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Anthropometry Revision


Lee Wen
For my father.

With special thanks to

Zhou Bin, He Liping, Jiang Jing,

Wu Ren Guang, Lin Cheng Ying, Yan Cheng,

Kai Lam, Jeremy Hiah, Chua Chye Teck, Jason Lim

And all my relations

Copyright © 2008 Lee Wen, Singapore

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means,
including information storage and retrieval systems, without prior permission from the publisher,
except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages in a review.

Published in conjunction with

“Anthropometry Revision”,
solo exhibition by Lee Wen
at SooBin Art Int’l Singapore

10 to 27 September 2007

With the support of

ISBN 978-981-05-9112-0


Lee Wen

何军在他的工作室 He Jun in his studio, 2008 3

Life Is Yellow

Lee Wen
After almost a good half century closing off to the outside, China, as the 时至今日,世界最大的共产国家-中国在经过几乎整整半个世纪的封闭岁月
world’s largest communist country having embraced global capitalism, 以后,奉持环球资本主义,国内大批受过优良传统训练的艺术家快马加鞭地
concurrent with her armies of traditionally, skillfully trained artists absorbing 吸收着过去被人忽视的进步艺术理念,绘画也随之再次攀上主导地位。毫无
at a hurried pace the previously ignored progressive ideas in art, painting
once again regained dominance. No doubt a marriage of extreme polarities
in history and culture helped reinstall the Delacroixian dimension of the 定程度上得力于历史和文化上种种两极交泰。结果,艺术市场上出现了大量
indefinable within the framed pictures. The resulting art market boom of 的自由投机买卖。这股热潮主要由增长中的、意气风发的新贵阶级所推动。
laissez-faire speculation typically spurred by the growing, heady nouveau 它使得原本可喜的矛盾调和面临被扭曲的危险。放纵的人心不顾一切的疯狂
riche population face a danger of distorting the welcome resolution. In order 与诡变无常,足以产生了无生气的偏见。为了抗衡这种偏见,为了不让艺术
to counter effete prejudices brought upon by reckless vagaries of human
laxity less we descend further into the travesty and consequence of art losing
The day is blue 日子是蓝色的 its autonomy, it is then essential to mediate and re-instigate the indefinable 因激进的逆流路线,由此入手,传导并再度发扬艺术“难以言喻”的价值。
silence is green 沉默是绿色的 values of art via a re-investigation of Klein’s radical intervention.
life is yellow 生命是黄色的 我在伊夫.克莱因的画作当中,选了一幅特别契合我们眼前这个时代的杰
light traces 光线描出 I have chosen the work particularly pertinent to our contemporary time of 作:《蓝色时代的人体测量术》。或许有的人不认为这是他最受欢迎、最成
lines that never end 永不终止的线条 Yves Klein’s repertoire, ‘Anthropometries of the Blue Epoch’. Some may
not see it as his most popular, successful or strongest work. The Wall and 功或者最具实力的作品。《墙壁与火焰喷泉》曾经在克雷菲尔德让大众着
And I linger, 而徘徊不去的我,
transfixed by indifference! 因淡漠而凝滞不动! Fountain of Fire enthralled the public at Krefeld and his own delight with the 迷,画家也为这样的反应感到鼓舞,往下跟进而画出了一系列的火焰画。据
response spurred him to follow up with the series of fire paintings. Through 为他辩解的皮尔.勒斯坦尼所言,克莱因通过这些作品,找到了自己力度浑
-Yves Klein 1 -伊夫.克莱因1 these, according to his apologist, Pierre Restany, Klein found his all-powerful 厚的风格。5 虽然我承认,这些作品就克莱因《宇宙的产生》和他的艺术语
style. 5 Although I would concur with the merits and importance of these
Art is a manifestation of human consciousness, and artists with imagination 艺术是人类意识的一种表现。富有想像力的艺术家给予未来翻天覆地的可能 works in Klein’s cosmogony and context, nevertheless pardon my cynicism
due to fire’s intrinsic seductive characteristic to easily charm and overwhelm, 灵的特性,原本就容易使人入迷、深有所感。我始终倾向于把《蓝色时代的
give a radical possibility for the future. However it is still within limitations 性。然而,一面努力,一面抱有流芳百世的希望,还是作为凡人的我们所能
of our capacity as mere mortals that we endeavor and hopefully endure for my inclination remains with ‘Anthropometries of the Blue Epoch’ as a 人体测量术》视为一种策略性的提示。它提醒我们要夺回艺术的自主性-尤
posterity. The shifting contexts of history does not allow all that we create strategic reminder to reclaim art’s autonomy, especially in relationship to the 其是针对我们当前所处的局面。
or postulate a permanent harmonized relevance no matter how sturdy our 设定的一切无法长久地跟上时代、与世共谐。这种无常的变化,在艺术家配 current scenario we are in.
intentions may be. And yet it is these very changes that one beckon and 合时代的节奏加以召唤及实现之下,偏偏又是艺术作品展现革命性的契机。
effect in tempo with the times that makes the work of art revolutionary. Although Klein claimed to have overcome the problematics of art,
conceivably it was an incomplete conquest. It was Pierre Restany who 的征服。画作系列的名称-“人体测量术”,是皮尔.勒斯坦尼所取的,后
Klein was dissatisfied with painting or perhaps he foresaw how painting was gave the name, which Klein subsequently adopted, calling the series 来为克莱因所采纳。6 取名如此,既有一种富于诗意的说明作用,又不无问
洛瓦所掌握的-也就是当初引领自己走向群青单色画的-那种“难以言喻” ‘anthropometries’. 6 The use of this name is at once poetically illuminating
losing the ‘indefinable’ essence as commanded by his protagonist Eugene 题地呈现了某种自我矛盾。根据克莱因的论述,画家的斗争,旨在通过色彩
Delacroix: ‘The merit in the picture is the indefinable ’, that first led him to the 的神韵(所谓“图画之佳,在难以言喻之处”)。2 无论如何,与其说他是 as it is problematically self-contradictory. The battle according to Klein’s (在他个人,具体为蓝色)脱离线条、形体、轮廓和构图,从而融入空间之
ultramarine monochromes. 2 Nevertheless he was more a conceptualist than 个创作蓝色单色画的抽象画家,毋宁说他其实是个概念派艺术家。克莱因不 prescription was to break away from lines, forms, contours and compositions
中,与它完全同化,达到自由的境界。7 我们怀疑:克莱因的浪漫设想忽略
an abstract painter of blue monochromes. Not only was Klein misunderstood 仅被人误解为抽象画家,事实上,认定他只偏爱一种颜色(即蓝色)也是一 through colour, blue in this case, that one may be dispatched into and
to be an abstract painter; it is also a mistaken notion that he had a become in total identification with space hence freedom. 7 One suspects 了某些政治情感。
predilection for the colour blue alone. Had he lived on beyond his untimely Klein’s romantic notions overlooking political sensibilities.
early death at age 34, conceptual approaches on the other two favored 人体测量术原本是法国执法人员亚方斯.贝蒂荣(1853-1914)所创立的。
colours, pink and gold might gain more prominence in his oeuvre. 3 渐显得更为突出。3 Anthropometry was originally created by French law enforcement officer, 在指纹侦察法尚未发明的年代,这套学问讲究以测量网格为背景,拍摄脸部
Alphonse Bertillon (1853-1914) as a systematic collection and classification
照片存档,并对这类照片加以系统收集及分类,以辨明被捕罪犯的身份。 8
Painting reigned supreme at the time that Yves Klein made his proposition 当年伊夫.克莱因提出着眼于艺术无形性的主张,正值绘画称雄之时。战后 of mug shots against grids of measure in order to identify captured criminals
towards an immateriality of art. His was a spiritual intervention against long before fingerprinting was invented. 8 Any body imperfections were noted 有异于常的生理畸形,据说在罪犯身上较常出现;因此凡是身体上有任何缺
the odds of rising American capitalism, consumer materialism, as the art in detail to be used as a checklist of physiognomic indicators, as criminals 陷,无不详细记录,列成面相特征标示单,供一一核对。运用人体测量术的
world gravitates towards the industrial and political power of post-war U.S., 崛起的美式资本主义与消费物质主义,如此提出力挽狂澜的精神诉求,却只 are deemed to be more likely to be having malformations deviating from 人们相信:按照身体类型,可以预测某人将有犯罪行为。这套方法后来发展
which unfairly placed him below echelon with his contemporaries. Since his 有欠公允地被人评为那个年代艺术家中的下品。1961年,他的作品在纽约 normality. Not only was Anthropometry used in the belief that criminality 成科学种族主义,被用来显示种族之间的优劣,并且成为鼓吹优生政策的依
1961 disappointing reception in New York’s prestigious, trendy Leo Castelli 素享盛名而又时髦的里欧.卡斯特利画廊,只获得令人失望的反应。此后的 could be predicted according to the body type, later developments saw
scientific racism employed to show ways in which races were inferior to 据。
Gallery, subsequent posthumous showings hardly helped recover Klein from 几次遗作展,基本上也没能改变美国人自我专注、看扁克莱因的态度。4
the snubby, self-absorbed American attitude. 4 others and the advocacy of eugenics policies.
Klein’s use of nude female models as ‘living brushes’ harks back to painting’ 克莱因以裸体女性模特儿作为“活画笔”,看似有父权制绘画传统之风,但
s patriarchal traditions unless paraphrasing Richard Huelsenbeck’s ‘dada 也可能只是发扬理查德.胡森贝克所谓“达达是警察的警察”这一说法,9 发
is the police of the police’ 9 it could be a Dadaist humorous dig at the police 挥达达主义式的幽默,针对警察具有歧视性的侦查方式以及他们对理想化身
discriminatory scrutiny and privileging idealized body types. Klein spoke of
individual action and creation by way of imagination and sensibility in order
to attain physical and spiritual freedom. At the same time he eloquently 通过想像力和敏锐的感觉,成就肉体与精神的自由。同时,他又雄辩地提倡
advocated working in co-operation and communality to bypass art integrating 合作与集体团结,以避免艺术被融入现实生活之中。10 但是,他终究保持了
into real life. 10 And yet he kept his distance, immaculately dressed donning 一定的距离,一身洁净无垢的穿着,一面戴着无比洁白的手套,一面以权威
pristine white gloves while pointing out instructions authoritatively to his
models. In this light I hasten to push the anarchical tendency further by
working together with fellow performance artists, indiscriminating towards 品中的反规范倾向,故此与其他的行为艺术家一起合作,不分性别、体型。
gender or body types.
My proposal would also involve the replacement of blue with yellow instead, 和语境。归根结底,能否进入画面感受的无形境域,并不在于是否采用蓝色
a colour closer to my own trajectory and context. It is not a matter of the
specific colour of blue, which would allow entry into the immaterial pictorial
zones of sensibility. Immaterialization, not dematerialization 11 is the ultimate (dematerialization);是“以一次巨大的跳跃,从边缘反弹”11,是回归
goal, ‘to rebound in one prodigious leap, from the brink’ 12 , the road back to “难以言喻之处”以及生命体验之玄奥的道路。用黄色,不仅不偏离我们现
the indefinable and the mystery of life experience. The use of yellow is not in 今所处的境况,反而是因其促成,甚至是因其而绝对不得不如此。实际上,
divergence, but in fact concomitant, if not of utmost necessity in our present 黄色不正是脱胎于克莱因所喜爱的三色之一-金色吗?正如他本人所言,
situation. After all is not yellow a derivative of gold, one of Klein’s favored
colours in his chromatic trinity, and as he said: ‘life is yellow’. At least for

