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an Surveying, Higher Surveying, Mine Surveying, Hydrographic

urv ylng, Topographic Surveying, Astronomy, Simple Curves, Compound Curves,


plral Curves, Reversed Curves, Parabolic Curves, Sight Distance, Earthworks,
ass Diagram, Highway Engineering, Transportation Engineering, Traffic Engineering.
.>
for CIVIL and DETI~
LieeQSure Exam
Copyn~;t 1987

Venancio I. Besavilla, Jr.


(BSCE, MSME, AS, F. (PICE)

Civil Engineer -CIT (2nd Place) - August, 1969


. Geodetic Engineer - CIT (7th Place) - July, 1966
Former Instructor: Cebu Institute of Technology
Former Instructor: University of the Visayas
Former Chairman: CE Dept. University of the Visayas
Dean: College ofEngineering and Architecture, University of the Visayas
Awardee: As an Outstanding Educator from the Phil.
Veterans Legion on May 1984
Awardee: As Outstanding Alumnus in the Field of Education
from CIT Alumni Association, Inc., Marcil 1990
Awardee: As Outstanding Engineering Educator from the
CIT High School Alumni Association, December 1991
Member: Geo-Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)
Member: Structural Engineering Institute (ASCE)
Member: American Concrete Institute (ACI)
(Membership No. 104553)
Member: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)
(Membership No. 346960)
Member: PICE Delegation to the ASCE (Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA) (Oct. 1997)
Head PICE Delegation to VFCEA, Hanoi, Vietnam (April 2009)
Head PICE Delegation to JSCE, Fokuka Japan (September 2009)
Head PICE Delegation to A SCE.~ Kansas City, USA (October 2009)
Director: PICE National Board (1997-2008)
Director: PICE Cebu Chapter 1991- 2008
~lce President: PICE Cebu Chapter 2006, 2008
President: PICE Cebu Chapter 2009
Vice President: PICE National Board 2009
President: PICE National Board 2009
Chairman International Committee (PICE) Busan, Korea (February 2010)
President: Cebu Institute ofTechnology Alumni Association (20OJ-up to the present)
ISBN 971- 8510-11-7
Available at:
BISAVlllA
Engineering Review Center
CEBU DAVAO CAGAYAN DE ORO MANILA
2nd Floor, Pilar-Bldg. 4th Floor, 3rd Floor, 2nd Floor, Concepcion
Cor. Osmena Blvd. Porras Bldg. Ecology Bank Bldg. Villaroman Bldg., P. Campa
& Sanciangko Sts. Magallanes St., Tiano Bros. St. St., Sampaloc Melro Manila
Cebu City Davao City Cagayan De oro City Tel. (02) 736-0966
Tel. No. (032) 255-5153 Tel. No. (082) 222-3305 Tel. (08822) 723-167(Samsung)
BAGUIO TACLOBAN GENERAL SANTOS
Lujean Chalet Bldg. Door 11.-303, F. Mendoza RD. Rivera Bldg.
Lourdes Grotto Commercial Complex Constar Lodge, Pioneer Ave.
Dominican Road 141 Sto. Nino Street General Santos City
No. 68 San Roque SI. Baguio City Tacloban City Tel. No. (083) 301-0987
Tel. Nos. (074) 445-5918 Tel. No. (053) 325-3706
SURVEYING
for
CIVIL and GEODETIC
Licensure Exam

Copyright 1984 by Venancio I. Besavilla, Jr. All Rights


Reserved. No part of this publication may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior
written permission of the publisher.

ISBN 971· 8510·11.7 •

• ~,.. ~;:,_;_~_,m.,
Punta Princesa, Cebu City. Tel. 272-2813
"~..'III.. I~ •• I~~ ~ '•• ~"I~I~XTS ~
@ X~'''~~"''{i:'t'¥m"", 0%l'0fu~!;·*kW ~" ~W<fm_~" """it" 0« W::~ill.Th,. ~~"

DESCRIPTION OF TOPICS PAGE NO.


1. Tape Correction ------------------------------ S- 1 - S- 12
2. Errors and Mistakes -------------------------- S- 13 - S- 129
3. Leve Ii ng ------------------------.- -,- ------------- S- 30 - S- 54
4. Compass SUNeying ------------------------- S- 55 - S- 66
5. Errors in Transit Work -------------------------- S~ 67 - S- 83
6. Triangulation -----------------:------------------ S- 84 - S-108
7. Spherical Excess ------------~------------------ S-1 08 - S-111
8. Areq of Closed Traverse -----------------"- S-112 - S-130
9. Missing Data ------------------------------------ S-130 - S-144
10. Subdivision -------------------------------------- S-144 - S-172
11. Straightening of Irregular Boundaries -- S-172 - S-175
12. Areas of Irregular Boundaries ------------ S-176 - S-178
13. Plane Table ------------------------------------- S-179 - S-182
14. Topographic SUNey ------------------------- S-183 - S-187
15. Route SUNeying ------------------------------- S-188
16. Stadia SUNeying ------------------------------ S-189 ,. S-194
17. Hydrographic SUNeying -----"-------------- S-195 - S-208
18. Three Point Problem ------------------------- S-209 - S-213 .
19. Mine SUNeying ------------------------------.- S-214 - S-222
20. Practical Astronomy ------------------------- S-223 - S-251
21. Simple CUNes ---------------------------------- S-252 - S-292
22. Compound CUNes --------------------------. S-292 - S-318
23. Reversed CUNes - '--------.----------------- S-318 - S-333
24. Parabolic CUNes --- -------------- ------------ S-333 ~ S-361
25. Sight Distance ---------------------------------- S-361 - S-376
26. Head Lamp Sight Distance ---------------- S-376 - S-386
27. Sight Distance ----- ---------------- --- -- ------- S-387 - S-388
28. Reversed Vertical Parabolic CUNe ---- S-389 - S-390
29. Spiral CuNe----"-------------------------------- S-391 - S-404
30. Earthworks -- -- --- ---- ------ ---------------------- S-405 - S-430
31. Transportation Engineering -------.-------- S-431 - S-523
32. Miscellaneous ----- ------ ---------- ---- ---- ---- S-524 - S-542
5-1

TAPE CORRECTION

I-~~-~~----' --~~-

2. Pull Correction:
(To be added or sUbtracted)

1. Tape not standard length


2. Imperfect alinement of tape
3. Tape not horizontal
4. Tape notstretch straight P2 = actual pull dUring measurement
5. Imperfection of observation
P1 = applied pull when the length of
6. Variations in temperature
7. Variations in tension tape is L1
A = Cross-sectional area of tape
E = Modulus of elasticity of tape
I~~------------'-~-
3. Sag Correction:
I (To be subtracted only)

1. Adding or dropping a full tape length.


2. Adding a em., usually in measuring the
fractional part of tape length at the end
of the line.
3. Recording numbers incorrectly, w= weight of tape in pit. or kg.m.
example 78 is read as 87. L = unsupported length of tape
4. Reading wrong meter mark. p = actual pUll or tension applied

4. Slope Correction:
(To be subtracted only)

1. Temperature Correction: (To be


added or subtracted)
H=S-Cs
H = horizontal distance or corrected
distance
S = inclined distance
K =000000645 ft. per degree F. h = difference in elevation at the end of
K =0.0000116 m. per degree C. the tape
T1 =temp. when the length of tape is L1
T2 =temp. dUring measurement
5-2

TAPE CORRECTION

5. Sea Level COffection:


Reduction factor= 1.~

1. The 3:4:5 Method:


To erect a perpendicular to the line
AB, from a given point C a point a on line
B = horizontal distance Gorrected for
AB is assumed to be on the
temperature, sag and pUll.
perpendicular and a pin is set at a. With
B' = sealevel distance
sides a multiple of 3, 4 and 5 m. such as
h = average altitude or observation
24.32 and 40 m., a right triangle abc is
R = Radius.of curvature
constructed as follows: A pin is set on
line AB at b, 32 m. from a. The zero end
6. Normal Tension:
of (he tape is fixed with a pin at a, and
It is the tension which is applied to
the 100 m. end at b. The zero end of the
a t.ape supported over two supports
tape is fixed with a pin at a, and the 100
which balances the cofrec!ion due to
m. end at b. The head chainman moves
pull and due to sag. The application of
to c and holds the 24 m. and the 60 m.
the tensile force increases the length of
marks of the tape in one hand, with the
the tape whereas the sag decreases its
tape between these marks laid out so as
length, the normal tension neutralizes
to avoid kinking. He then sets a pin at c.
both corrections, therefore no correction
The rear chairman moves from a to b as
is necessary.
necessary to check the position of the
tape at these points as c is established.
He then sights along ae to C' beside C,
usually Cto the a(::' is measu"red, and the
foot a of the perpendicular aC' is moved
along the line AB by an equal amount, to
P = applied 'normal tension
the point a'. If the trial perpendicular ae'
P1 = tension at which the tape is
fails to include the point C by several
standardized feet, the process is repeated for a', the
W = total weight of tape new point, otherwise the location of a'
A = cross-sectional area of tape may be assumed as correct.
E = modulus of elasticity of tape
2. The Chord Bisection Method:
To erect a perpendicular to the line
AB; from a given point C, the position of
the perpendicular is estir,lated, and a pin
IS set at d on this estimated

a) Add correction when measuring distances perpendicular, somewhat less than one
b) Subtract correction when laying out tape length from the line AB. With d as
distances center and the length of tape as radius,
the head chainman describe the arc ED
of a circle, setting pins at the
intersections band c of the arc with the
line AB. The rear chainman stationed at
o A or B determines the location of the
a) Subtract correction when measuring intersections band c on line. The point a
distances is established midway between band c.
b) Add correction when laying out distances
S-3

TAPE CORRECTION

The line ad is prolonged to C' besides C, 2. ParaJle/lines:


and the point a is moved if necessary as
A'i ..· ·· ~B'
described for the 3:4:5 method.

c c'
r: y! A 0-'" - - - -
1----"""'8
i *f,
ii
A.---.o-o-~-...."
'~~~~,
B
a'a b
If the necessary distance from the
3:4:5 Method
line AS is short, perpendicular AA' = BB'
are erected by either using 3:4:5 method
of the chord bi-section method to clear
the obstacle. The line A'B' is then
chained, and its length is taken as that of
AB.

Chord Bisection Method 3. Similar Triang/es:


C

A / .. ~.<:~:>~~'" •
Let C be a point from A and Bare
visible. AC and BC are measured. CD
1. Swing offsets: and CE bears to CB: that is CD/CA =
CEICB. It will generally be convenient to
make this a simple ratio such as 1/2 of
1/3. The triangles ACB and DCE are
similar. DE is measured and AS is
computed.
At'/

To find the distance AS by the sWing


offset method, the head chainman

.~i.tl'"iI
attached the end of the tape to one end
of the line as at B and describes an arc
with center S and radius 100 m. The
rear chainman stationed at A lines in the rll~anteTperature<()t~5·9·,.a@us$djl)l)f
endiof the tape with some distant object stan9a~l~ngth.1lt20·QunderaP4IIAf§~g,
as 0 and directs the setting of pins a1 Cr9$csezliQnClI"are<l.of,l~pe.,is • • Q.Q~~q;pm;,.
points a and b where the end of the tape CQefficfe!1t()ltheyrMex:e~n$iM>I~
crossed line AO. A point C midway Q.009011~WC,.M~dtllu$ • ofela$tic~Y.(jf,tllP~ls,
between a b lies on the perpendicular 2x1mkg1Crl1 2. ' , ",
CB. A pin is set at C, and the distances
BC and CA are measured to obtain the G)[)eterllline.the•• errot•• of .the.,tapedu#.to
necessary data for computing the length changeintempera1ure. ,. ' ",' '. '
of AS, ® DetElfrninelheerrprduetotension, ••'.','
® Oetenninethe correetedlengthofthe line.
8-4

TAPE CORRECTION

Solution: @ True length of the line:


G) Temp. correction: Corrected hor. distance =673.92 + 0.1348
Ct =KL (T - Ts) Corrected hor. distance =674.055 m.
C, =0.0000116 (2395.25}(35 - 20)
Ct = + 0.4168 m.
@ Tension correction:
(P-Ps ) L
Cp=---xE
c - (4 - 5)(2395.25) .A·••$Q.·.rIl·•• • m~EH • • f~p~WaW.$t@9a.rdlzed • ·and
p- 0.03 (2) 106 sj~ppporteq1:ttrougholJttts • • wbole •. lergth.·.~nd
Cp =• 0.0399 m. •
·1QlJJldJ9b{l;.Q.O()~Q5nl. long~r~t·an .• pb~ery~d
t~mp~rliIW~(ff~1.~·C~Qd~pulh~flON~~,
@ Corrected length: •
Thl$taReW<1l.SlJ$edlomea~ure a• liqe•• v.'hjCh
L =2395.25 + 0.4168 - 0.0399 Wfl$f~~'nd • f~b$ .• 66Z.702.% • at • an•• ~v~mge
L = 2395.6269 m. ·~~Beralljr~ • • 8f•• 24·B·9.@ingJh~ • • s~me· • pull,
Y$e.·C()~fflci$nt.pf.e~Bansion.·pf.0.()Ooo116·m·
pl:ifgegreeCE!ntigiage~< .

(j)..¢oIl1IM~lhesl!lnd?~.terilp· • • • • • ·
~· • ··G9IllP~~me.t()!al • telTlp>Wq'El(;tiOn-
® CQmPlJf~the.{icllTE!CflenglhJ:iflh~·IiI1~;·
A$QrmtAA~W~~$t~rm@l4eg.MdW!l$f@hd.
l$bep:Q<l42m:IQO)?n~>tf1~nJhe$t<1ln~~rd Solution:
.lE!gg1:tt~t~r:Jop~ry@.t£!rnP~r~fw~6fR~~Q·{:l[l9
CD Standard temperature:
• ~~~t~~~~~iri~r~~~~~aW~~~e~td· Cr=K(Tz- Ts)L
• 19~~7~.~4.m···long.M.~n.(l~S7!Ye<J.·~~mp:.Of +0.00205 =0.0000116(31.8- Ts)(50)
.~~~[t·:~~~~~lIfs°6;~.~~~j~··idi~ji:~~I .• o.f 31.8 - Ts = 3.53
qj\P~I~!QElme$!Md~Jem@@tt!rEf; . Ts = 28.27'C (standard temp.)

··~.··~~{~I~~m:I'~I'~ihe.lioe .. @ Total correction:


Solution: Cr =K(T2 - Ts ) L
G) Standard temperature: Cr =0.0000116(24.6 - 28.27)(50)
Cr = K (TZ - T1) L1 Cr =;_0.00213 (too short)
+ 0.0042 =0..0000116 (58 - T1}(50)
+ 0.0042 =0.03364 - 0.00058 T1 · 0.00213(662.702)
7iataI correctIOn = 50
T1 = 50.76'C (standard temp.)
Total correction =0.02823 m.
@ Total correction:
Cr=K(T- T1)L1 @ Corrected length of line:
Cr =0.00(J01Q (68' 50.76)(50) Corrected horizontal distance
Cr =0.01 (tape is too long)
b.;;; G 1J =662.702 - 0.02823
Ttl t· 673.92 (0.01)
,oa correc Ion = 50 ~D =662.67377 m.
"" G .--
Total correction = 0.1348 m. \...0
::co,O I ;:r~,"1'2.\
~ I') \ \-:1,t.\&llv Db -)
8-5

TAPE CORRECTION

@ Tota/error:
Too shortby =30 - 29.992
Too short by =0.008 m
- 472.90 (0.008)
7iot'aJ error- 30
Total error = 0.126 m. (to be subtraded)

@ True horizontal distance:

Corrected inclined distance


=472.90 •0.126
=472.774m
.e h
Solution: Sin = 472.774
CD Actual length: h =472.774 (0.03)
Cr = K (T2 - T1) L1 h= 14.183m
Cr =0.0000116(5·20)(30.005) . for (14.183f
Cr=· 0.00522 mm Correction slope = 2 (472.774)
(P2· P1) L1 Correction for slope =0.213 m
Cp- AE Corrected horizontal distance
C - (75· 5OX3O.005) =472.774·0.213
p- 3(200 x 103) = 472.561 m.
Cp = tQ.00125 m
w2L3
CS=24P2
0.65 x9.81 \'
w=.30":' .
C «(0.65 x 9.8115(30)3
S - . (3O)t(24)(75t
Cs =- 0.00904 m

Total correction =·0.00522 + 0.00125


·0.00904
- Tata/ Cf)ffection=- 0.009G4-
Total correction =·0.00522 + 0.00125 ,
-0.00904 .(!)... (;q~PIJtEl~.~¢@Illeng{h9f.tcl~ • 4IJling
Total correction =·0.013 m mAA~~rerrEl9t. • '> • • • i • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •>•• • • • •>./.
® Wl'!litlsttletfuEl·atilll' .••.'••'. •. •••••.. '".< • • < . . .• .
Actual length of tape during measurement @. ·Whab$lh$¢~&ln~rea.ln$q.m.<········<·······
=30.005·0.013
·=29.992m.
S-6

TAPE CORRECTION

Solution: Solution:
CD Actual length: CD Cross-sectional area:
Cr = K(T2 - Tl) Ll A(1OOX100X7.86) = 267
Cr =0.‫סס‬OO16(30 - 2OX30·002) 1000 .
Cr =0.00348 m (too long) A = 0.034 sq.m. W1"f1:
Actual length of tape during measurement
=30.002 + 0.00348 ® Total correction:
=30.00548 m. Cr=K(T2' Tl)L jt1
® True area: Cr= 7 x 10-7 (20 • 15X1,l:1J
Therefore the tape is 0.00548 mtoo long Cr =0.00035 m.
Forthe 144.95mside:
7iotal error =144.95(0.00548)
30 =0.26 m. Pull correction:
. (P2- P1)L
True length = 144.95 + 0.026 Cp= AE
True length = 144.976 m
C - (16 ·10)(100)
For the 113 m side: p - 0.034 (2) 106

Total error =113(0~) =0.021 Cp= 0.009 m


Correction =0.00035 + 0.009
True length =113 + 0.021 Correction = 0.00935 m
True length = 113.021 m
True area =(144.976X113.021) No. of tape lengths =~~6 =4.306
True area = 16,385.33 ~ Total correction =4.306 (0.00935)
® Error in area: Total correction =0.0403 m
Erroneous area = (144.95)(113)
Erroneous area::: 16,379.35 m2 ® True length of baseline:
Error in area = 16,385.33 -16,379.35 True length of baseline =430.60 + 0.0403
Error in area = 5.982 ~ True length ofbaseline =430.6403 m

A~pm.~tEleIJap~W~jghl~gA·f$~}$@f
~tMdatQI~rglll.Ulld~r~ • pUII.~f?@~UPP9rt~·
forfull.. . I~l"\gth, • • .• • TMta~ • • ..v~$U95~ . . . I~
m~asyHrt9.Allne~~~·§§m.IMg.l?~~·smWm
f~~elgW~n~~flder~$te~f1~ . P\,ltIQf19t<~;
AsslJming.I:.=.2•• l(.·.1()~ . k9tcmZ•• ~@ll1e • uriil
'Il¢ighl.m.$I~I.t()be7.9X1(t3.kglbrn3.

®•• ·.Oalermina.·me·crosssticllonal.atea·Ofthe
®~8IuleI16@~~@n,
®Compuletl'lEl1ruelElng!tiW1beb(lseli®•....
S-7

TAPE CORRECTION

Solution:
<D Cross-sectional area of tape:
w=AL Ys
1.45 = A(3000)(7.9) x 10.3
A = 0.061 cml
@ Pull Correction:
(P- Psi L
Cp=-xE
_ (10-5X30)
Cp - 0.061 (2 x 106)
Cp =+ 0.00123
Total Correction = 0.00123 (938.55)
30
Total Correction = + 0.038 m.
@ Correct length ofline:
Corrected length = 938.55 + 0.038
Corrected length = 938.588 m.

Ill'll'• •••
@ •••. ·Per~rm(oe.·lIl$·hOrtzOO~I.dlStatt¢.,.

Solution:
~~~~jbg~~ •.•j~611~~~~.~h~/i~i~ <D Total correction per tape length:
Gr= K (T2· T1) L1
jsmown•• 19be.5(JnV.19@@?9·¢'Tl1~t~p~ Cr= 0.0000116 (15 ·10)(30)
wasusedtome<l$lJre<.~ljffll'Wtti¢l't\¥~s@YQg
l[).pe.532@.meter~l@g~~·tl1~Jelll~Wt~ Gr= + 0.00174 rn
W<ls.35·c, • • ~t€lITl1If\~.~.@IQ\Vil'l9:·>i.· .• · ·.••·•·•·•· · ..
PUll correction:
0!•• • ternper~tureC9ttecti6rll¢nap~·l®$tti<> •••••••• (P2 ,P1)L1
®TelJ1~raflJreCllrre¢ticmJprfh~fTlffll!l~rE:!9 .
WilfuL·································· Cp AE
@)1\C~edlength()ff&ljne...• _ (75 • 50)(30)
Cp- 6.50 (200 x 103)
Solution: Cp =+ 0.00058 rn
<D Temperature correction per tape length:
Cr=K(T- Ts)L
Sag Correction:
Cr = 0.0000116 (35 -20)(50)
Cr =0.0087 m. too long
. .l-L 2
Cs= 24 p2
® Temperature correction for the measured r _ (0.075 x 9.81)2 (30)3
line: vs- 24 (75)2
ft· :-1··· ,. - 532.28 (0.0087) . r'\.!J)
loa correCdon - 50 C !, -.- - Cs =0.10827 m
Total correction =+ 0.0926 m. \. ""0
Total correction per tape length:
@ Corrected length ofline:
COrrected length =532.28 + 0.0926 C =0.00174 + 0.00058 ·0.10827
Corrected length =532.3726 m. C=· 0.10595 m
S-8

TAPE CORRECTION

® Correction for slope: ® Total correction:


. 459.20 (·0.10595) Temp. corrections:
Tolaf correction = 30
Cr=KL(T- T1)
Total correction =- 1.622 Cr =0.‫סס‬OO116 (624.95~32 -20)
Correct slope distance =459.20 ·1.622 Cr =.;. 0.087 (too long)
Correct slope distance =457.578 m
fl2 Pull correction:
CS=2S (P2' P1) L
(1.25f Cp = AE
Cs =2 (457.578) _ (15 -10) (624.95)
Cs = 0.002 Cp- 0.06 (2) 106
@ Horizontal distance: Cp := +0.026 (too long)
Corrected horizontal distance
=457.578· 0.002 Total correction = + 0.0l7 • 1.781 +0.026
= 457.576m Total correction =• 1.668 m.

@ Corrected length of the liIle:


Corrected length =624.95 .1.668
Corrected length = 623.182 m.

Il,.'.
Solution:
CD Sag correction:
w2 L3
- CS1 = 24 p2
(0.04j2(100)3
CS1 = 24 ~15)2 . =0.296 m.
_ (0.04) (24.95)3 =0 005
CS2'" 24 (15)2 . .
Total sag correction =6(0.296) + 0.005
Total sag correction = 1.781 (too short)
5-9

TAPE CORRECTION.

Solution: Actual length of tape at 40.6'C Tension


CD Tension applied at 32'. 99.986 - 0.00232 =99.98368 10 kg
99.992 - 0.00232 = 99.98968 14 kg
99.992 '4 100.003 -0.00232 =100.00068 20 kg
0.008
{
100.00 0.011 x
{ 6 99.98968 '4
0.01032
{
0.011 x
{
100.0000 6
100.003

~_9·008
100.00068
6 - 0.011
x=4.36 kg.
x 0.01032
Tension applied =14 +~4.36'~·~·'~·· ,) ~ .', ~:., 6=llO11
Tension applied = 18.36 kg. x= 5.63 kg
',k Tension applied =14 + 5.63
® Tension applied at 40.6'. Tension applied = 19.63 kg
Temperature correction:
Cr=K(T2- T,}L
Cr= 0.0000116 (40.6 - 32) 100
Cr=O.00998

Actual length of tape at 40.6'C Tension


99.986 + 0.00998 = 99.99598 10 kg
99.992 + 0.00998 = 100.00198 14 kg
100.003 + 0.00998 = 100.01298 20k~

0.006
r·~98}
100.0000
0.00402 {' 4

100.00198 14

~_ 0.00402
4 - 0.006
x= 2.68 kg GJ Compute the correctiartdue to the applied
pulfofS kg. ,'" .'
Tension to be applied =10 + 2.68 @ Compute the cortecUOn due to weight.ot
Tension to be applied = 12.68 kg tape. '
@ Compute the true length of the measured
@ Tension applied at 30'C: lineAB ,due to the combined effects of
Temperature coffection: tension, sag arid temperature.
Cr=K(T2- T,}L
Cr =0.0000116 (30 - 32) 100
Cr=-0.00232
S-10

TAPE CORRECTION

Solution: @ Number ofpaces for the new line:


CD Pull correction: AI f _ 893 =893.5 + 891 + 895.5
IVO. 0 paces - 5
C - (P,- PM,
P- AE No. ofpaces =893.25':.-:;.
C - (8 -5.5X458.650) _ +
P - 0.04 (2.10 x 106) - 0.014 m. ® Distance of the new line:
.Distance of new line =893.25 (0.691)
Distance of new line =617.236 m.
@ Correction due to weight oftape:
W2L3
Cs = 24 rJ2 'I.
C = (o.05f (50j3 (9)
s 24 (8f
(0.05)2 (8.65)3
+ .@'. 1'hl$Sk!es•• of.a.M9a(elat••havIM•• ®J@a
24(8f ·····>··Clf•• ?~!)pe9~rAAWfl~m¢-~~qt~.9$j.J19 • •~·
Cs =·1.832 m. (always negative)

® True length ofmeasured line AB:


·······~~~~ih:.~~ • i~i~J~I.·m.~~~@W •
Cr =K(T2 -T1)L @ ··ttiE!•• (:Qrr1'!¢t.dl~ta6@ • ~~!lh@~ • P9.@•• ~··
Cr =0.0000116 (18 - 2OX458.65) '. · · • • ~P.4$.m' • • l@ng.~ • jQQm;mjll;l.lMl#,,#!
Cr =-0.011 m. m,@~ltl~!~\th~l¢hSll1l~~~I~J(j96t/'l~

Total correction =0.014 -1.832 - 0.011 ·••• ·• ·· ··>.Woyl1~.®()ut~.~.2@Q*:Itlm;


·.•
Ii'~i:$.·of.:x·?··.····.·····
••
." . . . . . . .tl$ffi~
•. /••. . •. . . .
Total correction =-1.829 m.
True length AB =458.65 - 1.829 @•• • T\lij.~jstlil'lCElfrOm.P.Il)ei@fJi~@~d;.j$·.
True length AB =456.821 m. • • • • • • • • 1§$.2.rl1.•••• lf.tM.$Q.m;t#p~~eaj~Q~Q1 • m;.
tQP$lyjrt;Wh~!i$~#grf~W(ll$tM¢¢m
rie? .. ... ... .... ...

Solution:
CD Error in area:
(99.962 _ (1002)

~~~I~~~!~~n~~~~i~I~~at~jl~_\\~~ A - 2.25
A=2.2482 hectares
.~~5f:o~~~~~~~Ii~~~~"'1~11;1~~l~'~.·
..' .. .
6~3,893,5dI9talj(18~S;&/<'" .
Enur in area =2.25 - 2.2482~.l\
Errorin area =0.0018 hectares,
Error in area = 0.0018 x10000 ~\
@-p~lerl11IMltlE!pa¢¢taClor+< Error in area = 18 sq.m.
~·< •. [)~t~rmjlie· • I'l~mbefgf.p~c~s.·fCll'~~¢-,,·new

une,> Note: 1 hectare =1000 sq.m.
~.·• •. Oetennineme·pjfltanc:eMlbe.fleWljne. @ Value of x:
Solution: ~~5 x =220.45 - 220.406
CD Pace factor: x =0.02 m.
142 + 145 + 145.5 + 146
N0.0 f paces = 5
k,t'::'l:1, ® Corrected distance:
No. of paces = 144.625" " '
100 1:.; L -:. /. Correct distance = 165.2 _1:.2 (0.01)
Pace factor =144.625 = 0.691
Correct distance =165.167 m.
S·Il

TAPE CORRECTION
@ Unit weight of tape:
_ 0.204 w...fAE
PN-
\i)•• • 8()rnpqte.the.O()rrnlJl•• t~~$IQI1.wh~hwin • b~ -J
PN- Ps

·. ·.• •. .•
....•. ~ppU®t~~t~®SlJPPA.~~9pV~r.twq 16 =0.204 w'./'--0.-05-(2-)1-06'
. . ·Sl.IPP()rtsillord~tt()fl1aketr~tape~~alt£>
·.it$•. n()[llill~I.I~ngtb •.VjI'l~ll~IlPP()rtE!d.ptJly'~t ~
~~~~.~f~~~ ~~4$t~I • _1~ ~.~6~~~
•.•. t@)~9hourit$ • leo91h.und~r.~.ll\at\!j~rd·PW
•. 0.:
w=0.784 kg
w= =0.026 kglm
· • •pt$·§.·kg•• wilh.•!J'tEl•. rnod~N~.9felastiglyfS
.• ·~ • x.1~kgf(@fW"ldaieaOf.Q,06(:mf • • • • • •.• • ·•• •· ® Cross sectional area:
_ 0.204 w...fAE
·®•• • Aste~tapei$30:lt1 .•• ~ogu@era • ~nd~@.· PN-
•.• • • • • plJu • • ~f.9 • • • k~, • • • With•• • ~ • • • %J~~I~nt • • ett)$lh. -J PN-Ps

·(:.lilli'~_'1
me¢M·P9IIlt~~ • tl)9~ls.W~.~ff®!·.()f$a~Wlll·
18 = O.204[~O.OO25)(40i...fAE
W=279.02
~
•.••.••.. ·.M.~I@i~W~pYlffil~l()l'lg~~9f;l§flIW¥lP~. AE =77854.67
d~Mo.tI'lE!M~lj¢atl@Qft~I$IMdi~¢M~1
••.t6.t6.M....(feterlnio~lhe9~il·W~i9htcitt~e. A = 77854.67 = 0039 rrf
2 x 106 . c
•• iaPE!•• j~
taM·.MQ(I~ltl~ ()f•• elast@fy.Qf••
~*lQ~Mtcnt.>
®Urid$ra$tandardpullQf~~g,Jhel@el
tapej~4QlTl"()(lg,An9rm~IJ~n~i9Q:qf
1&.k9rll~~~s • m¢••
~I()ng~~qiJ9f.~h~ • • l~Il$··
··()ff$e;t.t~~en~pt.pf.·~~·.· • • lfm~t~w(#Stm·· .0) ..• Det~rminelli~ IEltlgll1 of the fine in meters if
llqZ#·kgfril,•• •arld.E • =••z•)(•• j06•• • kglciril%) ... .there were 3 tallies'S phis aildthe last pin
Qeletrlline .• • it~ • • cr(Jss • • $ecll()nlll.··ar~.· • . in. \ was9>·Iil,Jromtheend of tile Hne. The
s:(P::Il'l{ ...•..• tapeMectwas so. m.IOhg. .• . .

Solution: lID A line was measured wilh a50 m. tape


CD Normal tension: and fo~nd .to beJOO m. long. It was
PN = 0.204 {Ai! . <Jis(:oileredlhaltneflrst pin was stUck
.... 306m. tathe left oftheUne.andthesecond
..,j Pw Pt" . . pin 30cm. to .the right. Fino the error In the
_ 0.204(0.84) ..,j'-O.-OO-(2-)1-06' measurement in em?
PN-
..,j Pw P1 ® A line was measured with a 50 m. tape
_ 59.3608 and recorded ·100 m. long. While
PN- measuring lhe first pin was stuck 20 em to .
..,j PN - 5.6 the right of the line and the second pin
40 em. 10 the left. Find the correct length
By trial and error:
PN= 17.33 kg oflhe line.
_ 59.3608
PN- Solution:
..,j 17.33 - 5.6 (j) Length of the line:
PN= 17.33 kg L = 3(10)(50) +8(50) + 9
L =1.909 m
S-12

TAPE CORRECTION

@ Error in the measurement: Total distance = 8 (16.5) t 6 (16.5)


If 45(33)
Error=2s + 12
E (0.30f (0.60)2 Total distance =354.75 ft.
-rror = 2(50) + 2(50) Total distance = 108.16 m.
Error =0.0045 m. =0.45 em.
@ Correct length of the line:
E - (0.20f (0.60)2
rror - 2(50) + 2(50)
Error = 0.004 m. @ .·A.. 1M • • rrl· • • !~pe • • is•• • 1~.·mrT!·.wide.<lhd
Correct length ofline = 100 - 0.004 O.80mm·.th~ •.• lf.the·tapl.j$·90rr~unq~r·
Correct length of/ine = 99.996 m. ~ • PlJIl()f.94·.N;.Wll'tputEl.tIJ~~rJ'9r.ll'Iadl'by
··uSlngapuII.Qf.eaN,••·.e.::;:.. 4®,OOQ.MP!i.· . .
@·.1'lWIElr1Qlh9f••~• • ~~ries • of.Une5.iSf()@gll)
. • • bE!34.2f·Q2mdDWef9~rq.directlOn.~nd
·•342f.~·rn·.ln·1~e.reverseddire(;t~n, • •. VV/'lal
i~lh~ratJopftlj¢l:lrror?··· .
@A Ilnewasmeasure<l tC)ha~5 tallies; 6
• marking pins lind ~3.5Ijnks. How long is @.·.. A~ytJsterlS~ • p~r • il)m®nt~~<lt • ~ • • ~rtair
thelme In ft.?' .... . . .... ·9i$~n~frpmjlj~jnstru~~t~lldthean~l~
... ·~~~t~ndeq.l:!Yff@.bal'.i$p·$".9:JrnP~t~t~e
@ A line wasmeasiJred witha 50 m. lape. . . .•. ~r\~8n!~! • . d~tM~~.·.frpmtr.~ • j~strlJrr~nl
There were 2 .tallles. 8 pirys, and the. .. sl1ltl(')flIQ OOlloAA«"nmthesl,lblen$f:l par,
distance from the last pin iothe elid of the
line was 2.25 nf. Find the length of the Solution:
lirie in meters? . CD Error made by using a pull of 68 N:
_ (P2 - P1) L_ (68- 54) 100
@ A distance was Measured and was Cp - AE -12 (0.8)(200000)
recorded to.. tlave a value equiYalentio Cp =0.0007
8 perch,6 rods and 45 Yarn. Compute the
.•• tolal distance inmeters. . .. Error = 0.0007 x 100
100
Error = 0.0007%
Solution:
CD Distance ofline: @ Ratio ofthe error:
Note: 1 tally = 10 pins A I gth 3427.fJ2 + 3427.84
1 link =1 ft verage en = 2
1 pin = 100 links Average length = 3427.73
L = 5 (10)(160) + 6 (100) + 63.5 . f 3427.84 - 3427.62
Ratlo a error= 3427.73
L =5663.5 ft
· f 0.22 1
Rat10 a error =3427.73 =15581
@ Length of the line:
Note: 1 tally =10 pins
1 pin = 1 chain @ Horizontal distance:
1
2 (10)(50) + 8 (50) + 2.25 =1402.25 m. tan 0.2' =/1
H = 1,718.87 m.
(3) Total distance:
Note: 1 perch =1 rod =16.5 feet Note: Subtense bar is standard
1 vara =33 inches to be 2 m. long
S-l3

ERRORS AND MISTAKES

Gli2D 2. Probable Error of the Mean:


is defined as the difference between the
true value and the measured value of a
quantity.

E
MISTAKES Em=-
-r;,
are inaccuracies in measurements
which occur because some aspect of a 1"1"
surveying operation is performed by the 3. Standard deviation:
Geodetic Engineer with carelessness,
poor judgment and improper execution.

4. Standard error:

1. Systematic Error
2. Accidental Error

1. Instrumental Error
2. Natural Error
3. Personal Error
1. The weights are inversely proportional
to the square of the corresponding
~ probabl errors.

is define as the number of times


something will probably occur over the
range of possible occurrences.

1. Probable Error a
single observation:

2. The weights are also proportional to the


number of observations.
Where E =probable error
,£V2 = sum of the squares of the 3. Errors are directly proportional to the
residuals
square roots of distances.
n =number of observation
S-14

ERRORS AND MISTAKES

® Most probable value of diff. in elevation:

Route Diff. in Elev. Weight


1 340.22 1
2 340.30 0.25
3 340.26 0.1111
4 340.32 0.0625
Sum = 1.4236

Weighted Observation
340.22 (1) = 340.220
®Whaflsttleweightnfr(lqte2a$$~mI6g ~.30 (0.25) = 85.075
. • •. . .• • ·.•. ~ig~t·.¢f·.·.l'O.Ut~ • 1•.• I~.~ql¥l.I§ •.1.•·..•. • . . ·.. .•.•. . . . . .·.•• . · 340.26 (0.1111) = 37.803
.• ~• • Detem1ine1hemos1~b'eValueof.diff. 340.32 (0.0625) = 21.270
jnel~'ffltl$l'I.< Sum = 484.368
• 'W•. • !fW~.·~I£tlfatio/' • 9fa~h • ls.~@,4f.m;'M\at
••..• ·.isth~elev~TIWL(lf~M2asslJrnlllgiti~
. ··fjigheftMhaMW . . 484.368 i'/";
Most Probable Value = 1.4236- .• ',: .

Solution: Most Probable Value =340.242 .


G) Weight of route 2:
® Elev. ofBMi
The weights are invserseley proportional Bev. = 650.42 + 340.242
to the square of the corresponding probable Elev. =990.662 m.
errors.

4 W1 = 16 Wz = 36 W3 = 64 W4

W1 = 4 Wz =9 W3 = 16 W4

Assume W1 =1
1
WZ=4"
Wz =0.25
1 \D Compute lfle probable weight oftrtal 3..
W3=g
® Determine the most probable diff. in
W3=0.111 elevatiOn. . .
1 ® Compute the elevation of B if .elevation of
W4 =16 AIs 1000 with Bhigher than A,
W4 =0.0625
S-lS

ERRORS AND MISTAKES

Solution: Solution:
ill Weight of trial 3:
CD Probable error:
The weights are also proportional to the Mean value
number of observation.
··120.68 + 120.84 + 120.76 + 120.64
Weight of trial 3 = 6. ~ = 4
Mean value =120.73
@ Probable diff. in elevation:

Distance Weight Residual V V2


520.14 1 120.68 -120.73 =- 0.05 0.0025
520.20 3
120.84 -120.73 =+0.11 0.0121
520.18 6
520.24 8 120.76 -120.73 =+0.03 0.0009
Sum =18 120.64 -120.73 =- 0.09 0.0081
'LV2 =0.0236
Weighted Values
520.14(1) = 520.14
520.20 (3) = 1560.60 _ f"iV2t:.(
520.18 (6) = 3121.08 Probable erro~.= 0.6745 -" n(rJ~1r'- 'l
520.21 (8) = 4161.92
Sum = 9363.74 Probable error =0.6745
~0.0236.
4(3)

· I 9363.74 Probable error =± 0.0299


Probable value 0 fdiff.. In eev. =-18-
Probable value ofdiff. in elev. = 520.208 @ Standard deviation:

@ Elevation of B: .. - fiV2
Standard deViation =-" ~
Elev. ofB =1000 '10520.208
Elev. of B = 1520.208 m.
. = ~0.0236
Standard deviation -3-

Standard deviation = ± 0.0887 y\..

@ Standrad error:
Standard deviation
Standard error = {;;
±0.0887
Standard error = {4
Standard error =± 0.0443 ["11,\
5-16

ERRORS AND MISTAKES

1--------------------- •

Iftiglf!tma2Z;- At ;i)i'<1
Three iridepen<lentJilieof levelsarerunJrom "M()bserveO•• afi91~s • 9faW~nfll~ar~ • • as
.BM1t~BM~.R<JuteAjS6 kll'l, 1~,rOt1tee 1$ follOWS: .. A"'34'20'36~<B"'49~t6'34·
... '..' ' .
4 knt long andrpute Pis 8 km 8y muff! A,
¢7®'?2'41~

.:~JS~~·;~~ej~~~a~~~Y:y:~'.:~.:;'
SHOm. shove-BM,. ···TM eJevatloo{jfBM1 Is
6M2>'" . .... . ...
.0)Using the weighted mean valUes,WtiaLis
the weight~froufeB. ' .
00 Whatls the PrPfutblevalue 9ftheVil!lgtited.
niEian. .•. . ••. . .
@ . WhatJstheelevalion ofB~; . . Soiution:
Solution: G) Probable value of angle C:
G) Weight of route A:
ROUTE DISTANCE DIFF. IN ELEV. Sum of all angles = 180'
A 6 82.27 34'20'36" +49'16'34" +96'22'41"
B 4 82.40
C. 8 82.10 =179'59'51"
1 1 1 = =
Error 180' ·179'59'51" 09" (too small)
LCD =24
6 4 8 F" L) . 9
CorrectlOn =-
Weight computations 3
24 Correction =3"
A W1 =6=4
24
B W2=4"=6 Probable value of angle C = 96'22'41" +3"
24 Probable value of angle C = 96'22'44"
C W3=a=3

Weight of 8 = 6 ® Probable value of angle A:


® Probable value of weighted mean: Probable value of angle A = 34'20'36" + 3"
82.27(4) =329.08
Probable value of angle A = 34'20'39"
82.40(6) =494.40
82.10(3) =246.30
1069.78 @ Probable value of angle B:
Probable value of the weighted mean Probable value of angle B = 49'16'34" +3"
1009.78 Probable value of angle B = 49'16'37"
=-13-
=82.29
@ Elevation of8M2.'
8M2 =82.46+82.29
8M2 = 168.71 m.
5-17

ERRORS AND MISTAKES

Sum = (n - 2) 180 =(5 - 2) 180 =540'


=
Enor = 540' - 539'59'40" 20"

G) Adjusted value of angle 0:


Adjusted value of angle 0 = 167'02'07.11"
® Adjusted value of angle B:
Adjusted value ofangle B = 134'44'41,31"
® Adjusted value ofangle E:
Adjusted value ofangle E =76'08'53.16"

Solution:
ANGLE OBSERVED WEJGHT
VALUE
1
A 86'15.20" 6= 0.167
1
8 134'44'35" 2=0.SO
1
C 75'48'SO" 2=0.SO
1
0 167'02.05" 6= 0.167
1
E 76'08'SO" 4=0.25
Solution:
Sum = 539'59'40" 1.584 G) Probable value of angle A:
A+8+C=41 +77+63=181'
CORRECTION ADJUSTED
Error= 181' -180' =01'
ANGLES Error= 60 mins.
LCD of 5, 6and 2 is 30
O.~~~O) = 2.11" 86'15'22.11"
Sta. Weight Correction
O.~~O) = 6.31" 134'44'41.31" I c~v( 6
A ~. 4.~ = 6 ~:;..; Z6 (50) = 13.84'
0.~.~O)=6.31" 75'48'56.31"
8 30 = 5 16 (60) =11.54'
6
O.~~~O) = 2.11" 167'02'07.11" C 30 = 15 15 (60) = 34.62'
2 26 26 50'
O.~~O) = 3.16" 76'08'53.16"
Corrected value ofA =41' - 13.84'
Sum -20" 540'00'00" Corrected value of A=40'46.16'
5-18

ERRORS AND MISTAKES

® Probable value of angle B: ® Probable value of angle B:


Corrected value of B = 77' - 11.54' Corrected value ofB = 65' + 13.85'
Corrected value of B = 76'48.46' Corrected value of B = 65'13.85'

@ Probable value of angle C: @ Probable value of angle C:


Corrected value of C = 63' - 34.62' Corrected value of C = 75' +27.69'
Corrected value of C = 62'25.38' Corrected value of C=75'27.69'

Solution:
Solution: ill Average mean value:
ill Probable value ofangle A: Average value (mean)
A + B + C= 39 + 65 + 75 = 179' 200.58 + 200.40 + 200.38 + 200.46
Error =180' - 179' =01' =
4
Error =60 mins. Average value (mean) = 200.455
LCD of3, 4 and 2 is 12
® Probable error of the mean:
Sta. Weight Correction
12 4 /
A -=4
3 13 (60)= 18.46 Length V V2
3 200.58 200.58 - 200.455 = +0.125 0.015625
B 12 =3 13 (50) = 13.85
4 200.40 200.40 - 200.455 = - 0.055 0.003025
12 =6 6 200.38 200.38 - 200.455 = - 0.075 0.005625
C 2 13 (50) =27.69
200.46 200.46 - 200.455 = +0.005 0.000025
13 60
,,£V2 =0.0243
Corrected value of A = 39' + 18.46'
Corrected value of A = 39'18.46'
5-19

ERRORS AND MISTAKES


)',,,·v.
fd. .-.~.

-V
XV-1)
Probable error of mean =0.6745 ..n(n
2
Probable error= 0.6745
- r""iV2
-\I n(n:1)
P.E. =0.6745
-v 0.0243
4(3} Probable error =0.6745
~0.0236
4{3}
PE =±0.03 Probable error =± 0.0299

® Precision of the measurements: ® Standard deviation:


0.03 p "
Precision = 200.455
1
i ,,,,

·Y. Standard devta ""IG2


. t·Ion = - ~

Precision =6681.83
..y0.0236
.. 1 Standard deviation = -3-
PreCISion =6682
Standard deviation =± 0.0887

® Standard error.
Standard deviation
Standard error = -{;

±O.OBB?
Standard error = {4 =± 0.0443

Solution:
CD Probable error.
Mean value
120.68 + 120.84 + 120.76 + 120.64
= 4
Mean value = 120.73

Residual V V2
CD What is thewelghfofroute 3as$uming the
120.68 • 120.73 =·0.05 0.0025 weightof route f equal tD 1.
120.84 -120.73 =+0.11 0.0121 ® What is the .sum of the weighted
120.76 -120.73 =+0.03 0.0009 obserVation. .
120.64 -120.73 =- 0.09 0.OOB1 @ What i$ the most probable value of the
LV2 =0.0236 elevatlon.
5-20

ERRORS AND MISTAIES

Solution:
CD Weight ofroute 3:
The weights are inversely proportional to
the square of the corresponding probable
errors.
" K
1 J/1 = (2)2 .
K 'J
W3= (6)2

4W1 = 16W2 = 36W3 = 64W4


W1 = 4W2 = 9W3 = 16W4
1
IfW1 = 1 W3 =9=0.1111
1 1
W2 =4'=0.25 W4 = 16 =0.0625

Therefore the weight ofroute 3 = 0.1111.

@ Sum of the weighted obseNation:


Solution:
F"'.
ROUTE DIFFERENCE IN WEIGHT' CD Probable value under each set:
t· ELEVATION Most probable value using the Invartape in
1 measurements:
1 340.22 571.185 + 571.186 + 571.179 + 571.180 + 571.183
2 'I 340.30 0.25 5
3 (, 340.26 0.1111 :; =571.183
4 I'. 340.32 0.0625
Most probable value using the Steel tape
Sum= in measurements:
1.4236
571.193 + 571.190 + 571.185 + 571.189 + 571.182
5
WEIGHTED ~) = 571.188
OBSERVATION @ Probable Errors under each set:
240.22 (1) = 240.220 Probable error using Invar tape:
340.30 (0.25) = 85.075 ~H
340.36(0.1111) = 37.803 Invar tape Residual (V) V2
340.32 (0.0625) = 21.270 571.185 - 571.183 = 0.002 0.000004
Sum = 484.368 :'5.' 571.186 - 571.183 = 0.003 0.000009
571.179 - 571.183 = - 0.004 0.000016
571.180·571.183 = ·0.003 0.000009
The sum of weighted obseNation 571.183·571.183 = 0 0.000000
=484.368 'Dfl =0.000038
@ Most probable value of the elevation:
484.368 PE = 0.6745
-GY2
'\J nTtJ=1)
Most Probable Value = 1.4236
Most Probable Value = 340:424
~. ~.,

"~, PE = ~ 0.000038
5(4)
= 00009'1
± . v
S-21

ERRORS AND MISTAKES

Probable erro~us;ng Steel tape: WE2 = W1 E12


1;.

Steel tape ::I.. Residual (V) V2 WE2 = W2 E22


571.193 - 571.1~ 0.005 0.000025
571.190-571.188 0.002 0.000004 W1 E12
571.185 - 571,188 - 0.003 0.000009 ~= W
571.189 - 57-V,188 t{).OO1 0.000001
571.182-57t188 -0.006 0.000036 E2 = 1.98(0.00093)2
{ }:.V2 =0.000075 2.98
E= ±O.DOO76 (probable errorofmean)

. PE = 0.6745
-GT
'\J ~ ..-
W2 E,2
~= W
PE = 0 6'745'" J0.000075
' \ { 5(4) £:2 = 1.00(0.00131)2
PE =to.OO131 2.98
E=tO.OOO76
® Most probable value ofthe two sets:
Probable value Probable error
.-;. 571.183 Ei =0.00093
"1571.188 E2=0,oo131
. 1
K
'2 =/ K
W1 =E2
W1 Ei 2 = W2 Ei
W1 (0,00093Y = W2 (0.00131)2
Ass. W2 = 1
Ei ') k r.

..••-fd!:··~;W·:J:~1
Wi (0,OOO93Y =1 (0,OO131j,2
Wi = 1.98
Weight/
W1 = 1,98
" ' c:~F:'~~;11
.~ .. poC
t','
I·'
Wt. x value
1130.94
i l ! !f~jl:l!lll~~;l.
W2 = 1.00
Sum= W=. 298"'.'.'1
.-
571.188
- - . .,"
1702.18.:'//
li'_liiil~ii:!~1
1702.128
Most probable value ofthe two sets = ~ Solution:
Most probable value ofthe two sets = 571.184 G) Probable error:
40'31' + 40'34' +40'36'
Mean value = 3
@ Probable error ofthe general mean:
K Mean value =40'33.7'
W=E2
K Residual v ? V2
W1=-2 40'31' - 40'33.7' = 2.7 7.29
E1 40'34' -40'33.7' = t{).3 0.09
2
E2 _ W1 E1 40'36' -40'33.7 = +2.3 5.29
- W
E2_ W2E l }:. V2 =12.67
- W
5-22

ERRORS AND MISTAKES

Probatie error =0.6745 -,,~-G:V2 G) Probable error:

-52
Probable error =0.6745 ." ~
_f12.67
Probable error =0.6745 -" 3(3=1)
Probable error = ± 0.98 Probable efTDr= 0.6745 ~ = ± 0.039
® Standard deviation:
@ Standard error.
-52
Standard deviation = -" ;;'::1 -fiV2
Standard deviation =-" ~

Standard deviation ="_112.67


2-2-
Standard devia,tion= ± 2.52
Standard deviation = ~ =0.10
Standard deviation
® Standard error:
Standard error = v;,
2.52
Standard error = 13 Standard error = ~ = ± 0.577
Standard error = ± 1.453
@ Precision:
0.039
Precision = 141.70
1
Precision = 3633

ii;Atili1:~' 11'1~;
Solution:
Average value (mean)
141.60 + 141.80 + 141.70
= 3 (j)Flrldthepr°bable¥~I»~\)faogleA.
Average value (mean) = 141.70 @ FiMthepto~~~I~Y~19~f>1~r~I~B,< .,
@tIMt!'leproMPi¢VaI4¢~f~OglE~% ,',
V v2
141.60 ·141.70 =·0.10 +0.01 Solution:
141.80 -141.70 = +0.10 +0.01 Error= 180· (39' +65' +75')
141.70-141.70= 0 o .Error = 01'
Error = 50' (too smalQ
S·23

ERRORS AND MISTAKES

. Weight
Solution:
CD Corrected angle A:
A 39' 12 =6
2 Angles Value Weight Corrections
A 92' 12/6 =6 6/15 (60) =24'
B 65' 12=4 B 88' 12/4 =3 3/15 (60) =12'
3 C 71' 12/3 =4 4/15 (60) =16'
o 110' 12/6 = 2 2/15 (50) =..!
C 75' 12 = 3
4 15 00'
13 Error =(92 + 88 +71 +110) - 360
Error =01' = 60' (too big)
Correction Corrected Angles Corrected angle A = 92' ·24'
Corrected angle A = 91'36'
6
13 (50) =27.69' 39' 27'41" ® Corrected angle B:
Correded angle B =88' • 12'
1~ (50) = 18.46' 65'18' 28" Corrected angle 8 = 87'48'

® Corrected angle C:
3 Correctedangle C= 71' • 16'
13 (50) =13.85' 75' 13'51"
Correctedangle C = 70' 44'
50'

CD Probable value of angle A:


Probable value of angle A =39' 27' 41"

® Probable value of angle B:


Probable value of angle B = 65'18' 28"

® Probable value of angle C:


Probable value of angle C= 75'13' 51"

Solution:
CD Probable value of angle A:
Sum ofinterior angles = (n· 2)180
Sum ofinferior angles = (5· 2)(180)
Sum ofinterior angles = 540'
@•• • qO/tlflM~m~#Jffep(#1.val®(Jt.ittg~.!} •.• Sum = 110' +98' + 108' +120' +105'
.~ • • GOI1)P~t~lhe(;Orr¢¢t#lv~lpe9f.~leEl.·i·<.·· Sum=541'
·®••··CornplJ@ftle90rrec!ed·vBll.le.ofangle.Q... Error =0l' or 50' (to be subtracted)
S-24

ERRORS AND MISTAIES

Sta. Angles Weight Solution:


110' 12 -6
A 2- 28'34' + 61'15' =89'49'
Error = 40"
B 98' 12=4
3 Angle Weight
12 =3 1
C 108' BAC 2=0.5
4
12 =2 1
0 120'
6
BAD 4=0.25
12 =3 1
E 105' CAD 2=0.5
4
18 1.25
COITection Corrected Angles Correction Corrected Values
6
18 (50) =20' 109' 40' 00" 40 (9.5) = 16" 28'34'16"
1.25
1~ (60) =13.33' 91' 46' 40.2" 40 (0.25) =.8" 89'49'32"
1.25
1~ (50) =10' 101' 50'00" 40 (0.5) = 16" 61'15'16"
1.25
2
18 (60) =6.67' 119' 53'19.8"
<D Probable value ofangle BAC = 28'34'16"
1~ (50) =10' 104' 50' 00"
@ Probable value ofangle BAD = 89'49'32"
50' 540'00'00"
® Probable value of angle CAD = 61'15'16"
Probable value ofangle A :: 109'40' 00"
@ Probable value ofangle C= 107'50' 00"
@ Probable value ofangle 0 = 119'53'19.8"

(1).. f)eleWIM1heWeight.(lfr@W.@lTIber.g.
® ·Oelertrilne fhemO$fpt()Pabledlffe$/1¢eJo
elevatioll, .. .
® P~t~it1e.tnelnosfprOb@IEleIWalion·tJfQ
lnmetars.· . .
S-25

ERRORS AND MISTAKES

Solution:
CD Weight ofroute no. 2.:
W1D1 = W2D2 = waDa = W4 D4
Assume:
W1 =6
6(2)= W2 (6)
W2=2 Solution:
2(6) = wa (4) Determine first the weight of each route
wa =3 111
3(4) =w4 (8) 10 16 40
w4 = 1.5
Weight ofroute 2 = 2 To find the weight, divide the L.C.D. by its
distance.
@ Probable difference in elev:
Route Weight WI. x Diff in elevation CD Probable weight of route B:
1 6 6(0.86) =5.16 ROUTE LENGTH WEIGHT
2 2 2(0.69) =1.38 A 10 160 =16
10
3 3 3(0.75) =2.25
4 1.5 1.5(1.02) =1.53 B 16 160 = 10
- -- 16
12.5 10.32
C 40 160 =4
40
Probable diff. in elev. = 1102~52 Sum=3O
Probable diff. in elev. = 6.826
Weight ofroute B= 10
@ Probable elevation of C:
Probable elevation ofC= 825 + 0.82 @ Probable difference in elevation:
Probable elevation of C = 825.82 16(632.81) = 10124.96
10(632.67) = 6326.78
4(633.30) = 2533.28
18984.86

Mast probable d·ff.· . 18984.86


I.melev.=~
lines of levels are run from BM1 to BM2 over
three different routes. Ifthe elevation of BM1 is Most probable diff. in elev. = 632.83
100 m. above the sea level.
Route Length (Diff. In Elev.) @ Probable elevation of 8M2:
Between Bm1 & Bm2 Probable elevation of 8M2
A 10 .632.81
= 100 + 632.83
B 16 632.67
C 40 633.30 = 732.83 m. above sea level
5-26

ERRORS AND MISTAIES

·.I.• [dlrr2;~lull~lfll_·.

i I• • •;'
·~~~.··.O•·.••·n. ~.$ · ., 4v
•.••.•. '.•. •.•.•.•·.•.•. '.·.•L.• ..•·.•.•.1•• .~ t >.>
~• .• •.• • •.·•.~~I~i
6i• • • • • • • • •
. ·• .E.•.·••.• •.•.•.•.•.•.•.• . ·•. ••. •. I.I. •.••. : ..• 1.•11..• •.k1.•·. .•.• .•.•.L.•.•.• . E
l.·•. .•
U.
~~~:~»<i~
Solution:
® Probable weighted mean:
Line Diff. in Elev. Weight
Solution: 1 41.16 6
CD Probable error of the resulting computation: 2 41.20 4
3 41.12 3
PE =..J (b Eh)2 + (h Eb)2 13
b =314.60
WI. x Diff. in Elev. V WV2
h=92.60 6(41.16)=246.96 0 o
Eb =+0.16 4(41.20) =164.80 +0.04 0.0064
Eh =0.14 3(41.12)=123.36 -0.04 0.0048
.-----~--- 535.12 0.0112
PE =..J[314.6(0.14)]2 + [92.60(0.16)~
V1 =41.16-41.16=0
PE =+46.47
V2 =41.20 - 41.16 = +0.04
V3=41.12 ~ 41.16 =- 0.04
@ Probable error of the sum of the sides: .
535.12
PE =..J (PE1)2 + (PE2)2 + (PE3)2 + (PE4)2 Weighted mean = ~ = 41.16

PE =..J (0.04)2 +(0.08)2 +(0.04~ + (0.08~ ® Standard deviation:


PE =+0.126
Standard deviation = ~~21)
@ Relative precision:
. .. 0.043 . . 0.30112
ReIatlve precIsion = 860 Standard deViation = 13(3 _1)
Standard deviation =±O.021
Relative precision = 2~O
@ Elevation 8Mi
Elevation 8M2 =212.40 - 41.16
Elevation 8M2 = 171.24
5-27

ERRORS AND MlSTAIES

8M,

· hted d·ff.·
Wieig I '1436.36
I .meev.=~

Weighted diff. in elev. = 143.636

@ Bevation of 8M3:
Elev. of 8M3 = 143.636 + 30.162
Bev. of 8M3 = 173.798 m.

