC = CD cot 43'40'
4a~4QjlN .• A~r1ffil'lI~~Yeil1M~ilg~pf~%. 2 aJ
100 = AC
• W·•• W~~ • ~.tt@>.*Mhg.A1.w~Y~m~I.PlaQe AC=50 CD
¢9.~PMi~Sm~dlp~)
Ij,.fr~fl~
Sin fII = BC
AC
.  CD cot 43'40'
SInfll CD50
fII = 1'12'
Solution: @, Bearing of drift:
CD Bearing of dip: Bearing:: 10'15' + 1'1 'Z
Bearing = N. 11'27' W
MINE SURVEYING
Sin", =BC
AC
tan 51' = CD N
BC
BC= CD cot 51'
2.~CD
100  AC
AC=20CD
Sin", =BC
AC
. . CDeot51'
SIn '" = 20 CD B
,,::: 1"52'
5216
MINE SURVEYING
567 Solution:
CD Difference in elevation ofthe surface of ore
A4:;..ID at Aand C.:
C
Elevation of mineral ores:
POINTS ELEVATION OF ORES
567 A' . 450 165 = 285 m.
S' 470 187 =283 m.
A 4;...I.:...ID
C 485 203 = 282 m.
MINE SURVEYING
Solution:
CD Bearing of line AF:
Line AF:
MINE SURVEYING
® Distance AF:
N
MINE SURVEYING
@ Shortest distance from A to the vein: @ Length of a + 1.5% tunnel to meet the vein:
AH = AF Sin 50' CD 350
AH = 13.22 Sin SO' Sin 3D' =Sin 128'
AH= 10,13m, CD =222.08
CE 222.08
Sin 128' =Sin 51'08"
CE= 224.76ft.
A vein dips to the west at an angle of 52'. A @ Distance from the outcrop to the bottom of
hill side assumed 10 be sloping uniformly has the shaft.
an angle of depression of 22'. tram the AE 203.03
outcrop of the vein, the sloP'! distance along Sin 112' =Sin 30'
the hillside to the top of the shaft and mouth of AE =376.49 m.
the tunnel are respectively 250 ft. and 35Q fl,lf
the tunnel is driven al right angles to the strike
and the shaft is sunk vert~lly.
CD Determine the height of the shaft
® Determine the length of a + 1:5% tunnel 10
meet the vein, . A point B at the bottom of a winze has a
@ Detennlne the distance from the outcrop to vertical angle of • 65'23' sighted with the top
the bottom of the shaft. telescope of a mining transit. The slope
distance to a poinl B from the inslrument at A
.is 295.87 ft The eccentricity of the telescope
is 3 inches.
Solution:
CD Corrected vertical angle:
Solution:
:'1) Height of the shaft:
BE 250
Sin 30~ =Sin 38'
BE = 203.03 m.
S220
MINE SURVEYING
ilri~I_~~I~.INII'~'lill
3/12
;111".'ki?;$i'~'!I~~
tan", =295.87
",=0'03'
~
h =295.87 Sin 65'20'
h=268.87
C
MINE SURVEYING
5
12
tan III = 153.27
III = 0'9'21"
5
12
tan a =224.82
tana=
Be a =0'06'22"
08
H=83'42'a+1Il
tan a = ~~ tan 22' Sin III
H =88'42'  0'06'22" + 0'09'21"
tan a = tan 22' Sin 76'27' H = 88'44'59"
a = 21'27' (slope)
S222
MINE SURVEYING
Solution:
CD Location of discovery post from the
location post number 2:
o (150)2 + x2 = (h cot45'~
(150)2 + x2 = h2
@ (150)2 + (300· x)2 =(h rot 60'~
. If
(150)2 + (300· x)2 ="3
o&@ If =(150)2 +;
If . If =22500 + (238~
h2  x2 ="3 (300  x~ h2 = 22500 + 56700
3h2  3; = h2  3 (90000  600x + x2) h= 281
31f  3x2 = If  270000 + 1800x  3; Elev. of Discovery Post =400 • 281  1.5
e 21f  1800x + 270000 = 0 Elev. of Discovery Post =117.5 meters
O&e
h2 =(150)2 + x2 @ Distance of discovery post from cer. 1:
.2 [(150)2 + x2]1800x +270000 =0 Distance = h cot 45'
2 (22500 +x2)  1800x + 270000 = 0 Distance = 281 cot 45'
Distance = 281 m.
S223
PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY
PRACTICAL ASTROIOMY
(90 H) =a
C=S
sin p = sin Z sin (90  La)
= sin Z cos L
Z· = p. secL
z
s
Note:
At westem elongation, subtract Zfrom 180'
to obtain the azimuth of the stilr, and at eastem
elongation. add Z to 180' to obtain the true
Parallels azimuth of the star.
oflkclination
PilACTICAl ASTRONOMY
Z"=P·secL
H = measured horizontal angle between star
and object.
Azimuth of AS = 180  Z + H
Azimuth of AB = 180 + Z + H
Azimuth of AB = 180  Z H
5226
PIICI.CllISTRONOMY
Azimuth AS = 180  H
Azimuth AS =180 + H
NL._..L........;: ~
Azimuth AS = 180  H
L=DZ
L = latitude
POLARIS AT LOWER CULMINATION D = declination
Z=90H
H =vertical angle
N z
N'~"""_...... S
A
L=90(H +D)
Azimuth AS = 180 + H L=ZD
Z=90H
S227
PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY
NL_~::.L.:::iIC: .....J5
D
P
L=HP
P =90  0 (polar distance)
D
d
L=DZ
Z=90H
R
~
4) Polaris at lower culmination
z
R
b
SET II
Position of Position of
Telescope Sun's Image
111.4:* 15 R
P
R
d
L=H+P
P=90D
D
~
Determination of AzilTluth by
D
b
Solar Observation I
CENTER METHOD
Set up the transit at one end of the line
SET I
whose azimuth is to be determined. With the
telescope in the normal position, orient the Position of Position of
telescope due south, Sight the other end of the Telescope Sun's Image
fine and record the magnetic azimuth of such
line, Then rotate the instrument and point
approximateiy to the position of the sun.
D
+
Taking precautions that observing the sun
directly through the telescopic eyepiece may
result injury to the eye. Good observations
can be made by bringing the sun's image to a
R
SET II
+
focus on a white card held several inches in Position of Position of
the rear of the telescope. Sight the sun in the Telescope Sun's Image
following order and recording each observation
the values of vertical angles, horizontal angle
and time. Using the tangent method, the cross
wires shall be made tangent to the left and
lower right as shown in the following sets of
R
0
+
+
observations,
S228
PRAcnClllSTRONOMY
S=P+~+L
P =corrected north polar distance
PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY
PRACTICAlISTRONOMY
H =corrected altitude
HI =observed altitude
hr =refraction correction
._
CELESTIAL HORIZON
 hp = parallax correction
hrp =combined parallax and refraction
correction.
H=Hl hr+h p
h = corrected altnude
H=H 1  (hr  hp)
h1 = observed altitude
hp = parallax correction
h = h1 + hp (parallax correction is added)
Refraction Correction:
h = corrected altitude
hI = observed altitude
hr = refraction correction
h = h1  hr (refraction correction is
subtracted to the observed altitude)
5231
PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY
ColTeCfed H= 35'16'15"
110"
H= 35'15'05"
P = 101'02'08"
L = 12'50'27"
28= 1S0740
S= 773350
P= 1079208
SP= 292818
S= 773350
H= 3515Q5
SH= 421845
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