Notes 注释

1 Yves Klein, Overcoming the problematics of art: the writings of Yves Klein/ translated, with an introduction by Klaus Ottoman. Paris, Spring Publications, 2007 p.11
2 Ibid. p. 21 and p. 47 n.30
3 Pierre Restany, Yves Klein: fire at the heart of the void. Paris, Spring Publications, 2005. See Fire and Gold, p. 18-21
and Fire and Blood: the colour pink and its place in the chromatic trinity, p. 22-27.
4 Ibid. p.43; John Canaday, ‘I Got the Klein Blues’, The New York Times, February 5, 1967;
Benjamin Buchloch,H.D. Klein and poses. (artist Yves Klein)(Into the Blue), Artforum International; 6/22/1995
5 Pierre Restany, Yves Klein: fire at the heart of the void. Paris, Spring Publications, 2005 p.39-51
6 Weitemeier, H. Klein. Cologne: Taschen, 2001. p.51-55
7 Yves Klein, Overcoming the problematics of art, Paris, Spring Publications, 2007, p. 19-21, p. 71-78
8 Wikkipeadia Anthropometry http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthropometry (July 17, 2008)
9 Wikiquote Dada http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Dada July 17, 2008
维基语录“达达”条目,见 http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Dada(2008年7月17日)。
10 Yves Klein, Overcoming the problematics of art, Paris, Spring Publications, 2007, p. 74-78
“I am not a performance artist, this is not a work of art”
11 As opposed to ‘dematerialization’ with its improbable claim and resistance against art object production and commodification,
advocated by Lucy Lippard in, Six Years: The dematerialization of the art object from 1966 to 1972, New York: Praeger, 1973.
相对于露茜.利帕所倡导的“非物质化”(dematerialization)以及其相关的、怪异的论断和反对艺术物品之制造/商品化的说法; ASIATOPIA,
详见露茜.利帕:《六年:1966至1972年间艺术物品的非物质化》,纽约普拉哲1973年版。 Bangkok, Thailand
12 Yves Klein, Overcoming the problematics of art, Paris, Spring Publications, 2007, p. 71 1998
伊夫.克莱因:《克服艺术的疑难问题》,巴黎春天出版社2007年版,第71页。 Photography: Koh Nguang How
Out of The Blue...Comes Yellow:
Chromatic Ambivalence and The Archive In Lee Wen

Adele Tan
Journey of a yellow man Journey of a Yellow Man No. 2: the fire and the sun
一个黄人的旅程 International Sculpture Symposium,
Gulbarga, Karnataka, India
City of London Polytechnic
Dec. 1992
April 1992, London

an aspect of its sensory feature that correlates it with or points directly to 的痕迹,也是抵抗寻求意义分类和意义典型的工具理性的表述行为。麦克
something else, such as the painterly surface indexing the trace of the 斯·霍克海默(Max Horkheimer)和西奥多·阿多诺(Theodor Adorno)
Colour is dangerous. It is a drug, a loss of consciousness, a kind of 色彩是危险,是毒品,它令人失觉、使人目盲-至少在某一瞬 bodily activity of the artist. 4 To take the indexicality of yellow seriously, 在《启蒙辩证法》中指出,“再现同时是进步和倒退的媒介”。 5 于是,再
blindness – at least for a moment. Colour requires, or results in, or Lee could arguably be putting back into our reception the freedom within
the materiality of colour (constituted within the dyes and paints in excess 现成为对自然的征服和理性中的本能,这不仅体现于对艺术自我的创造,也
perhaps just is, a loss of focus, of identity, of self. A loss of mind, a kind 或者其本来如此。也可能让人神智混乱、谵妄、疯狂。但并非 of the light refracted in our eyes) as that trace of the artist’s dexterous 体现于否认横亘于傲慢的自我意识与深奥的自然/它者之间的鸿沟。也就是
of delirium, a kind of madness perhaps. But not always, and not for
everyone. At the other end of the spectrum, so to speak, there is colour of
总是如此,也并非人人如此。另一方面,可以说也存在着另外 and sensuous application of paint, a performative that moves to resist the 说,李文身上的涂料在某种意义上,将黄色保持为顽固的、不可化约的实
another and altogether less cataclysmic and dangerous kind: cosmetic 的、更少灾难与危险的色彩:装饰色彩。 - David Batchelor 1 instrumental reason that seeks to categorise and stereotypify meaning. 体,一层难以摆脱的、怪异的表皮染色,它已经不仅仅是个再现性象征手
colour. – David Batchelor 1 As Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno demonstrate in The Dialectic of
Enlightenment , ‘representation is the vehicle of progress and regression 法,而是沾染我们渗进入我们。在《泼溅》(2003)中 ,李文赤裸身体,

The ‘yellow man’ and the person of Lee Wen are by now virtually 到现在,“黄人”和李文这个人已经成为事实上的同义词:艺术家、表演和 at one and the same time’. 5 Representation thus being the overcoming 无畏地迎接一桶桶泼到他脸上身上的黄色颜料。黄色具有侵略性。流动而粘
synonymous: the artist, the performance and the ethnic appellation all of nature and instinct through reason in the production of the artistic self 稠的颜料在他脸上身上肆意流淌(有时像令人窒息的毒气),也泼到他身后
participate in a chain of mutually substitutable signifiers. The yellow man is a and also the denial of the gap between overweening consciousness and 的墙壁上,颜色消解了身体-自我与背景的边界线,最终在录象画面上将艺术
地引发不同的联想—从印度圣人到泰国天神。2 在他的“黄人之旅”表演系 the enigmatic nature/Other. In other words, Lee’s actual presentation of
shape-shifter, occupying a different evocation in each place he has travelled, 家完全浸没在一片黄色之中。这些有色颜料似乎没有服从边界,而是凭着不
from holy man in India to an avatar of royalty in Thailand. 2 With his series 列始于1992年,当时他还在伦敦城市理工学院学习,黄色贯穿了他的整个 the pigment on his body restores the colour yellow, at some level, to an
表演策略。但是我们要认识到,这一能指互换性并非没有代价,每次提到黄 obdurate, irreducible entity, a strange epidermal stain that cannot be so 可停歇的能量汩汩泛滥。颜色从艺术家皮肤蔓延到我们自己的身体感官,诉
of Journey of a Yellow Man performances begun in 1992 when Lee was
easily got rid of and it gets to us or inside us beyond a representative 诸我们的感情。我们是否可以不要再当政治正确的“色盲”那样无视肤色,
studying at the City Polytechnic in London, the colour has been consistently
symbolism. In Splash (2003), Lee stands unflinching as pails of yellow paint 而是真正看看颜色的作用?
deployed throughout Lee’s performative tactics. But let us be aware that this 致皮肤发黄的“黄疸”,“胆汁质”带来的不满与敌意难道不会令人恐惧 are relentlessly hurled at his face and bare body. The yellow is aggressive.
interchangeability is not without its cost, for each time the colour yellow is 吗?但这一“黄疸化视像”的主题什么?我们被告知,黄色代表阳光、黄 Fluid and sticky, the paint not only ravishes Lee’s face and body (at points
mentioned the spectre of its violence is also raised. Is it any wonder that this 也就是说,黄色注定要以中国人为主要意义。李文在表演中用黄色传达他
帝、可能还有黄河,但这个“有色”形容词同样用于表达色情淫秽、以及对 acting like a suffocating miasma) but also the wall behind him, immersing the
should be the case when ‘jaundice’, the yellowing of the skin due to excess
亚洲人的贬损。 artist wholly into the yellowed-out video screen image by almost obliterating 的样子和他在世界上的位置,同时,这个颜色也充满了心理矛盾—即对同
bile, also connotes the perception of bitterness and resentment? But who is
the contours separating his body-self from the background. The coloured 一对象存在这相反的意图、态度或感受,特别是爱恨并存。梅兰妮 . 克莱茵
the subject of this jaundiced view? We have been told of the glory of the sun,
paint appears not to obey boundaries but overruns and bubbles with
the Yellow Emperor and the mighty Yellow River, but the ‘coloured’ adjective “黄人”作为一个象征形象出现在李文的素描、绘画、录象和摄影中,简而 ( Melanie Klein )认为,精神矛盾性在我们的情感中占据中心位置:爱与
entrapped energy. Colour segues from the surface of the artist to that of our
applies equally to prurient smut and the derogatory bracketing of Asians. 言之,成为一个代表。但是黄人也指他把黄色颜料涂在自己皮肤上,从而在 毁灭不可分割地投射到同一对象上,于是矛盾成为对象自身的特质。这个矛
own bodily reception and appeals to our affects. Could the question then be
视觉上加剧了更加“不可见”的种族色差体制,这个颜色不仅是象征性地再 not to see beyond colour in the politically correct notion of ‘colour-blindness’ 盾的对象具有同一性,既和善仁慈又充满敌意,它让人如此难以忍受,于是
The ‘yellow man’ has appeared as a figurative image in his drawings,
现,也真正影响到我们。他在模仿陈旧作品的同时,通过加入一层黄色, but to see the very work that colour performs? 挣扎于这一困境的主体将对象分裂为好坏两部分。李文最早在伦敦把自己涂
paintings, videos and photographs, in short, a representation. But the
yellow man is also the literal pigment painted over his skin, the paint visually 给老东西带来麻烦。在“黄人之旅5号:自由索引”(1994)的艺术家陈述 成黄色时,以此代表混乱、“不完全”的意思。他作为华人后代、亚洲艺
That said, the colour yellow is ineluctably and heavily cathected to what
exacerbating the more ‘invisible’ mechanisms of racial chromatism, the 中,他问道:“我已经是黄色的。我为什么把自己涂成黄色?”3 他就黄色 术家的身份无可置疑,但是就他的个人经历和作为后殖民地居民的角度来
it means to be a Chinese person. The colour has been used in Lee’s
colour more than just representing something (as in a metaphor) but also 可能代表的东西列出一张单子(太阳、月亮、金子、高贵、以及被残害被压 performances to negotiate his presence and position in the world but is at 说,他又不是一个真正的中国人。李文讲英语,在英国上学,而他所生长
doing something, acting on us. It is Lee’s mimicry of the stereotype, but by
迫),但他忘了黄色最基本的功能—即如他题目中的“索引”。哲学家查尔 the same time one that is filled with psychic ambivalence – the simultaneous 的新加坡也是不同于共产主义中国的发达资本主义社会。 6 对李文来说,黄
redoubling it, he troubles it. In his artist’ statement from Journey of a Yellow
斯·桑德斯·皮尔斯(Charles Saunders Peirce)认为,索引以其感官特征 existence of contradictory tendencies, attitudes or feelings in the relationship
man No. 5: Index to Freedom (1994), Lee perturbingly asks: ‘I am already to a single object, especially the coexistence of love and hate. For Melanie 色绝对是个驯服的颜色,不是因为它有影射“中国佬”的贬义,而是因为
yellow. Why do I paint myself yellow?’ 3 He gives a list of what the colour 而定义,这些特征将其与其它事物相联系,或使其直接指向其它事物,例如 它暗示了新加坡与中国类似的威权政治。在他的近期作品“比你更中国”
Klein, the notion of psychic ambivalence is central to us: love for the object
could potentially mean (the sun, the moon, gold, nobility and finally the 美术画面可以索引到艺术家身体活动的痕迹。 至于黄色的索引性,李文可 is inseparable from its destruction and so ambivalence becomes a quality (2007-2008)表演系列中虽然不再表演黄人,却不仅戏仿了全球化品牌竞
colour of the persecuted and oppressed) but he has forgotten the other more 以联系到我们在色彩物质性意义上能够接受的自由度(色彩的物质性不仅包 of the object itself. As such the ambivalent object is one and the same
radical function of the yellow paint as ‘indexical’, as suggested by his title. An 争的潮流,也撕裂了中国与离散中国人群体在身份认同上的温情想象。 7 一
括折射到我们眼中的光,还包括颜料本身),它是艺术家娴熟的感官活动 time perfectly benevolent and fundamentally hostile, so intolerable that the
index, according to the philosopher Charles Saunders Peirce, is defined by subject struggles against his predicament by splitting it into a good and bad 度明确的意识形态距离现在开始模糊,或者说,在对于新中国超级权力的
object. It was London which first surfaced yellow for Lee as an indicator
of dislocation, as a ‘not quite’. It was evidence of his identity as an Asian
artist, Chinese by descent yet not quite Chinese in terms of his own
personal history and postcolonial subjectivity. Lee spoke and was educated
in English and Singapore was an advanced capitalist society distinct from
the Communist structures of China. 6 If anything, yellow is an uneasy
colouration for Lee, not because of its manifest pejorative connotations of
a ‘chink’, but because of the indicative proximity with authoritarian politics
that conjoins Singapore with China. This comes to a head in his latest series
of performances titled More China than You (2007-2008) which, although More China Than You #2
not performed under the aegis of the yellow man, parodies not only the [我比你中国]
competitive rush towards a global branding but also drives a rift between Vital 07,
facile imaginary identifications with China amongst the diasporic Chinese Chinese Arts Centre, Manchester.
communities. 7 The historical ideological distances that were once in place 20 Nov.2007
Photo: James Champion
are now blurred or disregarded in the eventual courtship of the new Chinese
superpower, the conflation of the neo-Confucian values with economic
instrumentalism that blinds us to the conflicts and contradictions within the
individual political systems. 终极追逐中,这些意识形态距离已经被视而不见,新儒家价值观与经济工
In his second version of the performance at the VITAL festival of Chinese
performance art in Manchester, Lee made a paper boat with three small
chopstick-effigies of Queen Elizabeth, Mao Zedong and Yusof Ishak, 李文的第二次表演是在曼彻斯特 VITAL 中国表演艺术节上,他做了一只纸
the latter two heads of state cut out from the dollar bills from China and 船,上面有三个木棍雕像,分别是伊丽莎白女王、毛泽东和尤索夫·伊萨
Singapore. Printed sheets of paper declaring stock Chinese slogans from
(Yusof Ishak),后两个人的头像参照人民币和新加坡币上的肖像而作。
‘Dominant One Party Rule’ to ‘One Party Two Systems’, from ‘Rule of Law’
to ‘Democracy’, were each held up to the audience before Lee crumpled the 他准备了一些印好的中国式标语,如“一党专政”、“一国两制”、“法
sheet up and tucked each ball of paper into his mouth, attempting a failed 律”、“民主”等等,先把每张标语展示给观众,然后将其揉成纸团,放
mastication before spitting it out onto his paper boat. The artist’s body in 进嘴里咀嚼,可是怎么嚼也嚼不烂,于是吐到纸船上。吞咽-呕吐体现了
ambivalence is reflected in the gag-reflex, the words being easily spoken
but less easily ingested and proving to be intolerable. And in extending this
contradictory tug of affects into a relay with others, the audience was then 令人无法忍受的。这一矛盾的感情挣扎随之牵扯到他人,李文邀请观众玩
asked to play a game of catch and throw with a Chinese cabbage as ball 一个游戏,要求观众把一棵中国大白菜像球一样相互抛接,如果在此过程
before Lee tied it to a roll of sticky tape and dragging the cabbage out onto 中,李文拿到大白菜,就会把白菜绑到一卷胶带上,并且连同纸船一起拉
the street together with the paper boat laden with an uncooked mackerel
spiked through with the three effigies, which was later burnt as a ritualistic
offering. 作为祭品烧掉。