@ Adjusted elevation of8M2:


Total Correction for route 1
=143.70 ·143.636
=O.064m.
3
Correction for 8M2 = 10 (0.064)
Solution: Correction for 8M2 =0.0192
0) Weighted difference in elevation between Correction for diff. in elev. of BM1 and 8M2
BM1 & 8M3: = 68.258·0.0192
Route Distance Diff. in elev. = 68.2388 m.
1 10 km. 68.258 + 75.442 = 143.70
2 6km. 143.62 Adj. Elev. of8M2 =30.162 + 68.2388
3 15 km. 143.58 Adj. Elev. of 8M2 =98.4008 m.
w1 01 =w2 02 =w3 03
wd10) =6w2 =15w3
Ass: W2=5
w1 (10) =6(5)
w1 =3 From starting .P:OiN A,eleyatipn340;6S m·,
3(10) =15 w3 theelevat~nof asecondpotnt6is f6Und, lile
w3=2 rottle, distance<liidefevationof 8 being
respeClivelyas f6HoWs: Route J ~ 4 km, 3&h64
Ditt. in Weight WI. x Ditt. m., Roule2· 2,5 krri., 364.2.0 m. Route 3-3
elev. in Elev. km.,365.01 m.,R()ute4- 6 km., 364.31m,
143.70 3 3(143.7) =431.10 Midway alOng route 1~8M1 is located with an
143.62 5 5(143.62) = 718.10 elevation of 35U9. Along route 4, 2.5 km.
143.58 2 2(143.58) = 287.16 from AIQwards 6,6M2 is located, with an
10 1436.36 elevation of 349;86 m..

~., .
S-28

ERRORS AND MISTAKES

il.ipillelB
@ Error in elevation of 8 using route 4:
Error in route 4 =364.60 - 364.37
Error in route 4 = 0.23 m
@ Adjusted elevation of 8M2 using route 4:
Solution: Correction for 8M2 =2 5 (023)
CD Weighted elevation of 8:
6
Correction for 8M2 =0.096 m.
A Corrected £Iev. of 8M2 = 349.86 + 0.96
Corrected Bev. of 8M2 =349.956

Route Distance Elevation of 8


1 4 km. 364.84 m
2 2.5 km. 364.20 m.
3 3 km. 365.01 m.
4 6 km. 364.37 m.
k k
w1 =01 w2 =02
k k
WJ=- w4=-
03 04
w1 01= w2 ~ = w3 03 = w4 04
Ass: w1 = 1.0
Solution:
(1)(4) =2.5(W2)
CD Probable weight of A:
w2 = 1.6 k
w1 01 = w3 0 3 w1=-2
E1
(1 )(4) = w3 (3)
w3= 1.33 w1 E1 2 =W2 E l
w1 (3.2)2 =w2 (1.6)2
w1 01 = w4 04
(1)(4) = w4 (6) Assume w2 = 1
w4 =0.67 _ (1.6)2
WI. WI. x Elev. w1- (3.2f
1.0 1(364.84) = 364.84 w1 = 0.25
1.6 1.6(364.20) = 582.72 Observer Angle Error
1.33 1.33(365.01) = 485.13
A 42'16'25" ±3.2"
0.67 0.67(364.37) = 244.13 8 42'16'20" ±1.6"
4.60 1677.15
Weight WI. x Angle
Weighted elev. of 8:
0.25 25(0.25) = 6.25
1677.15 1.00 20(1) = 20.0
Elev. 8 =4:60 = 364.60
1.25 26.25
5-29

ERRORS AND MISTAKES

@ Sum of the weight of A and B: @ Actual ground area:


Sum of the weight of Aand B = 1 + 0.25 Combined factor = 0.9998756 (0.9999)
Sum of the weight of Aand B =1.25 Combined factor = 0.999775612
25425
@ Most probable value of the angle: Actual ground area = (0.999775612)2
Actual ground area = 25436.41 sq,m.
Best value of the angle =42'16' + 21~;;
Best value of the angle =42'16'21"

(IJ The dlfference of elevation between two


points\vas deterlllil1eq by tng~nometrjc
CD A line tneasures6846.34 in. at elevation l~!Veling, . The slope . distance was
.. 993.9 m. The average radiusofcurvature measured electronically andw~s .found to
in the area is 6400 km~Corilpute thesEla be 148e.72m.. andtheieh~h dis!<lncewas
. leYeldistance. 83'14'20". Calcul~te fhediffetence In
elevation between the two points.. .•... .....
®. The ground distance as corrected for
temp., sag and puUcorrection Is 10000 m. ®The' geodetic length qf a line on theearlh's
ff the sea level reduction factor is surface is found 10 be 5280 m. and Its grid
. 0.9998756 and the flrid scale factor is dl$tanceis equal tClS279.67 m.· Compute
0.9999000,corripute the grid distance of the scate factor used. . . ........ ...
the same1ine,
@ The corrected field distance on the surface
@ The grid area of a parcel of landis 25425 of the earth was found to be 3296.43 m.·· If
sq.m. If the sea level re:ductionfactor is the elevation factor isl).9999()4zand a
0.9998756 and the griel scale factor is scale factor ofO.9999424,compufe the grid
0.9999, determine the actual grOUnd area. distance. ..

Solution: Solution:
CD Difference in elevation:
CD Sealevel distance:
Vertical angle =90' - 83'14'20"
Reduction factor =1 - ~ Vertical angle =6'45'40"
Diff. in elevation = 1486.72 Sin 6'45'40"
· I 1 993.9 Diff. in elevation =175.03 m.
ReductJon lactor = - 6400000
Reduction faqtor= 0.99984 @ Scale factor:
Sea level distance =6846.34 (0.99984) Grid distance =Geodetic length
x scale factor
Sea level distance =6845,24 m.
5279.67
Scale factor = 5280
@ Grid distance:
Scale factor =0.9999375
Combination factor
=0.9998756(0.9999000) @ Grid factor'
=0.9997756 Grid factor = elevation factor x scale factor
Grid factor = 0.9999642(0.9999424)
Grid distance =10000(0.9997756) Grid factor =0.9999066
Grid distance =9997.756 m. Grid distance =3296.43(0.9999066)
Grid distance =3296.12 m.
5-30

LEVEliNG

1. Dumpy Level

2. Wye Level

1. Adjustment of Level Tube:


To make the axis of the level tube
perpendicular to the vertical axis.

2. Adjustment of Horizontal Cross~Hair:


To make the horizontal cross-hair lie in a
plane perpendicular to the vertical axis.
1. In the dumpy level, the bubble tube is
3. Adjustment of the Line of Sight: attached to the level bar while in the wye
To make the line of sight parallel to the level it is attached to the telescope.
axis of level tube.
2. In the dumpy level, the bubble tube can
be adjusted in a vertical plane only,
while in the wye level it may be adjusted
vertically and laterally.

3. In the dumpy leVel, the telescope is


1. Adjustments of Level Tube:
rigidly fastened to the level bar and can
To make the axis of level tUbe lie in the
not be removed there from, while in the
same plane with the axis of the wyes.
wye level, the telescope rests in Y-
shaped supports which permit it to be
2. Adjustment of Level Tube: removed and reversed end for end or
To make the axis of the level tube revolved abolit the axis of collars.
parallel to the axis of wye.

3. Adjustment of Horizontal Cross-Hair: 4. The dumpy is more rigidly constructed


To make the horizontal cross-hair lie in a that the wye that it has fewer
plane perpendicular to the vertical axis. adjustments. However, to adjust a
dumpy level would require at least two
4. Adjustment of Line of Sight:
men whereas a wye level may be
adjusted by only one man.
To make the line of sight coincide with
the axis of the wyes.
5. In the dumpy the supports are not
5 Adjustment of Level Tube: adjustable, while in the wye, one end of
To make the axis of level tube the level bar may be adjusted vertically.
perpendicular to the vertical axis.
5-31

LEVELING

11. Settlement of tripod or turning points:


This could be eliminated by choosing
stable locations, and taking backsight
and foresight readings in qUick
succession.
1. Imperfect adjustment of instrument:
This could be eliminated by adjusting the
instrument or by balancing the sum of
foresight and backsight distances.

2. Rod not of standard length:


This could be eliminated by
standardiZing the rod and apply 1. Imperfect adjustment of instrument
corrections same as for tape.
2. Parallax
3. Parallax: 3. Earth's curvature
This could be eliminated by focusing 4. Atmospheric refraction
carefully. 5. Variation in temperature
4. Bubble not centered at instant of sighting: 6. Rod not standard length
This could be eiiminated by checking the 7. Expansion or contraction of rod
bubble before making each sight. 8. Rod not held plumb
5. Rod not held plumb: 9. Faulty turning points
This could be eliminated by waving the 10. Settlement oftripod ortuming points
rod or using rod level. 11. Bubble not exactly centered at the
instant of sighting
6. Faulty of reading the rod: 12. Inability of observer to read the rod
This could be eliminated by checking
exactly.
each rod reading before recording.

7. Faulty turning point:


This could be eliminated by choosing
definite and stable points.

8. Variation of temperature:
This could be eliminated by protecting
the level from the sun while making
observations.
1. Confusion of numbers in reading and
recording.
9. Earth's curvature: 2. Recording B.S. on the F.S. column and
This could be eliminated by balancing vice-versa.
each backsight and foresight distance, or 3. Faulty additions and subtractions.
. apply the computed correction. 4. Rod not held on the same point for both
10. Atmospheric refraction: B.S. and F.S.
This could be eliminated by balancing 5. Wrong reading of the vernier when the
each backsight and foresight distance, target rod is used.
also take short sights well above ground 6 Not having target set properly when the
and take backsight and foresight long rod is used.
readings qUick succession.
S-31-A

lEVELING

R =radius of earth
R::6400km.
K2
h =2R
Horizonrul Lint!
h = K2 (1000)
2(6400)
h =0.078 K2
hr--~
7
h = 1 (0.078 K2)
Horizontal Line = a straight line tangent to a r 7
level surface. hr =0.011 K2
Level Surface =a curved surface every her = h - hr
element of which is normal to the plumb her = 0.078 K2 - 0.011 K2
line.
Level line = a line in a level surface.

From the figure shown, an object actually her = in meters


at C would appear to be at B, due to K =in thousand of meters
atmospheric refraction, wherein the rays of
light transmitted along the surface of the earth
is bent downward slightly. The value of h Derivation:
represents the effect of earths curvature and
atmospheric refraction and has the following
values.

DERIVATION OF
C.URVATURE and ~
REFRAqTION CORRECTION

Conditions:

h =height in m. of the line of sight, at the


intervening hill C, above sea level.
h1 =height in m. of the station occupied A,
above sea level.
h2 :: height in m. ofthe station observed B,
above sea level.
0 1 :: distance in miles of the intervening
K2 + R2 :: (R + h)2
hill C from A.
K2 + R2 =F{2 + 2 Rh + h2 O2 :: distance in miles of the intervening
'Since h is so small, h2 is negligible hill C from B.
S-31-B

lEVELING

Since h1, h, and h2 are vertical heights, and considering the effects of
curvature and refraction at A and S, as reckoned from a tangent (horizontal) line at
sea level vertically below C, the figure can be reconstructed in its plane sense.

Hoeizontal Line

In triangle ABE, by proportion:

(h 1 - 0.067012) - (h2 - 0.0670,2) _h- (h2 - o.067Dll


0 1 +~ - ~

hl - h2 - 0.067 (0 12 - Ol) _ h- h2 + 0.067Q2


01+~ - ~

h- h2 + 0.0670l =: ~ [h 1 - h2 - 0.067(0, + O2)(01 • O2)]

h =: h2 - 0·067Ol + 0 ~D-t (hl • h2) - 0.067~ (01- D-tl


1

h =h2 - 0·067Oi + 0
1
~2O2 (h l - h2) - 0.0670 102 + 0.067D-t2
5-32

LEVEUNG

@ Diff. in elevation ofstation 7 and station 4:


Diff. in elevation of station 7 and 4
=400.78 - 389.01
=11.77
@ Elevation of station 3 = 392.61

Inm~.pla~ • beIOW$Ho~s.adlffer~ntial.levelln9
frorlt~rct1.ITla.rt<.to~nomer.~nph • rnark,al?(lg'
ea®llqerepr~$~n~~~~rShUnthe~etualr()d
r~~din~· • • • Tbe • dj~~~n • • of•• lbtl.Jjeh:lwork•• is
indica~~,pythe.nlJrnber.oft1,Jllllng.polnts·
ill, 90rnPlItet/lE!el~YliijortpfTP2'
@ 9ptnplJleth~ele¥~ti@Qf,~~.w
® '. ()o@i.JteJneelevau®mJPs·

Solution:
Note: H.I. = Elev. + B.S.
Elev. = H.I. - F.S.
BM,
Sta. B.S. H.I. F.S. Elev. El,33.971

1 5.87 398.12 392.25


2 7.03 398.86 6.29 391.83
3 3.48 396.09 6.25 392.61
4 7.25 396.26 7.08 389.01
5 10.19 400.88 5.57 390.69 Solution:
6 9.29 405.72 4.45 396.43 Sta. B.S. H.I. F.S.
7 4.94 400.78 BM, 2.565 36.536
TP 1 10.875 41.59 5.821
TP 2 7.035 46.679 1.946
IBS = 43.11 IFS =34.58 BM2 3.560 44.498 5.741
TP3 7.186 41.948 9.736
Arithmetic check: BM 1 7.977
IBS - IFS "43.11 - 34.58 = 8.53
400.78 - 392.25 = 8.53 Sta. Elev. Remarks
BM 1 33.971 Bench Mark No.1
CD Diff. in elevation of station 7 and station 5: TP, 30.715 Turning point
Diff. in elevation of station 7 and 5 TP 2 39.644 Turning point
= 400.78 - 390.69 BM 2 40.938 Bench Mark NO.2
=10.09m. TP 3 34.762 Turning point
BM 1 33.971 Bench M;:jrk NO.1
S-33

lEVELING

Arithmetical check: Solution:


LF.S. = 5.821 + 1.946 + 5.741
+ 9.736 + 7.977
LF.S. =31.221 STA 8S HI FS IFS ELEV
LB.S. =2.565 + 10.875 + 7.035 8M, 2.32 331.02 328.70
+ 3.560 + 7.186 1 1.7 329.32
LB.S. =31.221 2 2.2 328.82
LF.S.. B.S. =31.221 ·31.221 =0
3 1.2 329.82
33.971 - 33.971 =0
4 0.9 330.12
CD Elevation of TP2: TP1 2.77 330.36 3.43 327.59
Elevation of TP 2 = 39.644 m. 5 2.2 328.16
6 3.7 326.66
@ Elevation of 8M2:
7 1.6 328.76
Elevation of 8M2 = 40.938 m.
TP~ 2.22 329.52 3.06 327.30
@ Elevation of TP3: 8 2.8 326.72
Elevation of TP3 = 34.762 m. 9 3.6 325.92
10 2.0 327.52
11 1.1 328.42
BM~ 2.45 327.07
7.31 8.94
%hefj@r~M4w~ • i:t•• $RMmajjc.~$l®¢mElnt • !)f
~• • pro~I~ •. I~y~I • fl'llt~frgrn·aM1 •.lir9•• a.Mi··.·.TM. Arithmetic check:
\I~W~~lhdiC~ledrE!pre$~NPMK$lgrt,. 8.94 - 7.31 = 1.63
.f()(eSi9nt, • ~rld • •jl'ltl3fm~(jiate • f()J'.esigh1•• re~~i.~.~· 328.70 - 327.07 = 1.63
l1:ikEln.·on.~tMOl'l~.aI9ng.the. rolJle.·.Elevation.• 9f
13M,£W!.70m,· . .
CD Difference in elevation between stations
Sand 9:
= 328.16 - 325.92
=2.24m.
® Elevation of TP 2:
Elevation of TP2 =327.30 m.

® Elevation of 8M2:
Elevation of 8M 2 =327.07 m.

CD Find the difference in elevation between


stations 5 and 9. From the given prUflleleveling notes:
@ Find theelevatiQn of TP2.
@ Find the elevation ofBM2.
S-34

lEVEliNG

I BS· . FS Arithmetic check:


BM. 1 0.95 - 225.50 9.03 . 8.41 = 0.62
}
226.12 . 225.50 =0.62
.....
::c: ~I 3.13 0.64 ~
CD Difference in elevation between station
Sand 2:
I
=225.8 ·224.2
= 1.6m.

® Bevation ofTPi
Elevation of TP2 = 227.66 m.

® Elevation ofBMi
..
Elevation ofBM2 = 224.88 m.

0.62 2.37
,
·3.50
..

~···1.24
BM.
M~09&.tMJ()ll9Wlng.(l~$crlRfl®.lothemtfu.()f
(J)·>What•. . . j~ . •'.t@•• • diff¢ri3nce•• · in .··elevallon· .prMIEl.~¥l'll.hQt~~C9mp~I~· • tPel~Y@()r1, • • • A·
betW~~~$ta1k>o5~6d2, • •.• ' \ l~vellS$l;!t4PBll~~r~dlngcrlg.~~5l'rl.I$
@jyomputelh&l'll&Y<ltioopfTF'ti . tilken•• on•• a.tlench•• mal'l<..llie.~levam)l'l.6fWhjch
@ c:ornput~theeleva~Cll1of8M:( iS12·13qrn·Atth~tlegihrying()f~e@et6tl~
Solution: prBfl'ed'••l®•• WdJeadjn~,lsg·Q?5~.·.~~m·fl'9hj.
ml:ll:>egin~jl1g,)tis1·~1TI'l1·aJepm·,ifi$
STA BS FS IFS ELEV {l;702m.atpem.and~1m.,thet()~~at!lng$
HI
BM, 0.95 226.45 225.50 ~te • l.2~1 • nl;~@.O.7§2.lil. • r~spe¢tj@M·.·.()(ja
rocklh~tistlQtoPlll1e,tMtPdrl;!~qiMl~
1 3.0 223.50
0.p55•• lTl.•• Jh~·.le\l&liS,me{l·remo\lM.ahead,$et
2
TP, 3.13 228.94 0.64
2.3 224.2
225.81
ea
upand•• aroqf dingqt.1.95Z.m· i QbseNed,
the}odsljllbelngh~ld()nlherock,Ttte
*.
3 2.7 226.2 readjllgs • al()h~.th~.PtOfil#.~re.thenrll~lJrn¢d;
4 2.8 226.1 90m.• ftoll'llhebegir,"jl1gofth~ljn~/therod
5 3.1 225.8 reading.ls.1AS$.m.! ·'ZO.rn.• frorn••IHe.beginniog
6 0.5 228.4 of•• tile ·linl;!.tM.·readil19.is • 1AM.I'Il.,•• ~IlCllly • 1(iO
7 0.8 228.1 rn·frornt@p~9InningQfthemnethe@j
TPo 2.16 229.82 1.28 227.66 readfngfs2J9611l. .
8 0.9 228.9
(i). COrnPlJtethEle~vationatJhepQlnt60rn.
9 1.2 228.6
10 1.7 228.1
fr°rn.lhe.t¥9inning•• oflhe.line.
® CompUI~.the.eIeVatiOn.l)f.the.tumjn9.pol{lt
11 2.8 227.0 @ CornPufe lhe difference in &/evation ala
TP~ 0.82 228.27 2.37 227.45 P<Jlflt.·1~0I11;·.ar1d • 81•• lTl..• fTorn.the·\:ieginning
TPA 1.35 226.12 3.50 224.88 oftheHne.
12 3.0 223.1
BMo 1.24 224.88
8.41 9.03
5·]5

lEVELING

Solution: cD Find thedlff. in elevation belweEm TPl and


STA BS HI FS IFS ELEV TP3' . '.'
@ .. Find the elevation of~.
BM 2.995 15.130 12.135 @ What is the difference in elevation
0 2.625 12.505 between BM 1 and TP2'
30 1.617 13.513
60 0.702 14.428 Solution:
66 1.281 13.849
81 0.762 14.368 STA BS HI FS ELEV
TP 1.952 16.527 0.55~ 14.575 BM 1 9.08 758.14 749.06
90 1.159 15.368 BM 1 9.08 758.14
120 1.434 15.093 TP -L 12.24 766.65 3.73 754.41
150 2.196 14.331 TP 1 -R 10.10 766.64 1.60 756.54
4.947 0.555 TP?-L 11.04 775.48 2.21 764.44
Arithmetic check: TP?-H 9.92 775.48 1.08 765.56
4.947 - 0.555 =4.392 TP1 -L 1.75 767.39 9.84 765.64
16.527 - 12.135 =4.392 TP,·H 0.55 767.41 8.62 766.86
BM? 11.27 756.12
CD Elevation at point 60 m. from the beginning 8M? 11.27 756.14
of the line: 49.62
63.76
=14.428 m.
® Elevation of the tuming point = 14.575 m. Arithmetic check:
63.76 - 49.62 =14.14
GD Difference in elevation at point 150 m. and
81 m. from the beginning of the line: 14~/4 =7.07
= 14.368 -14.331
=O.037m. Ave. elev. of BM2
756.12 + 756.14
2
=756.13
756: 13 - 749.06 =7.07
.Data shown is obtained from a double rodded
line of levels of a certain cross-seclion of the CD Diff. in elevation between TP I and TP3:
proposed ManUa-Bataan Road. :: 754.41 + 756.54
EIev.o f TP I 2
IA. RS. F.S ELEV. Elev. of TP I =755.475
I. 9.08 749.06 - 765.64 + 766.86
9.08 EIev.of TP3 - 2
TP1 -L 12.24 3.73 Elev. of TP3 = 766.250
1 ~n
Diff. in elevation =766.250 - 755.475
TPrL 11.04 Diff. in elevation =10.775 m.
1.08
TP~-l 1.75 9.84 ® Elevation of BMi
K62 I 756.12 + 756.14
11.27 2
11.27 =756.13 m.
S-36

LEVELING

® Difference in elevation betwwen 8M1 and STA. Rise Fall Reduce Level
TP2: 346.75
BM 1
'
E,ev.o f TP - 764.44 + 765.56 1 +0.860 347.61
2- 2
Elev. of TP2 :: 765.00 2 +1.153 348.763
Diff. in elevation:: 765 - 749.06 3 +0.059 348.822
Diff. in elevation:: 15.94 m. 4 -1.046 347.776
BM, +0.672 348.448
2.744 1.046

Rise:: 3.755-2.895
Rise:: 0.860 m.
'l'b~ • fCtI19Wing • • @()w,s•• • fl•• • t<lbtllate(j•• • d~ta • • ()f Rise:: 2.895 -1.742
Rise:: 1.15Jm.
~VE!lil'iS·.r()t~~.#Slng.ri~~.~nd.fall.rnettiod .. Rise:: 1.742 -1.683
Ris~ :: 0.059 m.
Fall:: 1.683 - 2.729
Fall :: 1.046 m.
Rise:: 2.729- 2.057
Rise:: 0.672 m.
Rise at station 2:: 1.153 m.

® Reduced elevation at station 3:


Reduced elevation at station 1
:: 346.75 +0.86
:: 347.61 m.
Reduced elevation at station 2
=347.61 +1.153
=348.763m.
Reduced elevation at station 3
Solution: = 348.763 + 0.059
cD Rise or fall at station 2: =348.822 m.

ROD READINGS ® Reduced Level of BMi .


STA. B.S. I.F.S. F.S. Reduced Level of station 4
BM1 3.755 =348.822 - 1.046
1 2.895 = 347.776 m.
2 1.742 Reduced Level of 8M2
3 1.683 = 347.776 + 0.672
:: 348.448 m.
4 2.729
BM, 2.057 Arithmetic check:
3.755 2.057 IBS· LFS:: 3.755-2.057:: 1.698 (check)
IRise:: 0.860 + 1.153 + 0059 + 0.672
IRise:: 2.744
IFall:: 1.046
IRise· IFall:: 2.744 - 1.046 :: 1.698 (check)
S-37

lEVELING

8 :: 4.478; 4.476:: 4.477


m

A•• ffi9ipro~I • I~'J~IiDfl • • ·ls?~~~~gacmss • • a· Diff. in elevation between Aand B


~ide.• • W~er<'lQ~ • • ·ll'l~.·.t~C!pr9¢aLI~¥~I • r~~m~9:S :: 3.143 •4.477
W~r~taken[)etWEl~nP9jl'lts~aod~>as =·1.334 m.
fgll?W$,.·•• Wllhlnstrtkoeo{setup.nearA,.the.rod.
rE!a~mgs()nA~f~~.28~~nti?·285rn,Ih~ True difference in elevation Aand B
reRI!lrClC<llleYtllre~~ing()~·thT()Pposlt~~I~()f _ (-1.336) + (·1.334)
lhtlJiVerCltp9iml3ar~~.61a,~·919,~·9?1~M - 2
3.622:m··•• • ·\Nilh.th~jllsWlTlerrtsetupnear • ~; =1.335m.
lh$rad.reaqing$.(jIl••e• <'ire .4A78@d.4·47tl!n···
an9•• trye.rod•• r@~iM$ • ()n • lhe9P1lO$it~ • si~9f @ Elevation of B:
~river·llctpaitlt·A,.lhe.@lrtladln9$·<'irEl~.143,· B= 300 -1.335
M4Qi3.14u~@~.1.:t4ffl.< . . .... . ......
B= 298.665 m.
CD Compute the difference In elevation
. betweeliA and B with the. instrument set
. .• up near A ... •. . ..• . . ..../ ..• .
® What· is the true difference in· elevation
between A and B. . . •• .•. . . •.. . . . :
.~.. If the elevation at A i$~OOm:, whatis.the IO.lev~llngacro$$ • ~.Wi.d~rivE!l'6n·eall'lPa"~a.a
.·elevationofB. . / . WPiPf9cal.lev~lt~~dings • W;E!~I'~~~ .• ·b~W~l'n
p(')iht$§anqR~~$~()Y"nlnth~~~~I~~~6<
Solution:
CD Difference in elevation between A and B
with instrument set up near A:
With instrument near A:
"'1ean rod reading on A.
~ :: 2.283 + 2.285 = 2 284
i m 2 . m. 2.284 . 2~48Q
2.286 2;476
Mean rod reading on B: • 2.283·· ·2.478
B :: 3.618 + 3.619 + 3.621 + 3.622
m 4 I 1.674 3.140 . .
Bm :: 3.62 m. 1.677 3.145
I . :1.6743.142 I .
Diff. in elevation between A and B . 1.6773:1431
=2.284 - 3.62 I 1.678 3.146
::·1.336m

® True dirt. in elevation between A and B: Compute the difference in elevation


(j)
With instrument near B: between Band C with instrument set up
Mean rod reading on A: nearS.
A =3143 +3.140+ 3.146 + 3.144 ® Compute the true difference in elevation
m 4 between 6 and C.
@ If the elevation of 8 is 346.50 m., compute
Am:: 3.143
fhe elevation of C.
Mean rod reading on B:
5-38

LEVEliNG

Solution:
CD Difference in elevation between 8 and C
with instrument set up near B:
Mean rod reading on 8: ~.llne.9ftev~IS.1(lkCll· • • §ng.WE\ft4n()vet~ff.
8 =2.283 +2.284 +2.286 +2.283 ••
9~Otlll~ • • <§Ia,rting•• f~~m ~1 • Wlf~.·.·~I~Y~~An
m 4 .:!f·§<I11Elt~r~·.· • • • • rhe·•• $le~li()n • • Qf•• ~M?·.\y~s
8m =2.284 m. •
tomput~~ • lR••.tl¢•• H.·~~·m·\ It•• wa$•• f()ung9ut
tJQ',Y~Y~r • ttJat•• tIle•• ~Yel.settIEls.5.rl11'!l.b~~n.
fbe•• in~lanf.Af.ey~rt • ba,d($ighf•• r~a.ding,.me.Wd
Mean rod reading on C:
C =1.675 + 1.674 + 1.677 + 1.674 + 1.677 + 1.678
~tlttl~~ •. 2•• mrn••
if•• th~ • • ~c;k~ight.<1nd • • fo(esjghl
d:islanl;ElheveanE\verage100m.< FindJhe
m 6 (x)rte~teJevati6l'ldfaM2·<· .. . .
Cm = 1.676 m.

Diff. in elevation between 8 and C with .~w • •Oet~rrnjne


•.•1.. Find.l~errO(duetO.$MllementW~~I .• •
• the.elT9r•• duet()•• s~tt~Il1El.~tOf
instrument set up near 8 f()(j.\
=2.284 • 1.676 WCpfJ1Pulilthecprrecled elevaticiflpfBMi·<
=+O.60Bm.
Solution:
@ True diff. in elevation between 8 and C: CD Error due to settlement oflevel:
Mean rod reading on C: 10000
C - 2.478 +2.480 +2.476 +2.478 No. of set ups = 100 + 100
m 4 No. ofsetups = 50
Cm =2.478 m.
Error due to settlement oflevel
Mean rod reading on 8: =50(0.005)
8 = 3.143 + 3.140 + 3.145 + 3.142 + 3.143 + 3.146 =O.25m.
m 6
8m =3.143 m. @ Error due to settlement ofrod:
N ft' .t 10000 1
0.0 ummgpoms= 100 + 100·
Diff. in elevation between Band C
=3.143·2.478 No. of turning points = 49
=0.665 m.
Error due to settlement of rod
True difference in elevation
=49(0.002)
0.608+ 0.665 = O.098m.
= 2
=O.6365m. @ Corrected elevation of8Mi
Total error =0.25 + 0.098
® Elevation of C: Total error =0.348 m.
Elevation of C= 346.50 +0.6365
Elevation of C =347.1365 m. Corrected elevation of8M2
= 17.25 - 0.348
= 16.902m.
5-39

lEVEliNG

® Rod reading on A with iilsflUment near B:


x+ e = 0.549
. e = 0.549 - 0.53
e = 0.019
.' '. ¥ . .•... .,': ..... Rod reading on A=0.938 - 0.019
Rod reading on A = 0.919 m.
I',' .. Instrument . lristrortlenl
. .Sl:}t unearAsetuDnearB @ Error in line ofsight:
= 0.019m.

Rod readlng·1 .'


. on8'" I ;."
-.,7
<D Whaf is the. difference Jnelevatlon
. . between Aand at '. . . In.a.lWoipeglesfOSing.rriqdel\'Vjldf>.lPi2liuI11PY.·
® If the line of sight is not in adjustment, level,the.f9"Q\'!'mgobsepj§tioMw~r~t~~~~i.·.
determire the correct rod reading on AwUh
thernsttument still setup at B. .
® Deterrnlne fhe error in the line of sight

Solution:
CD Diff. in elevation between Aand B:

l.ine ofsif<hr
"- - - - - - - -
-rll----...::lII--' 0 C ~- - - - --I --
{/{)ri:oftwl {iue
CD What is the true difference in elevation
betWeen A and6? ..•.. ..... ...• .... .....'. .... .
x ® With tl)elevel inthe..samepqsiijonat D; to
what rod reading on B shouldJhe Une of
sight be adjusted. • '.' . i ..... '...' .
(3). Whatls the corresponding rod reading on A
for a hotizontalline of sight Withlnsltument
still at D? .

Solution:
CD True diff. in elevation between Aand B:
1.505 + x = 2.054 - e
x+ e:: 0.549·
x + 0.938 - e =1.449 e
x- e =0.511 B O.99lm

x+ e:: 0.549
Ik~"7'I1 x
2x =1.06
x = 0.53 m. (diff. in elevation)
1.103 + e :: 0.991 + e + x
x=O.112m.
5-4Q

lEVElIN~

® Rod reading on B with level at D: <D•• C()(nplJW.·.tM•• • lfiffet¢nte • • • jry•• • ~leya. I. io.•.•.n
pelwi¥rrAalldEL/
~ • 'Nhat~~ould • ~~.tbecoIT@tJ()(tf'l<:l9Jngon
A.to•• g~tl • • ~ • • leM~I • • line•• of.si9htwth.~e
1I'1$II'\1ltlflllt$~llsiHupat~1
® • Whllt.~hPul~ • h~lYe9~~ • lhtl••rellpln9••pn§
..........ilhJhein$t!'ul'MntatA16 giYe a leVelline
QfsJghtT .

Solution:
CD Diff. in elevation between A and B:
0.568 + e1 =e2 + 0.289 + 0.112
0.568 + e1 =~ +0.401
e2 - e1 = 0.167 Hori:.onwl finf'

..-11--"'1:--.... = 0 d -- -}--- -- e
~-~
12 -72 LlTll' of :nghl

e2 = 6e1
6e1 • e1 =0.167
5e1 =0.167
e1 = 0.0334 m.
~ = 6(0.0334)
_-_~:~_- __ \_O~_­
e2 =0.2004
line Of5ight

Rod reading on B = 0.289 + 0.2004


Rod reading on B = 0.4P94 m.
1.623 + X =C + 2.875
@ Rod reading on A to have a horizontal line
ofsight with instrument still at D:
e + 0.362 + x= 1.622
Rod reading on A =0.568 + e1 x- e =1.252
Rod reading on A =0.568 + 0.0334 x+ e = 1.26
Rod reading on A = 0.6014 m. 2x =2.512
X =1.256 (diff. in elev. bet. A and B)

® Rod reading on A to give a level line of


sight with instrument at B:
RA =e+0.362
@~.t~~ra~hip$Ui\le.YLJM~~kent>Y.Kawa~ x+e=1.26
··sorv·.~rp .• b~te • ~nY • leyeljng•• I$¢QmjUcted. 1.256 + e =1.26
Ifye • Mgllleers··H~u.~lIy • • ch!ck•• wh~lhEm •. lhe e=0.004
engil'le~t~.mY~Hs.lry.PeJ'feCt.~djUSlment. • • AtW() RA =0.004 + 0.362
peg .f@t·is•• use<i • to.j;;ryeck.""hetherfhe.llne•• of RA =O.366m.
$i9hlls.lIlPerfect.~djU$trnentiln(j • t®.fOIlQViing
rqd.W'¥iings.<lre.tilken, ",itfi•• instrument.set.9P @ Rod reading on B with the instrument at A
n~llrA,I:l~¢f<si9hloIlAjst~2~rn;allcl to give a level line of sight:
f()l'esI9ht•• readlllg • on•• B•• l$•• 2.~7S • • m.• • ""llh•• the RB =2.875 +e
instrumentseluPHear.8,backsighIOI'l~is
1.622··m.• and.afo~ght.onA.jsO,3Q2.m.·· RB = 2.875 + 0.004
RB =2.879m.
5-41

lEVEliNG

x + 1.563 + e1 =ez + 2.140


0.614 + 1.563 + e1 =2.140 + ez
0.037 + e1 =ez
~-~
2.5 -79.27
e1 = 0.0315 ez
0.037 + 0.0315 ez = ez
ez = 0.038 m.
@ Rod reading on B for a horizontal line of
sight with level at P:

kOint••M.l$••~~ldiS~~I.1r6fu.~lh.·.A.1nd.~f.Whil~.
RB =2.140 + ez
RB = 2.140 + 0.038
Pj$f.50%a:w~y JrgfJlAl:lI()ngthe~~flSi()n
Qfllt1~AElaod1~~27m;fr9ma. . ... RB = 2.178m.

•~ • • De!ermjn.~.th!3.true • difference••irlElI:Vatfon
b~WJeen~~ndB><.
·.@.f.)eterlllit1~me~rt't:lt.,n,.~.·r9(j.J'B.a9illgatB
WilhmelJjsfCJJmemsti~alg.< . , '.' .•
~ • • O~in~tpe.~~dlllg·9I).rQ(i~.f9r.a • Attigo®~m4 • 1WElliils~q@«¥I.W.J~re~~
·••··• ··sfIUatP.
• • • no[iiM@lirleof•
. • ~lght.With.the·.im~!ttiment
. .. §urVey.lng.pgmp~1I~y,.ttie:tW9·P91t1t$A.aMB.pt
Cl¢e~inr0ti9h·tert'''ill~ree"chl:lil>tanc:e • 2900
Soluticm: 1TI·•• • frqrtj •.• a••·.miTlt••PQint.Pi • • fr°ITl .• ·.\Yhic:~ •.• th~·
G) Difference in elevation between A and B: .ll)~$~r~d • veijl~!.~~S!G)Ai$.t.~ .•~9'.~nq19.
Bj~f1·~'·ftevM9nClfCjs~t1()'-mlobe
342.pqm.abQ\I~~~lev~kPollltCjsm
b~~rjA~l'ldEl;<" ...' .. ... .

G) .CqmpriJ¢•• • th~ • • (l!ffer~OClr • •ln•• .• ~I~y~ti9r


·• • • ····~~;6·~cjlw~d~fet. •.
P 0.296

effect.Of
2.5'-+----
f-----~79.27-----I
~··qWllPl.lt~thw.pjffer~llp~ in Jllevation
.beweM13 and.q.•• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •·.·•·•·
@ Compuletheel~vatlonmk'"
x + 0.296 + e =0.910 + e
x= 0.910 . 0.296
x= 0.614m. Solution:
CD Diff. in elevation between Aand B:
@ Error in rod reading at B with instrument
still at P:

tL-------
----
S-42

LEVEliNG

tan 3'30' =J!L hCr1 = 0.067 x2


2000
h2 = 122.33 m. hCr2 =0.067 (2)2
h0 =0.067 (2)2 hCr2 = 0.268 m.
h0 =0.268 m. h1 =x tan 18'30'
h 1 =2000 tan 1'30' h1 =0.3346x km.
h1 =52.37 h1 =334.6x m.
hc, = 0.067 (2)2 ~ =2000 tan 8'15'
hc, =0.268 m. f7 =289.99 m.
H + h, + hC1 = ~ + h0 h1 + hCr, = 111.356 + h2 t hCr2
H +52.37 +0.268 = 122.33 +0.268 334.6x + 0.067x2
H= 69.96m. = 111.356+289.99+0.268
x2 + 4994x - 5994.24 =0
@ Difference in elevation between Band C: x= 1.2 km.
=h1+ hC1 x= 1200m.
=52.37 +0.268
= 52.638m. @ Elevation of B:
Elev. of B = Elev. A + h1 t hCr,
@ Elev.ofA: Elav. of B = 200 + 334.6('1.200)
Elev. A = 342.60 + 122.33 +0.268 +0.067(1.2')2
Elev. A = 465.20 m. Elev. of B = 601.62 m.

@ Elevation of C:
Elev. C = Elev. B - 111.:356
Elev. C = 601.62 - 111.2,56
Elev. C = 490.264 m.

l@n$lq¢rlhgt@ • • ~ff~(;~$ • •§f•• Bury~ture • • al1d


ff}fr~pl!og,Jh~ •. q1ff~r~~¢El.inele¥ati9n • of.p()ints
• ~o~id~Ci~$.~~@U~IOa~~ • •~.~~Tf~~hill~O~
··eleVation.of.eal'\d.q.are.t8'SO'.!'f1spl';!(ltively.
Ai$i~pointh~vih~@ijl~vatl®l:rr1~.4fil}@
(j)•• • lfq.ls2000.rl1·•• fr()I1l.~,ho . .lfari~.~.'fr()m.A? ~qove9atMl11lal)dB.:lm:iC~t~pojl'lI~(:)f
@ . • If.th(:).~~.Vali9r·()ffJ..i$.~qUal·t(j.2OQm.,.ffod unkno\\,I).~leva~i()ni .• aJ$•• jn·•.l1e.tWElen6.a~d¢.
. . .•.• JMtllEtvatiQnpfB.) . .. . BY.l11eansof.an•• jl1~trlJm~nt • $~t·1;22lli,.a~O\le
@ • ··Plndal$O·ihe.elevatiOOof.C. B,V~rl~l~nQle$.~re.9bserVed,.ttl~ttoA.b~irlQ
14'15'andJMtt9Cpeltlg+·~r~2',The
Solution: hOrizontaldlstanceABi$5~;r.20anqthe
CD Distance of B from A: horizol1tal•• djstance • aqi~ • 923,2;5 • nV•• M?king
due<lllQv.'ancefore~l'th'sc urviitureiil'ld
almosphericrefrl@lon· ... .

®.·•• •Cqmpute•• • • lhe • • difference•• • • jn•• • elevation.


betw~nAandB:.
@ Oetermine • • th~ . •·djffl:lrence .• ·.in•• .• elevallon
betweenB?ndC· .•
® OeterminelheelevatiOnofG.
S-43

LEVELING

Solution:
CD Oiff. in elevation ot A and 8:

A man's eyes t 75 m. above sea level can


barely see the lop of a lighthouse which is at a
certain distance away from a man.
What. is .th~ elevation of the lop of the
(j)
lighthouse·· above sea level if the
. lighthouse Is 20 km. away from the man~
® How far is the lighthouse from the nian in
meters if the top of the lighthouse 15
14.86 m.above sea level.
tan 14'45' = 54~~20 @ What is the height of the loWer at a
distance 20km, away from the man thaI
h1 = 144.07 m.
will just be visible without the Hne of sight
=
hCl 0.067 K12 approaching nearer than US m. to the
hc, =0.067(0.5472)2 water, .
hC1 =0.02
H= 144.07 -0.02 Solution:
H= 144.05 m.
CD Elevation of the top of the lighthouse:

Oiff. in elevation of A and 8


= 144.05 - 1.22
=142.83m. 1.75m

® Ditt. in elevation between 8 and C: 1.75 = 0.067 K,2


K1 = 5.11 km.
~~ (c h=0.067 Kl
K2 =20 - 5.11
K2 =14.89 km.
h =0.067 (14.89)2
h =14.86 m. above sea level
® Distance from lighthouse from the man:

h =923.25 tan 8'32'


h =138.53
h~ = 0.067(0.92325)2
h~ =0.057 h1 = 0.067 K12
H =138.53 + 0.057 + 1.12 1.75 =0.067 K12
H= 139.81 K1 =5.11
h2 =0.067 Kl
@ Elev.otC: 14.86 =0.067 Ki
Elev. ofC =130.48 + 142.83 + 139.81 K2 =14.89 km.
0= K1 +K2
Elev. of C =413.12 m.
0=5.11+14.89
0= 20km.
S-44

LEVELING

® Height of tower at a distance of 20 km.


away from the man: h = h + fb (h 1 - h2) _0 067 0 0
2 0 1 + D-;, . 1 2

h = 800 + 10 (600 - 800) _0 067 (12)(10)


----.-----------71 h1 h =701.05
12 +10 .

~1 75m 175m
Obstruction = 705 - 701.05
Obstruction = 3.95 m.

® Height of tower at C so that it could be


h1 =0.067 (20)2 visible from A with a 2 m. clearance above
h 1 =26.8 m. hill 8:
H =h1 + 1.75
H =26.8 + 1.75
H = 28.55 meters

Two hUls A and C have elevalkJns of 600 m.


and 800 m, respectively. In between A andC h =h + D-;, (h 1 - h2) _0 067 D 0
is another hill 8 which has an elevation of 2 0 1 + D-;, . 1 2
705 m. and is located at 12 km. from A and
10 km. from C. . 707 = (800 + x) +10 [6~2'1~~ +x)]
- 0.067 (12)(10)
CD Determine the clearance or obstruction of
707 =800 + x - 90.91 - 0.4545x - 8.04
the line of sight at hill 8 if the observer is
at A so that Cwill be visible from A. x =10.91 m.
@ If C is not visible from A, what height of
tower must be constructed at C so that it @ Height of equal towers at A anti Cso that it
could be visible from A with the line of will be intervisible:
~l~ht having a clearance of 2 m. above hill

® Whal height of equal towers at A and C


must be constructed in order that A, Band
C will be inlervisible,

Solution:
CD Obstruction of the line of sight at hill B:
h = h + O2 (h 1 - h2) - 0 067 0 0
2 0 1 + D-;, . 1 2

705 = (800 ) 10 [(600 + x) - (800 + x)]


+x + 12 + 10
- 0,067 (12)(10)
705 =800 + x- 90.91·8.04
x=3.95m.
5-45

lEVEliNG

@ Equal height of towers at Alpha and


Charlie:
\ ------"-----n--------- -
x : X

h = h. + 0 (h, - hz) • 0067 0 n.


"L 0, + ~ . 1......L

¢PQrrPtltEl • tH.~ • e@,atiOtt9ftl1elj~Qf.~1ght • 649 = (620 +x) + 15 [(6801+2~ ~~620 + x)]


~ts®io~.Bt~Vo.¥llththe.instrtJme.lt.plaqed
• • 1.lt•. $t;;lIIOt"\NPb~·sUchltJ~t •. $t@~(lCnaMj~ ·0.067 (12)(15)
. 'k0uld•• • M•• VlsiblE!.<f~orri·· • •~t~tiClni • ~lpha_ 649 =620 +x +0.556(60) -12.06
{;9n$id~rlrg • Jh~· • ~ff#8 • • 91·.99rv~tute)and x= 7.7m.
tef!'a¢lklncortl3Ctl0n.}
®•• • ASS9lnirygttH~t.$fJ.llloriat~y9Wi(k9~~tl'\lpt @ Height of tower at station Charlie:
.. .··t~E;.IiQEl(lf~j~htJtCJnl$lati9~.AIPhil,·~ile A B
<)b$~lhg$ta!l/)nCharlieaM~4m.J()Yw
.ls••con~!tu9t~d • • ~m • ·t9pQf.~tatI9m~rayCJ'
. . . . . P(lmp~t~ . f!m.·.b~i9hl·9t~qll~!t9VJE!rs.·.Elt
.•·.·• • • • §la~AA • AlpM•• an~ • ~Wioryqh~m~ln • 9@er••
·mat.bQ!tl.• three.$ti!111l0sas·Ob$rvedfrom··
• • •. ~a~on • ~phawlll s~n.l¥lihtr&l~tJlE! .• • • • • .• • • •.

.@..•WilMgllt•. (;;9IJstrtJc~ngElnyt<lWl!lr.Elt •. ~t~U9!1 h = h. + 0 (h, - hU _0 067 0 n.
"L 01 +~ . l"'"L
..•••••~r~\j()~ •••• WhElfIW9ht9ftOW~r@ij$~b~ .
.···@nsttu(:t~~ • ~·.$t.aI16~·.ynar1i~SCl·thal.f)()tb.
15
645 = (620 + x) + 12 +15 [(680) - (620 + x)]
. . .. .~ti9m§r~¥(lam:fQMl'lt~W99Id~~\li~tJl~
fromstatl6l1AJpM: •0.067 (12)(15)
645 =620 + x +0.556(60 - x)· 12.06
37.06 = x + 33.36 . 0.556x
Solution: x= 8.33 m.
G) Elevation of line of sight at station Bravo:

Thr~(h!!I~%a,jMPhM~IWM9Mqf
6~nl,,6@5.'W • ~~4 • 600••
m>respe¢ijMelY.•·•• ~• •~
in•• betWeeilAEll'ld··C~nd.·is·10~rit·fJ;9Il1Aa!l<l·
h =0. + 01~~ (h1· hi)·0.067 01~ 12krn·®rn(k·
15
h=620 +12 + 15 (680-620) (1).<Con~ideriJ@ • • tne.• •
effect•• of.curVamrea.riiI·
.·.·.refraction.cotrEl%iorl,.whatisth~·creat~nce .
·0.067 (12)(15) %obstrycti91l.of•. • th.~ .• line • • of•• siQht•• al•• B
h= 641.27m. consldenngtt\alCisvlslblefromA . .
S-46

lEVELING

@)•• • ff.~ • $m,.t@ffltW~.~.~.~tAAm~i.WM~.


. . •.•.•.•. ·Wl:)\:ll~J;lEi.~~~ • M19W¢~~il,tI~@.tlf! •
• .• • • !•• ~f~~~I1~.1~.~.~at.~.~.~~.~
••~.• ,• •.er~et~·.at.CsQll'l~tl3aii'l
vm~ • $®61~.Miti~ij~9ID~~~ft9.~·
• •tWlllbe:
. @ Height of tower at C:

A B

••jht~M$lb~ftClm.A· • • • ·i.···.·>······ ············::···.···••·•·•·•• ·•• ·>·U •


Solution:
~=600+X
CD Clearance orobstrucfion of the line:
h=625
h, =660
h = h. + 0, (h , - ~ _0 067 D n..
"l D, + ~ . ' .....L

625
=600 12[(660) • (600 + xll
+x+ 10+12
, - 0.067 (10)912)
h = h.. + 0, (h • 0) . 0 067 0 n..
"L D, +~ . ,.....L
25 = x+ 12 (60 - x) _8.04
h = 600 12 (660.600).0067 (10)(12) 22
+ 10 + 12 .
33.04 = x + 32.73·0.545 x
h = 624.69 < 625
x= 0.68 m.
Obstruction = 625 -624.69
Obstruction = 0.31 m.

® Equal height of towers at A and C:

fQuthillsA,I3.¢arldq~f$lfisl~i~htline.
tMele\'~tiClnsareA;(~1~m,B::;23~ro}
G.:;'•• ~H • rn.~rld.P • "'.3~~.l1J;.·te~~etlv~Iy. • • Th~
di$lanc~s()fB)Catldqfr6111~~re12k1tl,
4$l@anq§Ol<J"tl·fElsp~lively.¢onsidering
tMElff®f.Of•• (jlJrv!lltirEl • ~M • • tE!ft'a(jtioll•• ()f•• ll1e
h=625+5
MM.
h=630 (j) .p()ll1pute•• th$·t$I~ht • PfM4al•• tPWElf$•• ()n·A
h, = 660 +x $nd{)Josighf()v€r~ilrld8~j~~31T1.
h2 =600+x >c!elll'llnce'......:: .'. ...••.•.• •••••..•.•.••••
h = h + 0, (h , • 0) _0 067 D n.. @•• • ¢dmpute•• th&•• ¢I¢va@Q8t.th~ • lin~ • ot.siSht
2 0 , +~ . ,.....L 13tWWiltlth$inMallaliofl9ttheElQlJal
= 600 . 12 [(660 + x) - (600 + xl) tie@11$9ft9Wet~tA<1l@O; ' ...
630 +x + (10 + 12) ~. .C()rnplJt~ • the • heighl•• qf.lo~r • $t.A·.WlltJ•• a
-0.067 (10)(12) ch.ara[1¢eoC3ri'lCaFP$omafPWlIlbe
30 =x+ 12~0). 0.067 (10)(12) . lf.tM.hei9ptgfIWWat.p.i$
Visibfe.jJ'°lTi.A••
2m. .. . .
x= 5.31 m.
LEVELING

Solution: @ Height oftower at A:


CD Equal heights of tower at Aand 0:

Considering hi/ss A, C and 0 h1 = 247 + x


h1 =247+x hz =396 +2
hz =396+x hz =398
h =314 + 3 h= 314 + 3
h = 317 h= 317
h = h + Dz (h] + f?L 0.067 0 1....n_L h =h. + P2 (h 1 + hz) _0067 0 n.
Z 0 1 +~ "L 01 +~ . 1V Z

= 396 15 [(247 + xl· (396 +x)] 317 = 398 15 [247 +x- 398]
317 +x+ 45 + 15 + 45 + 15
- 0.067 (45)(15) ·0.067 (45)(15)
317 = 396 + x- 37.25 - 45.225 317 =378 + 0.25x - 37.75 - 45.225
x= 3.475m. x= 7.9m.

@ Elevation of line of sight at B:

qonsidElrir.g¢[/tVatureand·re~Oli()(j@ctiol1
aftnE!earth@~.· .. .. '.' ..'

0)" ·Tt@.f,$,rn~~lng • on.·.•ffi~.l'pd~t • P6lht••$• j$:.


1;86rtt••·•• J:h¢~rteClit)hJ9r¢~rv~~~9Ply
iF • 9·Q48.• nk·.I(HJ·•• : : •. g98-,17.Jll.ar~the
h1 =247 + 3.475 r,orrepl~~I~vatj0l'l8fa.~.·f~6,~~m·;o/bat.
h1 =250.475 i~ .• tl1e.G<1[El~t\(inf()rreft~ct!9n()f\1Y?:<>·· .• • • •
hz= 396 + 3.475 ® AIPtlll)tBI.ihE!•• F,§.•• readIQgi$Z.~nt,th£',
hz = 399.475 correctEld • e'~V{lti6n.of8.· • isi114·~ • ·m"
Cons19f!l'ing•• • reffaClIoJl•• and.p~rvaW%.····lf
h = he + ~ (h 1 + hzl. 0.067 0 1....L
n_ HJ. ",117.Q§3m. atldlhe.C(jrrepti 011 fof
L 0 1 + Dz
refraBtlon.is?005••• ~at • j%reCFrreFiol1
~ = 399 475 + 48 (250.475 - 399.475) f!JrcllrvatU~?/
1/. 12+48
@ Considerins.curvalure.aryd • rSifacfion.the
- 0.067 (12)(48) corret;ledelevatian•• ofpoil1t.CiS$lh8$m·
h = 241.633 m. > 236 m. Thef·S.reading.ontherodaIC.is.2J6.m.
TheC9ffecUon·for•• curvature••lsQ.046while
thatforrefi'actiOnis 0.004.· Determine HJ
S-48

LEVE1I1G

Solution: Solution:
CD Correction for CUNature only: CD Oiff. in elevation between Band C:
Corrected F.S. = 238.17 - 236.35
Corrected F.S. = 1.82 m.
Error in F.S. reading = 1.86 - 1.82
Error in F.S. reading = 0.04
CUNature and refraction correction =0.04
CUNature and refraction = curvature - refraction
0.04 = 0.048 • x
L~~·}.A.{8:1·5'
h e & . ""':2600"'-..;
1
x = 0.008 refraction correction .!--
, ,--'"
ElfN.219.42m

® CUNature correction: hc1 = 0.067 (1.2)2


F.S. =147.063 - 144.86
hC1 = 0.09648 m.
F.S. =2.203
CUNatureand refraction correction hc2 = 0.067 (2)2
= 2.23 • 2.203 hC2 =0.268
=0.027 h1 =1200 tan 18'30'
CUNature and refraction = Curvature - refraction h1 =401.51 m.
correction h2 =2000 tan 8'15'
0.027 = CUNature· 0.005 ~ =289.99 m.
Curvature = 0.032 m. H= (h l + hCl)· (h2• h0.)
H = (401.51 + 0.09648)· (289.99 + 0.268)
@ ValueofH.J.
H= 111.348m.
Curvature and refraction correction
=0.046 - 0.004
=0.042 ® Oiff. in elev. between A and C:
Corrected F.S. = 2.16 - 0.042 Oiff. in elev. = h2 + hC2
Corrected F.S. = 2.118 m. Oiff. in elev. = 289.99 + 0.268
H.I. =Elev. + Corrected F.S. Diff. in elev. =290.258 m.
H.I. =311.85+2.118
H.I. =313.968 m. @ Elevation of B:
E1ev. B =' 219.42 + 401.51 ... 0.09648
Elev. B = 621.026 m.

,Frornp(Jit1f.A.ill•• bEltween••Efan(JC,•• the.an~le~.·


ofeleyallon9tBaMqafe18'3Q'and8'15~
r~sPectiMelY .••• A8irtPi~20()Orn·fr9rn.A.al1dl? A transit is sef up at point Bwhich is between
is••12,OO.m·•• Jr'°mA, • • e.I#\laflgn•• of.A.is•. 219AZ.Ill. Aand B. The Yertical angle obsef\led towards
abo\lt3se<lJilVill· . Ais known to be . 20' and thai of C is +12'.
The honzontaldlstance between A and B is
cD Compute the difference in elevation 64~.80m. and that of Band C is 1032.4Q m.
betWeen B and C, considering the effect of The height of Instrument is 1.5 m.abOY8 8
fheeartl1s curvature and refraction. with A having an elevation of 146.32 m.
@) CQmpute the difference in elevatiori Considering the effect of curvature and
between Aand C. refraction correction.
@ Gompute the elevation ofB.
5-49

lEVELING

®Gornpul~>th~<qff'fElre6Qe in ~HNaliQn
bEltvl~enA,gr9~,> .• •. . • .
i:ID.Pmnput¢•• tf\~.)differEll#¢e '>lnelElYaI160
pel>veenl\~nd8··) Miradorhilhvfth.an. elev9tionofp26rn,iSoll.a
@'.Comput!3c.ftIe·.ElIEl\l()ti()n.of.~i •.
lifle•• ~Elwee8.A~ror() • ~ill • ~hlh$~· .• el~YWipry·.i~
Solution: 660.·m·.9nd•• Q()thedr()lhillna...i'19.<3f1.~IW<:l~!Ofl
Of.60Qtii.·•• • Di~I~n~.()H.-1ir~~orhiUfml'll)\tirQl'll
Dift. in elevation between A and B;
hHljsl0kfl1argdistaryCe8fMir~dorniRfrPm
G)

cathetlral.hi1l.i~ • 14·.km·•• • 9aO$i9~ringP~rY~tQte·


aodrefractioncorrectlOn. . ..... ..

<D CompUte.theQbS!tuciIQtlqMMllM9lsltM
at.• Miragor.mll•• VItlElr·.o~~eiyjq~Q.1ftlEldqll
hlll.fr()Ill~WOl'a.tlill, • • • • • •.• • • • • • • • • • .• / • . ).<...< .
® \foIhaf.would.betheDejghlof.ElqY~lm~rs·
tRe.~reQled.9t.i\uror~.hill.affij·cmhe9ral~IH
$o•• • that.Cal~eqr~I • • hill,lwror~Nll.lln~
Miradorhilj.wil'•• beirtervisi~l~wilh?·.4rfi~
t<>wererected.ft.the.~QP.of.MiW~%blll? •.• •.• >••

® Ifou·. tow~r • wi!I .• b~.eract~d .• atAur()r<3·.hill


artd•• Mirador••hitf,•• ~>twould~e.tbehe~ht
hC1 =0.067 (0.6428W ()f.tower•• tQbEl.e~cIElq •. (ltGlllheQfilllJilI~Q
hC1 =0.028 Ihat.·.Mlrador•• and•• • Sathedral•• hill WiU•• be
' ~ lntervisiblefromA\Jrqrahill, '.' .
tan 20. = 642.80
h1 =233.96 m.
H1 = 233.96 m. - 0.028 Solution:
H1 = 233.932 CD Obstruction of line of sight at Mirador hill:

Dift. in elevation between A and B


=233.932 - 1.55
= 232.382m.

(?) Diff. in elevation between Aand C:


h~ = 0.067 (1.0324)2
hC2 =0.071
h2 =1032.4 tan 12'
h2 = 219.44 m. - (~) (h 1 - hz)- 0.067 Dl~
H2 =219.44 + 0.071 h -?2+ 0 +~ / 1
H2 = 219.511 m. 12(660 - 600) - 0.067 (10)(12)
h=600+ 10+12
Dift. in elevation between A and C
h = 624.69 m.
=H1 +H2
= 233.932 + 219.511
Obstruction =626 - 624.69
=453.443 m. Obstruction = 1.31 m.
. ® Elev. of B:
Elev. of B =146.32 + 233.932 - 1.55
Elev. of B = 378.702 m.
5-50

LEVEliNG

@ Equal heights of towers at Aurora and


Cathedral hills:

A line of levels is run from 8M, to 8M z which


is 12 km long. Elevation of 8M 1was found out
to be 100 m. and that of 8M 2 is 125.382 m.
Backsight and foresight distances were 150 m.
and 100m. respectively.

G) Determine the corrected elevation of 8M 2


considering the effect of curvature and
refraction correction.
(2) If during the leveling process the line of
h =h + QzJ.h1 - hz)· 0.067 °lfh
z 0 1 + fh sight is inclined downward by 0.004 m. in
630=600+x a distance of 10 m, what would be the
+ 12 [(660 +x) - (600 + x))· 0.067 (10)(12) corrected elevation of 8M 2?
@ If the average backsight reading is 3.4 m.
10 + 12
and every time it is taken, the rod is
x= 5.31 m.
inclined to the side from the vertical by 4',
what should be the corrected elevation of
8M2?
@ Height oftower at Cathedral hill:
Solution:
G) Corrected elevation of 8M 2 considering
curvature and refraction correction.
hC1 =0.067 (0.15)z
hc, =0.00151
hC2 = 0.067 (0.100)2
hcz =0.00067

Error per set up = 0.00151 - 0.00067


Error per set up = 0.00084
h =h + Oz (h, - hz)- 0.067 O,D:? 12000
No. of set ups =150 + 100 =48
z 0, + Dz
626 = 600 + x Total error =48(0.00084)
+ 12 [660· (600 =x)]- 0.067(10)(1~ Total error = 0.04032
10 + 12 Corrected elevation of 8M2
. =125.382 - 0.04032
- 12 (60-x) = 125.34168 m.
3404
. -x+ 22
748.88 = 22x + 720 -12x @ Corrected elevation of 8M 2 if the line of
10x= 28.88 sight is inclined downward by 0004 m.
x= 2.89 m. every 10m:
!!L _0.004
150 - 10
h1 = 0.06
J1L _0.004
100 - 10
hi = 004
S-51

LEVEliNG

Errorper set up =0.06 - 0.04 Solution:


Error per set up =0.02 CD Corrected elevation of 8M 2 due to
Total error = 0.02(48) curvature and refraction correction:
Total error = 0.96 m. hI =0.067 (0.11W
Corrected elev. of 8M2 h1 = 0.0008107
h2 =U.067 (0.070)2
= 125.382 + 0.96
h2 = 00003283
=126.342 m.
Error per set up = 0.0008107 - 0.0003283
® Corrected elev. of 8M2 if the rod is inclined Error per set up = 0.0004824 m.
by 4' from the vertical: 9360
No. of set ups = 110 + 70 =52
Error in reading per set up
=3.4 - 3.4 Cos 4' Total error = 52 (0.0004824)
T(}tal error = 0.0251 m.
=0.0083m.
Corrected elevation of8M2
= 31.388 - 0.0251
Total error =48(0.0083) = 31.3629 m.
Total error = 0.3984 m.
Corrected elev. of 8M2 '.?1 Corrected elev. of 8M 2 due to line of sight
inclined upward by 0.003 m. every 25 m:
= 125.382 - 0.3984
Diff. in distance per set up = 110 -.70
=124.9836 m. Diff. in distance per set up =40 m.
x 0.003
,40=20
x = 0.006 m.
9360
No. of set ups =1Tclt7O =52
A line of levels 9.36 km is run to check the
Total error =52(0.006)
elevation of 8M 2 which has been found to be
31.388 meters, with 8M 1 of elevation at sea Total error = 0.312 m.
level (reference datum). backsight and Corrected elevation of 8M2
foresight distances are consistently 110 m. = 31.388 - 0.312
and 70 m. respectively. =31.076 m.
cD Detemline the corrected elevation of 8M2 @ Corrected elevation of 8M2 due to rod
considering the effect of curvature and settlement·
refraction correction. . . 9360 1 51
@ if the level used is out of adjustment so No. af turnmg pOints = 110 + 70 - =
that when the bubble was centered the line Total error =0.004 (51)
of sight was inclined 0.003 m. upward in a
Total error = 0.204 m.
distance of 20 m. Determine the corrected
elevation of 8M 2, , Corrected elevation of 8M2
'j If at every turning points the rod settles = 31.388 - 0.204
about 0.004 m., determine the corrected = 31.184m.
elevation of BM 2.
S-52

LEVEliNG

P#i~g.M.$llgineers • lfw~l,tMreilqiM.on.arod
8qfu·~WW~S9b$IW"edt(l~~.2·~1t:n·Th~
.\)\;jbble·was••lf)l(el@·.ttlry•. ~·ll·p~~~Qll.·lbe • leVElI
·t\.lbE!aM.thE!rOd•• @Mingihdr$$~Wz.a74rrl.
ii) • D~te®lr@.t® .• ~ngletl1at.tl1~.blJbbl~.()fl.lh13 •
•·.·.·.···lul)¢WM•• qeYiMi!d•• d(je.tO.M.inM~aseln
M~f()(jljl#<ljol!lbYfu9\@9fD~I$I~C()Il~
ijpW~rdin$ec()fld~¢f*c.«· •.. . •.••
·~ • ·.·P13~wjn~.m~.all~@M"~1~9r~11~Sp~Gl3.
i:iflhelubeirlsecondSofar&>
.·&>•.•.• D~teri1ijOO··t@r@iU$Qf • @&afOr$•• 6ftHe
:i~yelt~pejf@@~P;~c~@th~hibei$ @.·.Gprn@~.mll.COlTec~Oll.fbbl:l.~pplied.tq.tb~.
<MOmmlong. . . ~~vatl()nOfBM2-

®.•• ~OIl1P9tethecorrecte9.elElvftiOnofBM2.··.
Solution: &:i•• Cornpme.tl1E!.correc!ed.elev<ltionofBM3·····
CD Angle the bubble on the tube was deviated
due to an increase in the rod reading: Solution:
CD Correction to be applied to BMi

~:F=
,
Station Distance -Observed
Ikm) Elevation
R\ iR BM 1 0 1oo.00m.
~8~ BM? 4 121.42 m.
BMo 6 131.64m.
BM 1 10 100.15 m.

Error of closure = 100.15 - 100


S =2.874 - 2.81 =0.064
0.064 Error of closure =0.15 m.
tan8=-- -fL_.!
80
0.15 -10
8" (0.000005) = 0-:4
C1 =0.06 Correction to be applied to 8M2
8" = 160"
® Corrected elevation of BMi
® Angular value of one space:
160 Corrected elevation = 121.42 -0.06
0=-=32" Corrected elevation =121.36 m.
5
® Radius of cUNature:
o S ® Corrected elevation of BM3:
R-L Correction 6
0=0.6(5) 0.15 10
0=3 mm =0.003 m. Correction = 0.09
0.003 _ 0.064 Corrected elev. = 13164 - 0.09
R - 80
Corrected elev. =131.55 m.
R=3.75m.
5-53

LEVELING

@ Adjusted elevation of B:
Corrected diff. in elev. =475.31 + 12.03
Corrected diff. in e/ev. =487.34 m.
Adjusted elev. of B =1584 +487.34
Adjusted elev. of B =2071.34 m.

The .elevation of the base at station A is


1584m. above sea level. The barome1ric
r~;ldi(ig at station A was 65,53 cm, ofHg.at
thelnst..ml when the barometric reading at Give~below.are.th$ • porfe$p6rKling.b~ro~triS
statlon i B Which Is higher than A was reildir9~.i1lI~o~lVerlplil~ .•••.• T~re¥Vi1ltionAf
M,39 cm~ of Hg. The temp. at the time of
observation at A W3S g'C While 1hat I'll B was

·rv1o~mM~wpn ·is.1~9Q/Il'l· • • above.• ~a • le,,~1.
Motlm.~YQn •. is.loWeJ"tI1~n.Mpu~t.J\pIJ .• • • • • • • >•·•·•
22'C. rime of observation on both slatlorl is
10:20 AM.

CD .Compute the barometric reading at MoUnt


Apo at10,30 A.M. ••... ....• . . ...
@Compule IhediffereMe in elevation
between Mount Apo and Mount Mayan.·
® What is the elevation of Mount Apo above
sealevel. .

Solution: Solution:
CD Uncorrected difference in elevation CD Barometric reading at Mount Apo at
belYieen A and B: 10:30 AM:
76 76
z =19122 log h~- 19122 log h Barometric
2
76 76 Station Time Reading Air
z =19122 log 65.53 -1912210g 69.39 .(cmofHq) Temp.
Mt. Arm 9:25 74.73 8.3'C
z =1230.95 - 755,64
z =475.31 m.
Mt. Mayan 10:30 68.96 He
Mt.Apo 10:57 74.57 6.rC

@ Correction for the difference in elevation:


8 + 22
Mean temp. =- 2-

Mean temp. =15'C


Correction for diff. in elevation
=0.0253 (475.31)
92 mn f] ~ 10:57
m;, 7473} ' } 0.16

74.57
= 12.03 m.
5-54

lEVEliNG

Oiff. in time = 10:57·9:25


Diff. in time = 1:32 hrs. = 92 min.
Oiff. in time = 10:30·9:25
Oiff. in time =1:05 hrs. =65 min.
Diff. in reading = 74.73·74.57 TM~re\latiCln°tlM~~perba~eAis37~1l1.
Diff. in reading =0.16 em. Whll~t~*\l.l)tth6 • lpwerb~~at~,m~~~vallQr
Is•• 1Sq.rn.• • • At.~giM~rt • • jnsta~tt~f¢ealtirn~~er •
By ratio and proportion re.adirg$ lndiCali~ that lhe i(jiffete.~.~ ••. ·W .
65_2...- ¢l~aliCln • of~n •. lr~~rined~t~p()jll~·.qftpmth~ .
92 - 0.16 qpp¥P~$~AI~~~m·~I1d;th~dl~~rt~Bem
el#if9tj9Jifrom@!l.·19Yler.b~$tl§ . tOPOl!1t•• q IS.•
x=0.11 em. 2?.. rrl.~in~thElttlJ~~I¢va~9!lpfpolrtCirl
b~tWeeni\~OdEl· .. . . ...
Barometric reading of Mount Apo at 10:30
=74.73·0.11
= 74.62cm. Solution:

® Difference in elevation between Mount Apo


and Mount Mayan:

H = 18336.6 (log h1 • log h2) [1 + T~oT2]


X
h 1 = 74.62 em. (barometric reading of I

Mount Apoat 10:30)


h2 = 68.96 em. (barometric reading of
Mount Mayan at 10:30)
y
T1 = temp. at Mount Apo at 10:30
T2 = temp. at Mount Mayan at 10:30

9:25 } {3'C x=true difference in elevation between


AandC
92 10:30 65 2.2
{ By ratio and proportion:
x 219
10:57 6.1·C 209 = 234
92 _2.2 x = 195.60
65-x
x= 1.6'C Elevation of C= 375 • 195.60
T1 = 8.3 • 1.6 = 6.7'C Elevation of C = 179.40 m.
T2 = 1.1'C y=219-195.60
H = 18336.6 (log 74.62 • log 68.96)
y= 23.40 m.
[1 + (6.7500+ 1.1)]
Elevation of C= 156 + 23.40
H= 637.97m.
Elevation of C = 179.40 m.
® Elevation of Mount Apo:
Elev. = 1200 + 637.97
Elev. =1837.97 m.
8·55

COMPASS SURVEYING

1. Needle bent· if the needle is not perfectly


straight, a constant error is introduced in all
Surveyor's .Compass - an instrument for observed bearings. The needle can be
determining the. horizontal direction of a corrected by using pliers.
line with reference to the direction of the
magnetic needle. 2. Pivot bent • if the point of the pivot
supporting the needle is not at the center of
the graduated circle, there is introduced a
variable systematic error, the magnitude of
which depends on the direction in which
the compass is sighted. The instrument
can be corrected by bending the pivot until
the end readings of the needle are 180'
1. Compass box = with a circle graduated apart for any direction of pointing.
from O· to 90' in both directions from the N.
and S. points and usually having the E and 3. Plane of sight not vertical or graduated
W points interchanged. circle not horizontal.
2. Sight Vanes - which defines the line of 4. Sluggish
sight in the direction of the SN points of the
compass box. 5. Reading the needle
3. Magnetic needle - has the property of
pointing a fixed direction namely, the 6. Magnetic variations
magnetic meridian.

1. Compass is light and portable and it


1. Pocket compass - which is generally
requires less time for setting up, sighting
held in the hand when bearings are
and reading.
observed; used on reconnaissance or other
rough surveys.
2. An error in the direction of one line does
2. Surveyor's compass - which is mounted not necessarily affect other lines of the
usually on a light tripod, or s.ometimes on a survey.
Jacob's staff (a point stick about 1.5 m.
long). 3. The compass is especially adopted to
running straight lines through woods and
3. Transit compass - a compass box other places where obstacles are likely to
similar to the surveyor's compass, interfere with the line of sight.
mounted on the upper or vernier plate of the
engineer's transit.
8-56

COMPASS SURVEYING

Why is the East and West points of a compass


interchanged?

1. The compass reading is not very accurate. From the figure shows a compass having
a NS and EW calibration. In using a compass,
2. The needle is unreliable especially with always sight the object with. the north end of
the presence of local attractions, such as the compass and the compass needle when
electric wires, metals, magnets that may pivoted and brought to rest gives the magnetic
render it practically useless. bearing.
Magnerit.Norrh

Magnetic declination· the angle that a


magnetic meridian makes with the true
meridian.
Magnetic dip. the vertical angle which the
magnetic needle makes with the horizontal
due to uneven magnetic attraction from the
magnetic poles.
Isogonic lines - an imaginary lines passing
through places having the same magnetic Let us sayan object on the right side is
observed, sight this object with the north end
declination:
of the compass. The needle atthis instant will
Isoclinic lines - an imaginary line passing point steadily on the magnetic north, so a
through points having the same magnetic reading could now be obtained as shown as
dip. NE.
Agonic lines· imaginary line passing through
places having a zero declination.

(J)1'hei ol:i~rVedcomp~5sbearlng of a line in


,1981 W8S$, 37'3:0~S. ~nd the magnetic
',' "detli~tioriQftheplade then W8S lmown to
be 3'10'W. ,'If'has also discovered that
When the compass traverse forms a
closed figure, the interior angle at each station "dUring' the6bserv~ijon local attraction of
is computed from the observed bearings at that " '. the place at that mom~t of 5'Eexisled,
'Fifldthe trueazirnuth aHhe line.
particUlar point, the computed value which is
free from local attraction. The sum of the @ 'The ~aring of aline from A to B was
interior angles of a closed polygon must be measured as S. 16'3Q'W. It was found
equal to (n • 2) 180' in which nis the number of that there-was local attraction at both A
sides of the polygon. Since the error of
observing a bearing is accidental, it is
'and a and therefore a forward and a
backward bearing w,ere taken between A
assumed to be distributed equally at each 'and apoin! Cat which there was no local
interior angle. The bearings are then adjusted attraction. If the bearing of AC was
from a line whose observed bearing is to be 8,30'10' E. and that of CA was N. 28'20'
correct using the adjusted values of each W., What is the corrected bearing of AS?
interior angle.
5-57

COMPASS SURVEYING

@ ··m•• • •a•• • pattic~IN • • •y¢llr,.ihll·.·lTJa9flellc @ Magnetic bearing of line DE:


d~l;lin~~()l'I·.~.~.·.1··1W • l:~n~I~~m~9neti9
wanngQflill~.peWas~,la'3{)'.W .• ••lfthe
~~cHI<!r'larja,tl(mp~y~aris>3·E.,
cl~tE!fl1'\ire .• ·~ • ~g~ti¢~rtI'lgQftlneOE
!5yearslarer?/ ... ..... . . .

Solution:
<D True azimuth of the line:

True bearing DE =16'30' ·1'10'


True bearing =S 37'30' E-1'50' True bearing DE =N 15'20' W
True bearing = S 35'40' E
True azimuth = 324'20' Magnetic bearing of DE
= 15'20' + 1'25'
® Corrected bearing of AB: =N16'45'W

A field ish; the form ofa tegularpentagol1:


The direction oflha bounding sides were
surveyed wffh an aSSttmed meridian S' to the
right of the true. nOrth and south meridian. As
$urveyed .With an assumed meridian, the
beating Mone side AS ls N. $3'20' W.
Angle at A=16'30' +30'10'
Angle at A = 46'40'
<D Compute the true bealingof tine BC.
@ Compute the true azimuth of line CO.
Bearing of AB =46'40' - 28'20'
Bearing of AB = S 18'20' W @ Compute the true bearing of line AE.
5-58

COMPASS SURVEYING

Solution:
Sum of all interior angles of a closed
polygon.
= =
(n- 2) 180 (5 - 2) 180 540'
Value of each inferior angle = ~O
Value of each inferior angle = 108

TN
MN

N. 73"00' W. . . S. 72'15 E. ..

\DP®lput~fl'le~@l'ing9fljMIilQ.
®¢PmPlJleth~~eanjjg(jfII~¢p.
@ ()QfflPute(!lEl6ij<IDngb1Hh~.DI: .• • •

Solution:

LINES BEARING AZIMUTH


AB N.28'20'W 151'40' A

Be
CD
N.43'40· E
S. 64'20' E
223'40'
295'40'
E~
\~7'Jo,3 '30 B

Aw
DE S.7'40'W 7'40'
AE S.79'4Q'W 79'40'
AB N.28'20'W 151'40' 60'
A

CD True bearing of line BC =N. 43'40' E 7~B


c~
..........
D
® True azimuth of line CD = 295'40'

@ True bearing of line AE =S. 79'40' W


5-59

COMPASS SURVEYING

Point Interior angles LINES AZIMUTH


A 59'00' + 37"30' =96'30' AS 322'30'
B 180' • (37'30' +43'15') = 99'15' + 81'00'
C 73'00' +44'15' = 117'15' 403'30'
D 180' • (12'45' +72'15') =95'00' (since there is no azimuth
E 120' + 13'15' = 133'15' greater than 360', subtract 360')
541'15'
403'30'
Sum of interior angles - 360'00'
= (n - 2) 180 =(5· 2X180) =540' BC 43'30'
Error = 541'15' - 540'00' + 53'00'
Error = 1'15' (toa big) CO 106'30'
. = 5"
Error per station 75' = 15' + 85'15'
DE 191'45'
45'00'
POINTS CORRECTED EA 238'45'
A 96'15' 83'45'
B 99'00' AE 322'30'
f---
C 117'00' .
0 94'45' CD Bearing ofline BC = S. 43'30' W
E 133'00'
@ Bearing of line CO = N, 73'30' W

INTERIOR ANGLE ® Bearing of line DE =N. 11'45' E

LINES BEARING AZIMUTH


AB S. 37'30' E 322'30'
BC S.43'30'W 43'30' CD Compute the deflection angte at C.
CO N.73'30'W 106'30' CV Compute the bearing of line DE.
DE N.11'45' E 191'45' @ Compute the bearing of line AE.
AB S.3T30'E 322'30'
5-60

COMPASS SURVEYING

Solution:
CD Deflection angle at C:

Solution:
Station Interior Anales
A 180- L
Ar--__ ~~
B
C
180+R
180- L
0 180-L
E 180- L
C =180' - 142'54' F 180- L
C=37'06'R G 180 -L

® Bearing of line DE:


AB =180' - 96'32'
AB =N 83'28' E
CD =142'54' - 83'28'
CD = S 59'26' E
DE::: 180' - 59'26'
DE= 120'34'
DE= 132'18'-120'3'l'
DE =S 11'44' E

® Bearing ofline AE:


Sum ofinterior angles
EA =11'44' + 50'46'
,EA =N 62'30' W
=1080 - LL + 180 + 'LR
=1260-2,L + LR
Sum ofinterior angles = (7 - 2) 180
Sum of interior angles = 900
900 =1260· LL + LR
360=LL-LL
Therefore the difference of the sum of
deflection angles is always 360'

2,L =50'20 +83'32 +63'27


+34'18' +72'56' + 30'45'
2,L =370'18' L
LR= 10'11' R
2,L·LR=360
370'18' ·10'11' =360'07'

CD Total error of the deflection angle:


Error = 360W . 360'
Error = 07' too big
S-61

COMPASS SURVEYING

® Bearing of line DE:

Points Corrected Reflection Anale


A 85'20'L -01 85'19'l
8 10'32'R +01 10'12'R
C 83'32' L - 01 83'31'L
0 63'2,l -01 63'26'L
E 34'18' L -01 34'1TL
F 72'56' L - 01 72'55'L
G 30'45' L -01 30'44'L
Beanng ofline DE =N. 3"15' E

Check: @ Bearing of line GA = S, 45'19' W


LL =85'10' +93'31' +63'26'
+ 34"1, + 72'55' + 30'44'
L.L = 10'12'
LL -'LR = 370'12' - 10'12' = 360 (check)
An engineers notebook gives the observed
•magnetic bealingsQf tile fOlklWlng traverSe, .
LINES AZIMUTH
AB 320'
BC 320' -10'12' =330'12'
CD 330'12' - 83'31' =246'41'
DE 246'41' - 63'26' = 183'15'
EF 183'15' - 34'1, = 148'58'
FG 148'58' " 72'55' = 76'03'
GA 76'03' - 30'44' = 45'19'
AB 45'19' + 180' +(180 - 85'19')
= 320'00'
CD Compute the local attraction at A
@ Compute the local attraction atB,
LINES BEARING AZIMUTH
@ Compute thetoeali'lttractlon at C,
AS S.40'E 320'00'
Be S. 29'48' E 330'12'
Solution:
CD N. 66'41' E 246'41'
DE N. 3'15' E 183'15'
EF N,3"02'W 148'58'
FG S.76'03'W 76'03'
GA S. 45'19' W 45'19'
AB S,40' E 320'00'

B
S-62

COMPASS SURVEYING

Solution:
D
TN
'MN B
,
,,
,
0'32'

B
A

LINES CORRECTED LOCAL


BEARING ATTRACTION
c
AB S.68'19'E A =0'41' E
BC N. 39'41' E B=1'19'W CD True beanng of AB:
OJ N.S1'OO'W C=09'W Tn/e bearing ofAB =48'45' + 0'52'
DA S. 63'30' N D=O True bearing of AB = N49'37' E

Check: ® Length of AD:


Since the triangle is equilateral, it is also
48'11' + 108' + 83'19' + 120'30' =360'00' eqUiangular.

CD Leal attraction at A: B
Lcal attraction at A= 69' - 68'19'
Leal attraction at A = 0'41' E
® Local attraction at B:
Local attraction at B = 68'19' - 61'
Local attraction at B = 1"19' W
@ Local attraction at C:
A
[Dcal attraction at C= 39'50' - 39'41'
Local attraction at C = 09' W
c
AB=BC= CA
Area = (AB)(AC)
2 S'In 60'
The side A~ of an equilafenilfleld' ABC with' 69280 _ (AB)2 Sin 60'
an ~rea of 692:80 ~q",ri>hasamag1leti:C 2
bearing of N 48:45' Fin>1930 wheil the AB=40m.
magn~lic declination WB$O'52' E. A$sumeB
and C is on. the north eastsidji, . . .. . 1
A1 = 3" (692.80)
CD FInd the true bearing of A6.·••••. '. . A1 =230.93
® .Find the length of AD with pOint Don the A 40 (x) Sin 60'
line Be and makillg the area of thetl'iangle
1 2
ABD one third of the Whole area. . x= 13.3 m.
@ Compute the bearing of line AD. (AD)2 = (40)2 + (13.3)2.2(40)(13.3) Cos 60'
(AD)2 = 1245 .
AD= 36.3m.
S-63

COMPASS SURVEYING

@ Bearing of line AD: @ Bearing of line 8E:


Sin f1I Sin 50' =90' • 53'0748"
13.3'=36:3 =N 36'52'12" W
f1I = 20'08'
Bearing of AD =49'37' +20'08' @ Bearing of line DA:
Bearing of AD = N 69'45' E = 79'41'44" - 26'33'56"
= S 53'07'48" W

A triangUlar lot has for \Jne of its boundaries a.


In the defiectionaogie trClverse wilh atraO$il
nne 1500 rn, long Which runs due East «pm A- survey data below. Assume deflection T, T2
The eastern boundary is 900 m. long and the
T3 and bearing Tl T2 is correct.
western boundClry 1200 m. long.. Astraight li~e .:.
cuts the western· bqundaiyal the iniddle point
o and meets Ihe easterly boundary E, 6{)O tit
from the Sf. comerR· .
CD Find the bearing af line ED.
@ Find the bearing of line BE
@ Find the bearing of line DA.

Solution:
CD Bearing of line ED:

(1) Find the bearing af line T2 • Ta,


@ Find the beClring of line T3• T4.
@ Find the bearing of line T4 • Tl .
Angle ACB is a right angle having the ratio
of its side as 3:4:5. Solution:
. 900
Sin A = 1500
A = 36'52'12"
B =90' - 36'52'12" = 53'OT48"
300
CotE= 600
E = 63'26'04"
0= 90' - 63'26'04" = 26'33'56"
DE Sin 63'26'04 = 600
DE=670.83
Bearing of line ED
=180' - (36'52'12" + 63'26'04")
=S 79'41'44" W
S-64

COMP'SS SURVEYING

I Def. < S to the right IDef. <S to the left


R 96'42' IL = 69'16'
R 176'33'
R 156'00'
429'15'
LR=429'15'
LL = 69'16'
359'59' Error 01' too small

Correction is applied only at T-4 =156'01'

156'01 '
Solution:

Line Azimuth Back Bearing Distances


Azimuth
1- 2 225'25' 42'25' N.42'25' E 118.38
2-3 38'58' 218'58' S. 38'58' IA 83.22
3-4 329'42' 149'42' S. 30'18' E 83.44
4-1 125'43' 305'43' N. 54'17' .... 85.26
1-2 222'25' 42'25' N.42'25' E

CD Bearing of line T2 - T3:


=S.38'58'W Interior Ls:
~ Bearing of line T3 - h LB =55'45' +58'40' = 114'25'
= S. 30'18'E LC =180 + 14'30' - 58'30' = 136'08'

:;v Bearing of line T4 - T{


LD =180 -14'00' - 77'10' = 88'50'
=N,54'17'w LE =40'20' + 77'10' = 111'30'
LA =180 -40'15' -55'30' = 84'15'
541'00'
S-65

COMPASS SURVEYING

CD Error ofmisclosure:
Error ofmisclosure =541' - 540'
Errorofmisclosure =1'00'

® Adjusted interior angle at station C:


Correction per interior angle
= roo' =12'
5

Corrected interior Ls:


LB =114'25' - 0'12' = 114'13'
LC = 136'08' - 0'12' = 135'56'
LD = 88'50' - 0'12' = 88'38'
LE = 117'30' - 0'12' =117'18'
LA =84'15' - 0'12' = 84'03'

Angle at station C = 135'56'


Solution:
@ Adjusted forward bearing ofline CD:

a = 180 - 77'10' - 88'38'


a= 14'12'

Bearing ofline CD = S 14'12' E CD Error of deflection angle:


IR =55'30' + 99'30' + 44'00' + 92'00' +68'55'
LR=359'55'
LL=O
LR- IL =359'55'
LR- IL=360'-

Error = OS' (to be added)

Distribute the error equally at each station


=01'
5-66

COMPASS SURVnlNG

STATION CORRECTED Arithmetical sum ofdepartures


1 55'31' R = 1096 + 1088.84
2 99'31' R = 2185.67
3 44'01' R Correction in latitude:
4 92'01'R ~_ 64:13
5 68'56' R 15.97 -1870.97
C1 = 0.00854 (640.13) = 5.47
~ = 0.00854 (299.05) = 2.55
~ = 0.00854(281.98) = 2.41
C4 = 0.00854 (362.44). = 3.10
Cs = 0.00854 (287.37) = 2.44
, 15.97
Correction in departure:
--.fL =J 12.87
7.99 2185.67
C1 = 0.00366 (112.87) = 0.41
~ = 0.00366 (843.56) = 3.09
~ = 0.00366 (140.40) = 0.51
LINES BEARING AZIMUTH C4 = 0.00366 (796.41) = 2.91
1·2 N 10' E 190'00' Cs = 0.00854 (292.43) = 1.07
2-3 S70'20' E 289'31' 7.99
3-4 S26'28' E 333'32'
(uncorrected) (corrected)
4-5 S65'32'W 65'32'
5-1 N45'30'W 134'30'
Lines LIn DEP LAT DEP
+5.47 - 0.41
'1-2 +640.13 +112.87 +645.60 +112.46
LINES Distance LAT DEP
- 2.55 - 3.09
1-2 650 +640.13 +112.87
2-3 - 239.05 +843.56 - 296.50 +840.47
2-3 895 - 299.05 +843.56
- 2.41 - 0.51
3-4 315 - 281.98 +140.40
3-4 - 281.98 +140.40 - 279.57 +139.89
4-5 872 - 362.44 ·796.41
- 3.10 +2.91
5-1 410 +287.37 - 292.43
4-5 - 362.44 - 786.41 - 359.34 - 799.32
+927.50 +1096.83
+2.44 +1.07
- 943.47 -1088.84
5-1 +287.37 - 292.43 +289.81 - 293.50
• 15.97 + 7.99
@ Linear enor of closure: _ LINE LAT DMD DOUBLE
AREA
Linear error of closure =.yr-(1--'5.'-97-)2-+-(7-.9-9i
1- 2 +645.60 +112.46 +7260418
Linear error of closure = 17,86 - 296.50
2-3 +1065.39 - 315888.14
3-4 - 279.57 +2054:75 - 57193033
@ Area by DMD method:
Balance the traverse using transit rule. 4-5 -359.34 +1386.32 -49816023
Arithmetical sum of latitudes 5-1 +289.81 +293.50 +8505924
=972.50 +343.47 2A -- 1228315.28
;, 1870.97 A =614157.64 m2
5·67

ERRORS IN TRANSIT WORK

2. Lower plate:
a. Outer plate
b. Lower clamp
c. Outer spindle
Transit - it is an instrument of designed 3. Leveling plate group:
primarily for measuring horizontal and . a. Lower clamp and tangent screw
vertical angle. b. Leveling screws
c. Leveling head
d. Foot plate
Line of collimation - a line segment joining
the intersection of the cross hairs and the
optical center of the objective~ens when in
1. Engineer's transit - a transit provided proper adjustment.
with vertical circle and a long level tube on
Line of sight- the line joining the intersection
its telescope.
of the cross hairs and the optical center of
2. Plain transit: a transit without a vertical the objective lens, regardless of whether it
circle and telescope level. is in adjustment or not. When in
adjustment, the line of sight and the line of
3. City transit - a transit without a compass
collimation can be termed either of the
and having a U-shaped one piece
other.
standard.
Focusing - consists in the adjustment of the
4. Mining transit - a transit provided with an
eyepiece and the objective so that the
auxiliary telescope, a reflector for
cross hairs and the image can be seen
illuminating the cross hairs and a diagonal
clearly at the same time.
prismatic eyepiece for upward sighting, 60'
above the horizon.
5. Theodolite - a transit designed for
surveying of high precision.
6. Geodimeter - a transit which can measure 1. The adjustment of the plate bubble
distances using the principles of the speed 2. The adjustment of the vertical cross h'air
of light. 3. The adjustment of the line of sight
4. The adjustment of the standards
5. The adjustment of the telescope bubble
Three principal subsidivions of a 6. The adjustment of the vertical vernier
transit and parts under each
subd ivision:
Four adjustments of the transit
which is not ordinarii performed:
1. Upper plate:
a. Telescope and telescope level 7. To make the line of sight as defined by the
b. Telescope standard horizontal hair coincide with the optical
c. Telescope clamp and tangent screw
axis.
d. Vertical circle and vertical vernier 8. To make the axis of the objective slide
e. Plate levels, compass box, upper perpendicular to the. horizontal axis.
tangent screw 9 .To center the eyepiece slide.
f. Vernier and inner spindle 10. To make the axis of the striding level
parallel to the horizontal axis.
8-68

ERRORS IN TRANSIT WORK

1. Adjustment of the Plate Bubble:


Correction: If the point appears to depart from
Object: To make the axis of the plate level the cross hair, loosen the two
lie in a plane perpendicular to the adjacent capstan screws and rotate
vertical axis. the cross hair ring in the telescope
tube until the point traverses the
Test: Rotate the instrument about the
enUre length of the hair. Tighten the
vertical axis until each level tube is
same screws.
parallel to a pair of opposite
leveling screws. Center the
bubbles fly means of the leveling
screws. Rotate the transit end for
end about the vertical axis. If the
bubble remains on the center, then
the axis of the plate level tube is
perpendicular to the vertical axis.
Correction: I.f the bubbles become displaced,
bnng them halfway back by means
of the adjusting screws. Level the
instrument again and repeat the test
to verify the results.

Point sighted 1sf position

3. Adjustment of the line of sight:

Object: To make the line of sight


perpendicular to the horizontal axis.

Test: Level the instrument. Sight on the


2. Adjustment of the vertical cross hair:
point A about 150 m. away, with the
Object: To make the vertical cross hair in a telescope on the normal position.
plane perpendicular to the With both horizontal motions of the
horizontal axis. instrument clamped, plunge the
telescope and set another point B
Test: Slight the vertical cross hair on a
on the line of sight and about the
well defined point not less than 60
same distance away on the
m. away. With both horizontal
opposite side of the transit.
mo~ions of the instrument clamped,
Unclamp the upper motion, rotate
sWing the telescope through a
the instrument about the vertical
small vertical angle, so that the
axis, and again sight at A with the
point traverses the length of the
telescope inverted, Clamp the
vertical cross hair. If the point
upper motion. Plunge the telescope
appears to move continuously on
as before, if B is on the line of sight,
the hair, then the cross hair is in
adjustment the desired relation exist.
S-69

ERRORS IN TRANSIT WORK

Correction: If the line of sight does not fall on


B set a point C on the line of sight
beside B. Marked a point D, 1/4 of
the distance from Cto B, and adjust
the cross hair ring by means of the
two opposite horizontal screws
until the line of sight passes
through D. The point sighted
should be at the same elevation as
the station occupied by the transit.

Correction: If the line of sight does not fall on


B, set a point C, on the line of sight
beside B. A point D, halfway
between Band C, will lie in the
same vertical plane with the height
point A. Sight on D, elevate the
telescope until the line of sight is
beside A, loosen the crews of the
bearing cap, and raise or lower the
adjustable end of the horizontal
axis until the line of sight is in the
same vertical plane with A.

4. Adjustment of standards: 5. Adjustment of the telescope bubble:

Object: To make the horizontal axis Object: To make the axis of the telescope
perpendicular to t he vertical axis. level parallel to the line of sight.

Test: Set up the transit near a building or


other object on which is some well-
defined point A at a certain vertical
angle. Level the instrument very
carefully thus making the vertical
axis truly vertical. Sight at the high
point A and with the horizontal
motions clamped depress the
telescope and set a point B on the
ground below A. Plunge the
telescope, rotate the instrument end
for end about the vertical axis, and
r
d
--------.----,~_-Ih_

again sight on A. Depress the


telescope as before, it the line of
sight falls on B, then the desired
relation exist.
S-70

DRDRS IN TRANSIT WORK

Test & Correction: Use the two-Peg Test Test: Level the instrument first by means
method. Select two point A and B of the plate levels and then by
say, 60 m. apart. Set up the transit means of the telescope bubble,
close to A so that when the rod is center the telescope bubble
held upon it, the eyepiece will be carefully and observe if the vernier
about a quarter of an inch from the reads zero. If not proceed as
rod. Look through the telescope follows.
with the wrong end - to at the rod
and find the rod reading at the cross Correction: Slightly loosen the capstan
hair if visible. If not take the screws holding the vernier and shift
reading by means of a pencil point the vernier lightly by tapping lightly
opposite the center of field of view. with a pencil until the zeros
Tum the telescope toward Band coincide.
take a rod reading on it. Subtract
one reading from the other to secure
the apparent difference in elevation
betWeen the two pegs. The transit
is then taken to B and the operation
is repeated. The mean of the two
apparent difference in elevation is
the true difference in elevation
between the two pegs. The rod
reading on A with the instrument
1. Non-adjustment, eccentricity of circle, and
still at B, is then computed. With errors of graduation.
the computed value for the rod 2. Changes due to temperature and wind.
reading at A known, the end of the
telescope bubble tube is raised or 3. Uneven setting of tripod
lowered by means of the adjusting 4. Poor focusing (parallax) ,
screws until the telescope bubble
5. Inaccurate setting over a point
is centered.
6. Irregular refraction of atmosphere
6. Adjustment of the vertical circle and
vernier.
Object: To make the vernier read zero when
the telescope bubble is centered.

1. Reading in the wrong direction from the


index in a double vemier.
W:'mier 2. Reading the vernier opposite the one
which was set.
3. Reading the circle wrongly that is reading
59' to 60'.

Vernier
5-71

ERRORS IN TRANSIT WORI

2. Line of sight deflected to the left of


collimation. Angle measurement
clockwise.
A) Error of line of sight: Line of sight not
perpendicular to the horizontal axis.

x Cos h Sin E = X Sin e


Sin E = Sin e
Cosh
Sin E = Sin 2 Sec h
For small angle, Sin E = E oJ"
Sin e =e /'"
Line ofcollimation ..
E =e Sec h Line of sight ' .....

M- E2 =T - E1
T:: M- E2 +E1
T:: M- (E2 - E1)
T = M- E (sec h2- sec h1)
T=M-E'

1) When h1 = h2,there is no error.

2) When one angle is depression and the


other is angle of elevation having
1. Line of sight deflected to the right of line of numerically equal values, there is no error.
collimation. (clockwise)

B) Error of traverse axis of the telescope is


. . . <." not horizontal or horizontal axis not
Line of collimation perpendicular to the vertical axis.
Line ofsight

~
:clan

e Une of sight
:clan h
Line ofcolIimorion .
... /... y
Line ofsighl

T = true horizontal angle


T- E2 =M- E1
T=M +Er E1 Tan E = X tan htan e
T = M + (e sec h2- e sec h1) Tan E = tan h tan e
T = M + E (sec h2 - sec h1)
E=etanh
T= M + E'
For small angles,
whereE' = e (sec h2 - sec h1)
tan E =E
tane=e
5-72

ERRORS IN TRANSIT WORK

1) left end of transverese axis higher. Angle


measurement clocwise.

1
To measure an angle by repetition means
Line of sighl to measure it several times, allowing the
Line ofcoUimatiofl vernier to remain clamped at each time at the
previous reading instead of setting it back at
zero when sighting at the backsight.

The first measurement is made in exactly


the same manner as that described for a single
angle. Then, do not touch the upper clamp or
Line of sjg~t upper tangent screw, but loosen the lower
clamp turn the telescope back to the first
object and set exactly on it by means of the
T- E2 = M- E1 lower clamp and tangent screw. The circle
T= M + Er E1 now reads, not 0', but the first single angle.
T = M+ (e sec hr tan hI) Next loosen the upper clamp, turn the
Tan = M + E' telescope to the second object and set exactly
E' = E2 - E1 on it by the use of the upper clamp and its
tangent screw. The index of the vernier now
points to the double angle on the horizontal
2) Right end of transverse axis higher. circle. Half the angle now read is the improved
value of the required angle. If the process is
repeated and a third angle is mechanically
\
added to the last reading, the circle reading is
\
\
\
divided by three and still more exact values of
\ I
\. .t.--- Line oj collimufion the angle is obtained. Six readings are
usually the greatest number of times taken
with the telescope in one position.

Laying Off An Angle By Repetition:

To layoff an angle of 18'30'20" with a


Line ofcollimation transit to the nearest min. first layoff an angle
of 18'30' by a single setting and establish a
temporary stake. Measure this angle that has
just been laid off by repetition. Assume that
repetition determines 18'29'40" as the value of
the angle to the temporary stake. A new stake
must then be set a short perpendicular
distance called an offset from the temporary
stake, by 40".
S-73

ERRORS IN TRUSIT WORK

Consequently if the temporary stake is


600 m. from the transit it would be necessary
to set the final stake.
600(0.0003)(40) - 012 f h
60 -. m. rom t e The transit is set up at B, with the
temporary stake. telescope in normal position and a backsight
at A was taken. Assume that the true position
of the line of sight (line of collimation) is
deflected by an amount "e" as shown. When
the telescope was plunged and point C was
sighted, the line of sight is now deflected by
an amount equal to 2e from the prolongation of
line AB. The telescope is then rotated at 180'
about its vertical axis and point A is again
sighted but this time the telescope is in
inverted position.
ANGLES BY REPETITION
Tnu position 0/
f{OfPronrg/ Axis

A -'=~~.

(As applied to the Adjustment of Bubble Tube)

Let us say that there is an error of the axis The telescope is again plunged and point
of the bubble tube fro its position by an amount D is established on the ground. Point 0 is
"e". If the telescope is rotated at 180', the erroneous by an amount 2e from the
position of the axis of the bubble tube is now prolongation of line AB. The line of sight is
doubled as shown in the figure, with reference adjusted' by an amount e. backwards that is
to its original, position in order to adjust the determine first the location of E, that is
bubble just move it at half this value. DE = 1/4 CD.

Total error from first to second position is


2e. Therefore to place the axis of the bubble
tube to its true position. move by an amount
A
"e",'

Liue of coli/marion
5-74

ERRORS IN TRANSIT WORK

t@$ln!~letllr@t.vefui~rbftnElhbfifOIl~I<:irA~
A vernier is a device for measuring the
fractional part of one of the smallest divisions :~ • ~~~ffa~~~~I~~~d~~t~.am.~ • •19·4q'·
of a graduated scale more accurately than can
be estimated by eye. The amount by which. ® ·.Wh~t~lbesJJl~II¢§~diYi$jPn.qfth~Ci~!e? •.
the smallest division on the vemier differs from ®Ho~ • • rnanY • diVi$iprl$ • • iltElthere.·.bn!b~··
the smallest division on the vemier differs from YEirl1iE!t? . ..
the smallest division on graduated scale
determines the least count of the vemier. Solution:
CD Number ofdivisions on the vernier:
Nv = number of divisions on the vernier
Least Count: Ns =number of divisions' of the scale
Lv =least count of vemier
S Ls = least reading of circle
L=-
N
L = length of vemier
where L = least count
S = smallest division on scale For retrograde vernier,
N = Number of divisions on the vemier Nv= Ns-1

For direct vernier,


Nv=Ns+1
L =19'40' =1180'
1
LV=20"=-
3
1. Direct vernier • is one in which the
smallest division on the vernier is shorter Equation CD
than the smallest division on the scale. L=NsLs
1180 = Ns Ls
2. Retrograde vernier - the division in the
vernier is longer than the division of the Equation ®
scale.
Ls
Lv=-
3. Folded vernier· is a direct vernier' it is Nv
used where a double vemier would b~ too Ls=-
Nv
long as to make it impracticable. 3

From Equation ®
Ls=Ns+1
3

From Equation CD
Ls = 1180
Ns
S-75

ERRORS IN TRANSIT WORI

Solving Equations CD &®


Ns+1_1180
3 - Ns

lia,.
Ns2 + Ns = 3540
Ns- -1 ±...j'(1-?-.4-(-.3540-)
- 2
Ns = 59 divisions
Nv= Ns + 1
Nv=59+1 Solution:
Nv = 60 divisions on the vernier
VERNIER

® Least reading of circle: 10 9 3 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0'

Nv IIIIIIIIII~III'IIJ~
Ls--
- 3 I I Ii 1
Co<nad""", 1ST 156' ISS'
60 CIRCLE
LS="3
Ls = 20' smallest division of the circle L=30"
5=60=20'
3
S
L=N
30=20 (60)
N
pesigr.a1q~i!ernjei.bi • ~~ • ~mWilft~.~@t N = 40 divisions on the vernier which is
readinQofaO'(m.th~sCl:lI~ .••.. lll~§t®El~·~lrlg··
of1Q()'3Z30"; '..'. .... .. equivalent to 39 divisions on the
scale.
Solution: Since there are 7 spaces on the vernier,
only 6 spaces on the circle will give us the
r-15Spaces,
coincide reading. Coincide reading on the
scale:: 155'40'
10

II
I.. 5
95,1 ,
96
C""ad",,,
100
0
'I' 5

fj i i '
10
Itlll~ Itl tltI~' tltltltI" ,)tltI 6 (20):: 157'40'.

LI4Spaces

5
L=N
O~n.a~rogradevemi~rf(ll'li • VernWrh~v(OQ
30 =20(60) ale$tteadiOS.Qf.• gQ.~%,aM.~ •. I~ast • ~~(flryg • in
N the .Circle.of • 3Q•• inln•••• lfldicale.a.·re~9hl$ • 9f
N =40 spaces in the vernier 150'34'20... (3lVelher~lngofm~·C()irCi~.jr1
N- 1 =39 spaces in the scale the stelle. > ..'
14 spaces = 14 (20) = 280'
=4'40' Solution:
VERNIER
Reading on scale coincide is
10<Y20' -4'40' = 95'40'

Folded vernier with a reading of 100'32'30"


S-76

ERRORS IN TRANSrr WORK

S
L=-N
20 = 30(60)
N
N = 90 spaces on the vemier which is ·.tJe~igQa·f()@ed.v~rni~r.fClr~d~~Wlth.~ • I~~
equivalent to 91 spaces on the scale. r$adln9pf2{)'~q • U'l£!••~~ .•• ·.1ll~~tr~t~.?.r~Mi~9
flf1()()'~Zillcl()t:kWi$edjr~Glltln.<> . ....
There are 13 spaces on the vernier,
therefore 14 spaoes on the scale must be Solution:
laid out to determine the coincide.
VERNIER
Therefore the reading on scale
= 150'30' - l' = 143'30'
, 14 spaces = T.
; 1 spaces =30 min.

~c.io' 99" 98- 9r 9~'· 95'


l.----14 spaccs~
SCALE

L=§.
N

IJifiiJlli1i
Solution:
30 =20 (60)
N
N = 40 division in the vemier
N- 1 = 39 spaces in the scale
VERNIER
30 15 0 15 30 Oiff. in reading =100'32'30" • 100'20"
Oiff. in reading = 12'30".
12'30"·25 spaces in the vemier,

Start counting from A to S, then from C to


S D. From A to 0 in the vernier there are 15
L=-N
spaces, therefore it is equivalent to 14
_l' (60) spaces in the scale.
L- 12
L=5'
Number of divisions on the SCALE Therefore the reading in the scale for the
Scale or circle is 12 - 1 = 11 division location of the coincidence
Vernier coincidence = 100'20'·4'40' =95'40'.
= ~ = 9 division marks on the vemier 14 spaces on the scale =4'40',

Start counting from A to S, then proceed


from C, the coincidence is at 0 which is 3
divisions from C. Scale coincidence is
112"· 2(1) = 110',
S-77

ERRORS IN TRANSrr WORK

Divide the corrected 3rd reading by 6


142'01'30" - 23'40'15"
6 -
Sta. Sta. Tel. Repetitions Vernier Mean
O~, O~. W ~
Since the 2nd reading is 83'40' add
BAD 0 0-00 180'01' 00-00-30"
C D 1 83'40' mUltiple of 60', 120', 180',240'
C R 6 142'02' 3;12'03' 142'02'30'
A R 6 0'01' 180'02' 00'01'30" True horizontal angle = 60' +23'40'15"
True horizontal angle =83'40'15"

Determine the true value of angle ABC.