Another product of the push-pull process of disavowal is Strange Fruit 另一件反复拒绝式的作品就是《奇怪的果实》(Strange Fruit)
(2003), which shows the concatenation of his ‘yellow’ skin with other ethnic
signifiers. Carrying an oversized kavadi -like body canopy made out of kitschy
red plastic Chinese lanterns that hid from sight the upper-half of his body, like a forlorn alien organism floating in the sea.李文背着一个像大号赎罪
Lee walked the streets of eastern Singapore and finally reached the sea, 架一样的人形顶蓬,顶蓬由艳俗的中国塑料红灯笼做成,挡住了他的上半
into which he submerged himself, disappearing into the water and leaving 身。李文从新加坡东部的街道走到海边,走进海中,将自己完全浸没到海
the lantern structure looking like a forlorn alien organism floating in the sea.
The colour yellow and other stereotyped images are figured as ‘productive
ambivalence’, as Homi Bhabha puts it, ‘that “otherness” which is at once 的典型形象成为霍米.芭芭(Homi Bhabha)所说的“建设性矛盾”, 他指
an object of desire and derision, an articulation of difference contained 出,““另类”成为欲望和嘲笑的对象,它表达出起源和身份幻想中的差
within the fantasy of origin and identity’. 8 And as stereotype, this is ‘a form 别”。 8 它作为陈旧的典型,是“一种知识形式、辨别形式,在“各就各
of knowledge and identification that vacillates between what is always “in
位”的已知和必须焦虑重复的东西之间摇摆不定”。9 李文作为一个华人,
place”, already known, and something that must be anxiously repeated’.9
For Lee to be Chinese needs no proof but as an artist in the global 并不需要证明什么,但是作为一个艺术家,他身处以狩猎身份政治为己任
multiculturalist apparatus that preys on identity politics, he must constantly 的全球多文化系统中,就必须(以表演手段)证明一些永远无法证明的事
prove his participatory status by proving (through performing) something 情,才能来不断证明他的参与地位。因此李文“黄上加黄”不同于布鲁
3. Splash #1 that can never really be proven. Lee’s ‘yellow on yellow’ is thus unlike Bruce
colour photograph 斯.瑙曼(Bruce Nauman)的“艺术捏造”(Art Make-Up)(1967-68)。
Nauman’s Art Make-Up (1967-68) where he systematically masks the upper
50.8cm X 60.96 cm (20in X 24in) 布鲁斯·瑙曼把自己的上半身有序地饰以不同颜色—先是白色、然后是粉
September, 2003 half of his body in different colours of paint – white, then pink, green, and
then finally black – the title implying the creative making-up of an aesthetic 色、绿色、最后是黑色—题目暗示对审美自我的创造性捏造,以及自我消
self, the playful exchange between self-erasure and exposure. In it Nauman 除和自我暴露之间的游戏式对换。瑙曼坚决地将身份位置的持久性 of the art world elite in mandatory evening dress, who 半正式晚礼服,在整个表演过程中与“绘画”保持
is decidedly problematising the constancy of the location of identity, 作为一个问题,以不同色带将去除艺术自我的物质形态,但是对李 were alternately bored and shocked by it. The judo 距离,百余位特身着正装晚礼服的艺术界精英应邀
dematerialising the artistic-self within the various chromatic stages, but for Lee, exponent and Rosicrucian mystic in Klein saw the
文来说,黄色不断提示着一个外在的强制律条,这个律条时不时地 前来观看,他们不是百无聊赖,就是大受惊吓,应
the yellow is an unremitting reminder of an externally enforced codification, human body as physical but replete with sensorial and
at times wholly absorbing and dissipating individualised artistic intent. The 就会把个性化艺术意图完全同化或者驱散。由此,瑙曼作品中解放 spiritual energy and therefore available as potential 付这些人足以令克莱因头昏脑涨。克莱因具有柔道
liberatory anonymity or infinitely indeterminate identity afforded to Nauman is 的无名氏或者无穷尽的模糊身份,成为李文无法拥有的奢侈品,事 ‘living brushes’ which he could direct albeit externally, 情结以及玫瑰十字会式的神秘主义,他认为人体包
therefore a luxury which Lee does not have and in fact masks and conceals the 实上,李文在遮掩这样一个事实—颜色有力量凝固我们的目光、决 allowing him to remain detached from his work 含的不仅仅是肉体,也充满感知与精神能量,因此
reality that colour possesses a power that fixes our gaze and perceptions. 10 10 whilst imbuing it with sensorial control. 12 The messy 相信身体可以成为“活的毛笔”,使他既能够置身
corporeality of the artist’s body is expunged by Klein’s
Certainly Lee has not always performed with his yellowed-out body. He is quite hygienic methods, him preferring instead the passage
often seen in his other everyman uniform of a white shirt (or black pullover), 当然,李文并非在所有表演中都把自己涂黄。他表演时也常常穿最 into transcendental values even though achieved 中。13 克莱因以卫生方法清洁污浊的肉身,他更喜
black trousers and black lace-ups, presenting himself as an ordinary man- 普通的白衬衫(或黑色套头杉),黑裤子,黑系带鞋,让自己看上 paradoxically through the phenomenological presence 欢这一过程所体现的超验价值,尽管荒谬的是,这
cog in the wheel of capitalism. In Is Art Necessary? What is Art For? (2002), of flesh: 一超验过程在就其现象学意义而言呈现为肉体:
Lee, dressed in his nondescript garb, carried on both arms two wing-like white
boards each asking the questions posed in the work’s title. Like a downtrodden 要?艺术有什么好处?》(2002)中,李文穿着他那身毫无特点的 It would never cross my mind to soil my hands
Icarus 11 , he stalked the pavements of the Esplanade Theatres in Singapore, 衣服,双臂带着像翅膀一样的白色板子,每个板子上都有作品题目 with paint. Detached and distant, the work of art
asking passers-by to inscribe on his boards their responses to his questions. 中提出的问题。他像坠落的伊卡洛斯一样,在新加坡滨海艺术中心 must be completed under my eyes and under my 手。我必须要置身事外并保持距
Outmoded figures of reference are also revitalised through Lee’s interventions, command. As the work begins its completion, 离,同时也必须让作品在我眼前,
(Esplanade Theatres)便道,请路人在他的板子上写下他们对问
if only because he is so acutely aware of the cultural co-optation by the I stand there — present at the ceremony, 根据我的指令完成。当作品完成,
mainstream which reduces old countercultural positions into safe palatable 题的回答。在李文的介入下,过时的人物也重新焕发活力,他是如 immaculate, calm, relaxed, perfectly aware of
ones. In Too Late the Hippie # 3 , performed also at VITAL 07, Lee put back into 此敏锐地意识到,主流层面的文化合作将旧有的反主流文化降到了 what is taking place and ready to receive the art
view that of the marginalised hippie from the 1970s, whose fashionably long being born into the tangible world. (Yves Klein, 静,放松,完全了解现场状况,并
安全而可口的位置。同样在 07 年 VITAL 节日上表演的《嬉皮太晚 3
tresses and drug-taking was a criminalised image in Singapore. Laying out a ‘The Chelsea Hotel Manifesto’, 1961) 且准备好接受即将诞生到这个真实
circle with archetypal tie-dyed cloths and a trough of water placed in middle, 世界的艺术。(伊夫.克莱因,“切
Lee proceeded to scatter bags of hair remnants over the cloths and into the 为时尚的长绺发和吸毒在新加坡都属犯罪形象。他把打好领带的典 Having wrested Anthropometry of the Blue Epoch out 而西旅馆宣言”,1961)
trough, distributing afterwards picture-cards of the marijuana leaf which were 型服装摆成一圈,中心放一个水槽,接着把一袋袋头皮屑撒到衣服 from the sanctity of Klein’s archives, Lee proceeded
irreverently captioned ‘This is Not a Leaf’ , in homage to René Magritte. And 上和水槽里,之后分发把大麻叶的图片,图片上挑衅地注明“这不 to re-situate the performance in a Chinese context,
as he took to the trough and began to wash his hair in the water, Lee emerged conscientiously recalibrating every structural 李文摘去克莱因《蓝色时代的人体测量术》的神圣
是叶子”,以此向雷尼·马格里特(René Magritte)致敬。当他走
not the hippie but that of the authoritarian Other, brandishing a pair of scissors element. Anthropometry Revision: Yellow Period 光环,把它放在中国语境中表演,并且谨慎调整其
and swishing its blades, threatening to cut the hair off his audience members. 到水槽前洗头时,并不像个嬉皮士,倒像专制的“他者”,挥舞着 (after Yves Klein) was presented at Red & Grey Art 中每个构成元素。《人体测量术修订:黄色时期
But this threat is precisely what needs to be recalled, in Lee’s terms, if only to 一把剪刀,刀刃飕飕带响,威胁着要剪下观众的头发。但唤起这种 Contemporary in Chengdu, China, in the afternoon (在伊夫.克莱因之后)》于 2008 年 4 月 13 日下午
instaurate the old challenge of the avant-garde against the burial of popular 威胁感正是他的目的所在。他希望恢复前卫运动的旧有挑战,来抵 of 13 April 2008. The potential for a revision of Klein
mass movements beneath the tame reception of commercialised knowledge. was always already present through the parts which
制对流行大众运动的失忆和埋葬,以及对商业知识的驯服接受。就 的可能性其实已经潜藏于原作压抑其压制的部分之
With this, I would place Lee’s everyman Icarus and hippie on the side of his it had repressed, for as Judith Butler reminds us,
yellow man and therefore, even in his ambivalence about yellow, Lee does not 这一点而言,我要把李文的普通人伊卡洛斯和嬉皮形象与他的黄人 ‘[w]hat is refused or repudiated in the formation of 中,朱迪斯·巴特勒(Judith Butler)提醒我们,
foreswear the re-application of it in diverse situations. The colour thus knows no 形象相提并论。即便他对黄色有着矛盾的感情,也没有停止黄色应 the subject continues to determine that subject. What “在主题中被否定或批判的东西仍然作为一种持续
closure but is that provocative smear on his skin that infects his audience – the 用于多种不同的情境,使得这个颜色没有终结,而是在他皮肤上煽 remains outside the subject, set outside by the act
的否定性定义,控制着该主题。”14 李文改变了原
colour is the thing that journeys. of foreclosure which founds the subject, persists as
动和感染着观众—也由此成为旅行的主角。 方案中完全被动的三个女模特,代之以李文、女艺
a kind of defining negativity.’ 13 The directed passive
But are there other ways to think about the work ‘yellow’ performs in excess bodies of the all-female group of models were thus 术家蒋晶和另一位男艺术家何利平三人,于是模特