Solution:

Mean values :'::«::::/:::}?/<~:,:<::·:·}"<:\::i·.:)U.?·)])::-:::C) ?J.::::::


. . 00-00 + 00-01 Check on the adjustment of the Instrument
First readmg = 2
reveals the following errors. The line of sight
First reading =00'30" with the telescope on the normal position is
Third reading = 142'02'30" deflected 30" to the .left of its correct position
FOl1lth reading = 00-01'-30" and the horizonlaLaxiS (fight end lower) maKeS
an angle of 15' with the true horizontal. ..
Take the mean of the first and fourth
reading: Compute the correction due to line of sight
(j)
OO..()()..30
not perpendicular to the hanzontalaxlS~ .
00-01-30' ® Compute the correction due to the
horizontal axis no! perpendiCUlar to the
OO-OZ-OO
vertical aXis. ..
Mean = 00-01' (too big) @ Compute the corrected horizontal angle
between Aand B.
Correction of third reading
= 142'02'30" - 00'01'00"
= 142'01'30"
S-78

ERRORS III TRANSIT WORK

Solution:
CD Correction due to line ofsight:

ActyiF~ng@~ard$W.~!todElt~rmltleth$
lltimlJ1~ • (;)fl~Ae;.··Witl1.~ • fransit.at.st<lti()!'lA,.
LUte 0/ ~e.sjQht~ • pqlnt•• ¢.Wfll1:tl;i~.on.the • leff.pO~itfpll.
ofpPlnteandnl~$Yt~dayem9alatlgl$atg
collimation

to·.·~ • • 45'.•••·••·He•• ·ttiE#l•• tum$ • th~ • • jnslru@l~t • In.


c'o"q~$e • qlta#lQqarl9$lghlat•• pgjmtv·.··lm=;
Une ofcollimation
rn~iJlj~redlW~~PnW~Q~I~.·RAf:li~~~·~O'<lIl~ •
·the.V~rt~I • .a.nglr·.·!l@di~~·.at.·.a • l'.la;$·•.90.·.•·.··The.
E = e (sec ~ - sec h1) li~~9f.$jghl.\*Jlt,ti • mel~e~cope9nlhe.nOrm~l.
E =30 (sec 60' - sec 45') PO$tti()fljsdetfficlE!<tQ3\lothElrigl'ltQfjt~
CCirr~tpO~ll/< ". ....
E =20 (2 -1.414)
E =30 (0.586)
E'= 17.58" CD ·R6inpqlalt1~~@r.qu~ • IO••.li;lle•• of~19ht.Mt
p~rpen~iptJt4rt9th~hBtiz9~lalal(is .•. • ;.; •.•. •. . •. •.•
@ Correction due to the horizontal axis: ® Cl)ruPllte.th~·.C#11'~ed .• h6riiont'd.angle
E = e (tan h2 -tan hl )
E: =15 (tan 60' -tan 45')
E' =15 (1.932 -1.0)
@. ···.~e~~El~~~j~~b~ • line • ~c.iS ~~.o.·$6,1·;
comR\-ffi:lth~aZltUuthPflloeAB.·
•• ...'.....
E' =10.98"
SOlution:
@ Corrected horizontal angle: CD Error due to line of sight not perpendicular
Line 0/ sight to the horizontal axis:

Line of
collimation

E =e (sec h2' sec h1)


E = 03' (sec 60' - sec 45')
T- El = M- E2 E= 1.758'
T= M- (E2 + El )
T= M- (Er El )
T=M-E' ® Corrected horizontal angle:
T- E2 =M- El T=M+E
T= M+ Er E1 T=43'30' + 1.758'
T=M+E T=43'31.76'
T =43'31'46"
Correctedhorizontal angle
=80'10'10' -17.58" + 10.98" ® Azimuth of AB:
.=80'10'3.4"
Azimuth of AB = 210'30' + 43'31'46"
Azimuth of AB =254'01'46"
5-79

ERRORS IN TRANSIT WORK

® Angular error in segment CD:


8=30+30
Maladjustment of the. transit is such that the 8 =60"
Hne. of sight with the t~lescope In normal 8 =01'
position. is deflected '~ensec,onds to the leftaf.
its correct position ofnol perpendicular to the ® Offset distance:
horizontal axis•. This causesanerrorof8}9~'
in the measured horizontal angle when the Offset distance =X1 + x2
vertical angle to the firSt point Is 45' and thatpf Offset distance = 50 Sin 30" + 50 Sin 60"
the second point is W.... Offset distance =0.218 m.

of
(j) What is the value "e" in seconds, ..
® If this transit is used to
layout a straight
line by prolonging a line. AS by setting up·
the transit at siJcceedingpolnts A BandC
and plunging the telescope.lftl'le
'Alhat.~ltorwould.~.intro<luce~nthe.m~s~r~~
procedure were such that each. backsighl Mri4ontal.~ggle.lfthr<lllgl1non,adjustm~m ••• th~
were taken with .tha telescope at normal hl)r.izgnl~taxlswer~h'rClinedO~rWlmtM:
position, what would be the angular error in hblitClhlal.
the segment CD, ... ....
@ What is the offset diStance from the true
prolongation of lirl!! AS. from point () .• if
AB=BC",CD= 50m. . .

Solution:
A B Solution:
CD Error with one sight at the same elevation:
E =e (tan h:1- tan h1)
E=0.05 (tan 45' - tan 0')
E= 05'
A B
® Error with both sights are 45',
E=e (tan h2 - tan h1)
E=05 (tan 45' - tan 45')
E=O
D
@ Error with one sight is +45' and the other
is-45':
CD Value of "e": E =05 [tan 45' - tan (-45))
E =e (sec h2 - sec h1) E= 05(1 + 1)
8.79" = e (sec 60' - sec 45') E= 10'
e" == 15"
S-80

ERRORS IN TRANSIT WORK

.~~1$~f:~zd~r~\~~I~.~~~;~~~~.~ffi~P:~~~.
of.elevatiol1.pfll1e~rst.poim·js.4f·~.0'\Yll'[~fh~t.
In•• Pr(ll<lngil1ga•• straigntnl1~lhetraO$ills$et.at
~, • a•~ck$jgm.~.tat<etl.a~A.··~Mt~et~lesg~w,·
.i$'plun~~d.t9 • P,•• 3O(l·I1'l;ir.·~ctv!lr.Cl:I.of.8 . ••. 1fW~
·~~~i:!t~1o~$e~Wd1~'6fWo~i~~~~~~dw~i.· ·V~iB?'a.Xhr.W~fejl1cll~~d.·p·Withth~.tr:Ue

yert~!.jn.a vElrticalplan~ • makirlg9W•• WiW.1he
prbba[)l~ln911n~flOn9n~tr~n$VE!r$~~ls;Jt ·~jrectien.of.fhe.fine•• what.y.'0ullL@•• the•• lihe?f
Wa$fouM9Yt~~erm~AAuremel1tl'wme l!rrQl'inthelocaledposltionofQ. . ...
instl'l.lrnent•• h~s .• an • Elrr()fjnltle • •line••. ()f.• ~i~ht.·
WhiChls•• defleqted • tQ•• t~~.~gtrt.9fthe • • llne.pf ill Wb,•• and • Bareat•• th~ • same•• ~evafion, • but
Cplnrnation••by•. an·~mQ9~t .• I3q~<ll • ftl.15·,<.lnt~t;l. thf:l.vel1~al.anglefr°rTl •.~• ~Q9js+1AW . • • .·•• ·•·
·.l?~er .c~se, • sttidingleY$I • v&~.H~.~ • • t(') • • C~~k. ®.. ffA,·.B.~ndC • are.alli'l.ttb~$<lll1e.eleVatl<lnf···
.~ •.• ·li.lhe••Vertlcal.an91.~*9fIl·B.t9·.A..~M.frorn6
~~~~dcJ~~~~6~Wg~eJ@r~~~~~1oa;j~ toCis+1S'? . ..
~n~ottfJ~ltiln$Yer$~~XI$jnJerm$?f Solution:
• ~~idt;jons' .• • TMMQ[Jl<lrY~IIJ~o/rm~~i"i§19ri c

®•• Cornpute•• lhe.·err()f~lIe •.~ • •line • ofsl9ht


.•.•. deflecled.t<lmeOgtit•• ><••.• • • • .• • • • .•.• • • •.• • • • • <•• • • • • • • •.
®C()rTlPlJle the~rrp@1.!~!w~AJnsv~r~a)(ls
Wllh.left~ndhighep«.· • • • • • >i<•• • • i•• • •. • • • • .• •. • .• •. •. .
E

® CornPule.the • • .s9(f~¢f • • hoH~om.~laJl~le


~el.YJeenlhelW<lp()lr\t$; .. . .

Solution: B
CD Error due to line ofsight deflected to the
right: CD Linear error if A and B are at the same
elevation:
E1 = e (sec h2 - sec h1)
E= etan h
E1 =15" (sec 63'58' - sec 42'30') E=01tan15'
E, = 13.83" E= 0.268'
x
@ Eror due to transverse axis with left end tan E= 300
higher: x = 300 tan 0.268'
E2 =e (tan h2 -tan h,) Note: tan l' = 0.0003
e =2 (10) x = 0.024 m. linear offset
e =20" ® Linear error if A, Band C are all at the
E2 =20 (tan 63'58' - tan 42'30') same elevation:
E2 =22.62" = There is no error

@ COlTected horizontal angle:


@ Linear error if the vertical angle from e to A
and from B to cis +15':
T=M+ E1 +E2 The error is doubled
T= 150'20'20" + 13.83" + 22.62" E = 0.268 (2) = 0.536'
T'" 150'20'56.45" x = 300 tan 0.536'
x = 300 (0.0003)(0.536)
x= 0.048 m
S-8!

ERRORS IN TRANSn WORK

® Error in the transverse axis:


E2 =e (tan h2 - tan h,)
E2 =20" (tan 63'58'· tan 42'30')
T~~ • • boritontal/~ngle/.peiw~~~twqpQifl~.
E2 = 22,62" (is added if the left end is
mea$wedCIO~KWISfij$17$'20'2o",Jl)~~ngl~
higher than the right end)
Of.i'lI~ttoIl9ff~e~n·tP9iflt~.42'Aq'whili'ltMt
·.of.• the.$ecqI'l9•• i$6a·~a'· • • TfuJ.II"l~tmment·w~$
th~rt • t$$tedWrerr0r5.ptqollirn<ltjon•• atidf()b111e @ Horizontal angle:
pr9bable.lnplill~llon.of •.~ • tran.sver%~axl$ .•••••!g H =179'20'20" + E1 + E2
lpe•• fgnn~r • ~ase • • ttWmsplacem~ht •.• ()t•• t~e H = 179'20'20" + 14.27" +22.62"
~eSOIl9.B6inf.es!abli~he<l.on. thefnre¥l~@ • ~ide H = 179'20'56,89"
ofthetr!J~$itl$3cm·totnerigbtotth~mrsl
polllkT~e5epqjntsare1{)qm,fr()fl1lhetrary~t
sta~on-ln}h~latter@$!:!~slrldlngleYeIW~s
\)$eci•• t9.p~eCl<·theJnQlim~ti()n.ot • thetran$¥etse·
a~i~~1l9v.'~sfClul'ldJClWJrthanll1ete~~of
.lhetrMsYer$e}lXl$•• • in .• Jerm$•• Qf••·f.·~IYISlQn$ .•
seC()l'• • ~flg~ICit
Thi'l• ldS. . • • V~lue..• • 9f•. • 9~e •..•tllXiSi(ln•. • • j§ ••. 10·
TM@jCl~In9.fuea$~tement • • were • • taker • ·tQ
9heCktl1epl~rP!tldiclllafity.ofa.t~p~ril19faBt°lY
CD C(jmputethE!err6f()fc~1Ilfl1atl® .•· chil1'ln~Y • • Qf • cirOUI~rCrOS$cseOIi9n, • • pplm•• ~·
®. C9mpUle.th~.el'tQrm.l/1elranSV~r$e.;1l.Xi~, . .•.•. Vias~~ta!)1j~h~~()r1We • • Qf()llnd.. ~9(ll.lt·4R·.·rn;
@. CPrrlPlltEl.·thl:l•• hortzClntal.ansle•• !lEl.tvI~n • Jh~ frQll1W~.b~s~6fth~l:hilllll~Y • ~lldth~~Mrf~~t
fWOPOil'l!S. .. dlrnensIQ~tq • Itle··~se.me~$wep.carety11y~n~
fQ~l1<l •. tQ.be.~5·996rrl. • • 'fhe.WsfWrnentVl<lsset
Solution: up~t.~ • ~ryd • $ight~dso~~tQ.bi~eClthet(ip9f
CD Error of collimation: fh~Fhimney;.m~ • tele:>C()pe.wa5lhenloW~~ed
and~ • l1Oiot.8~lon • .ll;ie.;¢irC!lmfereOMalthe
!)aSe,'Nhlchwa$JW~JWnhlhetel~%?lm~
c ThejnstrorT)entVia:s.r~yersed •.• ~ndth~si~l1tina
repel.lted,ahdll1ejnSlrj,lm~l'It~~if;f~ln
A B adjU$lrn~n~ •••• tfJ~ • •lil'lfl • ()f~i~ht .•. a~ain • WIl~t.~·
With • lh~ • (ral1~lt.atNI~!:! • anQlel't'as.rnea$lJr~q
from.~to.aIIO~ • t?n~(lnftO • the.·right••~.~e.()f.th~
chitllney.~tth~b~s~.~ndfouhdbYrep~ijti~nfp
be.2'1~2Q·.$jmil~rty;~nglewa5measUrEld
f ro m·.A8fo.lhee)(trt!ll1El·left5ide offheChil'Tln~y
0.03/4 ~ndfoundtobe2·$8'40". . ..
tane=1OQ
e =15.47" (j) • • lNhatls.theradlgsofthechjfl1ney? . .•. . . .
® ···l'iow•• m\JC~.iStfl;l8hlmney.out.()(pl~trIb~t
Error of collimation: ttle.top.inadlrectiQ~.atrightangles.~.~? •
@ HowfarjSthe qenter of chimney ITomthe
E1 = e (sec h2 - sec h1) pointofQbse~tion. . . .
E1 = 15.47 (sec 63'58' - sec 42'30')
E1 = 14,27" (is added if the fine of sight is
to the right of the line of collimation)
5-82

ERRORS IN TRANsn WORK

Solution:
.(1) Radius of the chimney:

Mean value offhe angle


2'58'40" +2'12'20"
= 2
=2'35'30"

Angle AOS' = 2'35'30" • 2'12'20"


Angle AOB' = 0'23'10"

Sin 2'35'30" = 45.0~ + R


Solution:
R
0.04522 = 45.096+ R
45.096 (0.04522)+ (0.04522) R = R
0.95478 R =45.096 (0.04522)
R= 2.136

® Direction at rightangles to AB:


OB'= (45.096 +2.136) Sin 0'23'10"
OB' =0.318 m.

@ Distance of the center of chimney from the


point of observation:
(1) Elevation of the H.I. of the instrument atA:
AO =46.096 + R
AO = 46.096 +2.136
=261.60 +5
AO =48.232 m.
=266.60
@ Elevation of the H.I. of the instrument at C:
=261.60 +5+2.8
=269.4
5-83

ERRORS IN TRANSrr WORK

@ Elevation of 8: Solution:
tan 24'25' =2.8 <D Emor in horizontal angle:
x
E = e (tan h2 -Ian h1)
x=6.17m.
200 - x =193.83 m. E =04' [tan 50' • tan (-3D')]
DB 193.83 E= 7'4,6"
Sin 155'35' =Sin 7'56'
DB =580.52 fl. @ Angular error ofline:
h = 580.52 Stin 16'29'
h= 164.71 m. c
Elevation of B = 261.60 t 5 t 164.71
Elevation of B = 431,21 m. A

<!51
B I
I
I
I

1
x=4(0.145)
x= 0.03625
CD The horizontal axis of a· transit was
inclined at 4'wilhthehOlMihilildueto Sin e = tan e =0.03625
250
nOIl"adjuslmeill.. The first5lgh.t.bada
vertical angle Of 50', lhenext had;;' 30'; e =30"
Oetermine the error in themeasur~d
horizontal angle. .
Angular error =2(30'}
@ Atransitis set upatB ;:Inda backsightat Angular error = 60"
A. By daublaraversal twopoiills Cand I)
~.t a distanceequill to 0.145hi,were
established. IfBe =250 m. and BD = 150 @ Magnifying power:
m. (app.), how much is the aiigtilarerrorof 5'15'
the line of sight from true position: . .. . M.P. = 09'

@ In testing fofiM magnifyln9powet ota MP = 315


.. 9
level telescope, a transit is sst up and the
angle between two very far points which MP =35 diameters
are very near each other has been found to
be 5'15'. The level telescope whose,
magnifying power is desired is placed in
front of the transit telescope with its
objective close 10 the objective end of the
transit telescope. Again the same angle is
measured thru the two telescope a.nd found
to be 09', What is the magnifying power of
the level telescope?
5-84

TRIANGUIiTiON

Triangulation - a method for extending


horizontal control for topographic and
similar surveys which require observations
of triangular figures whose angles are
measured and whose sides are determined
by trigonometric computations.

Four common geometric figures used in


triangulation:
Solution:
1. Chain of single and independent triangles . CD Angle CAD:
2. Chain of quadrilaterals formed with
overlapping triangles. A
3. Chain of polygons or central-point figures.
4. Chain of polygons each with an extra
diagonal.

Approximate method of adjusting the angles


and sides of triangulation systems.
c D

1. Station Adjustment
2. Figure Adjustment Angle CAD = 180' - 49'30' - 33' - 34'30'
Angle CAD = 63'

Two methods of adjustment of Quadrilateral @ Angle BAD:


Consider triangle BCD:
. 1. Angle Condition Equations
2. Side Condition Equations

C~...l-_------'-..hD·

Assume CD = 1
BC 1
1. Sum of angles about a station = 360'
Sin 72' = Sin 75'
2. Sum of three angles in each triangle = 180'
BC= 0.985
BD 1
Sin 33' =Sin 75'
BD= 0.564
5-85

TRIANGUlaTION

Consider triangle AOC: @ Angle ABC:

C'b-.l.--------L..-"'oD

AC __ 1_ 0.636 0.749
Sin 34'30' - Sin 63' Sin B =Sin 49'30'
AC =0.636 B=40'13'
Angle ABC = 40'13'
Consider triangle ABC:
A

Using Cosine Law:


(AB)2 = (0.636)2 + (0.985)2
- 2 (0.636)(0.985) Cos 49'30'
AB =0.749

Consider triangle ABO:


A

Solution:
CD Distance BC:

84'30'
Using Sine Law:
0.564 0.749 A ~...J...----:;::::-----'-""""'B
Sin A =Sin 37'30'
A = 27'17' BC 500
Angle BAD =27'17' Sin 79'30' Sin 47'30'
BC =666.81 m.
5-86

RIANGUlATION

@ Distance BD: AD 1
BD 500 Sin 80' =Sin 40'
Sin 28'30' =Sin 67' AD = 1.532
·BD = 259.18m.
AB 1
@ Distance CD: Sin 50' =Sin 50'
(CDf =(8<12 + (BDf AB= 1.0
•2(BC)(BD) Cos 31'30'
(CO)2 =(666.81'f +(259.18)2
·2(666.81 )(259.18) Cos 31'30' (BD)2 =(AB)2 + (AD)2 • 2(AB)(AD) Cos 20'
CD = 465.94 m.
(BD)2 = (1)2 + (1.532)2·2(1)(1.532) Cos 20'
BD=0.684
AD BD
Sin (50 + 0) =Sin 20'
1.532 _ 0.684
Sin (50 + 8) - Sin 20'
50 + 8= 130'
8 = 80' (angle CBD)

@ Angle BOA.'

11_lllllil~'llli!jii;
Solution:
CD Angle CBD: BOA = 180 - (20 + 130)
BOA =30'
A

@ Ang/eBDC:

Assume AC = 1.0 C~~---,---...JD


_1__ ~
Sin 50' - Sin 80'
BDC = 180· (30 +80)
BC= 1.2856
CD 1 BDC= 70'
Sin 60' = Sin 40'
CD =1.3473
5-87

TRIANGlllATlON

<D Distance BC:

~
Two stations A and l:lare 540 in. apart. From
the following triangulation staflansCand Don
opposite sicies of AB, lhe fol19Wing angles
were observet!. " ' . .. '.' . ., '.
..,.
.',' ',.,'._ ,',., ,',
A 540m B
AngleACD=54'12' .'
M9le ace
~ 4fZ4' '. a ~ 180' • 54'12'·49'18'
An9leADg=49'18' ...' .
a~ 76'30'
Angle BOC:: 47'12'
~~ 180' ·41'24'·47'12'
~ ~91'24'
0~54'12'+41'24'
o ~95'36'

Solution: Using Cosine Law


Considering triangle ABC:
(AB)2 :: (BC}2 + (AC)2 •2(BC)(AC) Cos 95'36'
(540)2 = (BCf + (1.062 BC)2
• 2(BCX1.062 BC) Cos 95'36'
BC = 353.38 m.

@ Distance CD:
Using Sine Law
Considering triangle AOC:
CD _ AC
Sin 76'30' - Sin 49'18'
CO= 1283AC
c c
Considering triangle COB:
CD _ BC
sin 91'24' - Sin 47'12'
CD = 1.362 BC
CO = 1.362 (353.38)
CD = 481.30 m.

@ Distance AC:
1.283 AC =1.362 BC
AC= 1.062 BC
AC = 1.062 (353.38)
AC = 375.38 m.
8-88

TRIANGUlaTION

® AngleDAC:
Angle DAC + 42' + 30' + 78' : 180
Angle DAC : 30'

lIi&il;.~~i~1 ® Angle DAB:


Angle DAB: 42' + 30'
Angle DAB: 72'
Allies

OM.. >
cao>
• .~• • • PqmMt~~M~l~.~; • • •i• • • • • • • • • • ·•• • • .• > . T~~.q~~~ljn~ • • AI? • ()f.a.lri@941~I!M • $Y$IMtis
~~lijl_~6~1IJ··< egY~to4()Q • nl·.~~g· • • • §taliptlS.G~r~ • R·~r~
Qthllr.p()inf~.pfth~triMgglation • $Y5@JJ.• • • T~e
al1gles•• ob§erV~dfr<lrtiA.~nd • •~ • ~r~.~sfollAW~.
Solution: Angle.[)/l$.*2r3Q\~ngleGA13·#.78'30·,.an9r~
CD Angle BOA: CBA=:$2'~H~~qgl~1:$C:#~:~Q'.>· .
c

Solution:.
CD Distance CB:
B A

Assume BC: 1.0


~_-1:L
Sin 79' - Sin 42'
AC: 1.467
CD 1
Sin 49' : Sin 52'
CD: 0.958
Using Cosine Law:
(AD)2 : (0.958)2 + (1.467)2
'. (0.958)(1.467) Cos 20'
AD:0.655m. A B
78'30' 82'30'
Using Sine Law:
AC _~ 400 CB
Sin (52 +8) - Sin 20' Sin 49'30' =Sin 78'30'
1.467 0.655 CB: 515.47 m.
Sin (52 +6) : Sin 20'
® Distance DB:
52 + e: 50' or 130' DB 400
52 +8: 130' Sin2T30' =Sin 70'
8: 78' DB: 196.55 m.
Angle BOA: 78'
5-89

TRIANGULAnON

@ Distance DC: <D Distance AD:


(DCP = (515.47)2 + (196.SSj2 Consider triangleCDA:
- 2(515.47X196.55) Cos 30'30' AD 180
DC = 360,21 m. Sin SO' =Sin 41'
AD =210.18 m.

A:·,I.d.B.are.tw(}.polnt$·IOcaledQll~acn~t1k
ofa.riy~r·13lld.n~rtl1~abut1nElntsllf(ipmp~d
brldg~· • Wd~tflrrnirflltsdi$l?nC~,~~~$~lirfl
CO 180.m.•• 10llQ.W<lSE:lS@bli$l)ed·onp0E:l9~®-.
of\herjVet13r@tl'leJrl3nsltwa$~~II.lPat c
statjl)qs•• C.··iln~·Oandtti~.aZiJ11Utb • w¢rff·.t~kElii··
asfollOws: .. .. . .... .

@ Distance BD:
Considering triangle COB:
Using Sine Law
180 BD
Sin 25' =Sin 80'
BD = 419.45 m,

@ Distance AB:
Consider triangle ABO:
Using Cosine Law
Solution:
(ABf =(210.18j2 + (419.45)2
N
- 2 (210.18)(419.45) Cos 14'
AB =221.43m.

tn a topographic survey, three triangulatiOn


stations A, Band Care sighted from a point P.
The distance between the stations are
AS =500 m., Be =3SO m. and CA =450m.AI
P, the angle sublending AC is 4S'while for Be
is 30'. AC is due North.
5-90

TRIANGUlaTION

Solution: Taking triangle ABC:


CD Distance CD: a=3S0 b=450 c=500
c
Using Cosine Law:
(3S0}2 = (45W + (SOO}2 - 2(450)(SOO} Cos A
A=42.8'

From triangle ACD:


From the triangle ABO: B =42.8' - 3D'
B = 12.8'
~-~.
Sin 45' - Sin 105' Using Cosine Law:
AD = 500 Sin 45' (CD}2 =(450}2 + (366f
Sin 105' - 2(450)(366} Cos 12.8'
AD'=366 m. CD = 123.65 m.
@ Distance PA:
BD 500 c
Sin 30' =Sin 75'
BD =500 Sin 30'
Sin 75'
BD=2S9 m.
c

123.65_ 366
Sin 12.8' - Sin a
. _366 Sin 12.8'
A,&-..I...---~B SIn a - 123.65
c=500
a=41'
S-91

TRIANGUlaTION

450 PA Solution:
Sin 45' =Sin 41' CD Distance CO:
PA =450 Sin 41'
Sin 45' D

~
PA =417.55 mm
30' B
@ Azimuth of PA:
A C
N

u_~--p
A

~-----~p

Azimuth of AP = 274'
Azimuth ofPA =274' -180'
Azimuth of PA = 94'

Construct a circle passing through A, B


andP.
>-•. . . Considering triangle ABO:
.'.
. ." Using Sine Law
,

~.~ . '
AD 300
....
.,. Sin.15' = Sin 135'
. .
AD = 109.81 m.

Considering triangle ACB:


Using Cosine Law
c c (400)2 = (600f +(300)2·2(600)(300) Cos "
360000 COS" =(600)2 +(300)2 - (400)2
,,= 36.34'
" =36'20'
B
AL-.__.----,7 Aftt!:.~~;:--7~ Considering triangle ACD:
,,
,, ,,
, ,, \
\
Using Cosine Law:
,, ,,,
, I
,, I ,

,,
I ,

\lY.30 e
, ,
\ (CO)2 = (600)2 + (109.81)2
'.....,...,' - 2 (600)(109.81) Cos 6.34'
" , " .I"
\~I
P
- p _.' ." CO = 491.01 m.
5-92

TRIANGUlAnOI

® Distance AP:
c

Using Sine Law


Sin f!, Sin 6.34'
109.81 = 491.01
II = 1.42'
II :: 1'25'
Considering triangle ACP:
Using Sine Law
~_ AP
Sine 15' - Sine 1'25'
AP= 57,45m,
@ Azimuth of BP:

Solution:
CD Angle of intersection FEC:
Angle FEC = 77'10'
p

Considering triangle ABP: ® Distance BC:


Sin B Sin 45'
(BC)2 = (376)2 + (417)2
57.45 =300
B=T47 - 2(376)(417) Cos 138'29'
A = 180' - 45' ·7'47 (BC)2 = 137500 + 16900 + 236000
A = 127'13' BC= 737 m.
BP 300
Sin.e 127'13' =Sin 45'
BP = 337.85 m.
5-93

TRIANGUlATION

@ Distance EC: Solution:


CD Distance BD:

~
B

Be ~ 737m C

Sin" _ sin 138'29' A


.-;1] - 737
. - 417 Sin 41'31'
SIn" - 737
,,= 21'36'
a +" + 138'29' =180;
a =19'55'
BE 737 A

Sin 53'22' = Sin 102'50' c


BE = 737 Sin 35'22'
Sin 77'10' Consfden'ng tdangle ADC:
BE=435 m. Using Sine Law
CE _ 737 Sin A Sin 140'
Sin 41'48' - Sin 102'50' 1000 = 2355.45
= 737 Sin 41'48' A= 15'50'
CE C = 180' - 140' - 15'50'
Sin 77'10'
CE=505m. C= 24'10'

Considering ABC:
Using Sine Law
AB 2355.45
Sin 30' = Sin 125'
AS = 1437.74 m.
Be 2355.45
Sin 25' = Sin 125'
BC:;; 1215.23m.

Considering triangle ABO:


" = 25' -15'50'
,,= 9'10'
Using Cosine Law
(BD)2 = (150W + (1437.74)2
- 2(1500)(1437.74) Cos 9'10'
BO:;; 242.90 m.
8-94

TRIANGUlAnON

@ Distance AP: Consider triangle APC:


Sin ACP Sin 55'
2829.86 =2355.45
Angle ACP= 79'47
Angle CAP = 180' - 55' • 79'47'
A
Angle CAP = 45'43'

Using Sine Law:


B PC 2355.45
Sin 45'43' = Sin 55'
PC= 2058.66m.
D

A
11_.it
p
lIilllliill:
Using Sine Law
Sin B Sin 9'10'
1500 = 242.90
I:E4i."lli~l,
·@·.·PPttiP@:i~M~~g~······"'······
B =70'47'
Using Cosine Law Solution:
(ACf =(1500f + (1ooW CD Angle ACB:
- 2(1500)(1000) Cos 140'
AC =2355.45 m. B

Consider triangle ABP:


Using Sine Law
AP 1437.74
Sin 79'47' =Sin 30'
AP = 2829.86 m.
@ Distance PC:

c
c

Angle CPB = 360' - 71'30' • 10'30'


p
Angle CPB = 178'
5-95

TRIANGULATION

Using Sine Law: Solution:


7.46 17560 CD Distance AB:
Sin 0 = Sin 110'30'
B
0=01'22"

7.46 24614
Sin a. = Sin 178'
a = 00' 2.18"
{I, = 180'- 110'30' - 01 '22" 216'43'20"
= 69'31' 22"
{I,
B
0= 180' -178' -0'2.18"
o = 1'59' 57.82" A

Angle ACB =69'31'22" + 1'59' 57.82"


Angle ACB = 71'31' 19,82"
58'12'30" Ecc.A

@ Distance AP:
AP 17560
Sin 69'31' 22" = Sin 110'30' Using Cosine Law:
(AB)2 = (4.50)2 +(18642)2
AP = 17562,61 m.
.- 2(4.50)(18642)Cos 58'12' 30"
AB = 18639.63 m,
@ Distance PB:
PB 24614 @ Angle BA Ecc. A:
Sin 1'59' 57.82" = Sin 178'
B
PB = 24606.55 m.

InatriansUlati06~Il~@ttl§SfatlOJ'\(~cc;Al
IsoCCllpi¢~jl1st~~~()fll)l!tM~~tatj96A;
ObserVationsar~ thenmade·lo • tffie·.staliori.A
amt lostatiooB, T@otJsaNatl<>llareas
f\:flloWs:i> . . ..

Ecc.A
AZIMQTHOlSIAN.GS
158~3mS(l" .4.50fu,<
Using Sine Law:
216'43'20" 18642,OOm;
18642 18639.63
Sin e = Sin 158'12' 30"
<D Find the distance AB. ...
~ Find thEl angle BA Ecc. A . e =121'46'47.6"
@ Compute the aZimuth of AB.
S-96

TRIAIGUlAnOI

® Azimuth AB: Using Cosine Law:


B (AC)2 = (1017)2 + (800.63)2
- 2(1017.22)(800.63) Cos 74'44' 50"
AC = 1116.80 m.

Using Sine Law:


800.63 1116.80.
Sin 8 = Sin 74'44' 50"
e =43'45' 47.25"

Ecc.A

Azimuth AB = 180' + 36'44' 2.32"


Azjmuth AB = 216·44' 2.32" A

Angle BCA = 180' - 43'45' 37.5" - 74'44' 50"


Angle BAC =61'29'32.5"
x + 118'25' 40" + 158'13' 50" + Y
+43'45' 37.5" = 360
x + y =39'34' 52.5"
AP 1017.22
Sin x = Sin 118'25' 40"
p.p = 1156.70 Sin x
AP 116.80
Solution: Sin y = Sin 158'13' 50"
CD Angle PCA: AP =3011.28 Sin y
1156.70 Sin x =3011.28 Sin y
Sin x = 2.603 Sin y
x = 39'34' 52.5" - Y
Sin (39'34' 52.5" - y)= 2.603 Sin y
Sin 39'34' 52.5" Cos Y- Sin y Cos 39'34' 52.5"
= 2.603 Sin y
0.63717 Cos Y- 0.77072 Sin y =2.603 Sin y
c
0.63717 Cos Y= 3.37372 Sin y
5-97

TRIANGULATION

0.63717 Solution:
tan y =3.37372 CD Angle ABP:
y= 10'41'42.23"
Angle peA = 10'41' 42.23" B

® Azimuth of BP:

e + (J + 257'15' +- 26'35' +44'15' =360'


x + y =39'34' 52.5"
x = 39'34' 52.5" ·10'41' 42.23" e + (J = 31'55'
x =28'53'10.27"
Using Sine Law:
Angle BAP = 180'·28'53' 10.27" ·118'25' 40"
AP _ 6600
Angle BAP = 32'41' 9.73"
Azimuth ofBP = 225'20' 10" + 105'15' 10" Sin e - Sin 26'35'
+45'51' 39.73" AP= 1474.64 Sin e
Azimuth ofBP = 376'26' 59.7"
Azimuth of BP = 16'26' 59.7" Sin AP 6800
Sin r.. =Sin 44'15'
@ Distance BP: AP =9745.05 Sin t:\
'BP 1017.22 .1474.64 Sin e = 9745.05 Sin 8
Sin 32'41' 9.73" = Sin 118'25' 40"
BP =624.66 m. Sin e =0.6607 Sin 8
e = 31'55' • 8
Sin (31'55' • 8) = 0.6607 Sin (J
Sin 31'55' Cos 8· Cos 31'55' Sin (J
= 0.6607 Sin 8
1.50952 Sin (l, = 0.52869 Cos 8
(J=19'18'
e = 31'55' ·19'18'
e =12'37'
Angle ABP =12'37'

@ Angle ACP:
Angle ACP = 8
Angle ACP =19'18'
S-98

TRIANGULATION

® Distance BP: Angle BCA = 180' • 80'27' 35.8" - 54'14' 37.8"


B Angle BCA =45'17' 46.4"
Using Sine Law:
895.86 _ Be
Sin 45'17' 46.4" Sin 80'27' 35.8"
BC = 1243.01 m.

® Distance AC:
TN
p

Angle B4P= 180' ·12'37·26'35'


Angle BAP = 140'48'
BP _ 6600 TN
Sin 140'48' - Sin 26'35'
BP = 9321.57 m.

~
["05'54.2"

.~~~W.$I~~6~S.~Wl~~0~.· • ~~~i6le.~~~~~~~tr~.1
cO(:@nMt~$9t¢QttWA • M~OQtlP.N9rthlOg$ •
~M4QP~Q·§Mlil1Q~,]Q~#~Ii#1AA~@ c
~flWJtb<t@l'iQ¢tthQf·lhe.·.IJ~eAtQ·a.are.
l$~;$§ • m,.<l#d?$$'?Q~ • ~~~ • t~@~¢lw~M"~$· Using Sine Law:
m~~$ijt~~hM~6m~I~MI~$.~f~ah9lW AC 895.86
.. ••
U~#~r:I·'~]i~D'ji ~?·$" • ,~r9i ~?Q.I~ . Sin 54'14' 37.8" =Sin 45'17' 46.4"
AC =1022.86 m.
mq®lP~t~IM~i#lal1¢ij~¢)
®Pl:ll'li,@~~~~~i$l(l~A(;·> ® Coordinates of comer C:
··~ • • • ~r~~'~~~j"cp6rd't@~~Qt¢QrMt • 9••bY·· STA. LINE BEARING DISTANCE
A AB N. 55'20'32" E 895.86
Solution:
CD Distance BC:
B BC S. 1'05'54.2" W. 1243.01
TN

STA. LAT DEP


A 20000.00 20000.00
~ ~
B 20736.90 20509.45
~ - 1242.7~
C 20713.07 19266.67

c Coordinates ofC =20713.07 N., 19266.67 E.


(20000. 200(0)
5·99

TRIANGUlaTION

AB Sin L2 CD Sin LS
Sin L7 Sin L8
CD =.:...A=B-=S.::.,:in-=L:..:.1-=S.::.,:in-=L::.:3
A. Angle condition equations.
Sin L4 Sin L6
AB Sin L2 AB Sin L1 Sin L3 Sin L5
Sin L7 Sin L4 Sin L8 Sin L6
Sin L1 Sin L3 Sin LS Sin L7
=1
Sin L2 Sin L4 Sin L6 Sin L8
A"-..I.::.---------.:..L-:.~D Strength of Figure:

1. L1 + L2 + L3 + L4 = 180' In a triangulation system,. to be able to


adopt the best shaped triangulation network it
2. L3 + L4+ L5 +L6= 180' is necessary to apply a criterion of strength to
3. L1 +L2+L7+L8=180' the different figures that maybe formed such an
4. L5 + L6 + L7 + L8 = 180' index or criterion is known as the strength of
figure and is given in the equation:
5. L1 +L2+L3+L4
+L5 + L6 + L7 + L8 = 180' D-C
R=O I(di +dA~B+di)
6. L1 + L2 = L5 + L6
D-C
7. L3 + L4 =L7 + L8 F=o
B. Side Consition equations. where
R = relative strength of figure
Sin L1 Sin L3 Sin L5 Sin L7 o= number of directions observed (forward
=1
Sin L2 Sin L4 Sin L6 Sin L8 and backward) not including the fixed
or known side of agiven figure.
~=~ C =number of geometric conditions to be
Sin L4 Sin L1
satisfied in a given figure.
ABSin L1 F =a factor for computing the strength of
BC-
SinL4 D-C
figure and is equal to 0
-BC (1J
--- -
Sin L6 Sin L3 dA , dB =tabular difference for 1 second,
expressed in units of the 6th decimal
CO Sin L6 place corresponding to the distance
BC
SinL3 angles A and B of a triangle.
AB Sin L1 CO Sin L6 I (dA 2 + !:lA ~B + ~B2) =summation of
values for particular chain of triangles
Sin L4 - Sin L3 through which computation is carried
-AB--- AD- from the known line to the line
Sin L7 Sin L2 required.
AB Sin L2 C =(n' - s' + 1) + (n - 2s + 3)
Ao---- n' = number of lines observed in both
Sin L7 directions, including the known side of
AD
- - - -(1J- the given figure.
Sin LS Sin.L8 s' =number of occupied stations
n = total number of lines in the figure
CO Sin L5
AD including known line.
SinL8 s =total number of stations
S-IOO

TRIANGULATION

Station B:
Angle 2 = 59'10'05"
Angle 4 = 60'29'10"
Angle 11 = 240'21'00"
360'00'15"
15"
Error=- =05"
3
Adjusted angle 2 = 59'10'00"
Adjusted angle 4 = 60'29'05"
Adjusted angle 11 = 240'20'55"
360'00'00"
Station C:
Angle 3 = 62'25'10"
Angle 5 = 59'25'10"
Angle 8 = 63'10'08"
Angle 14 =174'59'24"
o 359'59'52"
Error = OS"
08'
Correction =- = 02"
4
Adjusted angle 3 = 62'25'12"
Adjusted angle 5 = 59'25'12"
Adjusted angle 8 = 63'10'10"
Adjusted angle 14 =174'59'26"
360'00'00"
Station 0:

11111lIIi181;';';
Angle 6 = 60'05'10"
Angle 7 = 71'40'20"
Angle 12 =22S'14'52"
360'QO'03"
Solution: Error = 03"
CD Corrected value of angle 3: 03"
Correction =3 =01"
Station Adjustment:
Station A:
Adjusted angle 6 = 60'05'09"
58'25'15" + 301'34'49" =360'00'04"
Adjusted angle 7 = 71'40'01"
Error =04'
Adjusted angle 12 =22S'14'50"
04'
Correction ="2 =02' 360'00'00"
Station E:
Adjusted angle: Angle 9 = 45'10'20"
Angle 1 = 58'25'15" - 02" = 58'25'13" Angle 13 =314'49'42"
Angle 10 = 301'34'49" - 02" = 301'34'47" 360'00'02"
360'00'00" Error = 02"
S-101

TRIANGUlATION

02"
Correction =- =01 "
2
Adjusted angle 9= 45'10'19"
Adjusted angle 13 = 314'49'41" FrOl1lthegivencjl1Clgril~teral.~f!$mTh99s~~re
360'00'00" OC()UPie~• i:l@.. .all.•. Ii~~~ .• ~f~.ql:j~~t¥~~i",·.~~m
qi~tk>ij~t: . , · ":-:<::::;:</:::;:;::.::',:::.>\
Figure Adjustment
Considering triangle ABC
Angle 1 = 58'25'13"
Angle 2 = 59'10'00"
Angle 3 = 62'25'12"
180'00'25"
Error =25"
Adjusted Angle 1 =58'25'05" - 08" =58'25'05"
Adjusted Angle 2 =59'10'00" - 08" =59'09'52"
Adjusted Angle 3 =62'25'12" - 09" = ~
AI::::..-...i:...------:-::-....l~
180'QO'00" Baseline = 1420 m
Corrected value ofangle 3 = 62'25'03"

111.ti'(lli'~~
® Corrected value of angle 6:
Considering triangle BCD
Angle 4 = 60'29'05"
Angle 5 = 59'25'12"
Angle 6 = 60'05'09" Solution:
179'59'26" CD Constant F:
Error = 34" O-C
Constant F = 0
Adjusted angle 4 = 60'29'05" + 12" = 60'29'17" o = 10 (no. of directions observed forward
Adjusted angle 5 =59'25'12" + 11" = 59'25'23" and backward not including Ab)
Adjusted angle 6 =60'05'09" + 11" = ~ C= (n' - s' + 1) + (n - 25 + 3)
180'00'00" n' = no. of lines observed in both
Corrected angle 6 =60'05'20" directions.
n'=6
@ Corrected value of angle 9: s' = no. of occupied stations
Considering triangle COE: s'=4
Angle 7 = 71'40'01" n = total no. of lines in the figure including
Angle 8 = 63'10'10" known lines
Angle 9 = 45'10'19" n=6
180'00'30" s = total no. of stations
Error =30" 5=4
C= (6 -4 + 1) +[6 - 2(4) +3)
. =3
CorrectIOn 30" =10" C=3+1
C=4
Adjusted angle 7 = 71'39'51" D-C
Adjusted angle 8 = 63'10'00" F=O
Adjusted angle 9 = 45'10'09" F= 10-4
180'00'00" 10
F= 0.60
Corrected angle 9 =45'10'09"
S-102

TRIUGUIlTION

@ Strength of figure which gives the


strongest route:
R = (0 hc) L (Ai + AA I.'>.a + I.'>.l)
Consider triangle ABC dand ACD with AC R =0.60(31.979)
as common side. R = 19.19
-AL_~
Sin 42' - Sin 60' Consider triangle ABO and ACD: with AD
AC - AB Sin 42' as common sides.
- Sin 60' AD AB
CD AC Sin 90' = Sin 53'
Sin 41' =Sin 35' =AB Sin 90'
AD Sin 53'
CD=ACSin41'
S;n35' CD AD
CD = AS Sin 42' Sin 41' Sin 40' = Sin 104'
Sin 60' Sin 35' CD =AD Sin 40'
Sin 104'
Distance angles are 42' and 60' for triangle = AB Sin 90' Sin 40'
ABC CD
Sin 53' Sin 104'
log Sine 42'00'00" 9.825510895
Distance angles are 53' and 90' for ABO
log Sine 42'00'00" 9.825513234
2339 log Sin 53'00'00" = 9.902348617
AA =2.339 log Sin 53'00'01" = 9.902350203
1586
log Sine 60'00'00" 9.937530632
AA =1.586
log Sine 60'00'01" 9,937531847
1215 log Sin 90'00'00" = 0
Aa = 1.215 log Sin 90'00'01" =0
Aa=O
(Ai + AA Aa + Art) (Ai + AA Aa + Ai) = (1.586)2 + 0 + 0
=(2.339f + 2.339(1.215) + (1.215)2 (I.'>.i + AA Aa + Ai) = 2.51
+
(6} + AA Aa Art) =9.789
Distance angles are 41' and 104' for
Distance angles for triangle ACD are 41' triangle ACD
and 35'
log Sin 41'00'00" = 9.816942917
log Sin 41'00'00" = 9.816942917 log Sin 41'00'01" = 9.816945339
log Sin 41'00'01" = ~~ 2422
2422 AA = 2.422
log Sin 35'00'00" = 9.758591301 log Sin 104'00'00" = 9.986904119
log Sin 35'00'01" = 9.758594308 log Sin 104'00'01" = 9.986903594
3007 525
I.'>.a = 0.525
AA = 2.422
Aa = 3.007
(Ai + I.'>.A I.'>.a + I.'>.il
(Ai + AA Aa + Ai) =(2.422)2 + 2.422(0.525) + (0.525)2
=(2.422)2 + (2.422)(3.007) + (3.007)2 (Ai + AA I.'>.a + Ail = 7.41
(Ai + AA Aa + Ai) =22.19
L (Ai + AA Aa + Ai) =9.789 + 22.19 L (Ai + I.'>.A Aa + I.'>.i) =2.51 + 7.41
L (~i + AA Aa + Ai) :a: 31.979 L (Ai + AA I.'>.a + Ai) = 9.92
S-103

TRIANGULATION

D-C)
R= ( C
2 2
L(~A +~A~B+~B) R = (0 ~.~ L (Ill + ~A t1B+ Ili)
R = 0.60(9.92) R =0.60(5.96)
R= 5.952 R=3.58

Considering triangle ABC and BCD with BC Consider triangles ABO and BCD with BD
as common side: as common side.
~-~ BD AB
Jin 78' - Sin 60' Sin 37' = Sin 53'
= AB Sin 78' BD =AB Sin 37'
BC
Sin 60' Sin 53'
CD BC CD BD
Sin 48' = Sin 88' Sin 48' = Sin 44'

- BC Sin 48'
CD - Sin 88'
eo
CD _ Sin 48'
- Sin 44'
= AB Sin 78' Sin 48' =AB Sin 37' Sin 48'
CD CD
Sin 60' Sin 88' Sin 53' Sin 54'

The distance angles are 60' and 78' for Distance angles of triangle ABO are 37'
triangle ABC and 48' and 88' (or BCD and 53' and for triangle BCD are 44' and
48'
log Sin 60'00'00" = 9.937530632
log Sin60'OO'01" = 9.937531847 log Sin 37'00'00" = 9.779463025
1215 log Sin 37'00'01" = 9.779465819
~A = 1.215 2794
log Sin 78'00'00" = 9.990404394
log Sin 78'00'01" = 9.990404842 IlA = 2.794
448 log Sin 53'00'00" = 9.902348617
Il B = 0.448 log Sin 53'00'01" = 9.902350203
(Ili + ~A ~B + Ili) 1586
= (1.215)2 +(1.215)(0.448) + (O.44W
~B=1.586
(Ili + IlA IlB + Ili) = 2.22
log Sin 48'00'00" = 9.871073458 (Ill +IlA ~B + Ili)
log Sin 48'00'01" = 9;871075354 =(2.794)2 + (2.794)(1.586) + (1.586)2
1896 (Ill + IlA IlB + ~i) = 14.75
IlA = 1.896
log Sin 44'00'00"::: 9.841771273
log Sin 88'00'00" = 9.999735359 log Sin 44'00'01" = 9.841773454
log Sin 88'00'01" = 9.999735432 2181
073
Il B = 0.073 IlA =2.181
(Ill + IlA IlB + Ili)
=(t.896)2 + (1.896)(0.073) + (0.073)2 log Sin 48'00'00· = 9.871073458
log Sin 48'00'01" = 9.871075354·
(t1l + IlA Il B+Ili) =3.74
1896
L (Ill + IlA IlB + Ili) = 2.22 + 3.74
Il B=:.896
L (Il/ + IlA IlB +Ili) = 5.96
5-104

TRIANGUlaTION

(di + dA dB + di) Solution:


=(2.181f + (2.181)(1.896) + (1.896)2 CD Adjusted value of angle 4:
(di + dA dB + di) = 12.49 ADJUST A ADJUST 8 ADJUSTC
L (di + dA dB + di) =14.75 + 12.49 L 1= 23'44' 38" 23'44' 37" 23'44'35"
L (di + dA dB + di) = 27.24 L 2 = 42'19' 09" 42'19' 08" 42'19' 06"
Z. 3 = 44'52' 01" 44 '52' 00" 44'52'00"
R= ( c0- C) L(di+dAdB+di) L 4 = 69'04' 21" 69'04' 20" 69'04' 19"
R =0.60(27.24) L 5 = 39'37' 48" 39'37' 47" 39'37' 49"
R= 16.34
L 6 = 26'25' 51" 26'25' 50" 26'25' 52"
Relative strength of the quadrilateral R L 7 = 75'12' 14" 75'12' 13" 75'12' 13"
= 3,58 (smallest value)
L 8 = 38'44' 06" 38'44' 05" 3.8'44' 06"
@ Length of check base CD: Sum = 360'00' 08" 360'00' 00" 360'00'00
CO =AS Sin 78' Sin 48'
Sin 60' sin SS' Error =8"
CO = 1420 Sin 78' Sin 48'
Sin 60' Sin 88' Correction =§.
CO = 1192.61 m, 8
Correction = 1" (sub)
L1+L2=L5+L6

23'44' 37" 39'37' 47"


42'19' 08" 26'25'50"
66'03' 45" 66'03' 37"
• rfit~~ • foIIOWJdg"•• qM~drllatfjtal • ·.Wlth a Error = 45·37
¢or~~l;ljng·ClnSle~.·.~®lated.~h()wn. Error = 8"
c
Correction =§.
4
Correction = 2" (subtract from L1 and L2
and add to L5 and L6)

L3+ L4 = L7 + L8
44'52' 00" 75'12' 13"
A O'-u....- .-.L.~B

69'04' 20" 38'44' 05"


113'56' 20" 113'56' 18"
d) Compute the adjusted value of angle 4 by
appIyihg the artgleconditioll only. Error = 20 - 18 =2"
® Compute the adjusted value of angle 7 by Correction = Add 1" to La and subtract 1"
. applying the angleconditlon only. from L4
@ Compute the strength of figure factor.
5-105

TRlAliGUlADON

Check:
L1 23'44' 35" L8 38'44' 06"
L8 38'44' 06" L.7 75'12' 13"
Gtv~nthe~uCidrilateral.shownYJfjichh~~·qeerl
L2 42'19' 06" L.6 26'25' 22" adjU$t~d • u~lng·.IJrgle.C9ndi~()~, • • • ltl$rMUire~
L7 75'12'13" L.8 . 39'37' 49" 1(l.a<lj\l!lI.tl)e•• l3rtglElslJ$ing·tb¢$j~ClQMitil>O, .
180'00'00" 180'00'00"
ZD99mPutelheadju$te~~~glCl-~' ...i
L1 23'44' 35" L.3 44'52' 00" ®i.9omp\lte.ttmadjU!;ted.arl~Ie-.~ .• • • •. ·.· · · · .
@PQmp\.ltetf)eadjllsted.al1gl~6. .
L2 42'19' 06' L4 69'04'19"
L3 44 '52' 00" L.5 39'37' 49"
L.4 69'04'19" L.6 26'25; 52" L.1 =39'3749"
180'00' 00" 180'00'00" L.2 = 26'25' 52"

Angle 4 = 69'04'19"
L3 = 75'12' 13"
L4 = 38'44' 06"
@ Angle 7 = 75'12'13"
L5 =23'44' 35"
@ Strength of figure factor. L6 = 42'19' 06"
D=10 L7 = 44'52' 00"
n'=6
L8 =69'04' 19"
n=6
Sum = 360'00' 00"
s=4
s'=4
C =(n' - s +4) +(n - 2s +3)
C = (6 - 4 + 4) + (6 - 8 + 3)
C=4
F=D-C
o
F= 10 -4
10
F =0,60 (Strength offigure factor) Aif'-o"........................- ..........- -.........:.J..:.~B

Solution:
CD Adjusted angle 3: .
Sin L.2 Sin L4 Sin L6 Sin L8
~~-'-------= 1
Sin L1 Sin L3 Sin L5 Sin L.7

log Sin 26'25' 52" = 9.64847855


log Sin 38'44' 06" = 9.796379535
log Sin 42'19' 06" = 9.82817581
log Sin 69'04'19" = 9.970360677
9.243394570
5-106

TRIANGUlATION

Diff. in 1" Add 2" to all angles in the numerator:


log Sin 26'25' 52" = 9.64847855 4.2 (smaller)
log Sin 26'25' 53" = 9.648482785 Subtract 2" to all angles in the denominator:
log Sin 38'44' 06" = 9.796379535 2.62 (bigger)
log Sin 38'44' 07" = 9.79638216
log Sin 42'19' 06" = 9.82817581 2.31 - L1 = 39'37' 49" • 02" 39'37' 47"
fog Sin 42'19' 07" = 9.828178122 26'25'54"
+L2 26'25' 52" +02"
log Sin 69'04'19" = 9.970360677 0.81
log Sin 69'04' 20" = 9.970361483 __ - L3 = .75'12'13" • 02" 75'12' 11"
9.94 +L4 = 38'44'06i, + 02" 38'44'08"
- L5 = 23'44' 35" - 02" 23'44'33"
log Sin 39'37' 49" = 9.804705675 +L6 = 42'19' 06" + 02" 42'19'08"
log Sin 75'12' 13" = 9.985354379 - L7 = 44'52' 00" - 02" 44'51' 58"
log Sin 23'44' 35" = 9.604912331 +L8 = 69'04' 19" + 02" 69'04' 21"
log Sin 44'52' 00" = 9.848471997 360'00' - 00"
9.243444381
Adjusted angle 3 =75'12' 11'~
Diff. in 1"
log Sin 39'37' 49" = 9.804705675 2.54 @ Adjusted angle 5 = 23'44' 33"
log Sin 39'37' 50" = 9.804708217
log Sin 75'12' 13" = 9.985354379 0.56 @ Adjusted angle 8 =69'04' 21"
log Sin 75'12' 14" = 9,985354935
log Sin 23'44' 35" = 9.604912331 4.79 -----/
log Sin 23'44' 36" = 9.604917117
log Sin 44'52' 00" = 9.848471997 2.12
log Sin 44'52' 01" = 9.848474112 _ _
10.01 ,c
"II1thE!figwe•• ~hpw§ • .~,.qy~drla~~r~IWl!htheit
J ••••
~9q~$Pon(jin9,
deSignated. "....,' ... .. ., ."•.• ','•, m~#$l)r~m~nls
• • • • t*ngUItl.r• .'..'. ,', . . , '
Subtract: 9.243394570 - smaller
9.243444381' bigger
0.000049811

Add: 9.94 + 10.01 = 19.95

Difference =49.81
49.81 '
0=-8-
0=6.23
(J = 19.95
8 (j) WhiCh. of InemilOWing equation dOes not
(J = 2.49 ®ltsfy the figure shown.
. 6.23 a) L2 + L3 =L7 + L6
Correcllon =2,49
b) .L1 + L8 =L4 + L5
Correction = 2.5" say 2" c) L1 + L2 + L3 + L4 = 180'
d) L1 + L8 + L6 + L7 = 180'
5·107

TRIANGUlATION

n = total number of lines in figure, including


the known side
Sin L1 Sin L3 Sin L5 Sin L.7 n=6
~ =0
Sin L8 Sin L2 Sin L4 Sin L6
Sin L2 Sin L4 Sin L6 Sin L8
~ =1
Sin L3 Sin L5 Sin L7 Sin L1
Sin L1 Sin L3 Sin L5 Sin L1
c}
Sin L2 Sin L4 Sin L6 Sin L8
Sin L2 Sin L4 Sin L1 Sin L3
d} , = ---=--....:..:...--=.
Sin L6 Sin L8 Sin L5 Sin L7
C----~::---~~~D
@ .·WMt.Will • ~th~#~~Qr..• (.....F)l".~lvihg
. slt~ngtI'l9fflgur~.<
• me
..... . . Values ofn
a} 0.80 c) 0.90
n' =no. of lines observed in both directions
b} 0.60 d} 0040
including the known side
F=D-C n'=6
o
o= no. of direcfions observed (forward and
backwards) not including the fixed or
unknown side of a given figure.
C = no. of geometric conditions to be
satisfied in a given figure.
C= (n' - s' +1) + (n - 2s +3)
n' = no. of lines observed in both
directions, including the fixed or
known side of a given figure.
n = total number of lines in the figure
including fixed or known line. Values of n'
s = total number of stations
No. of directions observed (forward and $ = total no. of stations
backwards) not including the known $=4
side of C=(n'-s!+1} +'(n-2s+3)
0=10 ~ =(6 - 4 + 1) + ,[6 - 2(4) + 3]
C=3+1
. luded in computarion of D
normc, B C=4

F=D-C
. 0
F=10-4
10
F= 0.60

Answer:
G) c
@ b
Values of D @ b
S-108

TRIANGUlATION

@ Fraction F:
F=O-C
o
o =no. of directions observed(forward and
backward) not including the known
D side.
0=24
F0- -C- -24- 9
-
E - 0 - 24
F= 0.625
@ Strength of figure R:
R= F(!::>} + ~A ~B + ~i)
R = 0.625(5.02)
R= 3.14

Solution:
CD Value of C: CD Compute the adjU$tedvalue of angle Aby
n' =no. of lines observed in both directions diWibuting lhespherical excess and the
including known side remalning error equally. .
n'= 13 @ Compute the adjusted value of angle B by
n =total no. of lines in figure unciuding distributing the spherical excess and the
known side remaining error equally. .
n =13 @ Compute the adjusted value of angle Cby
s' =no. of occupied stations distributing the spherical excess and the
s' =7 remaining error equally.
s =total no. of stations
s=7 Solution:
A
C =(n' - s' + 1) + (n - 2s + 3) e=R2 Sin01"
C=(13-7+1) + [13-2(7)+3] A =be Sin A
C=7+2 2
C=9 b 35965.47
Sin 56'10'30" = Sin 62'04'11"
b =33814.89
5-109

SPHERICAl EXCESS

A = be Sin A
2
33814.89 (35965.47) Sin 61'45'20"
A= 2
The interior angles in triangle ABC are
A = 53568365b.2 m2 A "'. 57'30' 29", B ::: 65'17'27" • and
" A C =57'12' 16". The distance from A to B is
e = R2 Sin 01" equal'to 180,420 m, ASsuming fh~ average
.' 535683650.2 radius Qf curvature is 6400 km. ',
e"= (6372000)2 Sin 01"
[."=2.72" CD Compute the area of fhe triangl~;
@ Compute the second term of the spherical
61'45'20" excess. , '
56'10'30" @ Compute Ihe total spherical eXcess,
62'04'11"
Solution:
180'-00'01" G) Area of triangle:
180'-00'02.72" B
Error =1.72"

1.72
1st Carr. = -3-
1st Corr. =0.573 (added)
A
2.72
2nd Corr. =-3-
2nd Corr. =0.907 (to be subtracted) ~--~ .... c
Using Sine Law:
61'45'20" + 0.573" - 0.907 = 61'45' 19.676" b 180420
56'10'30" t 0.573" ·0.907 = 56'10' 29.676" Sin 65'17' 27" = Sin 57'12' 16"
62'04'11" t 0.573" - 0.907 = 62'04' 10.676" b =194978.94 m.
180'00' 00" A bcSin A
rea=-Z-
B A 194978.94 (180420) Sin 57'30' 29"
rea 2
6
Area = 14836 x 10 rrf

® Second term of the spherical excess:


A
When the sides ofthe triangle are over 100
miles (160,000 m.) use the accurate
formula for spherical excess.
......... c
c2]
~-_

Area [ a2t b2t


e" =R2 Sin 01" 1 t 24 R2
el) Adjusted value of angle A = 61'45'19.676"
The second term is
c;" Adjusted value of angle B =56'10'29.676"
Adjusted value of angle C =62'04'10.676"
Area
2 2
(a + b t c2)
(;'t R2 Sin 01" 24 R2
S-J10

SPIIIBICIl EXCESS

a
=
180420 (j)()omPOle • the.adjlJ~tedvalue • ofMgle.A.PY
Sin 57'30' 29" Sin 57'12' 16" 91~WputingmemmericaL~X(\{Jssandthe
a =181033.49 m. ~i:lrnlng:e@tequ~:"IY,>
·®·.Cp!l'lp~t~ • • the.9djl.lste9Wlue•• ofan~le~ • W•
Second tent . . . . .•··.·.4iS1riblJti/lg • lhe.spherj"al•• til)(ee$$~l'ld • • m~·
a2 =32773 x 1tl6 ••.•..•..• @l)airyins~tI"QreqUEln}" '. .
b2 =38017 x 106 • ~• • • Gompute•• t/)e.adJustedv~J~~Qf.~r~J~Cby .
••.•.•.•. •. . g~trll?~ljlls • . th~ • $P~~ig~I.·~~e;;san~ • the
c?- =32551 x 106 tElll'lafl'ling error eqU(lny. '. .. ..... .'
W- =40960000 x 106
Area = 14836 x 106 Solution:
B
Area
2nd term = R2 Sin 01" .24W-
(a2
+ ~ + c?-)

14836 x 106
2nd term =40960000x1 06 Sin 01"
A
(32773+38017+32551)106]
[ 24(4096‫סס‬OO)106
·~-_ ....... c
, ( 103341 )
2nd tenn = 74.7106" 24(40900000)
C 5260
2nd term = 0.00785" =
Sin 52'03'17" Sin 88'33'05"
C = 4149.3$ m.
® Total spherical excess: log m = 1.40658 ·10
m = 2.55023 x10-9
Area [ a2+~+c2] e"=mbc Sin A
e" =W- Sin 01" 1 + 24 W-
e' = 2.55023 x 10,9 (5260)(4149.35) Sin 39'23'40
e" =74.7106 + 0.OD7e5 e"= 0.035"
d' =74.71845" A = 39'23'40"
B = 88'33'05"
C = 52'03'17"
180'· 00'02"
180',00,00.035"
Error= 1.965
First Correction: 1,~5 ::; 0.655"

Second Correction: 0,~35 =0,012


39'23'40" • 0.655" • 0,012" = 39'23' 39.333"
88'33'05"·0.655"·0.012" = 88'33' 4.333'.'
52'03'17"·0.655·0,012" = 52'03' 16,333"
180'00' 00"
CD Adjusted value of angle A ::; 39'23'39,333"
@ Adjusted value of angle B =88'33' 4,333"
@ Adjusted value of angle C =52'03'16.333"
S·lJl

SPHERICAl EXCESS

m = 2.536 x 10.9
log m =1.40415·10
_b c_
Sin B - Sin C
b 3012
Sin 63'44'59" = Sin 79'59'57"
b = 2743.05 m.
o e" = 2 A
R Sin 01"
.I'fR'IS known.

@ e" = m bc Sin A if no radius is given


1
m- 2 R NArc 1"
" 1t
Arc 1 = 180(3600)
N = 6376032 m.
CD Compute the adjusted value of aogle Eby
.' ," 'distnbutingthe spherical excess and the At a given latitude
remaining error equally. ,, e"=mbcSinA
@ ,Compute ,the adjusted value of angle Nby
e" =2.536 x 10.9 (2743.05)(3012) Sin 36'15'07"
, distributing the spherical excess and the e"= 0.012" (spherical excess)
remaining ~rror equally. , ' ,'. ,
® Cbmputeth,e adjusted value of angle L by 79'59'27"
distributing the spherical excess and the 63'44'59"
remaining error equally. 36'15'07"
180',00'- 03"
Solution: 180'- 00'· 0 012"
N
Error = 2.988" (error of spherical triangle)
Correction for each angle
2.988
=-3-
= 0.966" (First Correction)
L

Second Correction
~--""""-E 0.012
=-3-
A = 0.004" (spherical excess,subtracted
e"= R2 Sin 01" from each angle)
Arc 1" =180 ~600) 79'59'57" ' 0.996" • 0.004" =79'59'56"
bcSin A , 63'44'59",0.996" - 0.004" =63'44'58"
A = - 2 - (area oftnangle) 36'15'07"·0.995",0.004" =~
180'00' 00"
e =m bcSin A
1
m= 2RNArc1" CD Adjusted value of angle E = 79'59'56"
1 ® Adjusted value ofangle N = 63'44'58"
m= 1t
2(6378160)(6376032) 180(3600) @ Adjusted value of angle L =36'15'06"
5-112

AREA Of ClOSED TIIAIERSE

AREA OF CLOSED
TRAVERSE
In any closed traversed, there is always an
error. No survey is geometrically perfect, until
proper adjustment are made. For a closed
traversed, the sum of the north and south
latitudes should always be zero.

BALANCING A SURVEY
Latitude of any line - is the projection on a
north and south lines. It may be called as 1. Compass rule - the correction to be
north or positive latitude and south or applied to the latitude or departure of any
negative latitude. course is to the total correction in latitude
or departure as the length of the course is
Departure of any line - is the projection on to the length of the traverse.
the east and west line. West departure is
sometimes called negative departure and 2. Transit rule - the correction to be applied
East departure is sometimes called to the latitude or departure of any course is
positive departure. to the total correction in latitude or
departure as the latitude or departure of that
coUrse is to the arithmetical sum of all the
C DEPARTURE B latitudes or departures in the traverse
without regards to sign.

Error of closure = ."j LL2 + L02


RIf Error of closure
eaIve error = Perimeter of all courses

LL =error in latitude
LO =error in departure
A

Line AB has its latitude AC and departure BC.


The angle 0 is the bearing of the line AB.
BC =AB.Sin 0 .
1 Area by Triangle Method 0

Departure = Distance x Sin Bearing


AC =AB Cos 0

Latitude = Oistance x Cos Bearing

Dist = Latitud~ .
Cos Bearrng
O' t _ Departure
IS - Sin Bearing
5-113

AREA OF ClOSED TRAVERSE

A=A1+A2+A3 or
d1d2 Sin a
A1 = 2
·A - d3d4Sin {!,
2- 2
- dsd s Sin l2I
A3 - 2
4 Area by Double Meridian Distance
2 Area by Rule of Thumb Method Double Meridian Distance of line BC is the
sum of meridian distances of the two
2A = [Y1 (X1 - X2) + Y2 (X1 - X3) + Y3 (X2 - ~) extremeties.
+ Y4 (X3 - Xs) + Ys(~ - X1)]

3 Area by coordinates

Area ABCDE =Area BCEF + Area CDIF


- Area EDIH • Area AEGH •Area ABGE

~ .'...x j....A~· c
D.M.D. of BC = EB + FC
H······:':$·f,····
Latitude of BC = EF

, !""I('»,. Area of BCFE:


_ (EB + FC) EF
A- 2
- (X2 + x 3) (Y2 - Y3) + (X3 + X4) (Y3 - Y4) 2A = (EB + FC) EF
A- 2 2 2A = (D.M.D.)tatitude
(X4 + xs) (Ys • Y4) (xs + X1) (Y1 - Ys) Double Area = Double Meridian Distance
2 - 2 x Latitude
(1'1 + X2) (Y2 • Y1)
2

Simplifying 'this relation:

CD 2A = • [Y1 (xs - X2) + Y2(X1 - X3) 1. D.M.D. of the first course is equal to
+Y3 (X2 • X4) + Y4 (X4 - Xs) + Ys (~ • X1)] the departure of that course.
2. D.MD. of any other course is equal to
or the DMD of the preceding course, plus
the departure of the preceding course
@ 2A = Yt X1+ Y3Y2 + X4Y3 + XSY4 + X1YS plus the departure of the course itself:
• XtY2 • X2Y3 - Y3Y4 . X4YS· XSY1 3. D.M.D. of the last course IS
numerically equal to the departure of
the last course but opposite in sign.
5-114

AREA OF ClOSED TRAVERSE

Computing Area by D.M.D. Method: Example:

1. Compute the latitudes and departures


of all courses. Area by Double Meridian Distance
2. Compute the error of closure in
latitudes and departures. Lines LAT. DEP. DMD Double
Area
3. Balance the latitudes and departures
by applying either transit rule or 1-2 +60 -30 -30 ·30160\ =-1800
compass rule. 2-3 -20 +20 -40 ·401- 20) =+800
4. Compute for the D.M.D. of all courses. 3-4 -80 +60 +40 +40(. 80\ =-3200
4-1 +40 -SO +SO +SOI4O\- +2000
5. Compute the double areas by
mUltiplying each D.M.D. by the 2A =- 2200
corresponding latitude. A=-1100m2
6. Determine the algebraic sum of the
double areas.
Area by Double Parallel Distance
7. Divide the algebraic sum of the double
area to obtain the area of the whole
tract. Lines LAT. DEP. DPD Double
Area
Double Area =D.M.D. x Latitude 1-2 +60 - 30 +60 601- 30\ =- 1800
2-3 -20 +20 +100 100120\ = +2000
3-4 - 80 +60 0 d(6Q) = 0
5 Area by: Double Parallel Distance 4-1 +40 -SO -40 -401- SO\ = +2000
2A 2200 =-
A=1100m 2

1. D.P.D. of the first course is equal to


the latitude of that course.
2. D.P.D. of any other course is equal to
the D.P.D. of the preceding course,
plus the latitude of the preceding
course, pius the latitude of the course
itself. •..••••..<•• • 4OQ·,OQitJ.·.·>···
3. D.P.D. of the last course is .·llOll,OOffi)
numerically equal to the latitude of the 700.00fft·· ..
last course but opposite in sign. 600.00trl.
Double Area =Double Parallel Distance
x Departure CD Compute the correction <i1latitudeotlline
CO using transit rule, ...• .. ...
@ Compute the linear error of closure.
® Compute the relative error or precision. .
S-115

AREA OF CLOSED TRAVERSE

Solution: Solution:
Lines Bearina Distances LAT DEP CD Error of closure:
AB Due North 400.00m !+400. 0
BC N45' E 800.00m +565. +565.69 Distances LAT DEP
Lines Bearinll
CD 860' E 700.00m 3SO. +606.22
AB N.53'3TE. 59.82m +35.62 +48.06 '
DE S2Q'W 600.00m 563.8 -205.21
BC S.66'54'E. 70.38 m - 27.61 +64.74
EA S86'S9'W 966.34m - SO.86 -965.00 -37.30
CD S.29'Oaw. 76.62m. -66.93
Penmeter -- 3466.34 +1.01 +1.7
DA N.S2'OOW. 9S.75m +58.95 - 7S.45
400 + 565.69 +3S0 + 563.82 + SO.86 = 1930.37
302.57 +94.S7 +112.aO
ill Correction of latitude on line CD using - 94.54 - 112.75
transit rule: +0.03 +O.OS
fm_ 3SO.00
1.01 - 1930.37
Ceo =0.18 Error ofclosure = -V (0.03)2 +(0.05)2
error of closure = 0.0583
@ Linear error ofclosure:
LEG = -V (1.01~ +(1.7)2 ® Precesion of linear measurement:
LEG = 1.97740
.. 0.0583
PrecIsion =302.S7
@ Relative error or precision:
• 1.97740 1
Relative error =3466.34 Precision =5190
. 1 Precision = 1:5190
RelatIVe error = 1753

@ Area in acres:

LAT DEP DIv1D DOUBLE


AREA

•~~i~I.~~;t$h:~d~~~~~~~ijjjti~.lf~~~.
!ljid$s.$reshOW!l: '. >.•• • • • • •.• • .•.
... . . . •. . . . •••.. •. •••••• ~
+3S.61
- 27.61
- 66.94
+48.0S
+64.73
- 37.31
+48.0S
+160.83
+188.25
+1711.06
-4440.46
-12601.46
+58.94 - 75.47 +75,47 +4448.20
o 0 2A --10882.72
A =5441.36 m2

Note: 1acre = 4047 sq.m.


, . 5441.36 .
Area = 4047
ill ~:~S~~h~~:err9r.·Of• • cIO$~re • • • fOt•• • ~e. Area = 1.34 acres
® What is the" pre<:e~Jon cif linear
measurement of this tl'averse. '. . .
What is the lotal area'locliJdedwlthlJi the
traverse inacfes.
S-1I6

AREA OF ClOSED TRaVERSE

Corrected Latitude:
..f-_ 249.40
0.68 -1868.94

'~liiiii~1
C=O.09
Corrected lat =249.40 •0.09
Corrected lat = 249.31

• H•HW?~;~r:W~M~P<!~~&§;~pg;p~@]jjn~
• ·••·•• ·.t~~.¢~tt~~J~m~p~ll.h~9~rmrt~@9f~.
·.·.bYAAmM~~rn@>····

@AgW@ij#~yijr~$1lj~~llj~@I~W4M<
.• • •·•• • •i$t.lI~W>·.·i·...···.//·>.·./ •. H: • · •·•·• • • •.•.• • .•. . . .

;!lll:t~'Jl'
•·• • • • •~~'~il~l~eEl~.~ll~0te
Solution: \'\-1"1,
CD Correction of latitude and departure AB:
Corrected Latitude:
_C__ 483.52
(+) 0.44 - 2915.80
C=+0.07 Solution:
Corrected lat =326.87 +0.07 CD Corrected latitude of DE by comp~ss rule:
Corrected lat =326.94 -.L._ 518.40 .... .. . .
/0.56 - 2628.5
Corrected Departure: "",
E = +0.11
C 483.53 ll-?t
0.37 =2915.80
C=O.06 Corrected latitude of DE =259.2 + 0.11
Corrected dep = 356.30 +0.06 Corrected latitude of DE =259.31
Corrected dep = 356.36
® Correctedlatitude of DE by transit rule:
® Correction of departure and latitude BC: E 259.2
Corrected Departure: .. ;KJ.56 = 1726.8
C 364.20 E=+0.08
- 0.42 =1842.64
C=-O.08 Corrected latitude of DE =259.2 + 0.08.
Corrected dep =364.20·0.08 Corrected latitude of DE =259.28
90rrected dep =364.12
S-l17

AREA OF ClOSED TRAVERSE

@ Corrected departure of DE by compass (j) Relative error:


rule:
~_518.4 Error of closure =--J (1.01)2 + (1.7)2
- 0.34 - 2628.5 Error of closure =1.977
E=- 0.07 . 1.977
RelatIVe error =3466.34
Corrected departure =448.9 - 0.07
Corrected departure =448.83 Relative error = 175~.33
® Adjusted distance of EA using
'f: Transit Rule:
For A- B: (latitude)
..fL_~
F"9t1)fhe1ieldnOtesOfa\cl~sed{trav~r~e< . t1.01 - 1930.37
sh~mtleIoW,<ldjlJl3~.m~.tr<av~rs~.lIl3il'lg
.... C1 = 0.00052 (400)
C1 =0.21 ." " .
Q!¢()fuP~W·l!J~r~~pv~~rr8rOf.pl()~re. • • /\•• •·••.•· "-f\1
®.····Cw.nput~ • th~··~4jll~t~~Ai~t~I'l~()t .• litl~eA
lJ~it'9Trcllisit~~lEl, Total distance =3466.34
@qomputethei~dJlJ§ted~a.ringOfliIW)CO
using Compa$$Rllle:< ... . . ..
LINES CORRECTION FOR LATITUDE
A-B C1 = 0.000523 (400) =+0.21
STA. STA. Bearings Distances B-C ~ = 0.000523 (565.69) =W·30
OCC. OBS. CoD CJ 0.000523 (350.00) =\0.18
A B Due North 400.00m. D-E C4 = 0.000523 (563.82) =>\{).29
B C N45' E 800.00m. E-A C5 = 0.000523 (50.86) =J{).Q3
C D S60' E lOO.OOm.
S20'W 1.01
0 E 600.00m.
E A S86'59'W 9OO.34m. Correction for Departure:
For line A - B:
Solution:
..fL __0_
Line Bearinas Distance LAT DEP 1.70 - 2342.12
A-S Due North 400.00 +400.00 0 C1 = 0.0007258 (0)
S-C N45'E 800.00 +565.69 +565.69 C1 =0 (., \.•...•.... J

CoD 860' E 700.00 ·350.00 +606.22


D-E 820'W 600.00 - 563.82 - 205.21 LINES CORRECTION FOR DEPARTURE
E-A S86'59'W 966.34 -50.86 -965.00 A-S C1 0.0007258 (0) = 0
965.69 1171.91 +965.69 +1171.91 S-C ~ = 0.0007258 (565.69) = 0.41
~ 11lQ2.1 ~ :..11ZQ21 CoD ~ = 0.0007258 (606.22) = 0.44
1930.37 2342.12 + 1.01 + 1.70 D-E C4 0.0007258 (205.21) = 0.15
;~(:t~~ E-A C5 = 0.0007258 (965) = 0.70
Total distance = 3466.34
Error in latitude = 1.01 1.70
Error in departure = 1.70
S-118

AREA OF ClOSED TUVERSE

ADJUSTED LATITUDES AND DEPARTURE Correction for departure:


(uncorrected) (corrected) LineA -B:
.ft_~
Lines LAT DEP LAT DEP 1.7 - 3466.34
GO.21 C1 =0.00049043 (400)
.., C1 =0.20
~·B '1'400 I ·
A-B +400.00 0 +399.79 0
LINES CORRECTION FOR DEPARTURE
-0.30 - 0.41 A- B C1 = 0.00049043 (400) = 0.20
B-C +565.69 +565.69 +565.39 +565.28 B-C C:1 = 0.00049043 (800) = 0.40
-0.18 -0.44 C-D ~ = 0.00049043 (700) = 0.34
CoD - 350.00 +606.22 - 350.18 +605.78 D- E C4 = 0.00049043 (600) = 0.29
-0.29 +0.15 E-A Cs = 0.00049043 (966.34) = 0.47
D-E - 563.82 - 205.21 - 564.11 -205.36
1.70
-0.03 +0.70
E-A ~ 50.86 -965.00 -50.89 -965.70 ADJUSTED LATITUDES AND DEPARTURE
o o (uncorrected) (corrected)

Adjusted bearing ofEA: Lines LAT DEP LAT DEP

tan bearing =q;; )


A-B - 0.12
+400.00
-0.20
0 +399.88 -0.20
· - 965.70 -0.24 -0.40
tan beanng = _50.89 B-C +565.69 +565.69 +565.45 +565.29
Bearing =S. 86'59' W. -0.20 -0.34
CoD - 350.00 +606.22 -350.20 +605.88
Adjusted distance of EA: - -1'0.17 +0.29
D-E - 563.82 - 205.21 -563.99 - 205.50
·t
DIS 965.70
ance =Sin 86'59' - lO.28 +0.47
Distance =967,04 m. E-A -50.86 -965.00 - 51.14 - 965.47
o 0
® Adjusted bearing of CD using . 605.88
Compass Rule: tan beanng = 350.20
Correction for latitude: Bearing = S. 59'58' E
LIneA -B:
~-~
f 1.01 - 3466.34
C1 =0.000291374 (400)
C1 =0.12

LINES CORRECTION FOR LATITUDE


A- B C1 = 0.000291374 (400) = 0.12
B - C C:1 = 0.000291374 (800) = 0.24
C- D ~ = 0.000291374 (700) = 0.20
D-E C4 = 0.000291374(600) = 0.17
E-A Cs = 0.000291374(966.34) =~ (j) compute the be~ of line 2- 3... •
1.01 @ Compute the dls~nce ofline 4 , 1.
® Determine the area of the lot using DMD.
5-119

AREA OF CLOSED TRAVERSE

Solution: For line 3-4:


. 800
Since the property line intersect each other, tan Beanng :: 800
then we could only apply DMD, if we divide it
Bearing:: N4S' E
into areas where no property lines will
intersect. Distance :: S~S'
Line~ LAT DEP Bearing Distance Distance = 1131.37
1- 2 -1200 +400 S 18'26' E
1265.02
2-3 +200 -400 N63'2f>W 447.23 For line 4 -1:
3-4 +800 +800 N4S'E 1131.37 . 800
tan Beanng :: 200
4·1 +200 -800 N7S'58'W 824.63
Bearing:: N7S'58' N
CD Bearing ofline 2 • 3: ·t
DIS 800
ance - Sin 7S'S8
Distance:: 824,03

@ Area by DMD:'''<i
Using Sine Law:~ ,: ,.,
X 824.63
Sin S7'32' = Sin 63'26'
X= 777.88
Y 824.63
Sin 59'02':: Sin 63'26'
Y=790.56 .f:. 'Y)
a= 1265.02 - 790.56
a=474.46
b=1131.37-777.88 ~ ("7"
Farline 1- 2: b::: 353.49 J/
r'
· 400 (,

tan Beanng:: 1200


Far Lot A:
Bearing:: S 18'26' E
400 ' Lines Bearina DEP
Distance:: Sin 18'26'· Distance LAT
1-4 S7S'58' E 824.63 -200 +800
Distance:: 1265.02 4-S S4S'W 777.88 -S5O -550
5-1 N18'66'W 790.56 +750 -2S0
For line 2- 3:
. 400
tan Beanng:: 200 LINES DMD DOUBLE AREA
Bearing:: N 63'26' W 1· 4 +800 -160000
4-5 +1050 ·577500
. '; 5·1 +250 +187500
@ Distance of line 4- 1....
D' tance:: Sin400 2A:: 550000
63'26~
IS
A = 275000 m2
Distance:: 447.23
5-120

ARU OF ClOSED TRAVERSE

For Lot B: To compute the DMD:


Linel Bearina Distance LAT DEP Lines DMD Double
5-2 S18'26' E 474.46 -450 +150 Area
2-3 N63'26'W 447.23 +200 -400' 1-2 -11.77 +219.275
3-5 N45'E 353.49 -250 +250 2-3 -11.77-11.77-5.96= -29.50 -236.885
3-4 - 29.50 - 5.96 -1.36 = -36.82 -1n.104
LINES DMD DOUBLE AREA 4-1 -36.82-1.36-19.09= +19.09 -110.531
5-2 +150 ·67500
2-3 -100 -20000 To compute for double area =DMD xlatitude
3-5 -250 62500
2A= 150000 Lines Double Area
A=75000 m2 1-2 -11.77 (-18.63) = 219.275
2-3 - 29.50 (8.03) = -236.885
Total area = 275000 +75000 3-4 - 36.82 (4.81) = -1n.104
Total area = 350000 m2 4-1 -19.09 (5.79) = -110.531

Negative double areas


=236.885 +1n.104 + 110.531
= 524.520 sq.m.

Positive double area = 219.275


524.5b - 219.275
Area= 2
Area = 152.622 sq.m.

@ DPD offine 3 - 4:

Line's LAT DEP DPD Double


Area
G) flndthea~ea()Nhelqtby.DMt>rnf!lhod,······ 1-2 -18.63 -11.77 -18.63 +219.275
@)findtMPAt>9ffi®3,A. iii.· . 2-3 8.03 -5.96 -29.23 +174.211
@ Finq.thearea.ofk:llbyDpo·rnethgd.•
3-4 4.81 -1.36 -16.39 +22.290
Solution: 4-1 5.79 +19.09 -5.79 +110.531
(!) Area by DMD method:
Departure = distance x sin bearing DPD offine 3 - 4 =-16.39
Latitude = distance x cos bearing
u ';, <'~ . .",
@ Area by DPD method:
Line BearinQs Dist LAT DEP DMD Double Area =219.275 + 174.211
+ 22.290 - 110.531
1- 2 S32'17W 22.04 -18.63 -11.77 -17.77
Double area = 305.245
2-3 N36'25W 10.00 +8.03 -5.96 -29.50
Area - 305.245
3-4 N15'47W 5.00 +4.81 -1.36 -36.82 - 2
4·1 N73'07'E 19.95 +5.79 -19.09 +19.0E Area = 152.622 sq.m.
S-120-A

IREA Of ClOSED TRAVERSE

Line BC:
Latitude Departure
From the given technical description of a lot. .£L_ 30.98 .£L_ 591.19
20.5 -1357.44 3.93 - 2126.25
LINES BEARINGS DISTANCES C2 = 0.47 C2 = 1.09
AB N.48'20'E. 529.60 m.
BC N.87"OO'E. 592.00 m.
CD S.7'59'E. 563.60 m. Line CD:
DE S.80'OO'W. 753.40 m. Latitude Departure
EA N.48'12'W. 428.20 m. ~_ 558.14 ~_ 78.28
20.5 -1357.44 3.93 - 2126.25
CD Find thE! corrected bearing of line BC using C3 =8.42 C3 =0.15
transit rule.
@ Find the corrected bearing of line DE using
transit rule. Line DE:
@ Find the corrected distance of line EA Latitude Departure
using transit rule. ~_ 130.83 ~_ 74.95
20.5 -1357.44 3.93 - 2126.25
C4 = 1.98 C4 = 1.37
Solution:
CD Corrected bearing of line BC using transit
rule: Line EA:
Latitude Departure
Lines Bearina Distance LAT DEP ~_ 285.41 ~_ 319.21
AB N.48'20'E. 529.60 +352.08 +395.62 20.5 -1357.44 3.93 - 2126.25
BC N.8TOO'E. 592.00 +30.98 +591.19 Cs = 4.31 Cs = 0.59
CD S.7'59'E. 563.60 -558.14 +78.28
DE S.80'OO'W 753.40 -130.83 -741.95
EA N.48'12'W. 428.20 +285.41 -319.21 LINES CORRECTED LATITUDES
+668.47 +1065.09 AS \ 352.08 + 5.32 = + 357.40
-688.97 -1061.16 BC r 30.98 + 0.47 = + 31.45
Error = ('20.5 +.3.93 CD .- 558.1#-8.42 =- 549.72
DE 130.83+1.98 = -128.85
i-f" 668.47 1065.09;\,<· /I"",
EA T 285.41 + 4.31 = + 289,72
688.97 .1Q2.1.12
1357.44 2126.25 o
LINES CORRECTED DEPARTURES
Corrections using transit rule: AB I. 395.62 - 0.73 = + 394.89

LineAB: BC .j., 591.19 -1.09 = + 590.10

Latitude Departure CD 78.28 - 0.15 = + 78.13


DE -741.95~1.37 =- 743.32
-fL _ 352.08 ~_ 395.62
20.5 -1357.44 3.93 - 2126.25 EA .. 319.21 f 0.59 = - 319.80
C1 = 5.32 C1 =0,73
o
5-120-B

AREI OF CLOSED lUVERSE

Corrected bearing of line BC:

tan bearing = Dep.


Lat. Using the given data in the traverse shown:
. BC 590.10
ta n beanng = 31.45 POINTS NORTHINGS EASTINGS
A 75m. . 250 m.
Corrected Bearing BC = N. 86'57' E
B 425m. 150 m.
C 675m. 450m.
@ Corrected bearing of line DE: 0 675m. 675 m.
E 425m. 700 m.
tan bearing = Dep. F 175m. 550m.
Lat.
t be' DE - 743.32 CD Compute the bearing of line BC.
an anng =_128.85 @ Compute the distance of line FA.
@ Compute the area enclosed by the straight
Corrected bearing DE = S. 80'10' W.
line bounded by the points ABCDEFA.

@ Corrected distance ofline EA: Solution:


· Dep. CD Bearing ofline BC:
ta n beanng =
Lat.
LINES LATITUDES DEPARTURE
t be' EA - 319.80
an anng =+ 289.72 AB 425 - 75 = +350 150 - 250 =-100
BC 675 - 425 = +250 450 -150 = +300
Corrected bearing EA= N. 4T50'W.
CD 675 - 675 =0 675 - 450 = +225
DE 425 - 675 =-250 700 - 675 = +25
D' t - Dep. EF 175 - 425 =-250 550 - 700 =-150
IS ance - Sin bearing FA 75-175=-100 250 - 550 =-300
r'\" 319.80
ulstance = Sin 47'50' Bearing of line BC:
Distance =431.52 m. · Den.
tan beanng =-=
Lat.
. +300
Check: tan beanng =+250

Distance =..J (Latf+ (Dep~ Bearing BC = N. 50'12' E.

Distance =..J (289.72)2 + (319.80~


Distance = 431.52 m. @ Distance offine FA:
FA = ..J (Dep)2 + (Lat)2

FA=..J (- 30W + (-10W


FA =316.23 m.
S-120-C

AREA OF ClOSED 'IIVERSE

@ Area bounded the straight lines:


)( \,\ 107.28 131.70
Lines LAT. DEP D~D Double Area JM.5.3. lli..ZQ
AB +350 -100 -100 -100(350) = -35000 211.81 273.40
BC +250 +300 +100 100250 = + 25000
CD 0 +225 +625 625 0) = O.
DE -250 +25 +875 8751-250 = -21875( Corrections using transit rule:
EF -250 -150 +750 7501 -250 = -18750(
LineAB:
FA -100 -300 +300 300 -100) =-30000
2A= -446250 Latitude Departure
.n f' _<.f, ~ It~
, A=223125.r ~_ 36.13 ~_ 25.77
2.75 - 211.81 10 - 273.40
C1 = 0.47 C1 =0.94

Line BC:
In the traverse table below shows the Latitude Departure
Latitudes and Departures of the closed
traverse. ~_ 74.56 f2. _115.93
2.75 - 211.81 10 - 273.40
LINES LAT. DEP. C2 = 0.97 C2 =4.24
AB - 36.13 -25.77
BC + 74.56 -115.93
CD + 12.82 +0.39 Line CD:
DE + 19.90 +61.74 LatitUde Departure
EA - 68.40 +69.57 ~_ 12.82 f.a. _ 0.39
2.75 - 211.81 10 - 273.40
CD Compute the corrected bearing of line BC
using transit rule. C3 = 0.16 C3 = 0.01
@ Comp.ute the corrected distance of line EA
using transit rule. . Line DE:
@ Compute the area of the traverse by
balancing the traverse by transit rule. Latitude Departure
~_ 19.90 ~_ 61.74
Solution: 2.75 - 211.81 10 - 273.40
CD Corrected bearing of line Be using transit C4 =0.26 C4 = 2.26
rule:
LINES LAT. DEP.
-36.13 . Line EA:
AB - 25.77
BC + 74.56 -115.93 Latitude Departure
CD + 12.82 + 0.39 ~_ 68.40 ~_ 69.57
DE + 19.90 +61.74 2.75 - 211.81 10 - 273.40
EA - 68.40 +69.57 Cs = 0.89 Cs =2.55
+ 107.28 + 131.70
~ -141.70
+ 2.75 -10.00
S-120-D

.IEI OF ClOSED TIAVElSE

LINES CORRECTED LATITUDES CORRECTEO DEPARTURES


AB - 36.13 + 0.47 =- 36.6 - 25.77 - 0.94 =- 24.83
.BC + 74.56 - 0.97 = + 73.59 -115.~3 - 4.24 =-111.69
c

CD + 12.82 - 0.16= + 12.66 +0.39 +0.01 = + 0.40


DE + 19.90 - 0.26 = +.19,.64' +61.74 +2.26 = +64.00
. EA .- 68.40 + 0.89 =- 69.29 + 69.57 +'2.55 = + 72.12

Corrected beanng of BC:


. .Qep.
tan be anng = Lat.

. BC - 111.69
tan beanng = + 73.59
.. ~ '-'

Bearing BC = NS6'37' W

,
@ . Corrected distance Qf line EA:

. AE'= 4(Dep)2 + (Latf


AE =...j (72.12)2 + (- 69.29)2
AE = 100.01 m.

@ Area of the traverse:

LINES LATITUDE DEPARTURE DMD DOUSLEAREA


AS - 36.6 - 24.83 - 24.83 - 24.83(- 36.6) = + 908.78
BC + 73.59 - 111.69 - 161.35 -161.35(73.59) = -11873.75
CD + 12.66 + 0.40 - 272.64 - 272.64(12.66) =- 3451.62
DE + 19.64 + 64.00 - 208.24 - 208.24(19.64) =- 4089.83
EA - 69.29 + 72.12 - 72.12 - 72.12(- 69.29) = + 4997.19
2A =-13509.23
A= 6754.62 m2
S-120-E
AREA OF ClOSED TRAVERSE

Correction for Departure:


C1 368.76
13.35 ;.; 2075
From the given data of aclosed traverse 13.35
C1 = 2075 (368.76) = 2.37
LINES DISTANCE BEARING
13.35
AB 368.76 m. N.15'18'E. C2 = 2075 (645.38) =4.15
BC 645.38 m. S.85'46'E.
CD 467.86 m. S.18'30W 13.35
C3 = 2075 (467.86) = 3.01
DA 593.00 m. N.7T35W
13.35
Using compass rule of balancing atraverse. C4 = 2075 (593) = 3.82
13.35
(j) Determine the corrected bearing of BC.
@ Determine the corrected bearing of CD. LINES Corrected La!. Corrected Dep.
@ Determine the adjusted distance of BC.
I +1.441 1-2.37]
AB +355.69 +97,31
Solution:
(j) Corrected bearing of BC: = +357.13 = +94,94
LINE BEARING DISTANCE LAT. DEP.
AB N:15·18'E. 368.76 m +355.69 +97.31
1-2.531 1-4.151
-47.64
BC -47.64 +643.62
BC S.85·46'E. 645.38 m. +643.62
CD S.18·30'W 467.86 m. -443.68 -148.45 =-45.11 =+639.47
DA N.7T35'W 59300 m. +127.51 -579.13
1-1.831 1+3.011
207500 +483.20 +740.93
CD -443.68 -148.45
-491.32 -727.58
Error = -8.12 +13.35 =-441.85 =-151.46

Total distance = 2075.00 m. 1+2.321 1+3.821


DA +127.51 -579.13
= +129,83 =-582.95
Using compass rule of balancing: =0 =0
.Correction for Latitude: Corrected bearing of line BC:
· Dep. + 63947
C1 368.76 tan beanng = La!. =--=45.1T'
8.12 =2575 Bearing =S.SS'SS'E.
C1 = ~O~~ (368.76) = 1.44
@ Corrected bearing of CD:
t b' Dep, -151.46
an eanng = La!. = - 441.85
812
C2 = 2675 (645.38) = 2.53 Bearing = S.1S'SSW

812 @ Adjusted distance of BC:


C3 = 2075 (467.86) = 1.83 S' b ' - Dep.
In eanng - Dis!.

8.12 0' t - Dep, 639.47


C4 = 2075 (593) = 232 IS - Sin bearing = Sin 8558'
8.12 Dist =641.06 m.
S~120-F

AREA OF CLOSED TRAVERSE

tAT DEP
AB 843.58
A closed ·traverse has the following data: ~=~ -=--
15.73 1870.57 7.79 2184.89
AB =299(0.0084092) AB =843.58(0.0035654)
LINES DISTANCE BEARING
AB =-2:51 (to be subtracted AB =3.01 (to be subtracted)
AB 895 S. 70'29' E.
BC S. 26'28' E. BC =281.99(0.0084092) . BC = 140.39(0.0035654)
315
CD 875 S. 65'33' W. BC =-2.37 (subtracted) BC =0.50 (subtracted)
DE 410 N.45'31' W. CD =362.16(0.0084092) CD =796.53(0.0035654)
EA 650 N. 10'00' E. CD =-3.05 (subtracted) CD =2.84 (added)
DE =287.29(0.0084092) DE =292.52(0.0035654)
<D Find the· corrected bearing of line BC by DE =+2.42 (added) DE = 1.04 (added)
using Transit Rule. EA =640.13(0.0084092) EA:: 112.87(0.0035654)
® Find the corrected bearing of line CD by EA =+5.38 (added) EA =0.40 (subtracted)
using Transit Rule. 15.73 7.79
@ Find the corrected bearing of line EA by
using Transit Rule.

Corrected bearing for line BC:


Solution:
tan bearing = dep
<D Corrected bearing of line BC using Transit lat
Rule:
· + 139.89
tan beanng= - - -
- 279.62
LINES BEARING DISTANCE Bearing = S. 26' 34' 42" Eo
AB S. 70'29' E. 895
BC S. 26'28' E. 315
CD S. 65'33' W. 875 ® Corrected bearing for line CD:
DE N. 45'31' W. 410 ta be . - - 799.37
EA N.10'OO' E. n anng - _359.11
650
Bearing = S. 65' 48' 30" W.

CORRECTED
Lines LAT DEP LAT DEP @ Corrected bearing for line EA:
AB - 299 +843.58 -296.49 +840.57 ta be' +112.47
BC -281.99 +140.39 -279.62 +13989 n anng = + 645.51
CD -362.16 -796.53 -359.11 -799.37
Bearing = N. 9' 53' 01" E
DE +287.29 -292.52 +289.71 -293.56
EA +640.13 +112.87 +645.51 +112.47
-943.15 -1089.05