of cultural politics? In his latest performances Lee presses his yellow into a 但是对于“黄色”表演作品,是否存在文化政治以外的思路?李文 replaced in favour of a more collaborative mode of 与艺术家之间有了更多的合作关系。模特执行艺术
different service, none more so than in his Anthropometry Revision: Yellow 的近期表演中对黄色另作它用,其中最典型的莫过于《人体测量术 performance comprising Lee, a female artist Jiang
Period (after Yves Klein) which is a considered re-enactment, or should I say re- Jing and another male artist He Liping. The condition
修订:黄色时期(在伊夫。克莱因之后)》,它再次上演了,或 表演,并且让她自己决定裸体或穿衣,最终她决定
engagement, of Yves Klein’s then controversial but indelible Anthropometry of of volition and agency was also factored in when Lee
the Blue Epoch (1960) at the Galerie Internationale d’Art Contemporain in Paris. 者说,是再次卷入了伊夫。克莱因 1960 年在巴黎国际当代艺术馆 asked Jiang if she would be comfortable performing 身着肉色紧身连衣库。克莱因的动机是去掉艺术家
As is well known, in a contrived late evening soiree, Klein directed three nude (Galerie Internationale d’Art Contemporain)展览的《蓝色时代的 naked, offering her the choice which she eventually 的手、自我和意图,却荒谬地驱逐了艺术家自己的 6. Too Late the Hippie # 2
female models to sponge themselves with his signature International Klein Blue 人体测量术》,这件作品当时虽饱受争议,却最终证明不可取代 12 declined by preferring to don a flesh-coloured full- 身体,使之无法介入或影响作品(克莱因偶尔也用 Vital 07, Chinese Arts Centre, Manchester. 20 Nov.2007
(IKB) paint and had two of them imprint their bodies against the large sheets of length leotard. Klein’s motivations and strategies of
如我们所知,在一个精心设计的午夜聚会上,克莱因指导三位裸女 自己的身体留下印迹,但在最终呈现的作品上,我 Photograh: Jason Lim
paper on the wall behind, climbing onto pedestals of different heights to create removing the artist’s hand, ego and intentionality,
a rhythmic composition of silhouettes, whilst the third rolled and was dragged 模特用海绵涂上以他名字命名的国际克莱因蓝,然后让其中两人把 had however paradoxically dispelled the invested 们从没见他弄脏自己的手或身体。)去个人化并非
7. Is Art Necessary? What Is Art Good For?
across the large sheet of paper covering the floor by the other two. They were 身体紧紧贴到墙上的大幅纸张上,他要求她们爬到不同的高度再贴 and affective states of the artist’s body (Klein did 去肉体化,讽刺的是,克莱因宣称消除艺术意图, Performance/ Video. Collaboration with Heman Chong
accompanied by a group of male musicians performing Klein’s Symphonie 到纸上,以达到最终画面构图的节奏感,第三个模特在铺在地面的 on occasion imprint his own body but we only see 却只是恢复了男艺术家的专横指挥。修订版中,艺 Singapore, 14 -24 November 2002
Monoton-silence , which was twenty minutes of one-note music followed by the final product, never his dirtied hand or body). To
纸张上翻滚,并且被另外两人拖拽过整个纸面。在此过程中,一群 术家李文不再是局外的控制者,而是与其他合作者
twenty minutes of silence. Dressed pristinely in a white-tie tuxedo, Klein kept his depersonalise is not to de-corporealise, and ironically,
男性乐师为其弹奏克莱因的“单调-静默交响曲”,乐曲总长 20 分 共同用身体作画。只有在他面对全部女性成员的民 8. Give Peace A Chance: Redux
distance from the ‘painting’ throughout the performance and was rather more Klein’s purported disarming of artistic intentionality Lee Wen with Kai Lam, Installation / performance, Singapore 2006
besotted with orchestrating the bodily spectacle for a hundred invited members 钟,只有一个音符,之后是20分钟的静默。克莱因身着朴素的无尾 only reinstates the magisterial co-ordination of the 乐队那一刻,他才是指挥,乐队中的五名成员各用 Photograph: Chua Chye Teck
male artist. In his revisionist enterprise, Lee removed the artist from his position 一件中国传统乐器,演奏中国五音音阶中的一个音。李文的“五音
as an external point of control and restored his body as comingled with his 交响乐”使用中国传统的五音音阶,不仅是为了对照克莱因的单音
other collaborators in the painting. The only point where Lee appeared to be 交响乐,也是为了对应西方音乐中的七音音阶。李文用中国风俗彻
conducting was when he was facing his all-female classical Chinese orchestra,
which was engaged to have each of the five traditional Chinese instruments play
one pitch of the five notes of the pentatonic scale. Lee’s ‘Pentatone Symphony’ 国际克莱因蓝。他们三人就像克莱因原作中一样,把好几筒颜料涂
made use of the five-note pentatonic scale of traditional Chinese music to not 到身上,但是克莱因的法国版相对克制,墙上的画面优雅而稀疏,
only contrast Klein’s Monotone Symphony but also to draw attention to the 李文版本的表演更加放任,演员们欢快而肆意地在墙上印满明黄。
seven-note heptatonic scale of Western music. The questions that so exercised
Lee about Klein’s performance were answered by Lee’s thorough sinicisation
of the work, with the most salient revision falling on the use of Lee’s signature 如果说,颜色在李文早期的表演中是文化识别手段,那么在黄蓝
yellow paint in place of the IKB. Like Klein’s models, Lee, Jiang and He helped 两色的遭遇中,颜色成为分辨审美和艺术史的手段。李文和克莱
themselves to the pails of pigment and covered their bodies in paint, but unlike 因的原作对着干,试图在原作发表近半个世纪后带来另一个角
the French version which kept up some measure of restraint and was elegantly 度,颠覆克莱因未曾意识到的控制欲,在分类学的边界上探索混
spare in the wall imprints, Lee’s enactment was more of the laissez-faire all-
over, and the performers became delightfully and messily coated in bright 乱中的秩序。不可否认,德国人体测量学家布鲁门巴赫( Johann
yellow. Blumenbach )( 1752-1840 )将历史上一度野蛮应用的身体测量
If colour was previously in Lee’s performances a measure of discrimination in 异》( 1775 )中提出人类可分为五个不同种族:高加索人种/白种
the cultural field, colour is now embattled within discrimination of an aesthetic
and art historical kind, that is, the confrontation of two colours, yellow contra
blue. Setting itself against Klein’s performance, Lee’s attempt nearly fifty years 人;马来人种/棕种人。尽管布鲁门巴赫无意将人种分类对应于高
after brings another dimension, upending the first work in its unacknowledged 低贵贱,但仍然奠定了体貌差异与心智特点比较研究的基础,这些
dynamics of mastery and classification, the ordering of chaos in the setting of 比较研究假设,人的差异体现为可见的体征差异,而非诸如语言、
taxonomic boundaries. What cannot be denied here is the historically violent 行为、穿着或阶级背景等社会性差异。 15 在这个意义上,克莱因的
application of anthropometry as the science of bodily measurement according
to physical traits as was developed by the German anthropologist Johann 《人体测量术》从来不是对人体外貌的中立描述,而是将其课题置
Blumenbach (1752-1840). It was in his On the Natural Variety of Mankind 于比色体系之下,通过对种族意义上的身体进行描述、测量和分
(1775) that he argued that there were five different races: Caucasian or white; 类,得出越“进化”的种族越“原始”的假定。 16 色彩偏见常常体
Mongolian or yellow; Ethiopian or black; American or red; and Malayan or 现为对色彩的反对,我们常常认为与色彩有关联的是情绪化、女性
brown. Although no initial hierarchy of positions was intended, Blumenbach’
s ideas nevertheless formed the basis for comparisons to be made between
physical differences and mental characteristics, the assumption being that 莱因作品的色彩改变带来一个结果,就是非理性的种族隔离装扮成
people’s differences were encoded in the visible surfaces of the body rather 理性的划分。
than in social characteristics such as language, behaviour, dress or class
backgrounds. 14 Klein’s Anthropometry can thus never be a neutral inscription
of bodily surfaces onto other material surfaces and its title is necessarily
implicated within the system of chromometrics through the physical description, 料弄到中国版《人体测量术》上的行为是对中国绘画商业化的谴
measurement and classification of racially defined bodies, marking out the 责,更确切地说,是指向在中国当代艺术的全球增长下,中国符号
putative ‘primitive’ from the more ‘evolved’ races. 15 Colour as prejudice is also 艺术的疯狂营销,以及艺术向资本主义的投降。这就是李文陷入的
frequently prejudice against colour and in our typical associations with colour, 艺术环境,没有克莱因视若珍宝的距离,即便抵抗也仍然会陷入共
we think it emotional, feminine, childish, irrational, unscientific, superficial and
thus not serious. Hence, one upshot of Lee’s re-colouration of Klein is that
irrational segregations are masquerading as rational divisions. 裸体移植到亚洲语境中。我想在这个问题上,李文的处理微妙而
Other questions are also broached in the yellowy sincisation of Klein’s 体测量术》中的人体呈现为性感的身体,不仅展露出女性圆浑的乳
Anthropometry . In Lee’s opinion, the action of painting in his Chinese edition of
Klein’s Anthropometry points an accusatory finger at the state of commercialised
painting in China, or more precisely, the shrewd marketing of Chinese symbolic 性性器官的形状。然而在李文的《人体测量术修订》中,坚决的生
motifs in the global rise of contemporary Chinese art, the capitulation of art 殖器崇拜被取代以李文及其合作者的平凡身体,特别是李文的身体
towards capitalism. This is the state of art that Lee is mired in. It is without that 因为先天性脊柱侧突,显得极为虚弱。黄色在这里可能是个难以忍
cleanliness of distance so cherished by Klein and thus utterly complicit in its 受的颜色,它一旦出现,就可以有效地扰乱我们。爱与性应该在艺
Strange Fruit # 4 trappings even as he tries to resist it. Lee also had to wrestle with the feasibility
colour photograph, of replicating the taken-for-granted nudity in performance in the Asian context.
50.8cm X 50.8 cm (20in X 20in) It is here, I believe, that Lee is at his most subtle and provocative because the 是负责将图景色情化。如果我们把题目中的“黄色时期”当真,那
September 11, 2003 yellow is conjoined with the naked body and we are invested in the solicitous 么(在英文中)“时期”一词也指女性的经期,月经正是性感最强
Notes 注释