+927.42 +1096.84
1870.57 2184.89 Sum of lat & dep.
: 15.73 +7.79 Error
S-12]

ABU OF CLOSED TRAVERSE

@ Area enclosed by the traverse:


3

i$Cpmputelhe b~arinsqfline4.t.
·~· •. ··.ColTlPu~ .•thE!.dlstal'l~9f •~l®.4 ••• 1.••••
tID9Wl1PW
t$vetse.e ·the51t~~WWI(l~~9l)}'
... . ... . fhe B

Solution:
A'
The sketch shows that the traverse lines 1 - 2
and 3 - 4 crossed each other, hence we could From Plane Trigonometry: 74.85
not adopt the DMD method of determining its
area. Area of triangle ABC =~ a c sin B

Lines Bearina Distance LAT DEP Using the Law of Sine:


1-2 N48'30'W 81.00 +53.70 -60.70 _c a_
2-3 N77'00' E 66.00 +14.85 +64.30 Sin C-SinA
3-4 S55'OO'W 94.00 - 53.90 -77.00 a Sin C
+14.65 -73.40
c= Sin A
4-1
~ (a) (a) Sin CSin B
(j) Bearing ofline 4 - 1: Area = Sin A
.~ - a2 Sin BSin C
tan beanng = lat Area - 2 Sin A
. 73.40
tan beanng = 14.65 Considering triangle 230:
Bearing = S 78'42' E A _(66)2 Sin 22' Sin 54'30'
1- 2 Sin 103'20'
Al = 683 sq.m.
@ Distance of side 4 - 1:
. _ Departure Considering triangle 014:
Distance - Sin bearing A - (74.85)2 Sin 46'18' Sin 30'12'
. 73.40 2- 2 Sin 103'30'
Distance = Sin 78'42' A2 =1046 sq.m.
Distance (4 -1) = 74.85 m. Total area =Al +A2
A=683 + 1046
A = 1729 sq.m,
S-122

AREA OF CLOSED TRAVERSE

G
r. . .

~
Ind 5 ". 2
B

LINES BEARING DISTANCES


1-2 S 10'00' E 485.00
.4 c
2-3 N 56'00' E 780.00
3-4 N63'OOW 975.00
4-5 ........ ........
. ( ) 622.59
5-1 S33'OO'W 890.00 tan Beanng 4 - 5 =345.24
Bearing (4 - 5) =N 60'59' E
Solution:
@ Distance of line 4 - 5:
. . 622.59
D/stance (4 - 5) =Sin 60'59'
Distance (4 - 5) =711,90 m.

@ Area enclosed by the line 3 - 4, 4 - 5 and


5" 1:
A = bc Sin A
2
2 c b
Sin C~ Sin B
CD Bearing of line 4 - 5:
bSin C
c= Sin B
Lines Bearina Distances LAT DEP
5-1 S33'W 890 - 746.42 - 484.73 A _ b2 Sin A Sin C
1- 2 S 10' E 485 - 477.63 +84.22 2 Sin B
2-3 N56' E 780 +436.17 +646.65
3-4 N63'W 575 +442.64 - 868.73 Area of shaded section
+345.84 +622.59 =(711.90}2 Sin 56'01' Sin 27' 59
+878.81 +730.87 A
2 Sin 96'
- 1224.05 - 1353.46
A =99169.28 m2
- 345.24 - 622.59
5-123

AREA OF CLOSED TRAVERSE

@ Distance of line 5 - 1:
53.51
Distance (5 - 1) Sin 54'20'
A Civil Engineer, in his haste, forgot to record Distance (5 -1):: 65,86 m,
the data of the closing line of his traverse, the
field noles of which reflects the following @ Area enclosed by the traverse:
record. A _ (65.86)2 Sin 16' Sin 80:40'
1- 2Sin 83'20'
A1 :: 593.91 sq.m.
Using Sine Law:

5
(j) Compute the bearing of line 5- 1.
@ Compute the distance oHine 5 -1. .
@ Compute the area enclosed by the
traverse.
Solution:
Sketch the traverse and nnd out if the lines do
not intersect each other, if so, then application
of DMD in determining the area will not suffice.

5
x _ 65.86
Sin 80'40' - Sin 83'20'
4 x:: 65.43
y 65.86
Sin 16' :: Sin 83'20'
Y:: 18.28 m.

3
Distance 4 to 0:: 108.64 - 18.28
Distance 4to 0:: 90.36
I (j) Bearing of line 5 - 1: Distance 2 to 0:: 140.25 - 65.43
Distance 2 to 0:: 74.82
Lines Bearinq Distance LAT DEP
- 90.36 (74.82) Sin 83'20'
1- 2 S 30'20' E 140.25 -110.02 +86.99 Ar 2
2-3 S51'57' W 77.52 -47.78 - 61.04 A2 :: 3357.49 sq.m.
3-4 N49'10'W 65.10 +42.57 -~.26 - 65.10(77.52)Sio 101'07'
4-5 N45'00' E 108.64 +76.82 +76.82 A3- 2
5-1 +38.41 53.51 A3 =2475.90 sq.m.
53.51 Total A:: A1 + A2 + A3
tan bearing (5 -1):: 38.41
A:: 593.91 +3357.49 + 2475.90
Bearing (5 -1):: N 54'20' W A :: 6427.30 sq.m.
8-124

AREA OF ClOSED TRAVERSE

Solution:
cD Location of the point of intersection of the
overlapping areas from corner 4 of lot
PSU-171211:
AC 33.86
Sin 87'18' =Sin 53'30'
AC=42.08
The point of intersection from comer 4
= 56.65 ·42.08
= 14.57

® •Location of the point of intersection of the


overlapping areas from corner 5 of lot
PStJ-187773:
BC 33.86
Sin 39'12':;: Sin 53'30'
BC= 26.62
Point of intersection from comer 5
= 37.74·26.62
= 11.12

® Area of the overlapping portion:


A =33.86 (42.08) Sin 39'12'
2
A =450.20 sq.m.

B
li.lilill1ll
~CteS.···· ».. .
1

('
S-12~

AREA OF CLOSED TRf"VERSE

Solution:
CD DMD afline 3 - 4:

LINES DEP DMD


1-2 - 40.12 - 40.12
2-3 - 36.82 -117.06
3-4 + 50.42 -103.46
4-5 + 30.36 - 22.68
5-6 - 52.34 - 44.66
6-1 +48.50 ·48.50

DMD afline 3 - 4 = • 103.46

@ DPDafline4- 5:

LINES LAT DPO


1-2 + 80.16 +80.16
2-3 - 40.13 + 120.19
3-4 + 70.18 + 150.24
4-5 - 30.14 + 190.28 Solution:
5-6 +60.20 +220.34 CD BeiJring ofline FA:
6-1 -140.27 +140.27
Lines Bearina Distance LAT. DEP.
DPD ofline 4 - 5 = + 1190.28 AB N. 20' E. 17.42 +16.37 +5.96
Be N.68' E. 18.46 +6.92 +17.12
@ Area of Jot: CD S. 22' E. 22.40 -20.n +8.39
DE S.40·W. 12.60 - 9.65 -8.10
LINES LAT OM) DOUBLE AREA
EF S.62'W. 10.20 -4:79 - 9.01
(LATxDMD)
1-2 +80.16 - 40.12 - 3216.02
FA - - +11.92 -14.36
2·3' -40.13 -117.06 +4697.62
3-4
4-5
+70.18
-30.14
-103.46
- 22.68
- 7260.82
+683.58
tan bearing = f!i
5-6 +60.20 - 44.66 - 2688.53 · 14.36
tan beanng = 11.92
6-1 -140.27 -48.50 +6803.10
- 13165.37 Bearing FA = NSO'18' W
+ 12184.30
2A =-981.07
@ Distance FA:
A= 490.54
A= 490.54 O' t - Dep
IS ance - Sin bearing
4047
A= 0.121 acres 'D' t 14.36
Isance::: Sin 50'18'
Distance::: 18.66 m.
S-126

AREA OF ClOSED TRAVERSE

® Area of closed traverse: . 10.79


tangent beanng =53.47
Lines LAT. DEP. D\1D Double
Area tangent bearing = S. 11'24' W
AB +16.37 +5.96 +5.96 +97.51
BC +6.92 +17.12 +29.04 +200.96 ® Distance DA:
CD -20.n +8.39 +54.55 -1133.00 .t 10.79
DE -9.65 -8.10 +54.84 - 529.21 DIS ance =Sin 11'24'
EF -4.79 - 9.01 +37.73 -180.73 Distance =54.55 m.
FA +11.92 -14.36 +14.36 +171.17
=-
2A 373.24 @ Area:
A = 186.62
_ 3745.01 m2
A = 186.62 Area - 4047
4047
A=0.046 acres Area = 0.925 acres

Solution:
I!rll.ill~
CD Bearing DA: Solution:
CD Bearing of line 4. - 1:
LINES BEARING DISTANCES
AB S.8'S1'W. 126.90 m. Line: LAT DEP O'v1D Double
BC N.1S'S1'W. 90.20 m. Area
CD N. 32'27' E. 110.80 m. 1-2 +104.1( +60.10 +60.10 3760102.4
DA - - 2-3 + 18.75 +88.23 +208.43 +3908.06
3-4 - 74.97 +46.84 +343.5 -25752.20
Line LAT DEP lJv1D 2A
4 -1 -47.88 -195.17 +195.17 - 9344.74
AB -125.3£ -19.52 -19.52 +2447.61 2A = 3728913.53
BC +8S.36 - 29.14 - 68.18 - 5819.84
CD +93.50 - 59.45 - 37.87 - 3540.85 ' 195.17
DE - 53.47 -10.79 +10.79 - 576.94 tangentbeanng = 47.88
2A = 7490.02 tangent bearing =S. 76'13' W
A = 3745.01 m2
5-127

AREA OF ClOSED TRAVERSE

@ Distance 4 - 1: @ Area oflot in acres:


195.17 Area = 4800 m2 .
=
Sin 76'13' 4800
= 200,96 Area =4047
Area = 1.186 acres
@ DMD ofline 3-4 =+ 3434,5

® Area = 1,864,456.77
Area = 186.45 hectares

fr9mth~~Wem~~#9fl~ry9<h~ymSIM
fplloWil'lgr.lB1a ,C()fJ1Pule'fhejfq1IriWing(> ..

tiNES l. tAl1WP/l'· DI1J'Af\r~


... ,
o.;;}\ <90<· ······>+50 .
CD 09Ublemeridtandist~~{)fllheC8' .
® j)oup~par<llfeldist~%~.oflillElGP' .
@ Ateaoftracl()flan¢il'la¢res. ... .. Solution:
CD Bearing of CD:
Solution: Double area = Lat x DMD
CD DMD ofline CD: - 8108.71 = Y(189.50)
y=-42.79
LAT DEP DMD 2A Lat. CD =- 42.79
+40 -80 - 80 - 3200 Dep. CD = +13.36
+80
- 30
-40
+70
-200
-170
-16000
+ 5100
tan bearing =f!i
-90 +50 -50 + 4500 t b . 13.36
2A = - 9600 an eanng = 42.79
A= 4800ml Bearing = S 17'20' E
DMD of/ine CD =. 170
® OMD of/ine DE:
@ DPD ofline CD: + 16.03
+72.04
LAT DEP DPD + 13.36
+40 - 80 +40 +101.43
+80 -40 +160 - 48.18
- 30 +70 +210
- 53.25
- 90 +50 +90 Dep. ofDE =. 53.25
OPO ofline CD = + 210
5-128

AREA OF ClOSED TRAVERSE

® Area of the 5 sided lot in acres. Solution:


CD Bearing ofline 3 - 4:
Lines LAT DEP. ()\1() Double LAT(DMD) = Double area
Area Lat (186) =- 5580
AB +57.81 + 16.03 + 16.03 +926.69 Lat=- 30
Be - 9.63 +72.04 +104.10 -1002.48
OJ - 42.79 + 13.36 +189.50 - 8108.71 tan bearing =~
DE - 18.75 - 53.25 +149.61 - 2805.19
·
EA + 13.36 - 48.18 +48.18 +643.68 tan beanng =_1430
2A = 10346.01 Bearing = S 25'01' E
A =5173.005 m2
® DMD ofline 4-5:
I+LAT I-LAT
+57.81 -42.79 Course La! OeD ()\1()
+ 13.36 -18.75 1- 2 +60 +16 +16
+ 71.17 -61.54 2-3 -14 +70 +102
3-4 - 30 +14 +186
x = 71.17 - 61.54 4-5 -28 -54 +146
x=-9.63 5-1 +12 -46 +46
A = 5173.005 m2
Latof2-3:
A = 5173.005
4047 60 +12-30-28= 14
A =1.278 acres Depof4-5:
16 + 70 + 14 - 46 =54
DMD ofline 4 -5 =+146

® Area oflot:

Lines LAT DEP DMD Double


Area
1- 2 +60 +16 +16 +960
2-3 -14 +70 +102 -1428
3-4 -30 +14 +186 -5580
4-5 -28 -54 +146 -4088
5-1 +12 -46 +46 +552
2A =9584
A =4792 m2
4792
Area =4047
Area = 1.184 acres
5-129

.AREA OF CLOSED TRAVERSE

® Area of whole lot:


LINES LAT DMD DOUBLE
We.fOIlO\'ii.,~ • • cl<ita9f.~.relq~tionsurveyof
AREA
QOn•• Marian().E.sClJtIElr().i~Jo~·.rec()nstl\lot~; AB - 310.95 +469.84 -146096.75
Be - 640.21 +1052.55 -673853.04
CD +28.80 +65.8 +1895.04
IUne: I I ~ ~'. . Double DE +576.94 -1055.68 - 609064.02
.... .hea
AS .31().95+469J~4·. <.:.:.: I··· < •.....
EA +345.42 - 538.77 -186101.93
2A =1613220.70
BG-':':;' • • ·+112,87 1"+':·l!)7~1p.93
A = 806610.35 m2
··a)"·~·'··109M2 +es.a0+1895;04
DE +576.94 >\-_.: .
EN +345.42+538>77>

An englnee; sets upa lTaJiSil at apoint inside a


triangular lot and observes' the bearinfjS and
distances of the corners A, Band C ofthelbt
Solution: as follows:
CD Bearing of line CD:
. CORNERS BEARING
Double area = Lat xDMD
1895.04 = Lat (65.80)
Lat= +28.80

tan bearing =~ ill Compute the area of the triangUlar lot.


@) .Compute the perimeter of the lot.
. -1099.62 ® • If the bearing from C to thepolnl instdethe
tan beanng = +28.80
. . trian.gular lot is due north. compute lhe
bearing = N. 88'30' W beanng of CB. ...

Solution:
® DMD of line DE: CD Area of the triangular lot:

LINES DEP DMD A

AB +469.84 +469.84 B
Be +112.87 +1052.55
CD -1099.62 +65.8
DE - 21.86 -1055.68
EA +538.77 - 538.77

DMD ofline DE =• 1055.68

c
5-130

AREA OF CLOSED TRAVERSE

- 17(22) Sin 105'


A1- 2
A, =180.63
- 22(32) Sin 110'
A2- 2
A2=330.77
- 32(17) Sin 145'
Ar 2
A3 =156.01

A=A, +A 2 +A 3
A =667.41 m2

CV Perimeter of the lot:


CD¢omPOI~tI'\ebMtltl9()tlioeDE.
(AB)2 = (17)2 +(22)2 - 2(17)(22) Cos 105' @QQflJ@l~tt1El~@MOfllne EA·
@CarnpLJiEnft$ar~()fthel()t
AB = 31.09 m.
(BCf =(22)2 + (32)2 - 2(22)(32) Cos 110' Solution:
BC=44.60m. Line~BearinQ Distance LAT DEP
(AC)2 =(17)2 + (32)2 - 2(17)(32) Cos 145' AB S 35'30'W 44.37 - 36.12 -25.77
BC N5T15'W 137.84 +74.57 -115.93
AC=46.95 m. CD N 1'45' E 12.83 +1282 +0.39
DE .. --- --- - 51.27 +14131
~

Perimeter = 31.09 + 44.60 +46.95


E
Perimeter =122.64 m.

@ Bearing of CB:
22 44.60
Sin 8 =Sin 110'
c
8 =27'37'
B

Bearing of CB = N. 27'37' E.

D
5-131

MISSING DATA

CD Bearing of line DE:


Bearing and distance of line DA:
. 141.31
tan beanng = 51.27
Bearing (DA) = S 70'04' E.
141.31
Distance (DA) =Sin 70'04' =150.31 m.

Considering triangle DCA:


Using Cosine Law:
(64.86)2 = (106.72f + (150.31)2
·2(150.31)(106.72) Cos .,
., =21'52"
<D Compute the bearing of Hne BC.
Using Sine Law: ® Compute the distance of line DE..
Sin B Sin 21'52 ® Compute the area of the lot. .
106.72 - 64.86
B=37'48' Solution:
Sin 21'52' _ Sin a Line~
Bearina Distance LAT DEP
64.86 - 150.31 OE S 8'51' W 126.9 125.39 -19.52
Ct =120'20' EA N 18'51' W 90.2 +85.42 - 28.96
AB N 32'21E 110.8 +93.50 +59.45
?earing ofline DE = N, 72'08' E. BO - 53.53 -10.97
® Bearing of line EA: Note: OE is equal and parallel to CD, likewise
Bearing ofline EA =70'04' - 21'52' CO is equal and parallel to line DE.
Bearing of line EA =S. 48'12' E.

@ Area of the lot:


A

Line~ Bearina Distance LAT DI;:P


AB S 35'30'W 44.36 - 36.13 -25.77
BC N 57'15'W 137.84 +74.56 115.93
CD N 1'45' E 12.83 +12.82 +0.39
DE N 72'08' E 64.86 +19.90 +61.74
EA S. 48'12' E 106.72 - 71.15 +79.57 E

Bearing and distance of line (BO)


Lines DIv1D 2A . 10.97
tan beanng =53.53
AB - 25.77 + 931.07
BC -167.47 - 12486.56 Bearing of (BO) =S 11 '35' W
CD - 283.01 - 3628.19 ·
DIstance (BO) 10.97
= Sin 1-1' 35'
DE -220.88 ·4395.51
Distance (BO) =54.65 m.
EA ·79.57 + 5661.41
B
2A = 13917.78
A = 6958.89

Area of the lot = 6958.89


o~----:;;L.~C
5-132

MISSING DATA

Consider the triangle BOC


Angle BOC = 73'31' - 11'35'
Angle BOC = 61'56'
Sin '" Sin 61'56'
54.65 = 83.6
'" = 35'14'

CD Bearing ofline BC:

<D G®JpqtElth~fJil§singsi(jEl~P­
~QomPllt<ltherllis$l@sideQA .. ",., ,,'•• ',.,
~ • • C®@t~.tfIe.~r~a.of.tfIe • (()~itlMre$ .•,

B =180 - 61'56' - 35'14' Solution:


B =180 - 90'10' CD SideBC:
B=82'5O'
B
Bearing of line BC = S 71'15' E

~ DIstance of line DE:


OC _ 83.6
Sin 62'50' - Sin 61'56'
OC= 94.00 m.
OC=DE
Distance of line DE =94,00 m.

@ Area of the lot: BC 73.2


Sin 60' = Sin 45
Line~Bearinq Distance LAT DEP BC= 89.65m.
AB N32'2TE 110.8 +93.50 +59.45
BC S 71'15' E 83.60 ·26.87 +79.16 ® SideCA:
CD S8'51'W 126.90 125.39 -19.52 CA 73.2
DE S 73'31'W 94.00 -26.66 - 90.13 Sin 75' = Sin 45'
EA N 18'44'W 90.20 +85.42 - 28.96 CA = 99.99m.

Lines LAT Drv'ID 2A @ Area ofABC:


AB +93.50 +59.45 +5558.58 A = (73.2)(99.99) Sin 60'
BC - 26.87 +198.06 - 5321.87 2
CD -125.39 +257.70 -32313.00 A = 3169.34 m2
DE - 26.66 +148.05 - 3947.01 A = 3169.34
+28.96 4047
EA +85.42 +2473.76
A = 0.783 acres
2A = 33549.54
A = 16774.77
Note: 4047 m2 =1 acre
Area of the lot =16774.77 sq.m.
S-l32-A
MISSING DATA

Using Cosine Law:


(64.86)2 = (150;32)2 +(107.72)2
- 2(150.32)(1()7.72) Cos e
The technical description of a closed traverse
is as follows. e = 22' 09'
LINE DISTANCE(m) BEARING 107.72 = 64.86
1-2 64.86 ?
Sin B Sin 22' 09'
2-3 107.72 ?
B = 38' 47' .
3-4 44.37 S. 35' 30'W.
4-5 137.84 N. 57' 15' W. AzilTl.uth of line 1 to 3 = 360' - 70' 03'
12.83 N. l' 45' E. Azimuth of line 1 to 3 = 289' 57'
5- 1
Find the bearing of line 1- 2.
(j) Azimuth of line 1- 2 = 289'57' - 38'47'
® Find the bearing of line 2- 3. Azimuth of line 1- 2 = 251' 10'
@ Find the area of the closed traverse. Bearing of line 1- 2 =N. 71'10' E.

Solution: ® Bearing of line 2 - 3:


(j) Bearing of line 1 - 2: Azimuth of line 2 - 3 = 289' 57' - 22' 09'
Azimuth of line 2 - 3 = 312' 06'
Bearing of line 2 - 3 =S 47~ 54' E.

@ Area of closed traverse:

Line Bearina Dist LAT


1-2 N.71'10'E 64.86 +20.94
2-3 S.47'54'E 107.72 - 72.21
3-4 S.35·30'W 44.37 - 36.12
4-5 N.5T15'W 137.84 +74.57
5-1 N.1'45'E 12.83 +12.82
4
+108.33
-108.33
Lines Bearin!l Distance LAT DEP
3-4 S.35·30'W 44.37 -36.12 -25.77
4·5 N.57'15'W 137.84 +74.57 -115.93
5 -1 +12.82 Line DEP DMD Double
N."45'E 12.83 +0.39
1-5 -51.27 +141.31
Area
1-2 +61.39 +61.39 +1285.51
Bearing afline 1-3: 2-3 +79.92 +202.70 -14636.97
3-4 - 25.77 +256.85 - 9277.42
· 141.31 -115.93 +8586.74
ta n beanng=-- 4-5 +115.15
51.27 5-1 + 0.39 -0.39 -'5.00
Bearing of line 1-3 =S. 70' 03' E. +141.70 2A=-14047.14
- 141.70 A=-7023.57

Distance = 141.31 Area = 7023.57 m2


Sin 70' 03'
Distance =150.32 m.
S-l32-B
MISSING DATA

A closed traversed shows tabulated values of


latitudes and departures. Given the following descriptions of a four sided
lot.
LINES LATITUDE DEPARTURE
1- 2 + 84.60 --- LINE BEARING DISTANCE
2-3 + 95.32 c 56.11 AB N 30'30' E. 56.5m.
3-4 + 62.66 - 57.52 BC N75'30'W 46.5m.
4-5 ·48.16 - 31.40 CD S45'30'W 87.5 m.
5-6 -43.04 + 59.70 DA ... ---
6 -1 - -- +47.63
<D What is the length of line DA?
<D Compute the DMD ofline 3 - 4. @ What is the bearing of line DA?
@ Compute the length of line 6 to 1. @ Compute the area of the enclosed
@ Compute the bearing of line 6 to 1. traverse.
Solution:
<D DMD of line 3 - 4. Solution:
Latitude of (6 - 1) <D Length of line DA:
~(Iatitude) = 0 LINE LAT DEP
84.60 + 95.32 + 62.66 ·48.16 - 43.04 - Y= 0 AB +48.68 + 28.68
y= -151.38 BC + 11.64 - 45.09
Departure of (1 - 2) CD . -61.33 - 62.41
L(departure) = 0 DA + 1.01 + 78.82
x- 56.11- 57.52 - 31.40+59.70+47.63 =0
x = 37.70
Distance DA =..J(+ 1.01)2 + (78.82)2
LINES LATITUDE DEPARTURE DMD Distance DA = 78.83 m.
1- 2 +84.60 +37.70 37.70
2-3 +95.32 -56.11 19.29
3-4 +62.66 - 57.52 - 94.34 @ Bearing of line DA:
4-5 - 48.16 - 31.40 -183.26 78.82
5-6 - 43.04 +59.70 -154.96 tan 11 = "'1.ii1
6-1 -151.38 +47.63 - 47.63
11 = 78'02'
DMD of line 3 - 4 = • 94.34 Bearing ofDA =N 78'02' E.
@ Length of line 6 to 1.
(Dislance)2 =(latitude)2 + (departuref
(0 6 _1)2 = (- 151.38)2 + (47.63)2 1.
@ Area of the enclosed traverse:
0 6 _1 =158.70 m. w- - I
LINE tAT OEP OMO POA
@ Bearing of line 6 10 1. AB + 48.68 + 28.68 +28.68 +1396.14
43.63 BC + 11.64 - 45.09 + 12.27 + 142.82
tan e =151.38 ·151.38 CD - 61 .33 - 62.41 - 95.23 + 5840.46
8 = 11' 29' DA + 1.01 + 78.82 2A= 7299.81
:. Bearing is S 17" 29' E A=3,649.91 m2
s
5-133

MISSING DATA

Using Sine Law:


30.17 24.22
Sin 95'13' - Sin f3
f3 =53'05'

Bearing CA =69'11' - 53'05'


Bearing CA =N 16'06' W

Using Sine Law:

0) FindlhedisfahooDAinmeters,
@ • • FilldthedistandeCtlinr1lefers:
@FiodtM<ilreM6sQ,m,
Solution:
CD Distance DA in meters,'
,,=180- (15'36' +69'11')
,,=95'13' c
Using Cosine Law,' DA _ 30,17
(AC)2 = (2422)2 + (15.92)2 Sin 74'04' - Sin 22'45'
- 2(24.22)(15.92) Cos 95'13' DA= 75.02m.
AC =30.17
® Distance CD in meters:
30.17 CD
Sin 22'45' =Sin 83'11'
CD= 77.47

@ Area in sq.m:

LINES BEARING DISTANCES


AB S. 15'36' W. 24.22 m.
BC S. 69'11' E. 15.92 m.
CD N. 57'58' E. 77.47 m.
DA S. 80'43' W. 75.02 m.
A
Lines LAT DEP DMD 2A
AB - 23.33 -6.51 - 6.51 +151.88
BC - 5.66 +14.88 +1.86 - 10.53
CD +41.09 +65.67 +82.41 +3386.23
DA -12.10 -7404 +74.04 - 895.88
2A - 2631.7
A =1315.85 m2
c
S-134

MISSING DATA

0). Q()/1'\plJt~ffl¢loW~09!tll)tttiet~~;
@ .QptlJp~te:thei)~n1~thQflitj~.9A' • • • • "•• • '• ".
@~llte:tl'w!!lreai:lftl'w!klOOllcre$. .
Solution:
<D Total length of traverse:
Solution:
N

(AC)2 = (1200)2 + (1400)2


- 2(1200)(1400) Cos 59'
<D Distance AB: AC = 1292.08 m.
AB 129.86
Sin 58' = Sin 60' Total length of traverse
AB = 127,16 m, = 1200 + 1400 +1292.08
=3892.08 m.
® Distance CD:
x 129.86 ® Azimuth of line CA:
Sin 62' =Sin 60' Sin 8 _ Sin 59'
x = 132.40rn. 1200 -1292.08
CD= 132AOm. e = 52'45'
Bearing =N. 66'45' W.
@ Area of lot:
Azimuth of CA =113'15'
A= t? - b,2
2 (Cot e + Cot ~) @ Area of lot:
A = (380.48)2 - (250.62)2 A 1200 (1400) Sin 59'
2 (Cot 62' + Cot 58') 2
A = 34084.72 A = 720020.53 m3
A = 34084.12 A =720020.53
4047 4047
A= 8,42 acres A =177.91 acres
S-BS

MISSING DATA

(j) • • • COlTll?ute.~.~te~.(lf.~k)tirlacre$·
~q()mput~th~mi$Sing~l$~np~9:tM~1.g.
@GqnlPu!$JhemlssiQ99~f1jnpe(1f1jnl'l4<t ®ql>l'fJPlJlE!fh~affl~Qf:~MA9tj~SQQ~r~
Solution:
CD Area of the lot:
.®.. ¢Bi'le.IDe.djstahce.6flin~.~
• .• 3,•• • • • • • • ·•
@ . COll1putE!!tlE!~i$~o®mll~~3"4·

Solution:
CD Area of lot in square meters:

4
A 216.60(116.40) Sin 34'
rea = 2
216.60(174.40) Sin 24'
+ 2 4
Area = 14731.50 m2
A - 14731.50 - 142(260) Sin 36' 260(240) Sin 62'
rea - 4047 Area - 2 + 2
Area = 3.64 acres Area =38,398.48 sq.m. ".
® Distance 1 - 2:
(1 - 2)2 =(216.60)2 + (116.40)2 ® Distance 2 - 3:
·2(216.60)(116.40) Cos 34' (2 - 3)2 =(142)2 + (26W - 2(142)(260) Cos 36'
Distance 1- 2 =136.60 m, Une (2 - 3) =167.41 m.

® Distance 4 - 1: ® Distance 3 - 4.
(4-'1)2 =(174.40)2 +(216.60)2 (3 - 4)2 = (260)2 +(24W - 2(260)(240) Cos 62'
- 2(174.40)(216.60) Cos 24' Une (3 - 4) =258.09 m.
Distance 4 - 1 =91,17 m.
S-136

MISSING DATA

~~'eI!ijt~I~I~~tlS~b~!hiClbS0~
·1·.··.~I~:I·~~.a;I~~8.10t .• • •. . .
Solution:
Solution: CD Area of closed traversed:
CD Area of lot:

- (120)(220) Sin 34' 220 (180) Sin 24'


Area- 2 + 2 Area = 1400(1800) Sin 57'
Area =15434.73 2
15434.73 Area = 1056724.92 m2
Area=400- - 1056724.92
Area - 4047
Area =3.81 acres
Area =261.11 acres
® Distance AB:
(AB)2 =(120)2 + (220)2 - 2(120)(220) Cos 34' ® Total perimeter of lot:
AB = 137.94 m. .;. = (1400)2 + (1800)2.2(1400)(1800) Cos 57'
x = 1566.85 m.
@ Distance DA:
(DA)2 = (180}2 + (220f - 2(180)(220) Cos 24' Totalperimeter= 1400 + 1800 + 1566.85
DA =91.91 m. Total perimeter =4766.85 m.
5-137

MISSING DATA

® Bearing of 3-1: ® Side AD:


B
1800 1566.85
Sin e = Sin 57' c

e = 74' 28'
11 = 180·45' • 74'28' A
11 = 60'32'
Bearing of 3-1 is N 60'32' W

D
AD=BE
BE 100
Sin 77' =Sin 41'
BE = 148.52 m.
® Areaoflot:
_ (25Of· (150)2
A - 2 (cot 77' + cot 62')
A =26,226.84 sq.m.

.(!).. . yM}put~fM~l$$m~$l~~~p .• • • • • • • • • • •·•· . FfQlllfh~giYMJfl~h~'~~I~~~pt~~.Clf~@t.

•1••6~~ill1.i~~rl~~ldt6t~~·.··············· I..JNES> ·BSARIN~S<DISTANCE;S


.N4a'20·/E·.·.····. .·•·•·••·.·.S29,6QIrL..
. 592mOrtl/
Solution: S63.60m.
CD Side BC:

Q) GClmpllte thebeal"ihg (jfline DE..


® ComputetIJ$beanr19oflineBC.
® ComputelhearaaofthelOt
Solution:
Draw a line BO parallel to CD at B:
B

BC 100
Sin 62' =Sin 41'
BC = 134.58 m.
E
Closing Line
S-138

MISSING DATA

CD Bearing ofline DE: @ Area of/of:

Line Bearinas Distances LAT DEP LINES BEARING DISTANCES


EA N48'12'W 428.20 +285.41 - 319.21 AB N.48'20' E. 529.60
AB N48'20'E 529.60 +352.10 +395.60 BC N. 87'33' E. 592.00
BO S70'59' E 563.60 - 558.14 +78.24 a> S. 7'59' E. 563.60
- 79.37 -154.63 DE S.82'01'W. 753.40
EA N.48'12'W. 428.20
. (DE) 154.63
tan Beanng. = 79.37
Lines LAT DEP DMD 2A
Bearing (DE) =S 62'50' W AB +352.01 +395.60 +395.60 +139278.89
BC +25.31 +591.44 +1382.64 +34994.62
0 IS, tance (DE) = Sin-62'80'
154.63
+2052.36 - 1145524.73
CD - 558.1' +78.28
OE= 173.81 m. DE -104.64 - 746.12 +1384.52 -144876.17
AE +285.41 - 319.20 +319.20 +91102.87
2A =- 1025024.52
Consider triangle ODE: A= 512,512,26 m2

Using Cosine Law:


(592)2 = (193.81~ + (753.40~
- 2(173.81)(753.40) Cos '"
0=19'11'
Bearing (ED) =62'SO' +19'11'
cD Pl)rop@~tM~j:lian®6(; .•.•. .•.
® C()lttplJt¢tbedi~~A13.<
Bearing (ED) =N82'01' E @ CotnputelheareabYOMOmelhod.
Bearing ofDE =S 82'01' W
Solution:
® Bearing of/ine BC:
Sin a _ Sin 19'11'
173.81 - 592.00
a =5'32'
Bearing DO =82'01' +5'32'
Bearing DO =S87'33' W
OO=BC
Bearing BC = N 87'33' E
S-139

MISSING DATA

CD Distance BC:
Using Cosine Law:
(AC)2 = (75~ + (77.45~ - 2(75)(77.45) Cos 22'45'
In.!he•• surveY•• ofl3..()~$~d§t • willl·.flve.@dll$,
AC=30.16 m. ~M • f~lIE)wi~g • ~~til~r~.gliJe9.Wher~ • I(l•• all·•• m~
Sin" Sin 22'45' ~~ril1~.llf'ldAlstM~ciflillsjq~8"X'cllJ:l1th8"
T = 30.16 I~Q~~$()f~~~s;4f§~n95+.t~.mnittecl· • • • • •·
" =74'05'
74'05' - 57'58' = 16'Or
l..lNSS> . ElEARlNG<
1)2 ···S73'21'E<
Bearing (AC)= S 16'07' E •·· · • ·•• S4l))1Q\E·.·•. • • ·
Angle B4C = 16'07' + 15'36' · · • S2ef4ZW)·
Angle BAC =31'43' • ·•· • • ·N14'20~W)··
Angle BCA =69'11' -16'07'
Angle BCA =53'04'
ill ¢0mPute.tI'l~.qi$¥tn®pfll~.e.4." • 1,
® qolTIpQle.tI1~di~t~Il(;eQHllle4 • • ~.
Using Sine Law, @" ()ornplit~·tfu!·l.li~~~otline$.· • 1•.
Considering triangle ABC:
30.16 BC
Sin 95'13' =Sin 31'43'
BC= 15,92m.

@ Distance AB:
30.16 AB 4
Sin 95'13' = Sin 53'04'
AB= 24.21 m. Solution:
CD Distance of line 4 . 1:
® Area by DMD method:
Linel Bearina Distance LAT DEP
1-2 S 73'21' E 247.20 -70.83 +236.83
Line Bearinas Distances LAT DEP 2-3 S40'10' E 154.30 -117.91 +99.53
AB S 15'36'W 24.21 m -23.32 - 6.51 3-4 S26'42' W 611.90 -546.65 -274.94
BC S69'11' E 15.92 m ·5.66 +14.88
CD N57'58' E 75.45 m -41.07 +65.66
DA S80'43'W 75.00m -12.00 - 74.03 tan bearing = o/J
. 61.42
Line~ LAT DEP DMD Double tan beanng= 735.39
Alea Bearing (4 -1) =N4'47' W
AB -23.32 -6.51 -6.51 +151.81
Be - 5.66 +14.88 -1.86 -10.53 Distance (4 -1) = Si~~47'
CD +41.07 +65.66 +82:40 +3384.17 ·t 61.42
DIS ance =Sin 4'47'
DA -12.09 -74.03 +74.03 -895.02
2A =630.43 Distance =746.53 m.
A=1315.22 rTf
5-140

MISSING DATA

@ Distance of line 4• 5:
Consider triangle 1- 4 - 5:

r~~
[
100

,,= 14'20' ·4'47 --"


,,=9'33'
a. = 12'20' +4'47 AC==:;;;==::jD
0.= 17'07
f!, =180·9'33' • 17'07
f!, =153'20'

Using Sine Law:


736.54 _ (4 - 5)
Sin 153'20' - Sin 17'07 Solution:·
CD Distance of CD:
Distance (4 - 5) = 483.02 m. CD =--J (100)2 + (60)2
CD = 116.62 m.
@ Distance of line 5- 1:
. 736.54 _ J§.:1L @ Bearing of CD:
Sin 153'20' - Sin 9'33' 50'
tan 8 = 100
Distance (5 -1) = 272.88 m.
8=30'58'

Bearing CD = S. 30'58' E.

@ Floor area of the builidng:

Atrapei4jd~lll*tabc~~astrefbH(lwiM
.~niqElld~p~fln~ho~~.be'9V1· • • A6~tBrey
cqncrele.~4I1diry9j$tq~~¢pn~tru!!Ie4Prl • fhe
·.slladedporli()f1.a$ • • shO/,ni•• • \¥h~rei~ •••••• th~
.9(Jlller$tQne··f".@n•• be'p~~~(j.~y • ~JI$Unng
•. 45.nt.ftpl'l1Clllo~gCI) • t~en.3p·m . .·frol1l..C[).
[hebliildlng?lIMHKfallsaJonglhe
$UPdlVl$io?lIn~.m~l.mVtd~$.Wfflr~p~oldal • tPt
.• into.tWb.• equal.afl!as..•• ·GKis·par~llel.toC[}.and
is5fu.#omit. .... . ....
Lf----_~
A - 8 0 - - - - -..- - 0
5-141

MISSING DATA

LM=~mbi+nb12
m+n
LM= 1(80)2+1(20)2
1+1
LM=58.3Om.
x= 80- 58.30
x=21.70
x 60
y= 100
_ 100 (21.70)
y- 60
y=36.17

.
Triangle FGI is similar to MCD

Area ofshaded section:


A=(45.32 + 29.15) (26.96)
2
A =1003.86 sq.m.

Total floor area ofbuilding


=6(1003.86)
= 6023.16 sq.m.

25 _36.17
a -21.70
a=15m.
fi2 = (25f + (15)2
b = 29.15 m.

Triangle COP is similar to MED


5 36.17
e= 21.70
e=3m.
f 36.17
42 =42.18
f= 36.87 m.
b = 100·36.17
b =63.83 m. <J) • • qompule.the.• dl$lan~()tlihe • ~@ • •
FH =63.83 - 36.07 \IDqoIl1JluleWe<lreaofWE!lotin~qres'<
FH =26.96 m. ®pQmputethel~ngthoflhetliVkJim;rHM
26.96 ~ 36.17 W'hich • • js•• p<lr<l"el•• IQ • lir~ • • t\~ • • ~llCh.ttl<lt • • it
d - 21.70 cliVides.th~ • lot•• jnt°tvm~ls • havi,w.a.rali6
Of .t;2,.theblgger.lot.adjacent.lo.line.CD,
d = 16.17 m.
HK=45.32 m.
S-142

MISSING DATA

Solution: @ Length of dividing line:


G) Distance BC;

--V
x-
mp 12 +nbl
m+n

--V
x-
2{4(0)2 + (1)(200f
2+1
x=346.41 m.

DE=BC
BC 200
Sin 56' =Sin 60'
BC = 191.46 m,

@ Area:
Area =(PI + ~) h
2
h =191.46 Sin 64'
h =172.08 m. (j) ·Find.o~ijp®~ib@l¢fI9t1l.pt.~ .•••
@)' Andtlnepq~$lblEl)bearing.ofDS .•
A= (200 + 4ooX172.08) ~•.' 8@.,:)notnEl(P()~$ibl~.bllatlrtg • QfD,E.
2
A= 51625 sq.m. Solution:
CD .One possible length of EA:
A =51625
4047 Lines Bearing Distance LAT DEP
A= 12.76 acres AB S30'W 500 -433.01 '-250
Be S 5'04' E 720 - 717.19 +63.59
CD Due west 592 - 592.00
DA ~ .... - .. --- +1150.2 +778.41
5-143

MISSING DATA

First Possible
Position
.B

.,.::..__--,~-i',-...,c
,, "
,, ""
, ""
'\ "
\ " /
-fl.' ',t'
'b\, ! ;'
\ : ,If
, ' ,
\~/ Second Possible
,E Position
,,
I

. 778.41
tan beanng DA = 1150.2
tan bearing DA = N34'05' E
. 778.41
Distance DA = Sin 34'05'
Distance DA = 1389.03
Considering triangle AED:
Sin" Sin 14'05'
1389.03 = 800
" =25'
a = 180 - 14'05 - 25'
a= 140'55'
AE 800
Sin 140'55 =Sin 14'05 Comers 1 and 4 can be divided on ·tflElgr6und;
AE =2072.72 m. The engineer is to reset comers ~ alld3where
they were originally and determine the titie
® One possible bearing of DE: bearings of all the courses. Dalenf survey
2072.72 800 unknown. Upon runnhiS araJidom line, the
~ = Sin 14'05' random line missed the !iue comer by 1.5 m.
f!,= 39'05' The bearing from the end of the random line to
Bearing DE =34 '05' +39'05' comer 4 was S62'30' E.
Bearing. DE =N. 73'10' E.
Compute the bearing of line. 4 - 1.
(j)
® Second possible bearing of DE @ Compute the distance ofline 4 • 1.
= S. 5' E. @ What was the magnetic declination at the
time of the original survey?
5-144

MISSING DATA

Solution:

SUBDMSION OF AREAS

a) To cut off an area from a given point.

let us say, that the entire area of the


lot is 10,000 sq.m. It is reqUired to divide
the lot into two equal parts such that the
division line shall pass thru comer one of
the lot concern. Bearings and distances of
all courses are known.

CD Bearing ofline 4 - 1:

Lines BearinQ Distance lAT DEP


1- 2 N 16'30' E 105.30 +100.96 +29.91
2-3 N 15'15' E 33.50 +32.32 +8.80
3-4 NT10'W 15.20 +15.08 -1.90
4-1 ........... ....... - -148.36 - 36.82

36.82
tan bearing (4 - ~) = 148.36
Division line
Bearing (4 -1) =S 13'56' W
Since it is difficult to approximate the
@ Distance of line 4· 1: actual position of the subdivision line, it is
36.82 therefore advisable to solve for the bearing
Distance (4 -1) =Sin 13'56
and distance of line 3 to 1. Knowing the
Distance (4 -1) =152.91 m. bearing of the line 3-1 and 3-4, '" could be
computed. let us say A1 =2000 sq.m.
@ Magnetic declination: only, so we still have 3000 sq.m. more to
f12 =(1.5)2 +(152.91 'f be added in order to obtain the required
- 2(1.5)(152.91) Cos 103'34' area. A2 therefore would be equal to
h = 153.27 m. 5000 - 2000 =3000 sq.m. Knowing the
Sin 103'34' _ Sin '" distance "a" and the angle "', we could
153.27 - 1.5 compute the distance "b" from the relation.
'" =0'33'
abSin '"
Since the random line is supposed to be the A2 =-2-
true position of 1 - 4 based on true bearing, A, + A2 =5000 sq.m.
then the magnetic declination during the (the required area to be cut off!
survey is 0'33' E.
5-145

SDlomSION
)
/
b) To cut off an area by a line whose
direction is given.

This requires a longer computation in


the sense that it would be difficult to
assume the position of the subdivision
line. Let us sayan area of 12,000 sq.m. is
to be segregated from the whole area, the
direction of hte dividing line known (see
sketch below). The total area of the lot is ~ :: h1 - d cot '" - d cot a
40,000 sq.m. and the area to be segregated
is adjacent to the line 2-3. ~ :: h1 - d (cot", + cot a)

2 3
Given values:

A1, h1, '" and a


_(h1 +~)d
A1- 2
r

A1 =[h 1 +h1 - d (cot", + cot a)]

6 5 We could solve for the value of "d"


d=ABSin '"
Thru the comer that seems likely to be
the nearest line cUlling the required area, a d
4c=--
trial. line AD is drawn whose direction is Sin a
given. Distances AD and A2 could be
computed by using trigonometric d
AB=-.-
principles. Considering lines A2, 2-3, 3-4 Sin '"
and 4-A to be closed polygon, its area 2B=2A-AB
could be determined by using D.M.D.
method. Let us say the area of lines A 234 3C=3-4-4C
A is 20,000 sq.m., so there is an excess
area A1 :: 20,000 - 12,000 :: 8,000 sq.m.
Points Band C is now the tru\! position of
The values of '" and a could be the dividing line.
determined cause the bearings of lines A2,
3-4 and 4-A is known, length of line 4-A is
known.
5-146

SUBDIVISION

@ Bearing of dividing line:


c.

~lfh~.~ra~l~a~lj~Q~.~j $esr~~iea • •
541.71 714.68
(j).·..·.•m~~I~iA~e~t~~aio~th~h~@1¢~··· Sin e = Sin 60'
fu~~~~~q.> e =41'02'

®....••~tj• t~0 ~~~jS ~~j ~lM'dl:~IT· • li~~.·
• Gf•• • Bearing of diving line BD = S. 78'58' E
@ ·PomI'MElth~t~f\9tfjPfthEl~jViqifflJlil'l~W··············

Solution:
(1) Distance CD:
c ,4.let~b@lIge~b~3~ttfMsht$m~sri~rn~y,
Aa,'N;4S·~,169m,IQng,~q~mt9~M9Qm.

il$!;lilli.
APEisIObe2l~oMhelotal~rfta9flh~~r
Thet6titf!3r~of@l/(Jfi$.11,~~,&~nW.··· ... ..
$·~~¥ml~~lhe~i~~rGElffqmg@A.Y • •.•·•
@q9ImW~lt\~beactr~pO!O~AP'
~¢Ol'YlPllt&thedjs1anceOE. . . ..
.

A Solution:
CD Distance OA:
A= 81g x Sin.60'
190000 180 ~n 60' x
x= 541.71 m.

® Length of dividing line:


(BO)2 =(541.71)2 +(81of
- 2 (541.71)(810) Cos 60'
BO = 741.68 m.
c
S-147

SUBDIVISION

100 (DA) Sin e _2 (160)(190) Sin e b 2_b}


A = ~---_._--
2 -5 2 2 (cot e + cot (3)
DA= 121.60 _ (3aW· (200)2
A - 2 (cot 70' + cot 58)
® Bearing of/ine AD:
A == 25,282.16 sq.m.
160 (190) Sin e
A= 2 ® Length of dividing line:
A =11,643.88 mb 12 +0d.
e = SO' x= m+n
Bearing ofAD = S. 85' E.
.L~~CJQi
x= 1 +2
@ Distance DE:
(DE)2 = (10W +(121.6)2 - 2(100)(121.6) Cos SO' x= 254.95m.
DE= 95.68 m. ® Distance AE:
a'" 300 - 254.95
a=45.05
~~_ 45.05_
Sin 58' - Sin 52'
AE==48A8 m.

A lot is bounded by 3 straight sides A, 8, C.


AS is N. 45' E. 95 m.long and AC is due East,
88 m. long. From point D, 43 m. from A on
side AB, a dividing line runs to E whiclt is on
cD•• Fihdthe area of the lot in m2 . side CA. The area ADE is to be 1/7 of the
i])FincUhe length ofthedivldlng line (EF) total area of the lot.
that is parallel to line OA which will divide (j) Determine the distance DE.
thelotinto two equal areas, .. i]) Determine the bearing of side BC.
@i Oetermine the location of arieendof the @ Determine the distance AE.
dividingllne Efrom comer A along line AB.

Solution: Solution:
CD Area of/of: (j) Distance DE:
S-148

SUBDIVISION

Solution:
cD Area of AFE:
(AE)(43) Sin 45' = .!(95)(88) Sin 45'
272 A _-- -7-_...."
AE = 27.77 m.

Using Cosine law:


(DE)2 = (43)2+(27.77)2 - 2(43)(27.77) Cos45'
DE= 30,52m.

® Bearing of line BC:


(BC)2 = (95)2 + (88)2 - 2(95)(88) Cos 45'
Be = 70.33 m. G K
1

Using Sine Law: AC =~ 'J'2 (60)


~ = 70.33 AC=42.43m.
Sin () Sin 45' 1
Area of AGH= '2 (60)(60) = A1
e = 72'46'
a':: 90' - 72' 46'
. A1 =1800 m2
Area of AEF - 60(60) - 1200
a= 17'14' - 2
Bearing of BC =S, 17'14' E, A2 = 1200trf
® Width of the road:
@ Distance AE: &_(AC)2
AE= 27,77 m. A2 - (AB)2
1800 _ (42.43? .
1200 - (AB)2
AB=34.64
BC =42.43 • 34.64
BC= 7.79m.
BO=2(7.79)
BO = 15.58 m. (width of road)
A_-_----.;.....:.:.;.;,:..."
.The centerline of apfoposed rOadbaving' a.
bearing eIN. 45' E.· passesttm.lug'h the
diagonal of a square lot AHIO having sIdes of'
60 rnx 60 m. !flhe area oCcupied by the
propoSed road Is equal to 1200 sq.l'li· .
CD Compute the area of section AFE, where
Eft IS parallel 10 the dragonal of Ihe square
lot. . ..
® . Compute the widthaf the road. .
@ Qompute Ihe total. perimeter of the
proposed road inside the lot. k:..:1.~,,:,L--------II
S-149

SUBDIVISION

@ Total perimeter: x (960.22) Sin 40' = 210000


E,c= GH- 7.79(2) 2
x= 680.47
EF =60 -{2 -15.58
EF=69.27m. ® Length of dividing line:
(y)2 = (680.47? '+ (960.22)2
p= 69.27 + 11.02 + 11.02 + 69.27 - 2(680.47)(960.22) Cos 40'
+ 11.02 + 11.02 y= 619.67m.
p= 182.62m.
® Bearing of dividing line:
680.47 _ 619.67
Sin 8 - Sin 40'
8=44'54'
Bearing = S. 84'54' W.
Azimuth = 84'54'

' .
G?tl1ElIO(i$t6@divideasuchlhaftM
M¢~.ottH~$()uthem®~lohW:Rul~be
•. • •· • • •·41q,QPQ.lll{.•·•• GQl'tlPlJtflJf1~P9~~i<l~.9fth~·
i')tb~r~tl~()N~l'ldIJtldit\gliri~jfth~Jine
·iltaHs~ICgm¢rapft@lol·t1<~r&$$the
;ig:..::1'l~w
·•~• • ~:8¥tl.~medf1he • div~,og •
·q}J<Pomp~~.tbl'l.~i1numQfthedividing.iine·
ljrie? • • .• •
ill
'O\lM®rth
QOmpytettle•• ril@;ing•• dlstance•• @C•• is•• the
ar~.Qf.tl1¢IQtls·43560$gm.
Solution: @ CQIllPEJtMMtli$@'l~qfCD.
CD Location ofx from corner 1: ® @rnptJteihebeiilirigCO.
2
Solution:
CD Distance Be:
S-150

SUBDIVISION

200
tan =-
lil
300
lil = 33.69'
Ll = 45' . 33.69' .S4bdi\lide•• the.r()t•• ha'liri~ • • thEl9ivllrttecMiC<l1
Ll = 11.31' de~MPtjon>l/)t() . • MO·.~qW!I • • llrt1JM.·.'oY • ~•. ·lir~·
paralleltQthe sideA6' .... '.' ....''.' .
. =200
Sin 3369' x
x= 360.56 m.
_200(300}
A1- 2
A1 = 30,000
A2 = 43560 • 30000
A2 =13,560 m2
A2 = x (BC) Sin f3 .(1) CO/llPu~the.area9fthe~hQleWtirl~C~$?
2 ~ • C()l'llPtJtTtn~.leJ'l9!hpftbe ~lyi~#rig~h~ . • • • /.·.
13560 = 360.56 (Be) Sin 11.31' ®CoiJJPl.Jtelhem~jng$ideBCL«> .
2
BC = 383,53 m.
Solution:
@ Distance of CD: (j) Area of whole lot:
(CD)2 =(360.56)2 + (383.53)2
- 2(360.56}(383.53) Cos 11.31'
CD= 76.80m

@ Beating of CD:
383.53. _ 76.80
Sina -Sin 11.31'
u = 78'21'
Bearing BD =45' + 11'19'
Bearing BD =56'19' ~ -.
Bearing BD =S.56'19' W.
Bearing DB = N. 56'19' E.

A~ --",B
b-}.b 2
A= 1
2 (cot e + cot ~)
_ (200)2 - (100)2
A - 2 (cot 62' + cot 70')
A = 16747.06 m2
4047
c
A=4.14 acres
Bearing CD =N. 45'20' W.
5-151

SUBDIVISION

® Length of dividing line: Solution:


CD Location of the dividing line from comer 2 if
the dividing line starts from comer 1:

10·

_ (1000)2 Sin 70' Sin 80'

--V nb mb-}
x-
2
1 +
m+n
A- 2 Sin 30'
A= 925416.58 m2

--V 1(200f1 11(100f


x-
+
+
2
Al ='3 (925416.58)
x= 158.11 m. Al = 616944.39 m2
- 1000 (y) Sin 80'
@ SideBC: A1 - 2 \
BC 100
Sin 62' = Sin 48' 616944.39 = Sin 80'J1000) y
BC = 118.81 m.
y= 1252.92m.

® Length of the dividing line:


.;. = (1000)2 + (1252.92)2
·2 (1000)(1252.92) Cos 80'
x =1461.05 m.

@ Bearing of the dividing line from comer 1:


-L=_x_
Sin II Sin 80'

1252.92 1461.05
Sfn II = Sin 80'
II =57'37
\D qomputetH~16catj§n • • ()ttM•• ~iVidWIUn~
·fr()lTIcorner2.jfthe~ividingline~tarls.fr0f11 Bearing of dividing line: (ll + 30')
comer 1. > =N 87'37' E from corner 1
@ ColtlPute.th~.leryslh()fthedjyjdlpgljne ••••••••••••
@ CQl'l'lPtlt~.·We • b~rlng • Of•• the•• diViding•. nn¢
frorncotrlei't. .. .
5-152

SUBDIVISION

Using Sine Law:


4-1 150
Sin 64' = Sin 48'
4 -1 = 181.42 m.

® Area of the Jot:


2
A= b-/-b1
DISfllNOl;) 2 (cot e + cot 11)
· • •.·OOOrlk»··· _ (300f - (15Of
A - 2 (Cot 64' + Cot 68')
A = 37846.56 m2
A =37846.56
4047
A = 9,35 acres

@ Length of dividing line:

Solution:
CD Side 4 -1:

x-
_..y nb 2
1 + mt>i
m+n

x-
--V 3(300}2 + 2(150)2
3+2
x= 251 m.

Anequilater~tl:1'iangufarlrack Of land has a


length of one '(jfits sides equal to 3600 m.
Iori9' ·111$ requited to dIVide the lot into 3 equal
.sharesoy aline parallel to one of Ihe 3sides.

CD COmpulethe whole area of Ihe lot jfl-£lCf8S.


® Compute the iength {If lhedivlding line on
the portion near the vertex. .
@ Compute the length of the dividing line on
the se<:ond lot.
5-153

SUBDIVISION

Solution: Solution:
G) Area of whole Jof: G) Distance of dividing line from comer B:

N
B

3600

A :;: (3600)2 Sin 60'


2
A:;: 5611844.62
4047
A:;: 1386.67
c
G) Length of DE:
A :;: ~ (5611844.62) 000 (xl Sin SO' :;: 200000
2
A:;: 1870614.87 x:;: 530.18 m.
2
1840614.87 :;: x s~n 60'
® Length of dividing line:
x:;: 2078.46 m. (AD)2 :;: (900j2 +(580.18)2
·2(900)(580.18) Cos SO'
® Length of dividing line y:
AD :;: 672. 70 m.
A :;: ~ (5611844.62)
® Bearing of dividing line:
~ (5611844.62) :;: t s~n 60'
N
y:;: 2939.39 m.

¢-+----~D
An area of 200()OO rnZ ls to be $egregatedfr~m
the northern portion of triangUlar 101 ABC. fr~m
camerA bearing and distancieot AS is
N. 50' E., 900 m., Be is due South and CA Is
N.42'E. . 580.18 672.70
ill Compute Ihe distance of the dividing line Sin e :;: Sin SO'
from comer 8 along~ne BC. .. e:;: 41'21'
@ Compute the length of the dMdingljne~ SO' + 41'21':;: 91'21'
® Compute the bearing of the dividing line Bearing:;: S, 88'39' E.
from comer A.
S-154

SUBDIVISION

;.. <:>:::,:":":::::::::>::::::

UNks{ ··AZ1MUlH ..• . D,S1'ANCE


. . 1 · 2 ' 187'00'27.90 m.
2·~
••.•. .• .. 268'4T<34;12m, W __ ~j...----4

.... 3~4 .·>.358'33' 21.72m.


. 4; 1 aa~57' . 38:.21m.

G>ComPlltetl1~ .Ienglh: Oflhe dividing'line;


is
® HoW far the lntefSe<;ti6opolntof the·
. diViding line on the northempart of the lot
from 2? comer . .
800 =(27.90 +0.003 h) h + 27.90 h
® How far is the inlersectidnpoint of the
dividing line on the southern part of the lot 800 =55.80 h +0.003 rf
. from comer 1 of the boundary. rf + 18600'h - 266666.67 =0
h = -18600 + 18628.65
Solution: 2
CD Length of dividing line: h= 14.33 m.
A =bh + 27.90h b = 27.90 + 0.003 (14.33)
"1 2 2 b = 27.94 m. (length of diViding line)
400 = bh + 27.90 h
2 . 2 @ Distance of Afrom comer 2:
800 = bh + 27.90 h
Sin 81'47' = ~
A-2
tan 81'4T =!.!
y 14.33
y= 0.1444 h A- 2 = Sin 81'47'
A- 2 = 14.48 m.
tan 8'03' =~
h
x=0.1414h ® Distance of B from comer 1:
Cos 8'03' = _h_
b=27.90-x+y B-1
b = 27.90·0.1414 h + 0.1444 h 14.33
b := 27.90 + 0.003 h B-1 = Cos 8'03'
B-1 = 14.47 m.
5-155

SUBDIVISION

@ Ama on the eastem part:


- 32.61 (27.67) Sin 31'33'
A2 - 2
A parcel of land has a technical description as A2 = 236.07 m2
shown in the tabulated data. - 17.06 (27,72) Sin 90'14'
A,- 2
LINES .. Bf:ARING . . DISTANCE. A, = 236.45 m2
1-2 5.01'27£,·· 27.72m.
2-3 . S. BB+S7'W. 38.21m····· Total ama =A1 + A2
3·4 N.OrOO'E. 27.90m.. Total ama = 236.45 + 236,07
4-1 . N.88'4TE. 34;12m. Total ama =472.52 m2

The area of the lotis moreor lessHlOO sq.m; @ Distance of other end of dividing line from
If !he lot Is to be subdivided into two parts comer 2:
such thaUhedivldltig li/remuSlslM atthemld Using Sine Law:
point of line 4- 1 and must be parallel to line to a _ 32.61
1·2 oftheboundary. ... . Sin 31'33' - Sin 90'24'
a= 17,06m,
CD What is the diS1ance of the subdividing
line? . . ....
@ What is the area of the lot subdivided on
the eastern part? .
® What is the dIstance of the other end of the
dividing line from comer 2 of the lot? .
89'36'
Solution:
CD Distance of dividing line:
Using Cosine Law:
y2 =(17.06)2 + (27.72)2 • 2(17.06)(27.72)
Cos 90'14'
y= 32.61 m.

Using Sine Law:


17.06 32.61
Sin e - Sin 90'14'
e = 31'33'
(J. =89'36' • 31'33'

a =58'03'
fJ = 180' - 89'36'
fJ =90'24'
a = 180' - 90'24' - 58'03'
ct =31'33'

Using Sine Law:


3261 AB
Sin 90'24' =Sin 58'03'
AB =27.67 m.
5-156

SUBDIVISION
---------------------_.... ~,;;~ ,

.li.~ill~ii~8~~4,e~
Length of dividing line
Using Cosine Law:
(abj2 =(32.61}2 + (26.28)2
- 2(32.61 }(26.28) Cos 58'03'23"
W<¢rw@~~et~~I~gmpttl}¢~q~l~~IM@~J ab= 29,11 m.

[~~.II'J
® Bearing of dividing line from mid· point of
line 2 - 3:

Solution:
CD Length of dividing line:

89'36'
4

89'36'
4

32.61 _ 29.11
Sin a - Sin 58'03'23"
a= 71'55'
- 17.06 (27.72) Sin 90'14'
A1- 2 AZimuth of ba:: 268'57'
A1 :: 236.45 m2 ~
Az :: 600 - 236.45 AZimuth of ba:: 19T02'
A2 :: 363.55 m2
Bearing ab :: S 7'02' W
Using Cosine Law:
(4· a}2 :: (17.06)2 + (27.72)2 @ Bearing and distance from T - 1 to comer
• 2(17.06)(27.72) Cos 90'14' "b":
, 4 - a :: 32.61 m.
LINES BEARING DISTANCE
Using Sine Law: 1 NTOO'E 27,89
17.06 _ 32.61
Sin e - Sin 90'14' 2
e == 31'32'37" 2 N88'47' E 34.12
3
- 32.61 (x) Sin 58'03'23" 3 S 1'27' E 27.72
A2 - 2 4
4 S88'57'W 38.22
363.55 :: x (32.61) s~n 58'03'23"
1
x== 26.28 m.
S-157

SUBDIVISION

LINES NorthinCls Eastinas


1 21412.63 17424.86
.:t....2L2a :!:-.MQ
2 21440.32 19428.26
2 ±...Jill .±....M..1.1
3 21441.04 19462.37
3 =-.2Z.Z1. ±-.Q.lQ
4 21413.33 19463.07
4 .:.-QJQ ~
1 21412.63 19424.86

LINES BEARING DISTANCE


T -1 N66'27E 18.60

LINES
T -1
3

NorthinCls
21433.61
LIM
EastinQS
19445.32
~
itilA.Vi
SU~~IVii~6~I~ilnj~~(2)~U~l~~rts;
3 21441.04 19462.37 pmvtel~d!.flj~t• ~.$qpdiYjding.·!l9~·.rnu$t.Staff·<lt
th~cMWlj/'l~9n!@~M()1Mu®~rYljn~; .....
Coordinates ofb:

4 21413.33 19463.07
~ ~
b 21412.85 19436.79 Solution:
CD Distance of the subdividing line:

T -1 21433.65 19445.32
21412.85 ~
b - 20.76 - 8.53
. 8.53
tan beanng = 20.76
Bearing (T - 1to b) = S. 22'20' W.

Distance =Sin82;~20' =22.45 m.


Bearing and distance from T· 1 to dividing e = 88'4.7 + 1"27'
point on the southern portion is e =90'14'
S. 22'20' w.. 22.45 m. f3 =180' - 88'47' + T
f3 =98'13'
8-158

SUBDIVISION

Distance of subdividing line AB: BEARING DISTANCE


Cor. 3 S. 01'27' E. 13.86

Northinas Eastinas
Cor. 3 42935.27 34584.29
~ ~
A 42921.41 34584.64

Bearing and distance from 2 to A:


- 34.12 (13.86) Sin 90'14' Cor. 2 42934.55 34550.18
A1- 2
A 42921.41 ~
A, = 236.45 m2 . • 13.14 + 34.46
A2 = 500·236.45
A2 =263.55 m2 . 34.46
tan beanng= 13.14
Bearing =S. 69'08' E.
BEARING DISTANCE
BBM#1 S.37'33'W. 237.32 .t 34.46
DIS ance = Sin 69'08'
1 Distance =36.88 m.
1 N. 07'00' E. 27.89
2
2 N. 88'4r E. 34.12
3
3 S. 01'27' E. 27.72
4
4 S.88'57'W. 38.22
1

Northinas Eastinas
BBM#1 43095.02 34691.42
~ - 144.64 IJ =69'08' +7'
1 42906.87 34546.78 IJ =76'08'
1 :t....2L.§.8. LMQ - (x)(36.88) Sin 76'Q8'
Ar 2
2 42934.55 34550.18
2 .:t......D..ZZ .t...M..11 263.55 = x (36.88);in 76'08'
3 42935.27 34584.29
3 :JJ..J..Q .t.-QlQ x= 14.72 m.
4 42907.57 34584.99
4 =--.Q1Q - 38.21 Using Cosine Law:
1 42906.87 34546.78 (AB}2 = (14. 72f + (36.88)2
- 2(14.72)(36.88) Cos 76'08'
AB= 36.28 m.
5-159

SUBDIVISION

@ Bearing of subdividing line: Solution:


Using Sine Law: CD Distance ofsubdividrrg line:
36.28 _36.88 3 S1 '2TE
Sin 76'08' - Sin a N88'47' E -y..l'l
e -;;,
a =80'43' 2
--.._------- @ . ""
.'"
S07'OO~ 36.88------

or -;;,
<X
Bearing of subdividing line ~
B N 88'47' E
=80'43' +7' 4

=N.8T43'E
I

® Distance to be laid out from comer 2 of the


boundary to subdividing line: e = 88'47' + 1'27'
= 14.72m. e= 90'14'

BEARING DISTANCE
BBM#20 S. 37'33' W. 237.32

···l~~~~I.o~~.I#I~~i.~~~P\iM m.lqt • 1

2
2
N, 07'00' E.

N. 88'47' E.
27.89

34.12
···a~IN~·.··.·.· 3
'N:Q7'QQ\~,> 3 S. 01'27' E. 27.72
·······N:ea~4nlS'·· 4
4 S,88'57' W. 38.22
"'S,Q1T2ne:
1
.1.· . j.:

Northinos Eastinqs
BBM#20 43095,02 34691.42
~ ~
1 42906.87 34546.78
1 42906.87 34546.78
2 .:!:-.2ZM ±.-..MQ
2 42934.55 34550.18
3 :t......Q.ll :!:...M..11
3 42935.27 34584.29
4 :....11J!1 2:..-JUQ
4 42907.57 34584.99
1 =-...QlQ ::..-Ja21
42906.87 34546.78
5-160

SUBDIVISION

BEARING DISTANCE ® A1aa oflot to be subdivided on the northem


Cor. 3 S. 01'27' E. 13.86 part.
_(34.12)(13.86) Sin 90'14'
A1- ·2
A
A1 =2:36.45~
Northings EastinQs ~ =(36.88)(36.18) Sin 22'05'
Cor. 3 42935.27 34584.29 2
~=250.82m2
~ .~
A 42921.41 34584.64
Total area = 236.45 + 250.82
Total area = 487. 27 rrI
Bearing and distance from 2to A
@ Coordinates of the subdiViding point on the
Cor. 2 42934.55 34550.18 Eastern part:
A ~ 34584. 64 Coordinates ofA = 42921.41 N" 34584,64 E.
- 13.14 + 34.46

. 34.46
tan beanng =13.14
Bearing = S. 69'08' E.

~a.!·n~.: I·.:'~.ti.•·f~•..~ t.\.:.'.I.;.~.ilil


·t
DI§ 34.46
ance =Sin 69'08
Distance = 36.88 m.
•. .. .• . I.• ,.l.•·.:.·.&.·.•.•.••.
p•..!.i:
r.•.. o o . ·

.l}'iA,iI. . ::(>:::::::::::::::::
fJ =69'OS' + 7'

1~I!JtBII'I11
fJ = 76'08'

:@•• • P~rmiil~:~l'lEl • at~~ • ()f.t!J~ .• @ilpiry9••n~~t.w.


m~$i~l:!qP@lt!$~lijg.¢iWPff~YtM
@0(jinglil'l@<········································· .

LINES BEARINGS DISTANCES


AS Due north 20.00 m.
Be N61'E 114.30m.
Q) Due south 75.30 m.
DA Due west 98.00 m.
AB 36.88
Sin 76'08' =Sin 81'47'
AB= 36.18m.
S-161

SUBDmSIOI

Solution: (20 + 55.09) (98 • Yi _(55.09 + 75.3) Y


CD Length of this dividing line: 2 - 2
130.39y = 75.09 (98) • 75.09y
205.48y =7358.82
y= 35.81 m.
h=58·y
h= 58·35.81
h= 22.19

A, =A2 Area ofbuilding cut offnear the line AB


n=m = 10(22.19)
n=1
m=1 = 221.90m2
_.... /nbl + mb12
x- 'I m+n ® Area ofbUilding cut offnear CD:
A = 10 (33·22.19)
_
1(75.3)2 + 1(20)2
x- 1+ 1 A = 10B.10m2
\ X=55.09m.

@ Area ofbuilding cut offnear the line AB

98-]--1----,

·piVenbe,()wl$.fb~tecnni()aLde$¢@fi~nofa
m•
IBh·.~aVi~g • •~l'l· • • an~a • • ·6~Q·~?$9m< • J li$
f~q4ir~tQ~p~qiVipethl~1?tiht()lVm~qH~
1
20 are~s.siJcbthat·.th~Y·?"ill~~veElql!~lf'B~I~gEl
l. -4-0--+\-3.... ~1(l1l~lMUr~q,P'@lph~jQ~$~~~~{.<
!-I 3 ---f.........-4~
IJNES·· .. l:lEARINGi .
• • N7~·2~'g,·········
·$39'$1'1:'
I
I
·S4$T4e'W/
I
• • • ·N3~r52W
~;'j:l;]ll~ I}o
I ' I
N1&~50'W····

I I I
(j) Compute the distance of the ofher end(jf
~-hl
58-------001
I the dividing line from COtner B..
® Compute the distance of the <lMdll1g line.
® Compute the bearing of the dividing Hne.
- (20 + x)(98 - y)
A,-. 2
- (x + 75.3) Y
Ar 2
A1 =A2
5-162

SUBDMSION

Solution: ® Distance of dividing line:


<D Distance of the end of dividing line from B: Using Cosine Law:
(FG)2 = (25.36~ + (22.63)2
·2(25.36)(22.63) Cos 53'2T
FG= 21.72m.
@ Bearing of diViding line:
Using Sine Law:
JJJ"V·fN7J·V'X)
E

E
- 19.625 (9.21) Sin 00'43'
A1- 2
A1 =89.75 m2
A2 = ~.56 • 89.75
22.63 21.72
A2 = 230.53 m3 Sin a =Sin 53'2T
a= 56'49'
(BG)2 = (9.625}2 + (9.21}2
·2(19.625)(9.21) Cos 00'43' Azimuth of FG = 253'23' + 56'49'
BG =22.63 m. Azimuth of FG = 310'12'

Using Sine Law: Bearing of FG = S. 49'48' E.

19.625 22.63
Sin e =Sin 96'43'
8 =59'2T
/!, = 112'54'·59'27
/!, =53'2T
A - {FB) (22.63) Sin 53'2T
2- 2 <D Compute the area at thetdt. ", ',.
230.53 = (FB) (22.63J Sin 53'2T @ In, the same lot; a dividing line is drawn
from comer 5 to the midpOint of line 2 • 3.
FB= 25,36m. Rnd lheazitnuthof the divk:iing line.
@ Find the distance of the diViding line.
5-163

SUBDIVISION

Solution:· ® Azimuth of dividing line:


CD Area oflot: For/ot 1

Comer LAT DEP Northines Eastinas


2-3 19955.95 20081.7
-43.20 +23.23 - 43.20 +23.2
1 19912.75 20104.9
49.045
BLLM 1 20000.00 20000.00
Line Bearine Distance LAT DEP 1 19912.75 20104.95
1-1 S52'14 E 198.66 -121.67 +157.04 2 19955.95 20081.72
1-2 S4T49'W 30.48 -20.47 - 22.59 3 19961.33 20110.31
2-3 N28'16'W 111.37 +98.09 - 52.73 4 19934.64 20163.69
3-4 N79'21'E 29.09 +5.38 +28.59 1 19912.75 20104.95
4-5 S63'26' E 56.68 -26.69 +53.38
5-1 S6'44'W 56.70 - 56.31 -6.65 Comer LAT DMO DEP DOUBLE
AREA
Comers LAT DEP COORDINATES 1-2 +43.20 -23.23 - 23.23 -1003.54
BLLM 1 121.67 +157~ 20000.00 20000.00 2-3 +5.38 -17.87 -28.59 - 96.14
-121.67 +157.04 3-4 - 26.69 +64.10 +53.38 -1710.83
1 19878.33 20157.04 4-1 -21.89 +58.74 - 58.74 -1285.82
- 20.47 - 22.59 -20.47 - 22.59 2A =4096.33
2 19857.86 20134.45 A=2048.17m2
+98.09 - 52.73 +98.09 - 52.73
3 19955.95 20081.72 CORNERS BEARING DISTANCE
+5.38 +23.59 +5.38 +28.59 1-2 . N28'16'W 49.05 m.
4 19961.33 20110.31 2-3 N79'21' E 29.09 m.
-26.69 +53.38 - 26.69 +53.38 3-4 S63'26' E 59.68 m.
5 19934.64 20163.69 4-1 S69'34'W 62.69 m.
+56.31 -6.65 ·56.31 ·6.65
1 19878.33 20157.04
Line 4 - 1 (Dividing line)
. 58.74
LINE LAT DMD DEP DOUBLE tan beanng= 21.89
AREA
bearing = S69'34' W
1- 2 -20.47 - 22.59 - 22.59 +462.42 azimuth = 69'34'
2-3 +98.09 - 97.91 - 52.73 - 9603.99
3-4 +5.38 -122.05 +28.59 - 656.63 @ Distance of dividing line:
4-5 - 26.69 - 40.08 +53.38 +1069.74 D· t 58.74
5-1 - 56.31 +6.65 -6.65 - 374.46 IS ance = Sin
69'34'
-
2A -9102.92 Distance =62.69 m.
A =4551.46 m2
S-164

SUBDIVISION

Lines LAT DEP DMD DOUBLE


AREA
AB +57.81 +16.03 +16.03 +926.09
BC -9.63 +72.04 -104.10 -1002.48
m - 42.79 +13.36 -189.50 - 8108.71
DE -18.75 - 53.25 +149.61 ·2805.19
EA +13.36 -48.18 +48.18 +643.68
2A = 10346.01
A =5173.005 m2
A _ 5173.005
c.~. 6O:00fu.N1S'$'E . 2
A = 2586.50 sq.m.
JBC7 >··.·.···.. ·72~tl9@<·.····
••·.<.·Sa2~23r·E • • • · · ·
..... 44.$3m: ... ·······S1TW·e.··
. nJ; @ Distance of dividing line:
Considering triangle ABF:
·•• • S(tOOfu,>.·.··.··· • • • • • • N.V4tatrW·•• ·• •·

mfJn911'l~C1l~9f~chl<lh A - 60(25)
1- 2
. ~..•..Fln~tIl~ •. ~j~I~~pfm~d!@llnQ.ljn~,·······
@. ·Fi~~@!ltl~~ijg.tJfthEl.djyiding.line.· A, = 750 sq.m.
A2 =2586.50 - 750
A2 =1836.50 sq.m.
Solution: 60
G) Area ofeach lot: tan 0=-
25
0=67'23'
LINES BEARING DISTANCES AF= FB cos 0
AS N 15'30' E 60.00 25 .
BC S82'23' E 72.69 FB = cos 67'23'
m S 1T20'E 44.83 FB = 65.01 m.
DE S70'36'W 56.45 Considering triangle BFG:
EA N74'30'W 50.00 Bearing of FB: NTOT W
- 65.01 (BG) Sin 75'16'
A2 - 2
__.1l!?36.50)
BG - 65.01 Sin 75'16'
BG =58.42 m.
5-165

SUBDIVISION

Using Cosine Law: ill Compute the Iengthofthe centerline of the


(FG't =(65.01}2 + (58.42)2 road that traverses along the lot. .
- 2(65.01)(58.42) Cos 75'16' @ How far is the other end of the center Une
FG = 75,55 m. (distance of dividing line) "" :::~irJgtheproperty boundary from
® Bearing of dividing line: \Wlf the property is located at·Barangay Puflla.
Using Sine Law: Princesa;whete .cost of land is P2000:QO
Sin a. Sin 75'16' per square Meter. eSUmate thecostoHhe '
BG= FG property to be expropriated for the service
road, .
.S' - 58.42 Sin 75'16'
In a. - 75.55
Soltition:
a. =48'24' CD Length of the center line:
Bearing ofdividing line FG = N 41"17' E

A proposed 10 m.~ervice road crosses the


property. Of JFN Holdings whose technical
descriptions are as follows.

lll'ilESA21MUTH .··QISTANCI;
••••••••••. •· • • • •··zn:r •> Using Cosine Law:
>? = (9.55)2 + (14.02}2
- 2(9.55)(14.02) Cos 71'40'
x= 14.27 m.
The centerline of the' proposed service roM
cro~es at 9.55 m. from corner 4 along the line Using Sine Law:
3·4 and runs in adirection afN3'45' E. 14.02 14.27
Sin", =Sin 71'40'
1 0=68'5"
f3 = 180' - 71'40'·68'51'
f!,=39'29'
AB 14.27
Sin 50'31' = Sin 88'06'
AB::: 11.02m.

@ Distance of other end of center line of


proposed road from comer 1;
AB B-1
Sin 50'31' = Sin 41'23'
S7J'Ji'W
B-1 =11.02 Sin 41'23'
Sin 50'31'
B-1=9.44m.
S-166

SUBDIVISIOI

@ Cost ofproperly to be expropriated:


tan 88'00' =~
X2
X2 =0.17
5
X1 = tan 88'06'
X1 = 0.17
tan 20'14' =~
X4 = 1.84 m.
Xs = 1.84 m.
CD =AB- x2 + X4 Line! Bearinas Distance LAT DEP
CD = 11.02 - 0.17 + 1.84 1- 2 N61'57' E 74.18 +34.88 +65.47
CD=12.69 ........ --_ .. - ........
2-3 .......
EF = 11.02 -1.84 +0.17
3·4 S9'03'W 54.13 ·53.46 -8.51
EF=9.35
4-5 N68'21'W 55.43 +20.45 - 51.52
A =A 1 +A2 5-1 N13'56'W 58.85 +57.12 -14.17
A1 = (12.69 +211.02) 5 = 59.275 m2 +112.45 +65.47
::.lli2 :.l!2.Q
A = (11.02 ; 9.35) 5 = 50.925 +58.99 - 8.73
2
A = 59.275 + 50925
CD Length of (he boundary of the proposed
A = 110.20 m2 road on the sou/hem portion of the lot:
Total Cost =110.2 (2000) Fortine 2- 3:
Total Cost = P220400,OO
tangent bearing =~
. 8.73
tangent beanng =58.99
bearing = S 8'25' E
h,!•• Vi~W • •9t•• lh~~@ffi • ·%.tll~9PY~mm@lJp D' t dep
IS ance = Sin bearing
relleyepet~~riial~ht¢ulararyqp~e~W~I1·
·.ttiif1ipcRmi~~ti(1~pf:a.city,a.dead.endrqligl~· . 8.73
.to•• b¢•• eXf~nded • arid·.coQ~tfUeted • .\Vl.th.~rroM Distance = Sin 8'25'
r1ghtqfw~YClf:2qgL • whi9h.iOter~s • ~.eYe~.1 Distance = 59.64 m.
Pl'jvat~IY • ()Wf\~dprpP~rtlM ..•• Qoe.• of·.ltieSe··lot
ha$tMfQlIOWI09f1e.I~Mttl~k
.:-:.:-:-:-:'.-:'"-:.:.', .• '.-.-.-.:-:.'.:.»:.'.",'.','.'.' .....:.:.:.:-,.:-:",-- ....
.
Complete Field Notes
LINES·· SEARING .·····blStANCS···
/. N6flm.s lA
LINES BEARING DISTANCE
1- 2 N61'57' E 74.18 m.
2-3 SS'25' E 59.64 m.
3-4 S9'03'W 54.13 m.
4-5 N68'2fW 55.43 m.
5-1 N13'56'W 58.85 m.
S-167

SUBDIVISION

X 68.50
2 Sin 0'45' = Sin 104'07'
X=0.92m.
y 68.50
Sin 75'08' =Sin 104'Or
Y=68.27
h1 =0.92 Sin 75'53'
h1 =0.89m.
~ =10- 0.89
~=9.11 m.

tan 52'54' =!!.l


a
0.89
a=tan 52'54'
4
a=0.67m.
Line~Bearinqs Distance LAT DE? tan 52'54' = &
d
3-4 S9'03'W 54.13 -53.46 - 8.51 d 9.11
4-5 N68'21' W 55.43 +20.45 - 51.52 =tan 52'54'
5··1 . -... ........ .... - .. .. ......
d=6.89m.
- 33.01 - 60.03
tan 75'53' = 10
e
e= 2.51 m.
tan 70'2Z = 10
f
f= 3.57 m.

Distance ofline F - 5:
2

4
' 60.03
tangentb eanng =33.01
F - 5 =68.27· 0.67 +0.22
Bearing =N61'1 Z E F- 5 =67.82 m.
. . 60.03
Distance =Sin 61'12' Distance DE:
Distance = 68.50 m. DE =67.82 - 7.86·6.89
DE=53.07
5-168

SUBDIVISION

@ Lenght ofthe boundary ofhte proposal road


on the northern portion of the lot:
Distance AB:
arotlljjrsABlldBare~Q'lhef:jtare.$idjjl1tiali()t
Whl~6·~h~II• • ~• dl~ed~llaIlY.lh~area • • ao~
A~_--n~

.m~ lEl~liI\l'l.·~tl~,.Jt9~l~~.9butti99··~ • Nl1lipn<:ll
R()~ll;~~~QWl:l •• ·.·.AS.·Plilt·AAIl!~gQtd@:lIlCl!'·Il.·.
Wi9¢Ji.ing·ClfrP~6JdghlQt~~yqf6 •. meter§
·~M~9rl··.P9lb·.$i(l~\If~I~~ • i$.·.fElq~ir~~, • • ·l.J!liog·
DMP~(·(············· .

68.27

sCl------,g
5Z054'

"L.----jE
D
Proposed Road Right of ffily

AB =68.27 - 2.51 + 3.57


ill • • PQlllP#t~m~ • beadog • a@dl$tatlCept.lir~
AB= 69.33m.
~G'(})
@ .·G9mMtelffi.at~Mll.ff~rr9M.WldE!lli@}fdr •.
@ Area of the proposed road to be each Ofthebrothef.
expropriated from the property: @·.CQrtipijt~.~ • q~rillga@di~l8.rlge()f.~tl~
A - (69.33 + 68.2D (10)
·¢Qmri:i6$idJ~sqM6thlotS{· ... .....'.' . .
1- 2
A1 =688 sq.m. Solution:
- (68.27 +67.82) (0.89)
Ar 2
A2 =60.56 sq.m.
- (67.82 + 53.07) (9.11)
A3- 2
A3 =550.65 sq.m.

A=A1 +A2 +A 3
A=688 +60.56 + 550.65
A =1299.21 sq.m.
A
5·169

SUBDIVISION

CD Bearing and distance ofEC:


BF =31.91 - 28.52
LINES BEARING DISTANCE BF=3.39 m.
AB N 30E. 48m. . (FE'f =(28.52)2 +(21.63)2
BC ......... ---- - 2(28.52)(21.63) Cos 101'36'
Due South 12m. FE=39.11 m.
CD
DA Due West 36m. Sin a. Sin 101'36'
21.63 = 39.11
Lines LAT DEP D\1D Double a. = 32'48'
Area
AB +41.57 +24 +24 +997.68 Bearing ofFE =32'48' - 22'05'
BC - 29.57 +12 +60 -1174.20 . BearingofFE=S 10'43'W.
CD -12.00 0 +72 -864.00
DA 0 -36 +36 . 0
-
2A -1640.52
A = 820.26
ForlineBC:
. -~
tan beanng - Latitude
12
tan bearing =29.57 x = 6.93 Cos 60'
Bearing = S22'05' E. x= 3.47 m.
12 y= 6.11 Cos 79'17'
Distance =Sin 22'05' y= 1.14m.
Distance = 31.91 m. ME= 18 - 3.47
ME= 14.53 m.
Bearing and distance ofEC:
GH =14.53 + 1.14
Bearing = S 22'05' E.
GH= 15.67 m.
Distance =31,91 m,
HL =18 +14.53 -15.67
HL = 16.86m.
@ Areas for each brother after widening:
BG=48-6.93
18 BG=41.07m.
tan l!l = 12
FH =39.11 - 6.11
l!l =56'19' FH=33m.
820.26 CL=6m.
Area required =-2- =410.13 sq.m.
- 18 (12)
A1- 2
Aj =108 sq.m.
A2 =410.13 -108.00
A2 =302.13 sq.m.
.y
EC = (18)2 + (12)2
EC=21.63 m.
_(FC) (Ee) Sin 101'36'
Ar 2
(Fe) (21.63) Sin 101'36'
302.13 = 2
FC=28.52m.
, 5-170

SUBOIVISIOI

LOTA:

LINES BEARING DISTANCE


HG DueWesl 15.67
N30' E. 41.07
.frolll•• • t~e • giveht~c/1nisal •.• de$cription·.ltis
GB
3.39
·re91lIt¢<l • • l().• de~~tmin~ the•• • l09~ti91'101 • • tt)e
EF S 22'05' E. ~iviqil'lg!if1~that'/fUllnt~rseytJh~line$r§q
FH S 10'43'W. 33.00 And,pA·~Wha~yt~atJ~ • WiUe~%~.1htP~h •
p()irlt()d~~jifetMk)k~hichi~9~e~~tot
Lines LAT DEP DMO Double comerAandadistance'.Pf.703,80ro·i.··.·.Tnl$
Plea .•~jYidlng.H~·.~n' • .·dj\lidefhe·.Wl1()!¢•• '(it.·jnto.. tW.o••
-15.67 -15.67 0 ~QJ¥II~~~,/", '. .'. ."
HG 0
GB +35.56 +20.54 -10.80 -384.05 lINES> ..... 13l:ARING
EF - 3.14 +1.27 +11.01 - 34.57
FH - 32.42 -6.14' +6.14 -199.06
2A = 617.68
···········1.492A71'tl(.···
A =308.84m2
S9-Mtltl..
LOTB:

LINES BEARING DISTANCE


LH Due West 16.86
HF N 10'43' E. 33.00
FC S 22'05 E. 28.52
CL Due South 6.00

Line LAT DEP DMD Double


Plea
LH 0 -16.86 -16.86 0
HF 32.42 +6.14 -27.58 - 894.14
FC - 26.42 +10.72 -10.72 +283.22
D
a. -6.00 0 0 0
2A = 610.92 CD Compute the area of the whole lot.
A =305.46 m2 ® Compute the location of diViding line from'
C()rtlerA alOOg the line AD. . .... . '.
Areas for each brother after Widening: ® Compute the location of lhedividinglihe
from coiner Balong line Be.
Al = 308.84 m2
Solution:
A2 = 305.46 m2
ill Area of whole lot:
Lines LAT DEP DMD
Double
@ Bearing and distance of common sides of
both lots (line FE): Area
A-B +699.4~ +1068.26 +1068.26 +747237.19
Bearing =S 10'43' W. B-C - 1428.1 -433.45 +1703.07 -2432222.3f
Distance =33.00 m. CoD - 164.7t - 634.81 +634.81 ·104591.30
D-A +893.41 0 0 0
2A =1789596.50
A =894788.25
5-171

SUBDIVISION

@ Location of dividing line from comer A: Area offriangle ABG:


Using Sine Law: - 1276.90 Y
AG 1276.90 Ar 2
Sin 39'54' = Sin 106'53' - 1276.00 (468.9)
AG = 855.96 A2- 2
OG = 855.96 - 703.90 A2 = 299369.21
OG = 152.16
Area of triangle OFG:
1 - 152.16 x
Area ofABFE ="2 (894788.25) A3- 2
Area ofABFE = 447394.125 x = FG Sin 73'07'
FG 152.16
Area oftriangJe AOE: Sin", = Sin 13
IJ = 180 - ('" + 106'531
IJ =73'07· '"
FG _ 152.16
Sin", - Sin (73'07' - "')
FG = 152.16 Sin '"
Sin 73'07' COS" - Sin", Cos 73'07'
152.16 Sin", Sin 73'07'
x =Sin 73'07' COS" - Sin", Cos 73'07'
152.16 Sin 73'07'
x = Sin 73'07' Cot ~ - Cos 73'07'
145.60
x =0.96 cot ~. 0.29
A _152.16 (145.60)
3 - 2 (0.96 col", - 0.29)
11077.25
As = 0.96 cot '" - 0.29
A =A 1 + A2 -As
447394.125 =247667.22 tan" +299369.21
11077.25
0.96 col '" - 0.29
148024.92 =247676.22 tan '"
11077.25
0.96 cot", - 0.29
142103.92 cot '" - 42927.23
= 237760.53· 71823.49 tan" -11077.25
142103.92 cot" + 71823.49 Ian ,,= 269610.51
703.80 (h) 1.98 cot", + tan" - 3.75 = 0
A, = 2 tan2 '" - 3.75 Ian"+ 1.98 = 0
h tan" = 3.75 + ~ (3.75)2.4 (1. 982
tan ~ =703.80 2
703.80 (703.80) Ian '" t 3.75 + 2.48
A, = 2 an", = 2
A, =247667.22 tan '" '" = 32'25'
y= 855.96 Sin 33'13' h =703.80 tan 32'25'
y=468.90 h= 446.93 m.
5-172

SUBDIVISION

® Location of dividing line from B:

STRAIGHTENING ABOUNDARY

The figure below shows an irregular


boundary ABeD and is to be replaced by a
single line AE. The general procedure is to
solve for the choosing line AD and compute for
the values of AI and A2. When AI is greater
than A2 move the new property line towards
the bigger area at A1 but if A2 is greater than
A1, move the property line towards A2.
A

o
FG 152.16
Sin 32'25' ::: Sin 40'41
FG::: 125.09 m.
BG 855.96 p
Sin 33'13'::: Sin 39'54'
BG::: 731.00 D

BF =731 -125.09
BF= 605.91
Since A2 is greater than A1 move the new·
The dividing line is 446.93 m. from corner property line to A2.
A along the line AD and 605.91 m. from
corner B along the line Be. A

I
E 1
A:::Ar A1
~
Z A::: ab Sin 0
2
D
5-173

STRAlGHnllNG OF IRREGUlAR BOUNDARIES

When Al is greater than A2• move towards AI' @ . . Pjndlhe•• dislan(;~.~I1(~long·Web()\JM;irY


....fF)•• such•• tb<ltth~ • • $!r<'iljg~t • • line.t\I+.Vtin
A
A
• pmYjMtfle$am.e.~ipt~~propert~ •.?f·
><MLPetez anqMr. $i#I~za~~st~case
• • • • ••• V!ljelllh~.~9~ndary.~·%'rve·
®•·•• qomtM~ttjEl~~glhmfll1iJ.AH··.
@ COll'lPlItelhElMaringoflineAH.
Solution:
c G) Distance BH:
Al =a + c+e
A1 = 3040 + 2384 +68
D a Al =5492 sq.m.
A2 = b+d
A2 = 926 + 1592
A2 = 2518 sq.m.

A =A I -A2
A =5492 - 2518
A = 2974 sq.m.

Therefore, the dividing line should be


moved towards the property of Mr. Perez..
F
Mr. Parezano Suarez own pieces of land
Whlchareadjacentlo each other. The curve
·Iirie in the figure fE':!pi'esentsastreamforming a·
•boundary between the two· pieces of propertY.·
It is proposed to place this stream in a storm
dtaiilandto straigtiteri the boundary. Starling
at poihl A, iti'andonfline AS was run and the
area "a", "~"/'d" and '!e" were detelTllinedfrwn c E
offset measurements using SImpson's RUletd
be 3040, 926, 2384, 15B2 and 68 sq.m, " = 77'40' - 15'30'
resPl¥tively. .. . . . . . . ,,= 62'10'
AS =<375 m: and has a bearing of S. 77'4fY E. A _ 375 (x) Sin 62'10'
CO:::EF . . ... - 2
Bearing of CO '" N.15'30' W. _2(2974)
X - 375 Sin 62'10'
D F X= 17.93m.

® Length of line AH:

Sin 62'10' = 1~~3


H/= 15.86 m.
B/ = 17.93 Cos 62'10'
c S 77"40' E E B/= 8.37 m.
5-174

STRAIGHTENING OF IRREGUlAR BOUNDARIES

N Solution:
G) Distance EB:
Solve for the line EB:

LINES LAT
BC 100.27 Cos 13'10' = +97.86
B CD 91.26 Cos 0'11' = +91.26
DE 112.48 Cos 27'39' = +97.59
+28.71
.AI = 375 - 8.37
AI=366,63
15.86 LINES DEP
tan a = 366.63
BC 100,27 Sin 13'10' = - 22.84
0.=2'29' CD 91.26 Sin 0'11' = -0.25
366.63 DE 112,48 Sin 27'39' = +52.20
AH = Cos2'2fJ
AH = 366,97 m, 25.07

@ Bearing of line AH:


Bearing AH =77'40' +2'2fJ F
Bearing AH= S 80'09' E
BI= 8.37 m.

c
T~~ • foll()wm~I$.~ • • $ef9f.n()t~$l}fahl%®9~(
l>9Ql1dary.of.apl~·.9f.IaM ..·.··lt•• ls~e$~ • lQ••
str<ti9ht~n • • jhi$ • crBglMI•• • bp~nd~ry>II~~ • • ~Y • A
~~~~~Mlqsa.$tralght.llr)~l"\jnhil19ft@l~·.t9tfl~
. .lihe/:F. . .•.

n<f}
<D Find the distanceEB. .
® Find the distance along EF frompo!ntE to
the point where the new Une cuts EF, .. .
ti>,
B
B

@ Fin9 the bearing of the new boundary line


BX .
5-175

STRAIGHTENING OF IRREGUlAR BOUNDARIES

@ Bearing ofBX:
. 29.07
tan beanng (EB) = 286.71 Using Cosine Law:
Bearing (EB) =S 5'55' W (BX)2 = (6322)2 + (288.25)2
• 2(63.22)(288.25) Cos 102'
286.71 (BX? = 3996.77 + 83088.06 + 7577.56
Distance (EB) = Cos 5'55'
(BX)2 = 94662.39
Distance (EB) = 288.25 m.
BX=307.67

Using Sine Law:


® Distance along EF from point E to the point
where the new line cuts EF:

From Plane Trigonometry:


A - c?- Sin A Sin B
- 2 Sin C
- (100.2D 2 Sin 7'15' Sin 166'39'
A1 - 2 Sin 6'06'
B
A, = 1378.42 sq.m.

(112.48)2 Sin 21'44' Sin 152'10'


A2 2 Sin 6'06' 307.67 _63.22
Sin 102' -Sin Il
A2= 10291.43 s~.m.
. - 63.22 Sin 78'
SIn Il - 307.67
A=A 2 -A 1· Il = 11'36'
A= 1D291.43 - 1378.42
A = 8913.01 sq.m. Bearing ofBX = 11'36'·5'55' =5'41'
A = (EX) 288.25 Sin 102' Bearing of BX = N5'41' W
2

EX = 17826.02 esc 102'


288.25
EX= 63.22m.
5-176

ARUS OF IRREGUlAR BOUNDARIES

b) Simpson's One Third Rule: (Applicable


only to even inteNals or odd offsets)

hs
Methods of computlnq Areas of IrreqUli1r
Boundaries at Re ular Intervals
A d d B d d C
a} Trapezoidal Rule

d = common interval
h1 =first offset
hn = last offset

d d d d

A =A, +A2 +A3 + ~


d
. A = 2[(h 1 +h2) + (h2 +h3) + (h3 +h4) + (h4 +h,J]
d
A = 2(h, +2h 2 +2h3 +2h4 + hnl

h1 + hn ]
A = d [ 2 + h2 +h3 +h4 For the next two inteNal
d
A2 =3[h 3 +hs +4h 41
A=d [h hn +I,h]
1
;
hs = last offset
h1 = first offset
I,h=h2 +h3 +h 4 h2 and h4 = even offset
h3 = odd offset
I,h = sum of intermediate offsets.
d
A = 3 [(h , +hn) +2I,h odd +4 I,h even]
5-177

AREAS Of IRREGUW BOUNDARIES

@ Trapezoidal Rule:

A =d [h 1 ; hn + h2 + h3 + h4 + hs + h6]
A series of perpendicular offsets were taken
.ftom a lralls~ ijne 10 a curved bOUllldaryline. d=9m .
These offsets were taken 9 meters apart and h1 =2m.
were taken .In the folQ.Wlng order: 2m., 3;2 m.,
hn = 7 m.
4 m., 15 m.,S in.4.5m~, 6 m., 7m,Deleml.ine
the area included between theJransilline and
the curved uSIng: ... . . ..
A = 9 [(2 ; 7) + 3.2 + 4 + 3.5 + 5 + 4.5 + 6]
A =9(30.7)
A = 276.3 sq.m.

@ Difference between Simpson's One Third


Rule and Trapezoidal Rule:
=276.3 - 270.9
= 504m 2

Solution: Shown 1n the accompanying sketch are the


CD Simpson's One Third Rule: measured offsets from a traverse line AB 10 an
.d irregular boundary and the spacing .between
A1 ="3 [h 1 + hn + 2 LfJcxJd + 4 LfJevenl
the offsets. Determine the area boUnded by the
d=9m. traverse line, the irregular boundary and the
h1 =2m. end offsets using: .
hn =6 m.
LfJOdd = 4 + 5
LfJodd= 9 m.
"Lheven =3.2 + 3.5 + 4.5
LfJeven = 11.2 m.

A1 = ~ [2 + 6 + 2(9) + 4(11.2)]
A1 "3(70.8) CD Trapezoidal RUle.
A1 "212.40 sq.m. Simpson's One· Third RUle.
A2 = (6; 7)9 Compute the difference between
Trapezoidal Rule and Simpson's One·
A2 = 58.8 sq.m. Third Rule.

Total area':: 212.40 + 58.5


Area =270,90 sq.m.
S-178

AREAS OF IRREGUlAR BOUNDARIES

Solution: Solution:
<D Trapezoidal Rule: <D Trapezoidal Rule:

2 Lh]
A=d [h 2 + h +

d=20
h1 = 12.22
hn = 10.35
Lh =11.32 + 8.82 +6.52 + 16.38
d Lh=43.04
A = 2" (h 1 + hn + 2 LhinlJ
6
A= 2" [5.60 + 2.70 + 2 (6.40 + 7.90 + 6.20 A= 20 [C 2.22 ; 10.35) + 43.04]
+ 7.50 + 9.50 + 12.30 + 10.80)1 A = 1086.50 sq.m.
A = 388.50m2
@ Simpson's One Third Rule:
@ Simpson's One-Third Rule:
(Treat the last area as trapezoid)
d
A = 3" (h 1 +hn + 2 Lhodd +4 Lheven) d
A1 = 3" [(h1 + hn) +2 Lhodd +4 Lhevenl
6
A =3" [5.60 + 2.70 + 2(7.90 + 7.50 + 12.30) h1 = 12.22
+ 4(6.40 + 6.20 + 9.50 + 10.80)] hn = 16.38 .
A = 390.60m2 d=20
Lhood=8.82
® Difference between Trapezoidal Rule and Lheven =11.32 + 6.52 =17.84
Simpson's One-Third Rule:
Difference in area = 390.60· 388.50 20
Difference in area = 2.1 m2 A1 =3" [12.22 + 16.38 + 2(8.82) + 4(17.84)] .
A1 = 784 sq.m.
(16.38 + 10.35) (20)
Ar . 2
A2 = 267.30 sq.m.

A =A 1 +A 2
A =784 + 267.30
A = 1051.30 sq.m.

® Difference in area:
Difference in area = 1086.50 • 1051.30
Difference in area = 35.20 m2
5-179

PLANE TABLE

Five Methods of Orienting the Plane Table:

1. By the lise of magnetic compass.


2. By backsighting.
3. By solving the three-point problem
a) Trial Method (Lehman's Method)
b) Bessel's Method
4. By solving the two-point problem
5. By using the Baldwin Solar Chart

A. TRIAL METHOD (LEHMAN'S METHOD)

The 3 points A. Band C plotted on the


tracing paper with any convenient scale.
The tracing paper is then placed on top of
the plane table and the plane table is set
up over the station whose position is to be
determined and is oriented either by
compass or by estimation. Resection
lines from the three stations A, Band Care
drawn through the corresponding plotted B. BESSEL'S METHOD
points "a", "b" and "c". These lines will
not intersect at a common point unless the
trial orientation happens to be correct.
Usually, a small triangle called· the
"triangle or error" is formed by the three
lines. Let us say, the vertices of this
triangle is ab, bc and ac as shown and
point P is called .the point sought, the
position of which is to be determined as
follows:

a) Draw a circle passing through points


"a'\ "b" and "ab".
b) Draw a circle passing through points
"b", lie" and "bc".
c) Draw another circle passing through
points "a", "c" and "ac".
d) The three circles will intersect at point
"P", the point sought.
S-180

PlANE TABLE

Points a, band c are the plotted points The location of points A and B are plotted
of A, Band C on the ground. With the on the plane table sheet at "a" and "b" as
straight edge of the alidade placed along shown in the figure. These points must be
line "ab", tum the table until a backsight at plotted using convenient scale. The plane
A is taken as shown in the figure 1, with table is then set up over point C on the ground
point "a" towards point "A" on the ground. which points A and Sare visible. The board is
Clamp the table, then take a foresight to then oriented by either compass or by
point C and draw a line passing through estimation. Point "c" corresponding to C on
"b". Reset the straight edge of the alidade the ground is plotted by. estimation on the
at line "ab", tum the table and backsight at plane table sheet. Point D is also established
point "S' with "b" towards point "B" as on the ground with the distance C to D
shown on figure 2. Clamp the table and estimated. With the table at "c", foresights are
take a foresight towards point C and draw taken on A, Sand Dand lines are drawn on the
a line passing through point "a". The two sheet. The corresponding position of D is
lines drawn intersects at point "e". Set the plotted on the sheet as "d". The table is then
straight edge along the line "ec" and take a transformed to station D and is oriented
backsight at C. Clamped the table. Then tentatively by backsighting at C. Foresights
draw resection lines through "a" and "b", are taken on points A and B and lines are
these two lines will intersect each other at drawn intersecting the previous lines drawn
point "P", then point sought. before, say at points e' and f. The line joining
e' and f is parallel to the AB. With the straight
edge of the alidade placed along line ef, a
point Eat some distance from the table is set
on the line of sight. The alidade is then moved
to the line ab and the board is turned until the
same point E is sighted. The plane table is
now properly oriented. Sy section through a
and b, the correct position of the plane table is
plotted at P.

A 8
~\------7
'\ /'
\ /
\" ,/
S·lSl

PlANE TABLE

SOURCES OF ERRORS IN PLANE


TABLE WORK:

1. Setting over a point.


2. Drawing rays.
E 3. Instability of the table.

RADIA.TION WITH PlANE TABLE

1. Relatively few points need be located


because the map is drawn as the survey
proceeds.
2. Contours and irregular objects can be
presented accurately because the terrain is
in view as the outlines are plotted.
3. As numerical values of angles are not
observed, the consequent errors and
mistakes in reading and recording are
avoided.
o 4. As plotting is done in the field, omissions
,"' ..... in the field data are avoided.

-- ' -- A, 5. The useful principles of intersection and

\\ "#..<~~~><:~}~;~~:,!
resection are made convenient.
6. Checks on the location of plotted points
[ZJ....
,'
~

a-----'
iNTERSEcnON
e
a
wrrn PLANE TABLE
are obtained readily.
7. The amount of office work is relatively
small.

1.!?~j)'\~./
1. Plane table is very cumbersome and
several accessories must be carried.
.... ..- 2. Considerable time is required for the
topographer to gain J::roficiency.
E
3. The time required in the field is relatively
GRAPI-DCAl TRJAN(iIJl..ATlON large.
4. The usefulness of the method is limited to
relatively open country.
5-182

PlaNE TABlE

ADJUSTMENTS OF THE PLANE 4. (For alidade on Tube-in Sleeve Type).


TABLE ALiDADE: To make the axis of the Striding Level
parallel to the axis of the telescope
1. To make the axis of each Plate Level Sleeve, and parallel to the Line of
Parallel to the Plate: Sight.

Place the striding level on the


Center the bubble of the plate level telescope and center the bubble. Remove
when manipulating the board. On the the level, tum it end for end, and replace it
plane table sheet, mark a gUide line alone on the telestope tube. If the bubble if off
one edge of the straightedge. Tum the center, bring it back halfway by means of
alidade end for end, and again plane the the adjustment screw at one end of the
straight edge along the guide line. If the level tube. Again center the bubble and
bubble is off center, bring it back halfway repeat the test.
by means of the adjusting screws. Again
center the bubble by manipulation the
board and repeat the test. 5. (For alidade of Fixed tube Type). To
make the axis of the telescope level
parallel to the Line of Sight.
2. To make the Vertical Cross-hair lie in a
Plane Perpendicular to the Horizontal This adjustment is the same as the
Axis. two-peg adjustment of the dumpy level.

Sight the vertical cross-hair on a well 6. (For Alidade having a Fixed Vertical
defined point about 100 m. away and Vernier). .To make the vertical vernier
swing the telescope through a small angle read zero when the Line of Sight is
(vertical). If the point appears to depart horizontal.
from the vertical cross-hair loosen two
adjacent screws of the cross-hair ring, and With the board level, center the bubble
rotate the ring in the telescope tube until by of the telescope level. If the vertical
further trial the point sighted traverses the vernier does not read zero, loosen it and
entire length of the hair. move it until it will read zero.

3. (For alidade of Tube in Sleeve Type). 7. (For Alidade hav~ng a movable Vertical
Vernier with Control Level). To make
To make the line of sight coincide with
the axis of the Telescope Sleeve. the axis of the Vernier Control Level
parallel to the axis of the Telescope
Sight the intersection of the cross- when the Vernier reads zero.
hairs on some well define point. Rotate Center the bubble of the telescope
the telescope in the sleeve through 180'. If level, and move the vernier by means of its
the cross-hairs have apparently moved tangent screw until it reads zero, if it is off
away from the point bring each hair center move it to the center by means of
halfway back to its origin position by the capstan screws at the end of the
means of the capstan screws, holding the control level tube.
. cross-hair ring. The adjustment is made
by manipulating opposite screws, bringing
8. (For Alidade having Tangent
first one cross-hair and then the other to its
movement to Vertical Vernier Arm).
estimated correct position. Again sight on
This type of vernier needs no
the point and repeat the test.
adjustment.
S-I83

TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY

Contour interval - on a given map,


successive contour lines represents
elevations which differs by a fixed vertical
distance called contour interval.

Hachures . artificial shade lines drawn in the


Topographic Survey· is a survey made in direct of steepest slope for the purpose of
order to secure important data from which a representing a relief.
topographic map could be made.
Saddle - a dip at the junction of two ridges.
Scheme of work of a Topo raphic Survey: Thalwegs - are the lines where the two sides
of a valley meet.
1. Establishment of a horizontal control by
measuring angular and linear
measurements of a center point.
2. Establishment of the vertical control by CHARACTERISTICS OR PROPERTIES
determining the elevation of control points OF CONTOURS
by leveling or using plane table.
3. Determining the elevations and location of 1. All points on the same contour have the
some important features as many deem same elevation.
necessary for the preparation of the
topographic map.
4. Computations of elevations, distances and
angles as obtained from the previ0us field
work undertaken.
5. Preparation of the topographic map, which
is actually a representation of the terrestrial
relief.

Refief - configuration of earth's surface.

Methods of representing relief: 2. Every contour closes upon itself either


within or outside the limits of the map.
1. Relief models
2. Shading
3. Hachure lines
. 4. Form lines
5. Contour lines

Contour· an imaginary line of constant


elevation on the ground surface.
Contour fine - a line on the map joining points
of the same elevation.
5-184

TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY

3. On unifonn slopes, the contour lines are 6. As contour lines represents level lines,
spaced unifonnly. they are perpendicular to the line of
steepest slope. They are perpendicular to
ridge and valley lines where they cross
such lines.

4. A single contour can not lie between two


contour lines of higher or lower elevation. 7. On steep slopes contours are closely
spaced and on gentle slopes, contours are
spaced far apart.

5. Along plane surfaces (such as those of


railroad cuts and fills) the contour lines are 8. As contour lines represent contours of
straight and parallel to one another. different elevation on the ground, they not
merge or cross one another on the map,
except in cases where there is an
overhanging cliff or cave, or bridge
abultments.
TOPOGUPHIC SURln

9. A closed contour indicate either a summit FIVE MOST COMMON TYPES OF


or depression. A hachured, dosed contour GROUND FORMATION
line indicates a depression.

Hachure Lines 1. Depression

. 10. A contour never splits.

3. End of a Ridge

11. No two contours can run into one.

4. End of a Valley
S-186

TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY

1. Cross-sections and profiles from contour


maps.
2. Earthwork for grading areas.
3. Earthwork for roadway.
5. Saddle 4. Reservoir areas and volume.
5. Route location.
Four Systems of Ground Points
for locating Contours:
Three General Methods Employed in
1. Control point system: Undertaking a Topographic Survey:
The ground points form an irregular
system along ridge and valley lines and at 1. Transit and Level Method
other critical features of the terrain. The
ground points are located in plan by 2. Stadia Method
radiation or intersection with transit or 3. Plane Table Method
plane table and their elevations determined
by trigonometric leveling or sometimes by
direct leveling.

2. Cross Profile System:


The ground points are on relatively
short lines transverse to the main traverse.
The distances from traverse to ground
points are measured with the tape and the A level rectangular field of 1800 sq.m. has for
elevation of the ground points are its sides in the ratio of 2: 1. Three poles of
detenmined by direct leveling. equal heights are located at three consecutive'
corners. To measure the heights of the poles,
3. Trace Contour System: a CMI Engineer set a transit (H.I. =15 m.) at a
in this system, the contours are traced point within the lot and took the angles of
out on the ground. The various contour elevation of the top of the poles. The angles of
points occupied by the rod are located by elevation of the top of the three poles taken are
radiation using a transit or aplane table. 25', 25' and 30'.

4. Checker Board System: CD Compute the height of each pole.


This is used in areas whose @ Compute the distance of the transit from
topography is smooth. The tract is then the nearest comer. .
divided into squared or rectangles with @ Compute the distance of the transit from
stakes set at the comers. The elevation of the farthest comer.
the ground is determined at these comers
and at intermediate critical points where
changes in slope occurs, usually by direct
leveling.
S-187'

TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY

Solution:
G) Height of each pole: 0.2171 t 48.91 = 0.571 - 69.36y + 2210.98
0.3531· 69.26y+ 2162.07 = 0
r - - - - 3 0 - -..... 1 -196.5 t 6124.8 = 0
Y = 196.5 ~ (196.5j2· 4(6124.8)
2
196.5 ± 118.8
y= 2
y= 38.85 m.
~:: 0.2171 t 48.91

~ =0.217(38.85)2 t 48.91
~xI2-LxI2- h= 19.40 m.

~
Height of each pole =19.41 + 1.50
25"
Height of each pole = 20,90 m.
h cot 25'

~
. @ Distance of the transit from the nearest
30' comer:
Distance of transit from nearest comer
h cot 30'
= 19.40 cot 30'
= 33.60m.
3x2 = 1800
x2 =900
@ Distance of the transit from the farthest
x =30 comer:
Distance of transit from farthest comer
(1) (h cot 25')2 =1 + (15)2 = 19.40 cot 25'
4.6h2 = 1 + 225 = 41.60 m,

2) (h cot 30') = (60· y)2 t (15)2


1.73~ = 3600· 120y t I t 225

CD ~ = 0.2171 + 48.91
(2) h2 = 0.57; - 69.36y + 2210.98
5-188

ROUTE SURVEYING

3. Location;survey

a. Five survey teams go out in the field.


1. Transit party - stakes the location
Route Surveys - are surveys made for the of circular curves with proper
p~rpose of locating any buildings, stationing.
highways. canals, power transmission
lines, pipe lines, and other utilities which 2. Level party - checks the selected
are constructed for purposes of bench mark and executes the
transportation or communications. profile work.
3. Cross-section party - slope stakes
are set on the ground.
4. Land line party - property lines and
other important details are
indicated on the plan.
5. Special team - takes care of the
1. Reconnaissance: special surveys for structure.

a. General routes are selected and


horizontal and vertical controls are b. All surv~y works are consolidated
established. with the following prepared:
1. Location map
b. Reconnaisance report is made
accompanying a reconnaissance map. 2. Location profile
3. Cross-sections

2. Preliminary survey: 4. Earthwork estimates


5. Right of way maps
a. There are survey parties that execute
this phase of work. 6. Structure maps and plans

1. Transit parly - runs the traverse.


2. Level party - sets bench marks 4. Construction survey:
and determines the profile.
3. Topographic party - runs the cross- a. Slope stakes for construction works
sectioning work. are staked, spiral are laid and lines
and grades for tract or pavement are
b. A preliminary map is prepared for defined.
determination of possible cost of the
project. b. Final plans' are prepared, profile
sections, as revised during
construction.
5-189

STADIA SURVEYING

By ratio and proportion:


f d
a) Horizontal Sights: f= SCos 0
f
d=~SCOS0
I
H =(f + c +d) COS"
f
H =~S Cos2" + (f+ c}Cos"
I

V= (d +f+ c) Sin"

V= [f S COS" + (H c)l Sin"


f Sin 2 I2J •
V =i S -2-'- + (f + c) Sm I2J
F = principal focus
f = focal length
o = optical center
i = distance between stadia hairs
c = distance from optical center to center of
instrument
1. Stadia interval factor not that assumed.
By ratio and proportion: 2. Rod not of standard length
3. Incorrect stadia interval
! =s! 4. Rod not held plumb
i s 5. Unequal refraction
d =~S
I
D=d+f+c
f
D =i S + (f + c)

f= stadia interval factor 1. The telescope be of excellent quality, with


good illumination.
f + c = stadia constant 2. The magnifying power should be about 25
S = stadia interval or intercept to 30.
3. The stadia hairs should be fixed and
b) Inclined Sights: f
should be set accurately so that ~ = 100.
I
tan m = 0.006
4. The transit should have a good compass
m = 17' (too small and is negligible)
needle.
5. The transit should have a complete
vertical circle.
5-190

STADIA SURVEYING

D, =K8, +R
fJ< =KS2 +R
fJ< . D1 =(KS2 + R) • (K81+ R)
K(~,S1}=fJ<-D1
n.. - D.
K=~
82 .81
200 - 60
K=
2.001 - 0.600
K = 99.93 (stadia inteNal factor)

® Horizontal distances DE and DF:


Assume elevation of D = 100 m.
f
H=:SCOS 2 0 +(f+c}cos 0
I
H= 99.93(2.12) cos 2 4'22' + (0.30) cos 4'22'
H=210.92m.
Horizontal distance DE = 210.92 m,

f
H=: S cos 2 0 + (f + c) cos 0
I
H=99.93 (3.56) cos2 3'1T + (0.30) cos 3-,17'
H= 354.88 m.
Horizontal distance DF = 354,88 m,

@ Differences in elevation between points D


and E and points D and F:
V=/f S-2-+
sin 20 .
(f+ c) Sin 0

V=99.93(2.12} sin ~'44' +(0.3) sin 4'22'


Solution: V=16.11m.
CD Stadia inteNal factor: Elev. of E = 100 + HI + 16.11 - HI
Elev. of E = 116.11
Difference in elevation between D and E
--- ----- = 16.11 m.

f sin 20 .
I-=D:...;1:..-=..:...60=--_D=200_ _- - I V= /S-2-+(f+c}SIn 0

V= S9.93(3.56}Sin ~'34' +(0.30) sin 3'17'


fS
D =--:- + (f+ c)
I V= 20.36 m.
K= f=stadia inteNal factor Elevation of F = 100 +HI- 20.36 - HI .
Elevation of F = 79.64 m.
= =
R (f + c) stadia constant Difference in elevation between Dand F
(f+ c) = 0.30 =20.36m.
S-191

STADIA SURVEYING

@ Horizontal distance between Band D:


H=tSCos2 0 + (f+ c) Cos 0
I
(j) A transit with a stadia constant equal to H =98.69(2.42) CoS2 6.5' + 0.30 Cos 6.5'
0.30 is used to determine the horizontal
H= 236.07m.
distance be1ween points Band C, with a
stadia intercept reading of 1.85 m. the
distance BC Is equal to 182.87 m.
Compute the stadia interval faclor of the
instrument .

@ Using the same instrument, it was use~ to


determine the difference in elevation A Civil Engineer proceedeq to do the stadia
between Band 0 having a stadia intercept survey work to determine thEdopagraphy o~ a
reading of 2.42 m. at 0 at a vertical angle certain area. The transit was set up at a poInt
of + 6'30'. Compute the difference in A, with the line of sighthorizontal, took rod
elevation of Band D. readings from the ((}ds placed at B a~d C
whiCh is 2QO m. and 60 m,from Arespectively.
@ Compute also the horizontal distance
between 8 and O. Stadia Intercept
Rod at B 2.001 m.
Solution: RCldatC O.ro<lm.
(i) Stadia interval factor:
(j) Compute the stadia interval factor. .
fI
D = S + (f+ c)
. @ Using the same instrument this was .used
f for determining the elevation of pomt D
182.87 =j(1.85) +0.30 With a stadia intercept of 2.12 m. and a
vertical angle of +4'22'. If the elevation of
t/ = 98.69 the point where the instrument was set ~p
is 10Q m., compute the elevation of pOInt
0, Stadia constant is 0,30 m.
® Ditt. in elevation between Band D: Compute the horizonlaldistance from the
point where the instrument was set up to
paintD.

Solution:
CD Stadia interval factor:
s
D =t + (f + c)
/

tI
200 = (2.001) + (f + c)
f
60 =~ (0.600) + f + C
f Sin 20 . I
V= i S-2- + (f+ c) Sin 0

Sin 13' +.
030 S·In.
65'
140 =(1.401) f
V= 98.69(2.42) -2-
V= 26.90m.
!/ =99.93 (stadia interval factor)
5-192

STADIA SURVEYING

@ Elev.ofD: Solution:

f
f Sin2fil . :=99.5
I
V=iS-.-2-+(f+'C)Slnfil
f + c = 0 (interior focusing)
V= 99.93(2.12) Sin ~'44' + (0.30) Sin 4'22' .
V=16.11 CD Inclined stadia distance:
Elev. D= 100 + H/+ 16.11- HI
Elev. D = 116.11 f
D=:SCOSfil+(f+c)
I
@ Horizontal distance:
f
D=99.5(2.50) cos 23'34' + 0
H=: Scos2 fil + (f + e) cos fil
I D= 228m,
H =99.93(2.12) cos2 4'21 + (0.30) cos 4'22'
H=210.92m.
® Difference in elevation between the two
stations:
f Sin 2fil .
V=jS-2-+ (f+ e) Sin fil

··@ij••~PM@MI9WM~I~~@trffi~gi6g~.9@ V=99.5(2.50) ~ sin (2 x 23'34') + 0

~;~IIII~~II~~~'i~~'\rtJI~
... at~~h~lt.Wi'h • •~lJ • lqt~t@lfP¢ijSlj@.t~I$¢Qp~.
. V= 91.16 m.
DEAB =2.25 + 91.16 - 1.45
@g~#Ylllg~~mg~@~W~lf@19fgf~~($, • 'M
~r~~~o1t6')t~~$~~I6~.r~~~~:~~.~g.*~:0~
th~y~ijl¢~IM91~9g11~ty~#i$h?~'~M,
•. . DEAB = 91.96 m.

.i1¢tettnj~¢tMJ(!II6Wl~~C·· @ Elevation of station B:


Elev. at B = 155.54 - 91.96
0Yf@l%ed$lMiaglslariCe,>
®••.·.Oifferenceil'l•• elevatioil·belWeen.··the·two Elev. at B = 63.58 m..
~~9l)l)fl.)

··1··••••~~~~l~.1$1~~.~~~~eril1~~~~~.·
5-193

STADIA SURVOING

@ Difference in elevation between points A


andB:
V=fS~sin 20 + (f+c) sin 0

VA = 100.8 (0.31) ~ sin (2 x 15'35')


+ 0.381 sin 15'35'
VA =8.19 m.
i
Va = 100.8 (0.236) sin (2 x8'08') + 0.381 Sin 8l O8'
Va =3.39 m.
Diff. in elev. between A and B
= 1.854 + 3.39 + 8.19 -1.175
= 12.259m.
@ Horizontal distance frem the transit to the

: =::~~;Km beM."poinl' A
rod held at B:
Ha = 100.8 (0.236) cos 2 8'08'
+ 0.381 cos 8'08'
@ Find the' horizontaHdtstance from the Ha= 23.69m.
lraHsit to !herod held at S, .'.."

Solution:
1330

1m 1 o~ ~.~.~: A survey party proceeded to dothelrsmdill


y. " ' • •~ .sLirvey work as fdlows. The Iransit was s~t

~'~~~:r'w~:~',)
up at A and wtlh the line of sighftlotiibntal.
took rod readings at poinls13 and C whiCh is
;300 m. and 80rruespectively, . ...> . . . . . •
... 1 7361 8~4
a
. Wtlh· rod' at ·the·stadlaloterveJw.a$
B -I recorded 10 be 3.001 m. and withth~rod afC
the stadia interval wastecOrded 10 be. o.aOorll.
SA = 1.330 -1.020 the distance from the inslrumen'ttothe
SA = 0.31 principal ·foco.s was recorded to be 0;30 m,
Sa = 1.972 -1.736 Then they went to survey other points With
Sa = 0.236 some of the data recorded as follows witnthe
transit at point Of the two paints E aridf were
CD Length of line AB: sighted. ." ..
f
H = ~ S cos 2 13 + (f + e) cos '" Rod al E Stadia interval :::: 225 m.
I
HA = 100.8 (1.330· 1.020) cos 2 15'35' Vertical angle = +4'30'
+ 0.381 cos 15'35' Rod at F Stadia interval = 3,56 m.
HA = 29.36 m. Vertical angle = - 3'30' .
Ha = 100.8 (0.236) cos 2 8'08'
®•
+ 0.381 cos 8'08' ~ . Compute the stadia jnlerval~ctot. •.
Ha = 23.69 m. Compute the horizontal distance DE. .. .
HAa = 29.36 + 23.69 @ Compute the difference in' elevatiOn
HAa = 53.05 between E and F assuming elevation of
0= 350.42 m. above sea level.
5-194

STADIA SURVEYING

Solution: f Sin 20 .
V =, S -2- + (f + c) Sin I2l
CD Stadia inteNal factor.
f
S = ~ S + (f+ c) V =99.95(2.25) Si; 9' +0.30 Sin 4'30'
I

fI
300 = (3.001) + (f + c) V= 17.61 m.