1 David Batchelor, Chromophobia, Reaktion Books, London, 2000 p 51

David Batchelor, 《恐色症》, Reaktion Books, 伦敦, 2000 p 51
colour – in our nakedness, sex and desire. The bodily imprints of Klein’s 烈的时期,李文之前曾略有遗憾地批评表演艺术已进入“绝经期”,以 2 Joan Kee, citing Lee Weng Choy, in her ‘Envisaging hollowness in Singapore’, Art Journal, Vol. 60, No. 3, Autumn, 2001, p69
Anthropometries readily index the sexual body, showing not only the round “绝经”比喻创造力丧失、无力反抗现状,17 这恰恰与题目中的“时期(月 Joan Kee, 引自Lee Weng Choy, 见她的文章 “假想新加坡的空虚”, Art Journal, 2001
orbs of the female breasts, the torso and thighs, but curiously in Klein’s 3
经)”之意矛盾。 “时期”绝不意味结束或死亡,而会像李文的黄色颜料 Lee Wen, ‘Journey of a Yellow Man No.5: Index to Freedom’, 4th Asian Art Show, Fukuoka Art Museum, 10 Sept – 16 Oct, 1994.
deliberate and repetitive composition they were also made to resemble the 李文,“‘黄人之旅5号:自由索引”, 第4届亚洲艺术展,福冈艺术博物馆,1994年9月10日-10月16日。
male sexual organs, principally in the shapes made by schoolboy dobbing. 一样流淌不息。 4 Justus Buchler, ed, The Philosophy of Peirce, London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1940, p108. See pp107-111 for a presentation of Peirce`s ideas on the index. However, as is pointed out, it would
In Lee’s Anthropometry Revision however, the resolute phallic shapes are be difficult, if not impossible, to instance an absolutely pure index, or to find any sign absolutely devoid of the indexical quality.
altogether substituted by the mortal flesh of Lee and his collaborators, in 李文相信艺术的延续与发展,为了达到这个目标,他决定在近期作品直接回 Justus Buchler 编,《皮尔斯哲学》,伦敦,Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1940, p108。见第107-111页,陈述了皮尔斯关于索引的观点。然而,如书中指出,很难例举出完全纯粹的索引,
particular Lee’s fragile body which has been too unkindly ravaged by his 或者找到完全不具索引性质的符号。
顾表演史。我们常常听说,新加坡是个只有明天,没有昨天的地方,在此背 5 Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno, The Dialectic of Enlightenment, trans John Cumming, Continuum, New York, 1987 [1947], pp 34-5
congenital scoliosis. Yellow is perhaps here an instance of intolerable colour,
one which rightly disturbs us as it does it work. For there should be a place 景下,李文的选题显得独特而聪明。李文档案重现之旅的起点不是克莱因, Max Horkheimer和Theodor Adorno,《启蒙辩证法》,trans John Cumming, Continuum, 纽约, 1987 [1947], pp34-5
6 Woon Tien Wei, ‘Between Journeys: an Interview with Lee Wen’, Performance Research, vol 6, no l, 2001, p 4. Lee also broaches this anecdote about looking for Chinese portraiture and the only
for love and sex in art history : the place where colour is used to eroticise our 而是约翰·列侬和大野洋子1969年的《床上和平运动》。在一场反越战抗
one he found was a painting by Wang Wei which only showed his back. Through this Lee deduced that the rare attempt at portraiture in Chinese painting is related to how the artist perceives himself
vision instead of being a cultural cipher. And if we do take the ‘Yellow Period’ 议中,他们两人在阿姆斯特丹和蒙特利尔旅馆的床上待了一个星期,向全 in the artwork and that formed the motivation for Lee to continue with performance as his attempt to locate himself in his work.
in the title seriously, a period is also recognisably a woman’s menstruation, Woon Tien Wei, “旅途之间:李文访谈”, 《表演研究》, vol 6, no l, 2001, p 4. 李文也提到,他曾经想在国画里找些肖像画,但是只找到一幅王维的画作,而且其中只有他的背影。
世界媒体唱他们的摇滚民谣《给和平一个机会》。李文与新加坡艺术家 Kai
a sexualised fertility that counters Lee’s earlier slightly hasty lament that the 李文由此推论,国画中的肖像很少在意艺术家如何看待艺术品中的自我, 这也成为李文继续在其表演作品中表现自我的动力。
state of performance art has reached a ‘menopausal’ stage, his metaphor for Lam合作,把这个作品重新演绎为《给和平一个机会:回家》。他们在新加 7 The first performance was done at the Louisiana Museum of Art where he placed his head under a red tablecloth and hummed the Internationale (the revolutionary socialist anthem)while pushing
the loss of reproductive function and a sense of failure or impotence against 坡管理大学广场上安了一张床,以纪念911事件5周年。李文和Kai Lam劝观 a table up and down the space, getting gradually louder until exhausted. Lee later explained his performance title and proclaimed that the meaning of China/Zhongguo, the Middle Kingdom should
be from the centre of the human heart rather than the centre of the world. He then made the word “中” (Zhong/Middle) on the red cloth with some tape and added Mao and Lee Kuan Yew’s portraits
the status quo. 16 The ‘period’ does not mark closure or death, but flow, as is 众加入他们的和平示威,他们穿着睡衣,背着吉他,床头挂着“头发和平” on the two halves of the word. In its third incarnation in Tokyo in April 2008, Lee wore a mask juxtaposing an image of the Olympic torch with the Tibetan motifs of sun and sky, in order to gloss
promised in the materiality of his yellow paint.
和“床和平”的横幅。 李文认为,没有什么理想方法能治愈当下犬儒主义 the recent tensions in Tibet that have affected the Olympic torch relay. And instead of putting the paper slogans into his mouth, they were pinned to his back as he crawled through streets rolling a
cabbage. Inherent in Lee’s exhortations are the hopes that the faddish interest in China exceeds that of political and economic interests and that we should be interested in improving international
Lee’s bet is on the continuity and evolution of art but to do this he has 的不适,但对于不了解真正的政治斗争、不了解真正的反文化对立立场的一 peace through inter-cultural exchange.
chosen in his latest works to cast his focus squarely backwards onto 代人,重现历史就显得及其重要。李文在《FOI 4》图录中语出惊人,“自 第一次表演是在美国路易斯安那艺术博物馆,他把脑袋放在一块红桌布底下,一边哼唱“国际歌” (社会主义革命歌曲),一边把桌子到处移动,越唱声音越大,直至耗尽全力。李
文后来解释了他的表演题目,指出中国的意思是中间的王国,这个国家应该存在于人们心灵的中心,而非世界的中心。 之后,他用胶带把“中”字贴到那块红布上,并在“中”字
performance histories. This is an unusual but apt gambit given that we 满是愚人的奢侈,未来并不足够”,我们可以清楚地看出,他回到故纸堆, 两侧加了毛泽东和李光耀 的肖像。2008年4月在东京的表演上,他带的面具并列着奥运火炬和西藏太阳旗,以注解近期影响到奥运火炬传递的西藏紧张局势。他没有把标语纸带吞
are often told that Singapore is a place only of tomorrow but no yesterday.
从表演档案中查询以前的思考和工作方法。[18]其中的大部分工作采取了居 到嘴里,而是别在后背上, 他背着标语在大街上一边爬行一边翻滚着一颗白菜。李文的劝戒在本质上是希望对中国热的关注超越政治经济利益,更多关注如何通过国际文化交流促
Lee's archival jaunt however began in fact not with Yves Klein but with John 进世界和平。
Lennon and Yoko Ono’s 1969 Bed-in , an anti-Vietnam War protest where the 伊.德波(Guy Debord)的绕道策略,对这些作品的重现其实也是对预期进 8 Homi Bhabha, The Location of Culture, Routledge, London, 1994, p67
couple stayed in bed for a week in their hotels in Amsterdam and Montreal 程或目标的颠覆和转换。李文对历史作品的重现是开放式的表现,利用过去 Homi Bhabha, 《文化的位置》, Routledge, 伦敦, 1994, p67
and sang their anthem Give Peace a Chance to the world’s media. In Lee’ 的标志性表演谴责丧失锋芒、被拉拢和征用的艺术实践现状。最后,我们要 Ibid, p66
s re-enactment in collaboration with a fellow Singaporean artist Kai Lam, 同上p66
让目光回到黄人,我们需要弄清,这个颜色到底是真的危险且充满力量,还 10 The multiplicity that Lee wishes to inhabit but encounters constant inhibition is implicit in his fable cum artist’s message in the catalogue of the 4th Asia Art Show in Fukuoka, Japan, 1994. He
Give Peace a Chance: Redux was staged as a bed-in at the concourse of
the Singapore Management University in order to commemorate the fifth 是因为它充满力量而被认为危险。 tells of an eagle that has lived all of his life among the chickens and thought himself one of them until it was enlightened by another eagle that it could actually fly. In time it learnt the innate
abilities of eagles but foolishly returned to the chicken coop wishing to share with his old friends his newfound skills only to be caught and had its wings clipped by the farmer boy who had initially
anniversary of September 11. Lee and Lam exhorted the crowds to join them stolen it as an egg from an eagle’s nest.
in their demonstration for peace and pacifism whilst dressed in their pyjamas 在1994年日本福冈第4届亚洲艺术展览图录的寓言+艺术家信息中中,李文暗示了他希望出现的多样性遭到持续的抑制。在他讲述的寓言中,一只鹰一辈子生活在鸡圈中,以为自己
and armed with a guitar, and the signs ‘Hair Peace’ and “Bed Peace’ aloft 也是一只鸡,直到它看到另一只飞翔的鹰才有所领悟。此后它很快掌握了鹰的天赋能力,却愚蠢地回到鸡圈,希望与老朋友分享它的新本领。于是当初把它错当成一只鸡蛋偷来的
over their bed. In Lee’s mind, this is not merely an idealist antidote to the 农场小子把剪掉了它的双翅。
11 Klein’s first attempt at such a working method was at a dinner party at his friend Robert Godel’s apartment in Paris in 1958. A nude female was covered in Klein’s signature ultramarine blue paint (the
current malaise of cynicism but the very importance of reviving histories
IKB) and she dragged herself over a gigantic piece of white paper laid on the floor. Using her hands and body to spread the paint over the paper, she left the impression of her body in the texture of
for a generation which has no knowledge of real political strife or effective the paint.
countercultural (op)positions. As Lee fabulously opined in the catalogue 克莱因最初尝试这样一种工作方法是1958年在他朋友Robert Godel公寓的晚宴派对上。一位裸体女性涂上了以克莱因命名的群青色(国际克莱因蓝),然后她把自己拖到地上一张巨
for FOI4 that ‘complacency is the luxury of the foolish and the future is 大的白纸上。 她用手和身体把颜料涂到纸上,最终她以颜料为材质留下了自己的身体印迹。
not enough’, we can clearly see why Lee has returned to old digs and is 12 ‘Having had rejected brushes as too excessively psychological already earlier, I painted with rollers, in order to be remain anonymous and at a “distance” between the canvas and myself during

querying the performance archive to bring forward previous considerations the execution, at least intellectually ... Now, what a miracle, the brush returned, but this time it is alive: it was the flesh itself that applied the color to the canvas, under my direction, with a perfect
and working methods. 17 Much of this is guided by Guy Debord’s tactic precision, allowing me to remain constantly at an exact distance “x” from my canvas and thus continue to dominate my creation during the entire execution.’ See Yves Klein, ‘Le vrai devient réalité’
/ ‘Truth Becomes Reality’, <http://www.yveskleinarchives.org/documents/vrairealite_us.html >
of detournément, the recuperation which is one and the same time a “毛笔的心理意义过大,所以我改用滚筒作画, 以保证不带个人特征,并且在操作过程中保持我与画布的“距离”,至少是思想上的距离...现在,毛笔奇迹般地回来了,但这次它
subversion and a diversion away from the expected course or purpose. For 是活的,它就是肉体本身,沾上颜料,画到布上,这些身体在我的控制下,精准地完成画面,并且使我与画面保持了准确的“X”距离,由此也仍旧主宰了我的整个创作过程。”见
Lee’s reprising of the archive is also very much a prising open and in ways 伊夫.克莱因,《真理成为现实》<http://www.yveskleinarchives.org/documents/vrairealite_us.html >
using past iconic performances as reprisals against the defanged and co- 13 Judith Butler, Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of ‘Sex’, Routledge, London and New York, 1993, p190

opted status of current art practices. In ending, we should return our sights 朱迪斯.巴特勒,《重要的身体》, Routledge, 伦敦与纽约, 1993, p190
14 In his notes, Lee cites the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus rather than Blumenbach. Lee had in mind the father of taxonomy, the man who invented the classificatory divisions for scientific
to where we began, with the yellow man, and to acknowledge that colour is
dangerous and dynamic, or rather taken as dangerous because it is potently representation. Blumenbach, however, as an intellectual descendent of Linnaeus, entrenched Linnaeus’ methods further through the measured and observed human differences in skull size and shape
as well as in skin colour.
dynamic. 李文的笔记中对瑞典植物学家卡尔.林奈乌斯(Carl Linnaeus)的引述多于布鲁门巴赫。李文记下他是分类学之父,发明了科学表述的类别划分。而布鲁门巴赫,作为卡尔.林奈乌斯
15 See Anne Maxwell, Colonial Photography and Exhibitions: Representations of the ‘Native’, Continuum, London, 1999, pp38-41
见Anne Maxwell, 《殖民摄影与展览:“原住民”再现》,Continuum, 伦敦, 1999, pp38-41
16 See Lee Wen, Future of Imagination 4: International Performance Art Event, 27-30 September 2007, event catalogue, p8-9
Surfaces of The Political: Lee Wen
见李文,《想像的未来4:国际表演艺术事件》,2007年9月27日-30日, event catalogue, p8-9
17 Lee is however by no means alone in such endeavours and he joins a line of artists who have tried to subvert Klein’s infamous action, in particular the feminists. Klein’s performance has been 政治性事物的表面:李文
roundly chastised and rebuked by feminists, a number of them making a send-up spoof of the action. In Rachel Lachowicz’s Red Not Blue, 1992, Shoshana Wayne Gallery, Santa Monica,
California, Lachowicz replaced Klein’s naked women with muscular men and his signature blue paint with red lipstick. She rubbed this over the model’s naked bodies and then dragged them across
large sheets of paper placed on the floor. In Cheryl Donegan’s Kiss my Royal Irish Ass, 1993, Andrea Rosen Gallery, New York, Donegan performed a pastiche by wearing a green bra, a G-string
and black engineer boots while she squatted in a puddle of green paint. She then pressed her paint-covered buttocks to sheets of paper on the floor to form a four-leaf clover pattern, the national
symbol of Ireland. At the end of the performance, she sat on a chair and drank a pint of Guinness, another symbol of Ireland.
Ray Langenbach
李文在这些努力中并不孤单。已经有许多艺术家、特别是女权主义者,试图颠覆克莱因的恶劣行为,李文加入了他们的行列。克莱因的表演受到女权主义者的有力谴责,若干女 雷.郎根巴赫
权主义者还对他的表演作了滑稽模仿。雷切尔.拉科维茨(Rachel Lachowicz)创作的《红非蓝》于1992年在 加州圣塔莫尼卡的乔沙那韦恩海浪 (Shoshana Wayne Gallery)展览,
(Cheryl Donegan)于1993年在纽约安德里亚.罗森画廊(Andrea Rosen Gallery)展出了她的《亲亲我的皇家爱尔兰屁股》,她在这件戏仿作品中身着绿色胸衣、G-string内裤 、黑色

Adele Tan is a writer and critic from Singapore. She is completing her doctoral dissertation at the Courtauld Institute of Art in London
and is also Assistant Editor at the London-based journal Third Text. Her abiding interests include discourses on the body, performance, 1. Signs 1. 符号
psychoanalysis and feminist practices.
In the next few paragraphs I will touch a few of the surfaces of the complex 我将藉以下的几段文字,针对李文过去数十年来大量而又复杂的创作,略为
陈韦纯(Adele Tan)是新加坡的作家、批评家。她在伦敦科陶德美术学院完成博士论文,并担任伦敦《第三文本》(Third Text)杂志的助理编辑。她在
and extensive body of work produced by Lee Wen over the past few 谈论其中的几种表面。李文与其他许多行为艺术家一样,以或可称为“行为
decades. Like that of many other performance artists, Lee Wen’s work
is based in what might be called a performance iconics, relying on the
strategic deployment of visual and kinesthetic symbols and signs. His use 运用。有鉴于李文采用这套特别注重符号的形式,他的作品算是归属近期亚
of this emphatically semiotic convention positions Lee Wen’s works in a 洲行为艺术的一种大趋势。据我猜测,它的源头在于四种文化条件的交织-
larger trend of recent Asian performance art, which I speculate derives 一是当代的,其他三种则是源自传统。中国的象形文字、京剧和视觉艺术传
from a braid of four cultural conditions, one contemporary and three rooted
统,在东南亚散播开来的印度舞蹈 / 戏剧肢体语言,以及日本的舞踏,无不
in tradition. Singapore performance art has been profoundly influenced
by China’s glyphic writing, Peking Opera, and visual art tradition, by the 影响了新加坡行为艺术。在这些早已落定的文化积淀以外,具有世界主义精
Southeast Asian diaspora of India’s gestural language of dance and theatre 神的行为艺术家还需要寻找跨越语言障碍的沟通方式。
throughout SE Asia, and by Japanese Butoh. Superimposed on these earlier
sedimentations, is the need of cosmopolitan performance artists to find a
以“形象 + 示意动作 ”为本的表演,也带有源自西方及亚洲表演艺术传统
way to communicate across linguistic boundaries.
These image + gesture based performances also carry certain encoded 治动原。西方的动作表演传统,可追溯到18世纪的现实主义舞台母题,以及
attributes derived from both Western and Asian performance traditions: 19世纪的象征主义和浪漫主义-当然还有20世纪的现代主义前卫派。在东
the human body as signifier and signified, and as both economic sign and
political agency. The Western tradition of gestural performances reaches
back to the theatrical motifs of 18th century Realism, and 19th century 以及其他本土民间流行表演形式的元素。要欣赏李文的杰作,在根本上就必
Symbolism and Romanticism and, of course, the 20th century modernist 须承认这其中种种的两极碰撞-本土性 / 环球性、现代主义 / 传统、形式使
avant-gardes. In South East Asia, performance art also recalls and restores 然者 / 偶然如此者,以及表面 / 深层等。
elements from local folk and popular performance conventions, such as
Kebyar, Wayang Kulit, Bangsawan, et al. Acknowledging the collision of
these polarities–local/global, modernist/traditional, formal/contingent, and 李文使用多种视觉及雕塑能指,包括动物的心脏、活鸟、死鸡、鸡蛋、各类
surface/depth– is fundamental to an appreciation of Lee Wen’s works. 工具、乒乓球、铁链、吉他、箱子、桶,以及(经常出现的)黄色油彩。利
Lee Wen uses many visual and sculptural signifiers, including animal
“Journey of a Yellow Man No. 2: the fire and the sun” hearts, live birds, dead chickens, eggs, tools, ping-pong, chains, guitar,
“International Sculpture Symposium”, boxes, buckets, and, with great regularity, yellow paint. The deployment of 家,在舍弃有连贯性的较长对话(或独白),改而运用符号与象征时,既无
Gulbarga, Karnataka, India semiosis as performance strategy has been readily accepted by international 须苦于寻求到位的同步翻译,也避免了翻译过程中难免出现的误译或误解。
Dec. 1992 audiences, while more articulated verbal performances are often lost in 此外,他们也避免了在表演进行中,看到欲会其意而不得的当地观众不耐烦
translation. By deploying signs and symbols rather than longer, coherent
verbal dialogues or monologues, performance artists working internationally
avoid the problems of finding adequate simultaneous translation, and the 象:默默无言的行为艺术家仅依赖相当有限的一套动作和道具,抽掉所有话
inevitable mis-translations or misinterpretations that go 语,如此而免于就历史、政治、社会或哲学现象涉入
hand-in-glove with translation. And they avoid seeing 高度复杂的思辨分析。结果,以研究为基础的思想工 ‘read’ backwards as the forewarned and frightened public avoids the chicken’
irritated local audiences who cannot access their s fate by altering their behaviour before any successive prosecutions are
meanings walking out for a smoke in the middle of the ‘necessary’. The result of the cautionary spectacle is self-censorship a
performance. But on the down-side, this has resulted in 械反应式政治,以及欠缺研究根底的伪历史。 situation in which the antidote to what the government perceives to be social Ghosts Stories
the phenomenon of the muted performance artist who poison, becomes the poison. In Lee Wen’s performances this complex
Kwangju Biennale, Kwangju,
syphons all discourse through a quite limited lexicon of 不过,有些艺术家倒是运用了各类复杂的触觉指号和 political ritual is lifted out of historical context and deftly distilled into a series
South Korea
gestures and props, and is thusly buffered from having to 动作,并且在表演中也不回避语言。比如李文,便是
of verbal-gestural tropes.
September November 1995
engage in a complex and reasoned analysis of historical,
political, social or philosophical phenomena. This sort 如此。他在用上语言时,一般也将它呈献为指号,经 Photo: Lee Wen
2. Surfaces
of research-based intellectual labor is often displaced 常是配合相应的行动,重复某些短句或标语。举例而
by simplistic knee-jerk politics and unresearched ersatz 言,他1995至1997年间称为《鬼故事》的行为 / 装 In 1935, during the establishment of Nationalist Socialism in Germany, the
histories. 1 German philosopher, Hans Freyer, wrote of how the German people had
2. 表面
置艺术系列 当中,就对新加坡常用的一句话-“杀
come to “experience the power, the magnitude, and the infinite depth of the
鸡吓猴”-加以重复使用及直观化,以此指涉政府的 1935年,正当德国国家社会主义建立之时,德国哲学家斯·弗赖尔撰文提
political....” (Sluga 1993:88) The ‘depth of the political’ Freyer was referring
Yet some artists, such as Lee Wen, have engaged a 一种控制策略。这句话在李文手上作为能指,乃是指 to was the desire in post-depression Germany for wedding of politics with 到了该国民众如何“体会到政治性事物的威力、庞大以及无穷深度”(斯鲁
complex array of haptic icons and gestures, and have 代新加坡和其他国家(如韩国)所感受到的压抑。据 action, ideology and philosophy: a moment when thought and action, the 格:1993年,第88页)。弗赖尔所谓“政治性事物的深度”,指经历过大
not shied away from the use of language in performance. 他所言,它意味着: spiritual and the physical would all come together with a sense of national 萧条之后的德国渴望将政治结合行动、意识形态及哲学三者的欲求。这里求
When language is used, it too is usually presented identity to produce a new Germany. Tragically, the goal was as fascistic and
iconically: repeated short sentences and slogans, usually 的是思想与行动、精神与实体带着一份国家认同感聚合起来,产生一个新德
as it was idealistic– an idealism founded on acts of discrimination and ethnic
running in parallel to analogous actions. Consider, for [......] 一种典型的社会控制方式。我以此作 cleansing. 国的精彩时刻。可悲的是:这个目标不仅是理想主义式的,更是法西斯主义
example, his series of performances/installations1 entitled 为一种视觉隐喻,指向出于政治动机、不予审 式的。其理想主义其实是建立在歧视性行为和种族清洗之上的。
Ghost Stories from 1995- 1997 in which he repeatedly By contrast, rather than Freyer’s idealistic modernist evocation of depth and
讯而将人监禁的极刑 [......] 、社会的排斥
used and visualised a phrase, commonly used in naturalised ideologies of blood and earth, Lee Wen focuses on the post- 弗赖尔以理想主义式的现代主义精神召唤深度、召唤已融入本土的血与土的
Singapore “kill the chicken to frighten the monkey” (杀 以及 ......] 对自由的极端压抑。 modern surfaces of identity, the skin and the nation as cultural construction
鸡吓猴 sha ji xia hou) as a reference to a strategy for 意识形态。李文则不然。他的焦点所在,是后现代的身份认同的表面,是作
– as mask. This representation is no less idealistic perhaps, and often tinged
government control. Lee Wen used the phrase as a with the romantic... but is always laced with irony. 为文化构筑、作为遮掩的“皮肤”与“国家”。也许这样的表现方式依然是
signifier of repression in Singapore and other countries, 理想主义式的,并且往往染上一丝浪漫色彩... 但它也总是掺杂着反讽意味。
such as Korea. In his words, it connotes: 则是用西班牙语的翻译版),像个怏怏不乐的
In a recent image from the performance, More China Than You #4 (2008),
亡灵般念念有词。有时,我是利用物件来加以 we see Lee Wen masking his body’s surfaces with banal objects and 在取自最近《我比你中国#4》(2008年)这项表演的一个图像中,我们看
[…] a typical way of social control. I used this
暗示。比如:在光州的装置项目中,就有 16 slogans of daily life, ideology and nation. But Lee’s most ubiquitous and
as a visual metaphor for the extreme punishment 到李文利用平平无奇的物件以及日常生活、意识形态和国家的各种标语,遮
resonant mask is the skin itself.
of political detention without trial [….] social 只光秃秃的鸡,浮在众多装有甲醛的蜜饯瓶 掩身体。可是,李文最常展现、最能激起回响的遮掩,无非是皮肤本身。
ostracism and […] extreme repression of 罐中。瓶罐围绕着一张长桌,桌面铺着军用毯 In the Journey of a yellow man series, Lee Wen painted his body with yellow
子,桌子下面传出诸多猴子的尖叫声。另一种 paint, exacerbating his genetic stereotype. 2 Of Han Chinese descent, Lee 在《一个黄人的旅程》系列中,李文用黄色油彩涂满身体,放大了他人对他
is of course no more yellow than black people are really black or whites 的基因特性的普遍成见。2 当然,具汉族血统的李文并不真是黄色的,正如
I sometimes repeated the words in english (in 做法是:我在表演当中(在波兰和墨西哥),
really white. These are linguistic tropes used to mark and discriminate 黑人不真是黑的,白人也不真是白的。黄黑白,只是语言上的譬喻,被人用
mexico i used the spanish translation) during 一面反复说这句话,一面斩鸡。(李文2003年3 culturally constructed ‘races’ or ethnicities. They are ‘anthropometries’, that
the performance like an incantation of an 来标示及区别作为文化构筑的“种族”或种族特点。我们不妨说它们是“人
月3日电邮通信,原文如此) is, methods for measuring genetic differences. When performing, the painted
unhappy ghost. or sometimes it is suggested in 体测量术”,也就是测量基因差异的方法。涂上油彩的身体,在表演中产生
body has the curious effect of altering the entire colour-scape around it. For
objects i use. eg in the installation in Kwang Ju
example in this image of the Yellowman, all the surfaces become enhanced: 奇异的效应,仿佛能够改变它周围的整个色景。比如在这个“黄人”图像
[Guangju] there were 16 bald chickens floating “杀鸡吓猴”借助了象征性处死和现实中政治性恐吓
in formaldehyde in fruit preservation jars the pinkness of the skins of these two “white” witnesses, the mottled blue- 中,所有的表面都因而提升了视觉效果:两个“白种”旁观者皮肤的粉红
之间的暧昧不明。猴子(老百姓)被警告:假如不把 green of the wall behind them, the sienna wood-trim, the grey of the
surrounding a long table with military blankets 色、他们身后墙壁的碧蓝斑驳、赭色的木质饰条、人行道的灰色、男子的双
as table cloth and sounds of monkeys screams 警告当一回事,不纠正往后的行为,自己也必将死在 sidewalk, the man’s double-breasted grey suit; the woman’s red-patterned
from under the table. or i chop up a chicken 刀下。人们于是逆读因果-事先被警告而又心生恐 top and black dress; his black hair; her grey hair. They stand at a discreet
distance from the small hyper-ethnicised Chinese man, wearing only briefs. 谨慎地与那身材矮小、只穿着三角裤的、超种族化的华族男子保持距离。在
during the performance (in poland and mexico) 惧的民众,在当局有“必要”再进行任何起诉之前,
In this photo he ironically seems to have become the sign of the racial other 这幅照片中,黄色男子一下子显得外在化、恋物化,似乎已变成了一种带有
while repeating the saying (Lee Wen, email
赶紧改变了自己的行为,从而免于遭遇像鸡那样的厄 as homunculus, suddenly exteriorized and fetishized. But a precarious new 调侃意义的符号,是代表种族他者的小矮人。然而,某种不太稳当的主观性
correspondence 3/3/03, sic.).
1. “Untitled”, Aciones en Ruta, Mexico City and Encuentro Intl de Performance Yucatan, Merrida, Mexico. 运。这种具告诫性质的场面所带来的结果,是自我审 balance of subjectivity is struck, and the question arises whether he is their 平衡却于此重新形成;我们不禁要问:到底黄人是另外两人的种族想像,两
“Kill the chicken to frighten the monkey” works on the 查- 被政府视为化解社会毒素的解药,于此反而本身 ethnic imaginary, or are they his (or both). It is as if, by limiting his naturally
2. “Almost untitled: swimming to motherland”, REACH ambiguity between
OUTLYING a symbolic execution and real political
2005 Tipalive mottled skin colour to a single wavelength, Lee Wen becomes known to
又变成了“毒药”。李文的表演,将这一复杂的政治 限制在单一波长的同时,李文仿佛因此而真正走进我们的认知仿佛我们曾经
Taiwan International Performance Art Festival, Taipei,threat.
TaiwanThe monkey (citizenry) is warned that it too will us. Uncanny and strangely recognisable, as if we had seen him before. No
仪式剥离其历史背景,并且以精湛的手法升华为一系 longer a body but an embodied trope, Lee’s body is transmuted into sign, 在哪里见过他,这个又古怪又莫名其妙地似曾相识的人。李文的身体于是不
come under the knife unless the warning is taken to heart
3. “Black Market international”, 13th Performance Artand subsequent
Conference behaviours
- “The Art are altered. Causality is
of Action 111”, 列言语 / 动作譬喻。 returned to haunt us. 再是身体,而是一个实体化的譬喻,是转化成符号,再回来缠绕我们心头。
Podewils‘schen Palais, Berlin, Germany Photo: Heman Chong
6. More China Than You # 4
[我比你中国] 7. Journey of a yellow man no.13: fragmented bodies/shifting ground 8. Untitled: yellow man
‘Four Artists from Singapore’, The Third Asia-Pacific Triennale of Contemporary Art In collaboration with System HM2T: Helge Meyer and Marco Teubner
26cc, Rome, Italy Queensland Art Gallery, Brisbane, Australia 2nd Open Art Festival, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
July, 1, 2008 September 1999 16 Aug. 2001
Photo: Kai Lam Photograph: Andrea Higgins Photo: Arai Shin-ichi