80 =,f (0.80)+ (f+ c) Elev. E = 350.42 + HI + 17.61 - HI


f
220 = (2.201) Elev. E = 368.03 m.

fI = 99.95 (stadia inteNal


.
factor)
.-7J30-· ------1
~~~llmnm--"""'~'_"" ~
® Horizontal Distance DE:

H.I.
J

f Sin 20 .
V =, S --2- + (f + c) Sin"

V = 99.95(3.56) Si;E +(0.30) Sin 3'30'

f . V=21.70m.
{-., =~ S Cos2 0 + (f + c) Cos 0
I Elev. F = 350.42 + HI- V- HI
H= 99.95(2.25) Cos2 4'30' + (0.30) Cos 4'30' Elev. F = 350.42 - 21.70
H= 223.80m,
Elev. F = 328.72 m.

@ Diff. in elevation between E and F:


Ditt. in elev. between E and F
;: 368.03 - 328.72
=39.31 m.
S-195

HYDROGRAPHIC SURIEfI.NG

2. By means of range line and an angle from


the shore.

Purpose of Hydrographic Surveying:

1. To determine shore lines of harbors, lakes


and rivers from which to draw an outline
map of the body of water. 3. By means of range line and an angle from
the boat.
2. To determine by means of soundings, the
submerged relief of ocean bottoms.

3. To observe tidal conditions for the


establishedof standard datum.

4. To obtain data, in case of rivers, related to


the studies of flood control, power
development, water supply and storage.. 4. Two angles from the shore.
5. To locate channel depths and obstruction
to navigators.

6. TO determine quantities of underwater


excavations.

7. To measure areas subject to scour or


silting.
5, Two angles taken simultaneously at the
8. To indicate preferred locations of certain boat by using a sextant, and three stations
engineering works by stream discharge on the shore,
measurement.

Methods of locating soundings:

1. By means of a boat towed at uniform


speed along a known range line at equal
intervals of time. 6. By transit and stadia.

\Rallge Lille

::',' ,;'\-t-\-l----~
\ Baal

'~l ...-"'--'''''.-'-.
6
\>'----o-J---.----
I I I 1
. \ .stadia all boat
: :
~----~----~---- - ~-- -~----~
II .
'- ~
- .•~=:r---', .--0
t I I ~. I
I
I
I
I
I
I
~----~----~----~ ~
,"
I
I
II
----~----~
. ---- .--- ,&"
I~ I ~
5-196

HYBROGRAPHICSURIEYING

7. By intersection of fixed ranges. Methods of Plotting Soundings:

1. By using the Two Polar Contractor


2. By using Two Tangent Protractors
I
3. By the Tracin,!1 Cloth Method
4. By using the Three Arm Protractor
5. By the use ofPlolting Charts
8. By a wire stretched along a river at known
distances.
Methods of Measuring Velocity
in a Vertical Line:

1. Vertical-velocity-culVe method:
Measurements of horizontal velocity
are made at 0.5 beneath the surface and at
each tenth of the depth from the surface to
as near the bed of stream as the meter will
operate. If the stream is relatively shallow,
measurements are taken at each one fifth
of the depth. These measured velocities
are plotted as abscissas and the
Hydrographic maps - is similar to the respective'depths as ordinates. A smooth
ordinary topographic map but it has its own curve drawn through the plotted points
particular symbols. The amount and kind defines the velocity at each point in the
of informations shown on the hydrographic vertical. The are under this curve is equal
map varies with the use of the map. to the product of the mean velocity and the
total depth in that vertical line. This area
may be computed by using aplanimeter or
A hydrographic map contains the by Simpson's One Third Rule. The
following informations: vertical velocity curve method gives us the
most precise method of determining mean
1. Data used for elevation. velocity but requires only too much time.
2. High and low water lines.
2. Two-tenths and Eight-tenths Method:
3. Soundings usually in feet and tenths, with The current meter is lowered
a decimal point occupying the exact downward at 0.2 and 0.8 of the total depth
plolted location of the point. where observations are made. The mean
4. Lines of equal depths, interpolated from of this two velocities is taken as the mean
soundings. On navigation charts the horizontal velocity in that vertical.
interval of line of equal depth is equal to
one fanthom or six feet. 3 Six-tenths Method:
5. Conventional signs for land features as in Only one observation is made at a
topographic maps. distance below the water surface equal to
0.6 the total depth of the stream. The
6. Light houses, navigation lights, bouys, velocity obtained at that particular depth is
etc., either shown by conventional signs or considered to be the mean velocity of
leIters on the map. vertical.
8-197

HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING

4. Integration Method: The transitman at A then clamps the lower


The cllrrent meter is lowere at a plate, turns the line of sight to the signal
uniform rate down to the bed of the. tream station C and reads the angle 0. The
and is raised also at the same rate up to transitman at Balso follows the float, until the
the surface. The total time and the m mber transitman at A gives the "get ready' signal
of revolution during this interval con itute and by means of the upper tangent screw
a measurement. ~ angle B is measured the moment the float
This method is based upon the th ry passes the section AC. The time that the float.
that all horizontal velocities in the ve 'cal passes the section BO and AC is also
have acted equally upon the meter w el recorded.
thereby giving the average as the mea~ 01'
all the velocity reading. I
The base line AB is then measured
accurately and the position C and 0 is then
5. Subsurface Method: plotted. The path of the float is either scaled or
In this particular method. the current I
computed using trigonometric principles. The
meter is held at just sufficient depth below distance divided by the time gives the mean
the surface usually 150 10m to 200 10m to velocity of the float.
avoid surface disturbance. The mean
horizontal velocity is obtained by
multiplying the sub-surface velocity by a Three Distinct Methods of
coefficient. This coefficient varies with Determining the Flow Channels or in
the depth and velocity of stream. This . Open Channels or Stream:
coefficient varies from 0.85 to 0.95.
1. Velocity-Area Method: ,
The velocities at any vertical line is
observed by using a current meter based
on the five different method of velocity
measurement using current meters. The
area of a certain section is obtained by
sounding, or by stretching a wire across
the stream and marking the points where
observations were made referred from an
initial zero point. The depths at this
Float Method of Measuring Stream Velocity particular points are also measured. The
area of the section could then be computed
From the figure shown, a base line AB is by dividing the section into triangles and
well selected and is established near the' bank trapezoids. The product of the area and
of a river where no obstruction will interfere the the mean velocity gives us the discharge
line of sight during the observation period. of flow of a certain section. The sum of all
Points Cand 0 are established on the opposite the discharges at all sections gives us the
side of the river such that the sections AC and total discharge or flow.
BO are' perpendicular to the line AB, hence
they are parallel to each other. One transit is 2. Slope Method:
set up at A and the other at B. The transitman
at B with vernier at zero, follows the float The 'slope method involves a
where it is being released at point E, at a detennination of the following:
distance of 15 m. above section BO. As the aj Slope of water surface.
float approaches section BO, the transitman at bj Mean area of channel cross-section
A keeps the line of sight pointing at the float cj Mean hydraulic radius
until the transitman at B shouts "shot" a the d) Character of stream bed and the proper
float passes section AB. selection of roughness coefficient
S-198 ,/
I
HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING I
Mean Velocity is computed by
applying the Chezy Formula:
3..)"'_00,
~il A weir method is an obstruction place
in a channel, over which water must flow.
V=c{RS D' scharged of a stream using this method
i valves the necessary information.
where
V = mean velocity Depth of water flowing over the crest
C = coefficient of roughness of stream of weir, H.
bed Length of crest, L for rectangular or
R = hydraulic radius trapezoidal weir.
c) Angle of side slopes if weir is
R=pA triangular or trapezoidal.
A :: cross-sectional area of stream d) Whether flat or sharp crested.
P = wetted perimeter of stream e) Height of crest above bottom of
approach channel, P.
~ Width and depth of approach channel
Computing values of C by g) Velocity of approach
Kutter's Formula: h) Nature of end contractions

a) English:
41.65+ 0.00281 + 1.811
C= s n
1+ ..JR(41.65 + 0.0~281).

C = coefficient of roughness of stream


bed
n =retardation factor of the stream bed
R = hydraulic radius
s = slope of water surface
End Contracted Weir
Q = 1.84 (L - 0.2H) H312
b) Metric:

23 +0.00155 +1
c= s n
1 + ~ (23 + 0.00155)
{R s

Computi~ values of C by
Manning's Formula:

Rl/6
C=-
n Suppressed Weir
Q::: CLH3/2
Discharge = Area x Velocity
8-199

HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING

Three common types of floats used


in measuring stream velocity:

1. Surface floats - it is designed to measure


surface velocities and should be made
light in weight and of such a shape as to
offer less resistance to floating debris,
Triangular Weir wind, eddy currents and other extraneous
Q = 1.4 H2.5 forces. The use of surface float ;s the
quickest and the most economical method
of measuring stream velocity.

2. Sub-surface floats - this is sometimes


called a double floats. It consists of a
small surface float from which is
suspended a second float slightly heavier
than water. The submerged float. is a
hollow cylinder, thus offering the same
resistance in all directions and the
minimum vertical resistance to rising
Cipolletti Weir currents.
1.86 LH3I2
Q::;:
o 1
when tan-::;:- 3. Rod float - the rod float is usually' a
2 4 cylindrical tube of thin, copper or brass
25 mm to 50 mm in diameter. The tube is
Q ::;: 1.84 LH3/2 (Francis Formula Neglecting sealed at the bottom and in weighted with
Velocity of Approach) shot until it will float in an upright position
Q::;: 1.84 L [(H + hv)3/2 • hv 3/2 ] (Considering with 50 mm to 150 mm, projecting above
the surface of the water.
Velocity of Approach)

Instruments used for measuring


difference in level of water:

1. Hook gauge
2. 8taff gauge
Discharge measurements are made for the
3. Wire-Weight gauge
following purposes:
4. Float gauges
5. Automatic gauges
1. To determine a particular flow without
6. Piezometers
regard to stage of stream.
7. Plumb bob
2. To determine flows for several definite
gage readings throughout the range of
stage, in order to plot a rating curve for the
Instruments used for measuring
station. From this curve the discharge for
the velocit of flow:
any subsequent period is computed from
the curVe of water stage developed in the
recording gage. 1. Floats
a) surface float
3. To obtain a formula or coefficient of dams,
or rating flumes. b) sub-surface float
c) rod float
5-200

HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING

2. Current meters C. Wire drag or Sweep:


a) Those which the revolving element is This method is used in harbor or a bay
cup-shaped, or of the anemometer type Where corral reefs and pinnacle rocks are
and acts under differential pressure. likely to occur. This consists of a wire of
Types of current meter: any length up to 120 m. which may be set
at any desired depth. Depths are
1. Price meter maintained by means of bouys placed at
2. Ellis meter the wires and whose length can be
3. Haskell meter adjusted. The drag is pulled through the
4. Fteley meter water by means of a power launches,
5. Ott meter steering diverging forces to keep the drag
taut. When an obstruction is met, the
bouys are shown with the position of two
straight lines intersecting at the
obstruction. These intersection is located
by sextant observations to reference
A. Measurement of dredged materials: points on the shore. Soundings are taken
for the minimum depth.
Measurement in place:
Soundings of fixed section are D. Determination of stream slope:
taken both before and after dredging To determine surface slope, a gauge
and the change in the cross-sectional is installed on each side of the. stream at
area is obtained by calculation or by the end of the section. The zero's of the
using a planimeter. The volume of the gauge are connected to permanent bench
material removed is computed by marcks on the shore. The gauges are read
using the borrow pit method or by the simultenaously every ten to fifteen minutes
end-area method. for six to eight hours. The mean of these
2. Scow measurement: elevation at that point of the stream. The
Each scow is numbered and the difference in elevation between the ends of
capacity of each is carefully the section divided by the distance is the
determined. When the scow is filled slope.
to the capacity the inspector records
the full measurements. Materials is
scow is sometimes measured by the Capacity of Existing Lakes
amount displaced in loading. or Reserviors: •

B. Measurements of Surlace Current: 1. Contour Method:


Certain engineering problems require A traverse is run from a shore line and
important information about the direction the desired shore topography are located
and velocity of currer)ts at all tidal stages. by stadia. Take sufficient number of
This. is done by locating the path and soundings by any method suited 'for the
computing the velocity of floats from points particular job and plot the sub-ageous
whose locations are known and can be contour. The area inclosed between
determined. Floats should be designed to contours are determined by planimeter.
give minimum wave resistance and to The average area of two consecutive
extend underwater to a sufficient depth to contours multiplied by the contour interval
measure the current in question. The gives the partial volume. The summation
direction of the current may be determined of the partial volumes gives the total
by sextant angles from the boat between volume.
. known signals and the floats.
S-lO]

HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING

2. Cross-Section Method:
The outline of the water line is
obtained as in the contour method. The
water line is then plotted and divided into
approximate trapezoids and tri-angles.
Soundings are taken along the boundary
lines between each station and are plotted The' areas A1, A2, etc. are determined
on cross section paper. A perpendicular by using a planimeter and h represents t~e
distances between sections are then contours interval. Area below A5 IS
obtained by the end area method. The neglected.
summation of these partial volumes gives
the total volume. b) prismoid,1 Formula:
L
V =6(A +4A", +A2)
. Two General Methods of Determining
the Capacity of a Lake or Reservoir:
In this case the midqle area Am is the Area
1. Contour Method: A2 and ~ while L is equivalent to 2h.
a) End-area method
b) Prismoidal formula
2. Parallel Cross-Section Method:
a) End-area method
b) Prismoidal formula

a) End-area method:

a) End-area method:

Parallel ranges are laid out across the lake and


soundings are then taken along the ranges.
From the observed sounding the corresponding
cross-sections could be plotted and its
corresponding areas would then be computed.
5-202

HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING

F'rOll) • • the.culTent~~Wtlo~s • take~8r • th~


R<:tsjgBIYtr,m~m~i6BpU~toftheh~9Un~
·~lll<,e, • • AlI.~~~lJr~m~I'l~l!r~ll'lm~~~, • • · ·

Total Volume = VI + V2 +V3 + V4


+Vs +Vs

b) Pismoidal Formula:
The problem arises here in the
determination of Am. since the distances
between parallel sections are not equal, it
is therefore necessary to evaluate or
interpolate the values of Am.

Solution:
CD Total discharge:

V1 =!!J.
6 (A l +4Am + A2)

V2 =b2
6 (A2 +4Am + A3)
v = (0.32 + 0.22)
V3 =&
a 2
6 (A3 +4Am + At)
Va =0.27 m/sec
V4 =·~(At +4Am +As) l / _ (0.40 +0.24)
Vb - 2
Vs =b5.
6 (As +4Am + Ae,) Vb =0.32 m/sec
Vc = 0.21 m/sec
h
Vs =-W (~+4Am +A7)
Velocity:
- (0 +0.27)
V1- 2
V1 = 0.135
5-203

HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING

- (0.27 + 0.32)
Vr 2
V2 = 0.295
_(0.32 + 0.21)
V3- 2
V3 = 0.265
\I _ 0 + 0.21
V4 - 2
V4 = 0.105
.0;739
Discharge: Q =AV 0.720···
Q1 = 15 (0.135) = 2.03
~ = 43.5 (0.295) = 12.83 1243
OJ = 39.75 (0.265) = 10.53 0.852
C4 = 10 (0.105) = 1.05 0,524
.0.473
Total Q = 2.03 + 12.83 + 10.53 + 1.05 0.469
Total Q= 26.44 cu.m.lsec.
1 cU.m. = 1000 liters
Total Q = 26440 liters/sec (j) Compute the veloCity at distance of 30 m.
from l.P. .
@ Total area: ® . Compute the discharge in ~tersfsec.· .
- 12(2.5) @ .• Compute lliemean veloCity in section. . ..
A1-
A1 = 15.00 Solution:
- (2.5 +3:3)(15) (j) Velocity at distance of 30 m. from IP.
Ar 2
A2 =43.50
A (3.3 + 2)(15)
3- 2
A3 = 39.75

A4=~¥
A4 = 10.00 V= 0.739 + 0.720
2
Total area: V= 0.7295
A = A1 + A2 + A3 + A4
A = 15 +43.5 +39.75 + 10 @ Discharge in liters/sec:
A = 108.25 sq.m. Va =045
Vb =0.739; 0.720 =0.7295
® Mean velocity:
Q V =1.251 ; 1.243 = 1.2465
c
V=f1
Vd =0.852
v=}644 Va =0.524
108.25
V - 0.473-+ 0.469 0.471
V =O. 244 mlsec. f- 2
S-204

HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING

V1 = 0 + ~.45 =0.225

V2 = 0.45 +20.7295 = 0.5898


!A~@~lllflo\l{rllM~Qfem~~tWe~Cp®99~.M
V 0.7295;1.2465 = 0.988 ~l'iYMB$ll'lg~¢(lI'l'~tm~WWlmth¢
3
ll(lrr~(j119ioo.\f~IV@(lf.Ptl.~sWN~
• ~~m.·il~~ .•":pfl.•.•
V4 = 1.2465; 0.852 = 1.049 Th~fpll(lWl~9@·W.tb~.·9b$~~dJW~.·ta~M··
d@Mtl'tEl.@l~$9~M~l'lt$· • • P~IYQ·gl'@l@d
V = 0.852 ; 0.524 = 0.688
s W~$U$l¥lirl;ob$~N<ltl()rlL • • >}.·•• ·•·• •·• • ·• · • · ·•· · .
Vs = 0.524 ; 0.471 = 0.4975

V7 = 0.47~ + 0 =0.2355

A1 = 10.5~1.25}=6.5625

A = (1.25)
2
+p.7} 10 -14.75
A = (1.7 +;.3) 10 = 20 cD • • • GOrrlpu~.th¢VeIOMy~la.~J$@H;~Qf···· • •16·
3 rn·frQ(l1\ME:'/
A4 = (2.3 +;85) 10 =25.75 @ Deternljn~the8iS@.~tge9~tffl~~et.
@ .. O~term1nEl.!hel'llMIl·VEllocJtYl)lltlllll'i'l~
.•••••.•.
As = (2.85 +;.55) 10 = 22
Solution:
CD Velocity at distance of 16 m. from WE
As = (1.55 +20.9) 10 = 12.25

A7 = 8.35~0.90} =3.7575

Q=AV

Area Velocity. Discharge


A1 =6.5625 V=aN+ b
V, =0.225 0 1 =1.477
Ai = 14.75 V2 =0.5898 O2 = 8.700 V=0.232 (~~) + 0.022
A3 =20 V3 =0.988 0 3 = 19.760
~ = 25.75 V4 =1.049 <It = 27.012 V= 0.1782 m/s
As=22 Vs =0.688 0 5 =15.136
As = 12.25 Va =0.4975 Os = 6.094 @ Discharge of a certain river:
6I~ V7 =0.2355 .Qz~ Va=O
A = 105.07 m2 V =aN +b (Straight line equation for
0= 79.064 m3/sec current l7)eters)
o= 79064 liters/sec
N_ revolution
@ Mean velociy: sec
Q=AV (1Ql
Vb =0.232 50 +0.022
79.064 = (105.07) V
V= 0.752m1s Vb =0.0684 m1s
5-205

HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING

Vc -- 0.232 @
55 + 0.022 0, =A 1V,
0, :: 3.2 (0.0342)
Vc :: 0.1148 mls
_ @§l 0, :: 0.10944
Vd - 0.232 52 + 0.022 ~ :: 8 (0.0916)

Vd :: 0.1782 mls ~ =0.7328


_ @l OJ:: A3 V3
Ve - 0.232 53 + 0.022 OJ =11.2 (0.1465)
Ve :: 0.1446 mls OJ:: 1.6408
V,:: 0 ~ ::A4 V4
~ =10.4 (0.1614)
V1::~
2
~ = 1.6786
Os:: 0.2892
_ (0 + 0.0684)
V1- 2
0::01+~+OJ+04+0S
V1 = 0.0342 mls
~
o=0.10944 + 0.7328 + 1.6408 + 1.6786
V2 :: 2 + 0.2892
V _ (0.0684 + 0.1148) 0:: 4.4508 m3/s
2- 2 o:: 4450.8 liters/sec
V2 :: 0.0916 mls
V _ (0.1148 + 0.1782) @ Mean velocity:
r 2 A:: A1 +A2 + A3 +A4 +As
V3 = 0.1465 mls A =3.2 + 8 + 11.2 + 10.4 + 4
V-~
4- 2
A = 36.8 sq.m.

V _ (0.1782 + 0.1446)
4- 2 V::.Q
A
V4 = 0.1614 mls
V= 4.4508
~ 36.8
Vs = 2
V:: 0.1209 mls
Vs = 0.0723 mls

A - 1.6 (4)
,- 2
A1 = 3.2
A - (1.6 + 2.4)(4)
2- 2 The areas bounded by the water line Of a
A2 =8 reservoir is determined by using a planimeter.
A _ (2.4 + 3.2) 4 The contour interval is 2m.· A, <z .20,400 sq.m.,
3- 2 A 2 " 18,600 sq.m., A3 ",. 14,300 sq,m.,
A3 = 11.2 A4 = 10,200 sq.m., As:: a,ODO sq.m. and
A _ (3.2 + 2)4 Ae '" 4,000 sq.m. Determine the following:
4- 2
G) Ehd area method.
A4 = 10.4
® Prismoidal formula.
As ::fHl @ What is the difference of capacity of the
2
As =4 ~~Sr:f~~ using End area aM by Prlsmoldal
5-206

HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING

Solution:
cD End area method:

2
V1 =2" (20400 + 18600) = 39000
2
V2 =2"(18600 + 14300) = 32900

V3 = ~ (14300 + 10200) = 24500


2
V4 =2"(10200 + 8000} :: 18200
2
Vs =2" (8000 + 4000) = 12000
126600 m3

@ Prismoidal formula:
V1 = ~ [20400 +4(18600} + 143001
V1 = 72733.33
V2 = ~ [14300 + 4(10200} + 80001
V2 :: 42066.67
2
V3 =2" (8000 + 4000)
V3 :: 12000
SECTION 2
Prismoidal Formula
=V1 +V2 +V3 •
= 72733.33 + 42066.67 + 12000
:: 126800 m3

@ Difference of capacity of the reservoir


using End area and by Prismoidal
Formula:
Diff. in volume = 126800 -126600
SECTION 3
Diff.1n volume:: 200 m3
S-207

HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING

- (315 +314) (30)


V3-
2
V3 =9435 cU.m.
V. _(A4 +As)h
4- 2

SECTION 4 1/ = (314 +0}(30)


V4 2'
Solution:
V4 = 4710 cU.m.
CD End area method:
V _(A l + A?) h
1- 2 Total volume = V, + V2 + V3 + V4
A,=O V= 2078 + 10456 +9435 +4710
A = 10 (4) + (4 + 6) (10) +(6 + 5) (12) V=26,679cu.m.
2 2 2 ' 2
+ (5 +4.2) (12) 8 (4.2) @ Prismpidal formula:
2 + 2
Note:. To solve for Am: compute the
A2 = 20 + 50 +66 + 55.2 + 16.8 dimensions of Am using the average
A2 =208 sq.m. values of the sections (1) and (2).
- (0 + 208) (20)
V1-
2
V, =2080 cU.m.
V (A2 + A3 ) h
2- 2
A =~ ~ (8+10)(10)
32+ 2 + 2
FROMl&2Am
+ (10 + 7) (12) (7 +4) (10) rn
2 + 2 + 2
A3 = 12 +44 + 90 + 102 + 55 + 12 A =~+~(2.5+3)(6)
m 2 2 2
A3 = 315 sq.m.
+(2.5+ 2.1}(6) 4 (2.1)
-@§. + 315) (40) 2 + 2
Vr
2
Am = 5+ 12.5 + 16.5 + 13.8 +4.2
V2 = 10,460 cu.m.
Am =52sq.m.
V _(Aa +&)h
r 2
L
A = 6 (12) +(6 +10) (14) V, = 6(A 1 + ~ + A2)
4 2 2
(10 + 8)(14) 8(10) 20
Vj ="6 [0 +4(52) +208]
+ 2 + 2
A4 =36+ 112 + 126+40 V, = 20 (208 + 208)
6
A4 =314 sq.m.
V1 = 1386.67 cU.m.
5-208

HYDROGRAPHIC SOVEYI.I

From (2) to (3). Use average dimensions of


sections (2) and (3). \I _ 4 (A 3 + 4 Am + A3 ) h
vr 6

V3 = 3~ [315 + 4 (236.25) + 314]

V3 = 7870 Cu.m.

From (4) fa (5). Use average dimensions of


sections (4) and (5).

Am

A - 9(3.5) (3.5 + D(9) (7 +7.5) (11)


m- 2 + '2 + 2
(7.5 +5.6) (12) (5.6 + 2) (9) £.@l
+ 2 + 2 + 2
Am = 15.75 + 47.25 + 79.75 + 78.6 + 34.2 +3
Am = 258.55 sq.m.
V - (A 2 + 4 Am + A3) h _;u§l (3 + 5) 7(S +4) (7) iill
Am- 2 + 2 2 + 2
r 6
Am = 9 + 28 +31.5 + 10
V = [208 +4 (25:.55) -;. 315] (40)
2 Am = 78.5 sq.m.
V2 = 10,381.33 cU.m.
\I _ (A 4 + 4 Am + As) h .
V4 - 6
From (3) and to (4). Use average
dimensions of sections (3) and (4). 30
V4 = 6 [314 +4 (78.5) +0]

V4 =5 (314 + 314)
V4 = 3140 cu.m.

Total volume = V1 + V2 + V3 + V4
V= 1386.67 + 10381.33 + 7870 +3140
V= 22,778 cU.m.

@ Difference in capacity:
A =4.5(10) (4.5+9)(11) (9+9)(12)
m 2 + 2 + 2 Difference in capacity =26685 - 22778
+ (9 +3.5) (11) (3.5 +2) (5) £.@l Difference in capacity =3,907 cU.m.
2 + 2 + 2
Am = 22.5 + 74.25 + 54 + 68.75 + 13.75 + 3
Am = 236.25 sq.m.
5·209

THREE POINT PROBlEM

Considering triangle ACB:


:; 850 Sin l?J
O CB
Sin 41'30'

Considering triangle BC:


CB 760
A, Cand 0 are three tliangulationshoreslgnals @ Sin a - Sin 35'30'
whose positions were determined· by the 760 Sin a
angles W:; 150' and the sides AC ,,; flSO m. CB:; Sin 35'30'
and CO :; 760 m~ A sounding at B was taken
from a boat and the angle$ E '" 41'30' and the
angles E" 41'30' and F" 35:30' were measured o and@
simultaneously by two sextants from the boat 850 Sin l?J 760' Sin a
to the three shore signals from the shore, Si041'30':; Sin 35'30'
c
Sin l?J:; 1.02 Sin a

A
'" +a + 150' +41'30' +35'30':; 360
1Il+·a:;133'
a:; (133' -Ill)
Sin l?J:; 1.02 Sin (133' -l?J)
Sin III :; 1.02 (Sin 133' Cos III - Cos 133' Sin Ill)
B
Sin III :; 0.746 Cos III +0.696 Sin III
0.304 Sin III :; 0.746 Cos III
tan Ill:; 2.454
l?J:; 67'50'
Solution:
a:; 133' - 67'50'
CD Distance AB:
c a:; 65'10'

A
850 _ AB
Sin 41'30' - Sin 70'40'
AB:; 1210.45 m.

® Distance BD:
B
C
BD 760
Sin 79'20' - Sin 35'30'
BD =1286.14 m.
A

'1' Distance CB:


CB 850
Sin 67'50' - Sin 41'30'
CB:; 1187.98 m.
B
5-210

THREE POINT PROBLEM

A hydrographic survey was conducted to Three· shore stations A. C and Dare


·locate the· po.sition of soundlngs,Three triangulatron· points whose. position a.s
statiOl'\sXYZwere. established on the observed· ·from B where soundings are
seaShore andthesoundiogs Were observed at obserVed and the angles were measured using
pdlnt A uSitiga small bqaC The fall. data were two· sextants from· the. boat ara to the Wee
recorded in order to plot the position· of the shore signals, The following dala were
sOUndings.·· ....•. recorded during the sounding observation. .
·····.Djstaild~XY= 1200m.. ... Angle ACO :::: 150'
. DistanceYZ =1809 m. Angle ABC = 42'30'
.....•...•. An Ie XYZ= 140' .... Angle CSO = 35'30'
. An9g,eXAY'=40'
... ..... ••...
Angle CAB =u7'50'
•.. . . AngleZAY:: 36' Distance AC =850 m.
Angle YXA '" 68' Distance CD =760 m.

Solution: Solution:
CD Angle YlA: CD Angle CDA:
c

z
x

A B

e + 150' + 67'50' +42'30' + 35'30 = 360'


Angle YlA =180 - 68·36 e= 64'10'
Angle YlA = 76'
® Distance AB:
® Distance AX: ACB = 180' - 67'50' - 42'30'
AX 1200 ACB=69'40'
Sin 72"; = Sin 40' 850 AB
AX = 1775.50 m, Sin 42'30' =Sin 69'40'
AB = 1179.76 m.
@ Distance AY:
1200 AY @ Distance BD:
Sin 40' = Sin 68' 760 SD
. AY = 1730,93 m. Sin 35'30' = Sin 80'20'
BD = 1290.18 m.
S-211

THREE POINT PROBLEM

901.76 Sin 0 :: 925.12 Sin (149'30' - 0)


901.76 Sin 0: 925.12 (Sin 149'20' Cos 0
- Sin 0 Cos 149'30')
Three shore stations C,O and E are 901.76 Sin 0:: 169.53 Cos 0 + 797.11 Sin 0
triangulation observation points with CD .", 615
m. and DE ;;625 m.Angfe EOC is 125. A 104.65 Sin", :: 469.53 Cos '"
at
hydrOgrapher point 0 wantectlo know his tan",:: 4.487
position With. respect to· the triangulation o :: 7T27' (angle DCB)
points, he measured angle ceo: 43' and
DBE : 42'30'. ® Angle COB:
{J:: 149'30' - 77'27'
CD Compute the angle DCB.
@) Compute the angle COB. Angle COB:: 180'~· 77'2T - 43'
@ Compute the distance BC. Angle COB:: 59'33'

@ Distance BC:
Solution: BC 615
CD Angle DCB:
Sin 59'33' Sin 43'
D BC:: 777.38 m,

E
In the accompanying figure, A, Band C
are three known control stations and P is
the position of a sounding vessel which
is to be located. If b : ;: 6;925.50 m.,
e: 6,708.40 m, angle BAG: 112'45'25", angle
B alpha: 25'32'40", and angle beta: 45'35'50",
(Cllfllf\l\ Station)
BD 615 B
Sin 0 ::Sin43'
:: 615 Sin 0
BD
Sin 43'
BD :: 901.76 Sin 0

80 625
Sin {J :: Sin 42'30'
BD:: 925.12 Sin {J

901.76 Sin 0:: 925.12 Sin {J


0+ fJ + 125' + 43' + 42'30': 360'
ill Compute the value of angle x.
o + {J :: 149'30' ® Compute the value of angle y.
{J:: 149'30' - 0 @ Compute the length of line NJ.
5-212

THREE POINT PROBlEM

Solution:
CD Angle x:
B

AP _ 6708.40
Sin x- Sin 25'32'40" Solution:
AP = 15557.11 Sin x CD Length of AO:
AP _ 6925.50
Sin y - Sin 45'35'50"
AP = 9693.62 Sin y
9693.62 Sin y= 15557.11 Sin y
Sin y = 1.605 Sin x CD
x + (360 -112'45'25'') + Y
+ 45'35'50" + 25'32'40" = 360
y= 41'36'55" - x @

Sin (41'36'55" - x) = 1.605 Sin x


Sin 41'36'55" Cos x - Cos 41'36'55" Sin x a
= 1.605 Sin x
Sin 41'36'55" Cos x
(0 = 360 - (245'23'22" - 93)
= (1.605 + Cos 41'36'55") Sin x
Sin 41'36'55" (0 =207'36'38"
1.605 + Cos 41'36'55" = tan x AO 6671.50
x = 15'45'50.17" Sin a - Sin 20'05'53"
@ Angle y: AO = 19414.9 Sin (I.
Subt. to equation @ AO _ 12481.70
y = 41'36'55" - x Sin f!, - Sin 35'06'08"
y = 41'36'55" - 15'45'50.17"
Y= 25'51'04.83" AO =21705.91 Sin f!,
21705.91 Sin f!, =19414.9 Sin (I.
@ Length of line AP:
Sin f!, = 0.894 Sin (I. ~i
AP = 15557.11 Sin x
AP = 15557.11 Sin 15'45'50.17" (X + fl) + 13 + 35'06'08" + 20'05'53" = 360
AP = 4226.47 m.
13 =97'11'21" - (1.
S-213

THREE POINT PROBLEM

Sin (97'11'21"· ex) = 0.894 Sin ex


Sin 97' 11 '21" Cos ex • Cos 97'11'21" Sin ex
=0.894 Sin ex Triangulation stations C, 0 andE are
Sin 97'11'21" Cos ex established by thePhils. Coast and GeOdetic
Survey with observation points rEJcorded as
= (0.894 + cos 97'11'211 Sin ex CO =615 m. and DE =625nt Ahydrographer
Sin 97'11'21" at point 8 wanted to knoW his position with
0.894 + Cos 97'11'21" = tan ex, respect to the triangulation stations; he then
measuted angles cao ;; 43' and DBE ';i: 42'30':
ex = 52'13'34.41" Angle EOC is 125'. Angle DCB =77'26'.

(j) Compute the distancaBC,


AO = 19414.9 Sin 52'13'34.41" @ Compute the distance SO:
AO = 15346,22 m. @ Compute the dislanceBE.

® Angle ACO:
Solution:
CD Distance BC:
fJ = 97'11'21" • 52'13'34.41"
fJ =.44'57'46.59" D

@ Length of line OC:


AO = 21705.91 Sin 44'57'46.59" E
AO = 15338.47 m c

= 15346.22 + 15338.47
Ave. AO 2
Ave. AO = 15342.32 m.
B
8 =180' - 20'05'53"·52'13'34.41"
8 = 107'40'32.5"
BC 615
OB 6671.50 Sin 59'34 =Sin 43'
Sin 107'40'32.5" Sin 20'05'53" BC =777.52 m,
OB =18498.33
@ Distance BD:
" =180·35'06'08"·44'57'46.59" BD 615
,,= 99'56'5.41" Sin 77'26' =Sin 43'
_ _O_C 12481.70 BD =880.16 m.
Sin 99'56'5.41" - Sin 35'06'08"
OC =21380.42 m. ;t Distance BE:
BE 625
Sin 65'26; =Sin 42'30'
BE =841.37 m.
5-214

MINE SURVEYING

® Angle between strike and drift:


B

Vein . a relatively thin deposit of mineral


between definite boundaries. c
Strike· the line of· intersection of the vein with B

a horizontal plane.
Dip· the vertical angle between the plane of
the vein and horizontal plane measured
perpendicular to tne strike.
Outcrop . the pornon of the vein exposed at
the ground surface.
Drift . an inclined passage driven in a
. particular direction. D

Sin fII = BC
AC
CD
tan43'40'=. BC
.A.~ttJba$.~.$t~kePf.N, • 10'1$fW.• Mda.dlp••hf BC = CD cot 43'40'
4a~4QjlN .• A~r1ffil'lI~~Yeil1M~ilg~pf~%. 2 aJ
100 = AC
• W·•• W~~ • ~.tt@>.*Mhg.A1.w~Y~m~I.PlaQe AC=50 CD
¢9.~PMi~Sm~dlp~)

Ij,.fr~fl~
Sin fII = BC
AC
. - CD cot 43'40'
SInfll- CD50
fII = 1'12'
Solution: @, Bearing of drift:
CD Bearing of dip: Bearing:: 10'15' + 1'1 'Z
Bearing = N. 11'27' W

A vein has a dip of 57' W. The bearing of a


drift is N. 37'W, having a grade of5% With the
c plane oUhe vein. ..

CD Compute the honzontal angle be.tween the


D Dr~ strike and the verticalprojectlon of lhe drift,
® Compute the bearing afthe strike.
Bearing =90' ·10'15' @ Compule the bearing of the vertical plane
Bearing = S. 79'45' W. containing the dip.
5-215

MINE SURVEYING

Solution: @ Bearing ofstrike:


CD Horizontal angle between the strike and the Bearing = 31' - 1'52'
vertical projection of drift: Bearing::: N. 35'08' W
@ Bearing of the vertical plane containing the
dip:
Bearing =90' - 35'08'
Bearing::: S. 54'52' W

The eente~ine of amine lu nnel runs through A


and S, each 1575 m. in altitUde, with a
distance between AS equal to 1585 m. The
D tunnel bears S.70' E. from A. On the other
side of the hill, 1136 m., N. 77' E. of A is a
point C at 2142 m. affitude. .
<D Determine the bearing of the shortest
possible tunnel from eta AB.
® Determine the dip of the shortest possible
tunnel from C to AB.
@ Determine' the length of the shortest
.possible tunnel from eta AB.
Solution:
CD Bearing ofshortest tunnel from C to AB:

Sin", =BC
AC
tan 51' = CD N
BC
BC= CD cot 51'
2.~CD
100 - AC
AC=20CD
Sin", =BC
AC
. . CDeot51'
SIn '" = 20 CD B

,,::: 1"52'
5-216

MINE SURVEYING

8 = 180' - 77' - 70'


8=33'
Bearing = S, 20' W. Drill holes are bored through points A, Band C
until It strikes the mineral ores, Point A is 400
® Dip ofshortest tunnel from C to AB:
m. due south of Band point Cis 300 m, N.60'
E.ofB. ....

(j) • • Cornpute•• the.differe~ • in•• elevl3.1ion.of. the


B
. $lJffaceofOreatAandC;··· .
® cOIllpUtetfiflbeatinggfstfike.
c @ COl1'lpufetheal1g!e ofJ@dip...

567 Solution:
CD Difference in elevation ofthe surface of ore
A4:;..--------ID at Aand C.:
C
Elevation of mineral ores:
POINTS ELEVATION OF ORES
567 A' . 450 -165 = 285 m.
S' 470 -187 =283 m.
A 4;...---I.:...-------ID
C 485 -203 = 282 m.

Diff. of elevation (If the surface of are at A .


CD = 2142 -1575 and C =285 -282
CD=567m. Diff. of elevation of the surface of are at A
andC=3m.
(AD)2 = (1136)2 - (567)2
AD = 984.38 @ Bearing ofstrike:
DE= 984.38 Sin 33'
N
DE = 536.13 m.
567
tan IJ = 536.13
IJ = 46'36' (dip)

Shortest tunnel from C to AB: .


(EC)2 =(536.13)2 + (567)2
EC =780.37 m.
5-217

MINE SURVEYING

From point A at the opening of a tunnel. a


surface traverse is run on the side hill and an
underground traverse is run through the tunnel,
Both traverse are oriented from the same
meridian. Below are the computed latitudes'
and departures. Consider the line AF is a
400-x_! straight Une on the surface and the slope AF is
3 -1 uniform upward. Also assume that all points of
3x =400 + x the under ground traverse are on the same
2x =400 elevation whBe point Fis 33 meters above A
x=200
(C'D) =(200)2 + (300)2. 2(200)(300) Cos 60'
C' 0 = 264.58 m.

Using Sine Law:


Sin 13 _ Sin 60'
300 - 264.58
0=79'06'

Bearing ofstrike::: N, 79'06' W.

® Angle of the dip:

(j) Find the bearing of line AF.


® Find the distance of ~ne AF.
@ Compute the shortest distance of a shaft
from point 4 in the tunnel of the surface
along line AF.

Solution:
CD Bearing of line AF:
Line AF:

'~ Lat. =31.2 -17.4 - 3.7 + 22.8 + 12.1


Lat. =+ 45.0
Dep. =40.5 + 34.6 + 66.0 + 39.9 + 55
B" 10639 E Dep. =+ 236.5

B" E =200 Sin 79'06' tan 13 =~


Lat.
B" E= 196.39 m 236.3
td' _ _ 1_
13 = 45.0
.an Ip - 19639 13 =79'13'

dip =0'17' Bearing =N. 79'13' E.


S-21S

MINE SURVEYING

® Distance AF:
N

A line from A elevation 17.13 m. intersects the


F veln at 8, elevation 54 - 85 m. The bearing
38m and slope distance of AS are N. 47'31' E. and
63}O m. respectively, Strike is $,71'33' E.
Dip is 50' $W;
CD Compute !he direction of the shortest level
cross cot from A to the vein. . ..
@ Compute the length of the shortest level
cross cut from A to the vein. .. .
. _ Departure
@ Determine the shortest distance from A t6
Distance AF - Sin 79'13'
·ihevein.
Distance AF = 240,55 meters

® Shortest distance of a shaft from point 4 in


the tunnel of the surface along line AF,
Line A - 4:
Lat. ="82.5 - 8.8 - 5.7
Lat. =-117.0
Dep. =25.0 + 50.4 +40.0 + 70.4
Dep. = 185.8
. A 4 185.8
tan beanng - = 117
tan bearing A - 4 = S 57'48' E.
. _ Departure
Distance A - 4 - Sin 57'48'
Distance A - 4 = 219.58 m.
" = 180' - (79'13' +57'48')
" =42'59'
A
AO = 219.58 Cos 42'59'
AO = 160.63 meters Solution:
h 33 CD Direction of the shortest level cross cut
160.33 =240.55 from A to the vein:
h = 22.037 meters Direction Of the shortest level =47'31' - 29'04'
Distance 04 = (A - 4) Sin 42'59' Direction ofthe shortest/evel =N. 18'27' E.
Distance 04 = 219.58 Sin 42'59' ® Length of the shortest level cross cut from
Distance 04 = 149.7 meters. A to the vein:
h ,--------
tan a= 0-4 AD = ."j (63.70)2 - (37.72)2
22.037 AD = 51.33 m.
(X = 149.7 AE = 51.33 Cos 29'04'
AE=44.87 m.
a = 8'22' 26" EF=37.72 Cot SO'
0-4 EF= 31.65 m.
d = Cos 8'22' 26" AF= 44.87 - 31.65
d = 151.32 meters. (shortest distance of AF =13.22 m. (shortest level cross out
the shaft) from A to the vem)
S~219

MINE SURVEYING

@ Shortest distance from A to the vein: @ Length of a + 1.5% tunnel to meet the vein:
AH = AF Sin 50' CD 350
AH = 13.22 Sin SO' Sin 3D' =Sin 128'
AH= 10,13m, CD =222.08
CE 222.08
Sin 128' =Sin 51'08"
CE= 224.76ft.

A vein dips to the west at an angle of 52'. A @ Distance from the outcrop to the bottom of
hill side assumed 10 be sloping uniformly has the shaft.
an angle of depression of 22'. tram the AE 203.03
outcrop of the vein, the sloP'! distance along Sin 112' =Sin 30'
the hillside to the top of the shaft and mouth of AE =376.49 m.
the tunnel are respectively 250 ft. and 35Q fl,lf
the tunnel is driven al right angles to the strike
and the shaft is sunk vert~lly.
CD Determine the height of the shaft
® Determine the length of a + 1:5% tunnel 10
meet the vein, . A point B at the bottom of a winze has a
@ Detennlne the distance from the outcrop to vertical angle of • 65'23' sighted with the top
the bottom of the shaft. telescope of a mining transit. The slope
distance to a poinl B from the inslrument at A
.is 295.87 ft The eccentricity of the telescope
is 3 inches.

zD Compute the corrected vertical angle.


® Compute the elevation of B if A is al
elevation 500 ft. and the H.l. is + 5.5 ft. and
H.PI. is· 3.3 ft.
@ Determine Ihehorizonlal distance between
AloS.

Solution:
CD Corrected vertical angle:

Solution:
-:'1) Height of the shaft:
BE 250
Sin 30~ =Sin 38'
BE = 203.03 m.
S-220

MINE SURVEYING

ilri~I_~~I~.INII'~'lill
3/12
;111".'ki?;$i'~'!I~~
tan", =295.87
",=0'03'

Corrected vetfical angle = 65'23' - 03'


Corrected vertical angle = 65'20'

® Elevation ofB if A is at elevation 500 Fr.


and the H.I. is + 5.5 Fr. and H.PI. is - 3.3 Fr.
A B

~
h =295.87 Sin 65'20'
h=268.87
C

EI. ofB = 500+ 5.5- 268.87 +3.3


EI. ofB = 239.93 ft ~ c
Solution:
® Horizontal distance between A to B:
G) Direction of the line of intersection of the
veins:
A"r--.-_ _.., IJ = 63'25' + 77'10'
IJ = 110'35'
In .1 ABC:
BC = AB tan 22'
In.1 BOD:
BC = Bo tan 35'
In.1 ABO:
AB= OB Sin f1J
In.1 aBO:
B
B

tan 65'20' =268.87


x
D
x= 123.48 ft
5-221

MINE SURVEYING

BD = OB Sin (fJ· Ill)


OB= ~B .
Sm III
OB- BD
- Sin (fJ - Ill)
AB _ BD
Sin", - Sin (fJ - "')
BC Cot 22' BCCot35'
Sin", = Sin (fJ - "')
Sin (fJ - "') _ Cot 35'
Sin", - Cot 22'
Sin ~IJ - "') =0.578
Sin '"
Sin 11 Cos", .; Sin '" Cos fJ - 57
Sin", -0. 8
Sin 110'35' Cos", - Sin", Cos 110'35'
Sin", =0.578
Cot", Sin 69'25' + Cos 69'25' =0.578 Solution:
- 0.578 - 0.352
Cot III - 0.93616
Cot III = 0.241
III = 76'27'
fJ· III = 34'08'
Bearing of the line of intersection
=76'27 - 63'25'
= N, 13'02' E.

@ Slope of the line intersection:

5
12
tan III = 153.27
III = 0'9'21"
5
12
tan a =224.82

tana=-
Be a =0'06'22"
08
H=83'42'-a+1Il
tan a = ~~ tan 22' Sin III
H =88'42' - 0'06'22" + 0'09'21"
tan a = tan 22' Sin 76'27' H = 88'44'59"
a = 21'27' (slope)
S-222

MINE SURVEYING

45000 + 2.x2 • 1800x + 270000 =0


2.x2 • 1800x + 315000 =0
x2 - 900x + 157500 = 0
900 ±..j81‫סס‬oo - 63‫סס‬oo
x= 2
900 ± ..J18OOOO
x= 2
900 ±424
x= 2
476
x=-
2
x=238
1323
x=T'
x = 612 > 300 (absurd)
Usex= 238
® Bevation of discovery post: .

Solution:
CD Location of discovery post from the
location post number 2:
o (150)2 + x2 = (h cot45'~
(150)2 + x2 = h2
@ (150)2 + (300· x)2 =(h rot 60'~
. If
(150)2 + (300· x)2 ="3
o&@ If =(150)2 +;
If . If =22500 + (238~
h2 - x2 ="3 -(300 - x~ h2 = 22500 + 56700
3h2 - 3; = h2 - 3 (90000 - 600x + x2) h= 281
31f - 3x2 = If - 270000 + 1800x - 3; Elev. of Discovery Post =400 • 281 - 1.5
e 21f - 1800x + 270000 = 0 Elev. of Discovery Post =117.5 meters
O&e
h2 =(150)2 + x2 @ Distance of discovery post from cer. 1:
.2 [(150)2 + x2]-1800x +270000 =0 Distance = h cot 45'
2 (22500 +x2) - 1800x + 270000 = 0 Distance = 281 cot 45'
Distance = 281 m.
S-223

PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY

1. Vertical circles - are great circles passing


from the zenith through the star or sun.
ods of determining time: 2. Hour circle· are great circles through the
poles.
3. Zenith ~ the point where the vertical'
1. Time by transit of a star across the
produce upward, pierces the celestial
meridian.
sphere.
2. TIme by transit of the sun. 4. Horizon· the great circle on the celestial
3. Time by altitude ofthe sun. sphere cut by a plane through the earth's
4. Time by measured altitude of the star. center at right angles to the vertical.
5. TIme by transit of a star across the vertical 5. Equator· the great circle of the celestial
circle through the Polaris. sphere cut by a plane through the earth's
center perpendicular to'the axis.
6. Time by two stars at equal altitude.
6. Meridian of an'obseNer· the great circle
of the celestial sphere which passes
through the poles and the observer's
Methods of determining longitude: zenith.
7. Ecliptic· the great circle of the celestial
sphere which the sun appear to describe in
1. By time signals. its annual eastward motion among 'the
2. By transportation of time piece. stars.
8. Equinoxes· the· point of intersection of
the equator and the ecliptic.
9. Autmunal equinox· the point where the
Methods of determining latitudes:
sun crosses the equator in September.
10. Declination· the angular distance from the
1. By altitude of the sun at noon. equator measured on an hour circle through
2. Bya circumpolar star at time of transit. the point.
3. By altitude of polaris at any hour angle. 11. Polar distance - is the complement of the
declination.
4. By circum-meridian altitudes.
12. Altitude· the angUlar distance below or
above the horizon measured on a vertical
circle through the point.
Methods of determining azimuths: 13. Zenith distance - complement of the
altitude.
14. Hour angle - the arc of the equator
1. By an altitude of the sun.
measured from the meridian westward to
2. By an altitude of the star. the hour circle through the point.
3. By Polaris at greatest elongation. 15. Nadir· the point where the plumb line of
4. By a circumpolar star at any hour angle. the transit when prolonged downward.
16. Celestial sphere· is an imaginary sphere
whose center is the center of the earth and
whose radius is infinite.
5-224

PRACTICAL ASTROIOMY

(90- H) =a
C=S
sin p = sin Z sin (90 - La)
= sin Z cos L
Z· = p. secL
z

s
Note:
At westem elongation, subtract Zfrom 180'
to obtain the azimuth of the stilr, and at eastem
elongation. add Z to 180' to obtain the true
Parallels azimuth of the star.
oflkclination

Determination of Azimuth by Polaris


at Greatest Elongation:

Set the transit at one end of the line to be


observed and level it carefully. Find the star
Derivation of the Formula for Determining and sight the vertical hair on it. As the star
the Azimuth of Polaris at Elongation: moves almost vertically (upward for eastern
elongation and downward for western
From the PZS Triangle, using the Napiers rule: elongation) it requires slow motion of the
tangent screw to keep the vertical hair on the
star. Follow it until it seems to move'
vertically, which should be about the time
given the table of Ephemires. Lower the
telescope and set a mark in line with the. cross
hair on the ground. Reverse the telescope and
sight the star again and then set another point
along the first side. The point halfway
between these two should be the point in the
vertical plane of the star at elongation. With
sin b = cos (co - b) cos (co - c)
the values of declination and latitude given,
sin z = sin Bsin c
silve for the value of Z, using the relation that
. Z sin n
Sin =_:.L.. Z = P sec L. When the observation is at
. cos L
westem elongation, just subtract the value of Z
sin Z = sin p sec L from' to obtain the true azimuth of the star, and
if it is observed to be on the eastern
Let b = P elongation, just add the value of Z to • thus
B=Z obtaining the true azimuth of the star that
(90 - L).= c particular time of observation.
A=P
5-225

PilACTICAl ASTRONOMY

Determination of Azimuth by Polaris at


either Upper of Lower Culmination

The direction of the meridian may be


determined by observing with a transit at the
ins~ant when Polaris and some other stars are
in the same vertical plane and then waiting for
a certain lime until Polaris will be on the
meridian. At this instant Polaris is sighted and
its direction is then marked on the ground by
means of a stake. The observation to
determine when the two stars are in the same
vertical plane is done by the approximate
method by first pointing the vertical hair on
Polaris and then lower the telescope by Azimuth of AS = 180 + Z - H
pointing the star to be observed. At upper
culmination the Ursa Minor is exactly below
the Polaris and at lower culmination, the POLARIS AT WESTERN ELONGATION
Cassiopeia is also located directly below the
Polaris. This would be repeated until the
Polaris and the star other than Polaris, are
located on the same vertical hair. The
telescope now is pointing the true meridian,
and this is marked on the ground.

POLARIS AT EASTERN ELONGATION

Z"=P·secL
H = measured horizontal angle between star
and object.

Azimuth of AS = 180 - Z + H

Azimuth of AB = 180 + Z + H
Azimuth of AB = 180 - Z- H
5-226

PIICI.CllISTRONOMY

POLARIS AT UPPER CULMINATION

Azimuth AS = 180 - H

Azimuth AS =180 + H

1) Star between Zenith and Pole


N

NL.-_..L........;: ~

Azimuth AS = 180 - H
L=D-Z
L = latitude
POLARIS AT LOWER CULMINATION D = declination
Z=90-H
H =vertical angle

2) Star between the south and equator

N z

N'-----~-"""-_...... S
A

L=90-(H +D)
Azimuth AS = 180 + H L=Z-D
Z=90-H
S-227

PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY

3) Polaris at upper culmination (TANGENCY METHOD)


z SET I
Position of Position cf
Telescope Sun's Image

NL-_~::.L.:::iIC: .....J5
D
-P
L=H-P
P =90 - 0 (polar distance)
D
d-
L=D-Z
Z=90-H
R
~
4) Polaris at lower culmination
z
R
-b
SET II
Position of Position of
Telescope Sun's Image

1---1--1.4-:* ---15 R
-P
R
d-
L=H+P
P=90-D
D
~
Determination of AzilTluth by
D
-b
Solar Observation I
CENTER METHOD
Set up the transit at one end of the line
SET I
whose azimuth is to be determined. With the
telescope in the normal position, orient the Position of Position of
telescope due south, Sight the other end of the Telescope Sun's Image
fine and record the magnetic azimuth of such
line, Then rotate the instrument and point
approximateiy to the position of the sun.
D
-+
Taking precautions that observing the sun
directly through the telescopic eyepiece may
result injury to the eye. Good observations
can be made by bringing the sun's image to a
R

SET II
+
focus on a white card held several inches in Position of Position of
the rear of the telescope. Sight the sun in the Telescope Sun's Image
following order and recording each observation
the values of vertical angles, horizontal angle
and time. Using the tangent method, the cross
wires shall be made tangent to the left and
lower right as shown in the following sets of
R

0
+
-+
observations,
S-228

PRAcnClllSTRONOMY

Sight the other end of the line again and P+H+L


check whether the reading is still the same as S=-2-
that of the previous one. It must give the same P=corrected north Polar distance
reading otherwise the instrument is disturbed. H=corrected altitude of sun
Take note that the interval of time between any L = latitude of place of observation
two consecutive sighting shall not exceed 2
minutes, if it does, discard that observation.
The date of observation must also be recorded CONVERGENCY OF MERIDIAN
since values of the North Polar Distance from
the table is obtained from this date. Convergency of Meridian = is the meeting of
two tangents at each point of different
longitude as they recede to the north pole.
Solar Azimuth Formula:
Angular convergence in seconds = diff.in
cot ~ =" sec S Sec (S • P) Sin (S • H) Sin (S - L) long in sec. x Sine middle latitude.
A = azimuth of sun if observed in the afternoon.
360 - A =azimuth of sun if observed in the
moming.

S=P+~+L
P =corrected north polar distance

Correction applied = Diff. in hours from 8:00


A.M. or 2:00 P.M. multiplied by the
variation per hour, which is to be added
when observed between June 21 to Dec.
21, and to be subtracted when observed
between Dec. 21 to June 21. .

H = corrected altitude of sun, corrected for


parallax and refraction which is always
subtracted from the observed altitude.
o = angle of convergency
L =Latitude of place of observation.
f1 = latitude angle of AB
a =difference in longitUde between A and B
Determination of Time from OB = R = radius of earth approximately
Solar Observation 20,890,000 ft.
AB=O'Ba
Tan .1 = -V Sec (S - P) Sin (8 - H) AB
a=O'B
2 Cot~
2
Tan ~ =
Angle BOD = Angle BCO' = {J
& SSec (S - P) Sin (S - H) Csc (S - L)
BO'
12 - t = local apparent time (when observed in Sin J3 = BC
. the morning) BO'
t = local apparent time (when ob~erved in the BC= Sin B
afternoon)
S-229

PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY

With negligible error


AB=BCe
AB
0=BC
ButAB = BO' a
BO'
BC= Sin B
AB
0=BC
BO' a Sin B
0= BO'
e=aSinB
BO'=RCosB
AB
a=BO'

Let AB =d (distance between A and B)


d
a=RCosll
d Sin II
e=Rcosll
dtanll .
o =-R- (radIans)
o = 32.38 d tan B (seconds)
o =32.38 tan B(convergency correction)
For d = 1 kilometers
If d = kilometers,
R = in feet
o =3;~~:0~~ II 1~0 (3600)
o =32.38 tan f!,

To obtain azimuth based on base meridian,


subtract the covergency correction if the line is
on the east of base meridian.

To obtain azimuth based'on the base meridian, Parallax Correction:


add the convergency correction if the line is on
the west of base meridian. It is assumed that the celestial sphere is of
infinite radius and that vertical angle measured
from a station on the earth's surface is the sam
eas that if it would be measured from the
center of the earth. But for stellar or solar
observations these angles are not equal.
There is an error in this observed vertical angle
due to the fact. that it is· observed on the
surface and not on the cetner of the earth. This
error is called parallax.
S·230

PRACTICAlISTRONOMY

Combined Correction due to


Parallax and Refraction

H =corrected altitude
HI =observed altitude
hr =refraction correction
._-------
CELESTIAL HORIZON
-- hp = parallax correction
hrp =combined parallax and refraction
correction.

H=Hl- hr+h p
h = corrected altnude
H=H 1 - (hr - hp)
h1 = observed altitude
hp = parallax correction
h = h1 + hp (parallax correction is added)

Refraction Correction:

When a ray of light emanating from a CELESTIAL HORIZON


---------
celestial body passes through the atmosphere
of the earth, the ray is bent downward as
shown on the figure. Hence the sun or star
appears to be higher above the observer's
horizon than they actually are. The angle of
deviation of the ray from its direction on
entering ihe earth's atmosphere to its direction
at the surface of the earth is called the Combined correction due to parallax and
refraction of the ray. refraction is always subtracted to the observed
altitude.

h = corrected altitude
hI = observed altitude
hr = refraction correction
h = h1 - hr (refraction correction is
subtracted to the observed altitude)
5-231

PRACTICAl ASTRONOMY

ColTeCfed H= 35'16'15"
1-10"
H= 35'15'05"
P = 101'02'08"
L = 12'50'27"
28= 1S07-40
S= 77-33-50
P= 107-92-08
S-P= 29-28-18
S= 77-33-50
H= 35-15-Q5
S-H= 42-18-45