But isn’t this the very definition of the cliché? A sign that keeps reappearing, 可是,这不恰恰是“老套”的定义吗?一再出现的符号,丝毫不费心力的、 evil, Nosferatu. And it is linked to an abnormal medical mathematics of the 罪羔羊;此外又包括满腹阴谋的、道德上的猎食者理查三世,以及违逆自
the all too easy metaphor that incessantly returns to haunt the collective 不断回来缠绕我们集体意识的隐喻,不正是陈词滥调吗?说起来,蓝人乐团 body: measurements of the deformation from the norm, radical statistics and 然、绝对邪恶的妖魔诺斯费拉图。我们还可以说,它跟变态医学的人体数学
mind? The Blue Man Group provides this sort of all too recognisable image, 也同样呈现了这类令人感觉非常熟悉的形象,只不过他们所暗喻的实体完 radical physics. (对畸形与常态之间的差距加以测量的行为)、激进统计学和激进物理,都
but in their implied physical perfection providing a post-fascist bourgeois
美,彰显的是一种后法西斯中产阶级理想。蓝人乐团组合纯粹因为克莱因好 有联系。
ideal. Merely because of Klein’s use of blue, the Blue Man Group has also The locus of Lee Wen’s spine in performance is not in his body but in the
shown interest in the latter’s Anthropometry. So predictable…and cute. No 用蓝色,也对这位画家的《人体测量术》显露兴趣。多么可想而知又多么可 bodies and hermeneutics of the audience. So, to repeat my question above
real concept; just Blueishness. (As the Beatles put it, “Are you Blueish?”) 爱。这里没有任何真实的概念,只有“一点蓝色”的存在。(犹如披头四所 “How do we (each of us individually, including Lee) read Lee Wen’s spine 在行为艺术表演中,李文的脊椎其实不在他的身体内,而是在观众的身体和
说的,“你是否有点蓝?”) in performance?” Thirty years after Susan Sontag’s Illness as Metaphor 诠释之中。故此,我必须如此重复我上面提出的问题:“我们(个别的每一
The import of the Yellowman cuts deeper with its post-colonial hyper- (1978) it is far too simplistic and problematic to think of Lee Wen’s spine as a 个人,包括李文自己)该如何解读李文在行为艺术表演中的脊椎呢?”苏
radicalization (see, for example the untitled collaborative performance with metaphor. In contradistinction from a metaphorical interpretation, I speculate
黄人的喻义,还因为本身的后殖民超激进化而显得更为深刻。(比如李文于 珊·桑塔格写出《作为隐喻的疾病》(1978年)至今已过了30年,我们今
Helge Meyer and Marco Teubner at the 2nd Open Art Festival, Chengdu, that the metrics imposed upon his body is more appropriately read through
Sichuan. The Yellowman was mutely and passively hanging from a pole like 四川成都所举行的第2届“打开”国际行为艺术节上,连同赫哲·梅耶和马 a historical biometric tradition that was deployed by Britain to measure and 天如果再把李文的脊椎想成是一种隐喻,未免过于简单化,也太有问题了。
a half-dead or resigned slave, held over the shoulders by the two Germans, 克· 特布讷呈献的无题表演项目,便很能彰显这一点。 当时黄人沉默而被 categorise its colonial subjects. 相对于隐喻诠释而言,我猜想我们可以通过某一套生物认证历史传统,更恰
who walked around the town seeking to sell him back to the Chinese public.). 动地垂吊在一根杆子上,像是个半死不活的人或者已经认命的奴隶。那两个 当地解读强加在他身体上的衡量标准。我指的是英国曾经用来测量其殖民地
Yet, perhaps because of its homogeneity the Yellowness also becomes a In an 1868 article, J.H. Lamprey, Librarian of the Royal Geographical Society, 臣民、加以分类的一套方法。
safe symbolic surface – a kind of utopianism of the skin + gaze. But there is 德国人把他扛在肩上,在城里到处行走,寻求将他再售卖给中国大众。)然 in the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Society , entitled ‘On a method
something just under the unified and simplified Yellow surface that defies it: a 而,李文的黄,或许因为它的均匀,所以也成为了安全的象征性表面-某种 of measuring the human form, for the use of students in ethnography’ , laid
painful rupture in homogeneity that recalls a former era of violent biometrics: “皮肤+凝视”的乌托邦主义。剖开这层统一、简单化的黄色表面,底下又 out his method for photographing colonial subjects, criminals and others of 1868年,皇家地理学会的图书管理员J.H.蓝普瑞在《皇家人类学会学刊》上
the artist’s spine. 何尝没有与其相悖的东西呢?底下正是撕裂均匀的创痛,有过去暴力性生物 ethnographic interest, such as the working class. Lamprey’s and Thomas 发表了一篇文章,题为<论供学习人种志者使用的一种测量人类形体的方法
Henry Huxley’s 3 ‘Anthropometric Projections’ spurred the London Colonial > 。文章陈述了他的一套拍摄照片的方法,拍摄对象为殖民地臣民、罪犯,
3. Spine Office in 1869 to request of all Colonial Governors that ‘photographs might
以及人种记录兴趣所在的其他群体(如工人阶级等)。蓝普瑞及赫胥黎 3

be collected in the Colonies having much ethnographic value, and illustrating
Lee Wen’s spine: the aftermath of a late adolescent –early adult scoliosis 3. 脊椎 the peculiarities of the various races within the British possession’ (Cooper
is part of every Lee Wen performance. I want to ask, “How do we read Lee 1990: 60). “在殖民地内,对凡是极具人种记录价值、能显示属英国统治的各种种族怪
Wen’s spine in performance?” But it’s intimate relationship to the body of the 李文的脊椎:青少年型脊柱侧凸的遗害,是李文每场表演的一部分。我想 异之处的照片,加以收集”(库柏:1990年, 第60页)。
viewer –in this case my body– refuses the use of the plural. I also suffered Lee Wen’s Anthropometry Revision: Yellow period (after Yves Klein), now
问:“我们该如何解读李文在行为艺术表演中的脊椎呢?”但是作为观赏者 has produced an ironic hyper-ethnic re-staging of Yves Klein’s reference
from an adolescent Scoliosis, but mine was caught early and improved with 给殖民地臣民的身体打上印记的、具有强烈种族主义色彩的人种志式系统,
a brace and exercises. Lee’s spine was left to its own devices and curved 的我,自己的身体也与此关系密切,故此不免抗拒在发问中使用复数的“我 to a virulently racist system for the ethnographic imprinting of the bodies of
们”。我本人也曾受过少年型脊柱侧凸之苦,不过问题发现得早,最终通过 colonial subjects. When Klein did his work in 1960, France was losing its 过去曾为伊夫·克莱因所指涉。如今,李文的《对人体测量术的修订:黄色
in such a way as to produce a new radical symmetry, with the upper section
of the spine curving right and the bottom balancing it to the left. While I last colonies. They were defeated by the Vietcong at Dien Bien Phu in 1954, 时代〔仿伊夫·克莱因〕》已针对他的指涉,注入反讽,打造出富有超种族
experienced the rigid autocracy of the brace day and night, producing an and the Algerian War of Independence was beginning its final phase, leading 意味的重新表现。1960年,当克莱因埋头创作之时,法国正在失去它最后
indelible memory of a deep pain in the vertebra that would never entirely to Algerian independence in 1962. Klein’s reference to colonial biometrics 的一批殖民地。法国人于1954年在奠边府被越共打败,而阿尔及利亚独立
leave me, according to Lee Wen, his disease was not linked so much to pain 的经历,日日夜夜完全受制于严酷的支架,会让人就椎骨的深度痛楚烙下不 belies French colonialism, but also resonates with Singapore’s own colonial
as to an altered relationship to gravity and self-awareness. For both of us 可磨灭的记忆,终身难以全然忘怀。不过,据李文表示,他的病与其说联系 experience as part of British Malaya, where anthropometric photography was
and millions of others with this disease, Scoliosis is linked with a mythology pioneered. The history and politics in this performance is played out at the 因对殖民时期生物认证的指涉,不仅是违逆法国殖民主义,对于新加坡也是
of monstrosity and hybridity, terrors of stigmatisation, social exclusion, surface of the body. 足以激发共鸣的。毕竟新加坡也走过一段殖民地岁月,过去曾隶属英属马来
difference, morbidity– the innocent but pitiable scape-goat figures of the 亚,而那里正是人体测量术摄影的发源地。李文这项行为艺术表演所蕴含的
Hunchback of Notre Dame and Frankenstein, but also the conniving and 历史和政治,尽在身体表面上演绎成形。
morally predator, Richard III, and the figure of an unnatural and unequivocal 斥;是与他人不同;是病态;是钟楼驼侠及科学怪人一类既无辜又可怜的代
Notes 注释

1 Ghost Stories was presented at the

2nd Nippon International Performance Art Festival, Tokyo and Nagano Feb1995
4th Asian Art Show, Tokyo, April 1995
3rd Castle of Imagination, Bytow, Poland, June 1995
1st Gwangju Biennale Gwangju, South Korea, 1995 (installation)
Hand-Made Tales, The Black Box, Theatre Works, Singapore, 1996 (installation & performance)
Simposio International De Escultura Mexico-Japon, Tuxtla Guttierez, Chiapas, Mexico 1997 (installation and performance)
Sexta Bienal de La Habana, Havana, Cuba 1997 (installation)
(Lee Wen, email correspondence 3/3/03)
2 In his catalogue essay for the Third Asia-Pacific Triennale (1999) writer, Lee Weng Choy described Lee Wen’s Yellowman trope: “While Lee Wen’s iconic imagery may seem rather obvious, what he
articulates is a complex and multilayered negotiation of self-representation. As a Chinese, the all-over yellow paint exaggerates his own ethnicity, but rather than suggesting a straightforward embrace
of Chinese-ness, his ‘performance’ of identity is ambiguous and playful. (Lee W.C. 1999)
撰稿人李文财在他收录于第3届亚太三年展(1999年)画册的文章中,如此描述李文的“黄人”譬喻:“虽然李文的指号意象或许明显了一点, 他所呈现的,却是对自我表现问题的
模棱两可、具有嬉戏意味。” (李文财,1999年)
3 Huxley, a strong supporter of Darwin’s theories, was Lecturer in Natural History (1854), at the Royal School of Mines and the Royal College of Science (later unified as the Imperial College of
Science and Technology).

Blue Man Group Website http://www.blueman.com/about/influence (10.07.08)
Cooper, Emmanuel (1990) Fully Exposed: The Male Nude in Photography, London and New York: Routledge.
Lee Weng Choy, 1999, catalogue essay, The Third Asia Pacific Triennial, Queensland Art Gallery, Brisbane: Australia.
Sluga, Hans, 1993, Heidegger’s Crisis: Philosophy and Politics in Nazi Germany, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press
Wikkipeadia scoliosis http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scoliosis, (10.07-08)
维基百科“脊柱侧凸”条目,见: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scoliosis (10.07.08)。

Dr. Ray Langenbach’s research focuses on the performance and politics of information dissemination, propaganda, and performance. He
currently serves as Adjunct Professor, Finnish Academy of Fine Arts, Co-Head of the Department of Performance + Media, Sunway University,
Kuala Lumpur, and Adjunct Senior Fellow, School of Contemporary Arts, University of Western Sydney. He regularly writes criticism and
performance theory, performs, and convenes unsustainable international gatherings.
雷·朗根巴(Ray Langenbach) 赫博士的研究重点为信息传播的行为与政治、宣传,以及表演行为。他目前担任芬兰美术学院的兼职教授、吉隆坡双威大
9. Anthropometry Revision 1, 学表演及媒体系的系主任之一,以及西悉尼大学当代艺术学院的副资深院士。此外,他也定期撰写评论和表演理论、参与表演,以及召开各种无法持续
Digital Lamda Print, 2006, 101.6 cm X 142.24 cm 的国际聚会。

10. Anthropometry Revision 2, Digital Lamda Print, 2006

Tryptich, 101.6cm X 101.6 cm each
while he tried to give it a ‘de-materialised’ and metaphysical element according 的情形下?
The Extension of Form By Difference to the review from Edward Lucie-Smith. However, he could not completely
eliminate his personal traces and will of art ruling over the performance, as the
can be seen in the photo and film documentations that he was in control of one
延异的赋形 of the models from behind. Furthermore in the history of art it is finally Klein’
s name to be remembered and not that of the three healthy and beautiful nude
models’. The models are merely some materials to be used for the making of art 心理的测量。其行为结果的差异,表现为黄色与蓝色两种色域的差
works, and have no essential differences from other materials such as blue paint
or canvas. The difference in the two performances is that both collaborators 异,即使把前者理解为黄色人种的象征,把后者诠释为蓝眼睛的白
Dr.Zha Changping
in Lee Wen’s are put on par in terms of free will and consciousness whereas 色人种,进而让人联想到克莱因要将文艺复兴以来的西方文化传统
查常平 博士
Klein’s models were alienated from theirs. Actually, this will put forward an “非物化”的企图。他在日本学习柔道,他迷恋源于犹太教神秘哲
incisive question to any artist who chooses performance art as medium: can
the performance artist remove his individual will from his creations? If not, how
could one maintain a unique dignity using his own body as an art medium even 活即在生活中不要以为人是宇宙的中心而要把宇宙当作人的中心。
when in the case of artist’s cooperation or collaboration with other persons? 换言之,在观念上,克莱因更多属于李文所在的亚洲文化的传统。
The canvas on the wall showed prints and traces of yellow human figures
Two male nude artists and one female artist in maillot are printing their body’ 两位男性裸体艺术家与一位穿紧身衣的女性艺术家,把自己身体的轮廓用黄 以来的无数行为作品中择取克莱因的行为来修正表演的深层原因。
in Lee Wen’s works, while some blue or dark grey female figures are in the
s figure with yellow paint on canvases spread out on the wall and the floor in 色印制在铺放于墙面和地面的画布上,最后,前者索性拖着后者的身体在画 Klein’s works. Similarly the canvas on the ground showed a slabs of yellow 行为这种艺术形态的不可重复性特征,呼求作品在重演中被纪念。
the studio gallery of Red and Grey Art Contemporary in Chengdu. At the end 布上来回走动,直到整块画布被涂抹成黄色。全部表演过程,持续约 30 分 in the former and blue in the latter’s. Through performance both of them had 但是,艺术家并不会偶在地选择历史上的某个作品,他只会挪用符
of time of their actions, they walked around on it and dragged each other’ used the body as subjects of action revealing a physical and psychological
钟,伴随着乐团的演奏,只是每个乐器重复演奏一个音符。乐团由五个传统 合自己的单色审美趣味与男女两性共在的文化哲学的那些对象。无
s bodies in turn till the whole canvas on the floor is scraped into yellow. The survey. Their resulting differences from the performances as shown in the two
complete process of performance lasted about 30 minutes accompanied 中国乐器的演奏者组成。这是新加坡艺术家李文和成都的年轻艺术家何利 论从李文选择克莱因的作品为纪念对象看还是从克莱因所要反叛的
colours of yellow and blue, could discern or signify the yellow human race vis-
with music played by five musicians. Each instrument played just one note 平、蒋晶合作、亲自参与实施的行为,名为“改写人体测量学:黄色时期 à-vis to the white with blue eyes, associating them with Klein’s effort to ‘im- 西方近代以来以科学主义、物质主义为代表的理性文化精神看,这
repeatedly. The music group is made up of the musicians who played on (后克莱因)”,时间为2008年4月13日。 materialize’ the Western tradition of culture since Renaissance. He studied 实质上是要追问:艺术家能否完全超越自己的文化传统去创作?
five different traditional musical instruments of China. This is an artistic work Judo in Japan, was infatuated with the Jewish mysticism and the doctrines of
of performance done on the 13th April, 2008, by Lee Wen, a Singaporean Rosicrucian of the Fraternal Order, and suggested that artist should return to
artist, who cooperated with two young Chengdu-based artists He Liping and 1960年3月9日,三位女性裸体模特在身上涂抹著名的国际克莱因蓝,将其
the real life which means that in his life he does not consider man as the center 答案为:“否!”
Jiang Jing entitled Anthropometry Revision: Yellow Period (After Yves Klein) . 印在墙面和地面的画布上, 9 个管弦乐器单调重复演奏一个音符。这是法
of the cosmos but the cosmos as the center of man. In other words, the ideas
国前卫艺术家伊夫·克莱因( Yves Klein )完成的“人体测量学:蓝色时 of Klein belong rather to the tradition of the Asian cultures where Lee Wen
In March 9 1960, at the Galerie International d’ Art Contemporain in Paris, 克莱因把女性裸体模特当作肉体生命的生存者,和她们在行为过程
期”。艺术家竭力处于袖手旁观状态,他身穿礼服领带、手戴白色手套,使 lives. The similarity of the conceptual backgrounds among their performances
the now famous International Klein Blue (IKB), a deep blue hue first mixed perhaps is the profound reason why Lee Wen chose Klein’s work as his object 中作为“画笔”的物性功能,这乃是西方近代以来把人当作物质性
by the French artist Yves Klein was laid on three female nude models. They of performing with revision amongst innumerable performance art works since 的在者来支配的、异化的文化传统的一部分。 此外,当代艺术在亚
printed and painted themselves on the canvas on the wall and the ground, 的实施过程,因而该行为在 80 年代受到女权主义者的批评,认为它意味着
the 1960s. It is the ‘non-repeatability’ of performance art calls for such works to 洲传统中的诠释,注定将是一种多元共生的、后现代性的诠释。因
while the “Monotone Symphony” was being performed, with a nine-piece 父权制美学对女性身体的支配、奴役与宰割。
be commemorated in reiteration. But the artist in choosing a work occasionally
orchestra playing one single note. This is a performance of the French 为,亚洲的文化传统,就整体而言本身便是一个多元的事实体系,
from history could just appropriate it to fit into his own aesthetic taste, including
avant-garde artist of Yves Klein’s “Anthropometries: Blue Period.” The artist 对此,李文有着更为激进的评论:当艺术家以女性裸体模特为画笔的时候, monochromes or both male and females sexes and objectifying them within the 包括儒教、道教、神道教、佛教、印度教、伊斯兰教、犹太教乃至
made an effort to have stood by, with suit and white gloves, in order to make cultural philosophy. Regardless of whether Lee Wen chose Klein’s work from 基督教。即使在儒教内部,也有中国、韩国与日本儒教等之间的区
his body not to be contaminated by anything from any social groups and the perspective of commemoration or that of the spirit of rational culture, which
individuals. However, his hidden will is ruling over the whole process of the 立在美术馆墙边,如同古代市场上待人定价、观摩的奴隶,这是把有着心理 别。亚洲的艺术爱者戴着这样的多元眼镜来看当代艺术,自然会得
is characteristic of scientism and materialism with regards to Western modern
performance, which was criticized by feminists in the 1980s that thought that 意识的人当作只有肉体生命的客体,由此形成了古代世界中奴隶主与奴隶的 出彼此相去甚远的结论,进而形成了一个彼此离心的族群。纵然是
times against which Klein had tried to negate, this in essence begs the question:
Yves Klein’s performance intentions of domination, slavery, an onslaught of 关系。这也是为什么李文坚持自己参与创作的根本原因。克莱因作品的艺 can the artist completely transcend his cultural traditions to make works. 相同的行为过程,因其发生的文化场景的不同而被赋予了不同的意
patriarchal aesthetics against female bodies.
术观念,是要免去艺术家动手,在画面上抹去主观情感的颜色,使之非个 义诠释空间。
性化,同时赋予画面一种非物质的、形而上的质素(according to Edward The answer is no.
But Lee Wen radically responded and criticized this work. The way Klein
had made use of the female nude models as paint brushes can be liken Lucie-Smith),但是,他并不可能彻底消除自己个人的艺术意志对于行为 克莱因宣称 1940 年已经开始单色油画的实验。他 1960 年在巴黎国
That Klein considered the female nude model as actual representation of
to how some Chinese artists of avant-garde inclinations had made use of 作品的凌驾,不可能不在作品上留下自己的踪迹,因为,在一张曝光不足的 flesh and blood serving their physical function as “human paint brushes” in the 际当代艺术画廊完成“人体测量学:蓝色时期”。画廊更多是展示
some peasant workers in the cities as material while making their art works 现场图片中,观众可以看到克莱因的一只手正从后面指挥一位模特的行动; process of performance are in part based on a cultural tradition in which man 艺术作品的地方。克莱因的行为,是一件孤立的作品,不存在一个
recently. Letting the peasant itinerant workers be stood up against the wall of has been dominated and alienated as physical beings from the Western modern
因为,艺术史最后记住的,还是克莱因本人的名字而不是那三位康健美丽的 和其他艺术形态相呼应的上下文。李文尽管在红与灰艺术当代画廊
a gallery as builders like some slaves, while waiting for being offered a price times.
and looked on in the market similar to that in ancient times. The relationship 裸体模特。她们仅仅是完成作品的媒材,和蓝色的颜料、画布之类物质性的 实施行为,但是,该画廊所在的大环境为成都蓝顶艺术中心,一处
is like that between slave owners and slaves in the ancient world as these 在者无本质区别。两个行为之主体的差异表现在:一是与艺术家共在的具有 Moreover, the interpretation of the contemporary arts in Asian traditions is fated 以生产绘画艺术为主的创作基地。在那里,像何多苓、周春芽、郭
artists supposedly conscious thinking individuals treated another human 意识生命的存在者,一是和艺术家异在的仅有肉体生命的生存者。实际上, to be a complex pluralism and post-modernity. Looking at it as a complete
body of mind, flesh and blood as a mere object. This is a crucial reason for 伟、赵能智、吴建军、罗应龙等艺术家,在自己的作品中都融入了
这向任何以行为为媒介的艺术家提出了一个 尖锐的问题:行为艺术家,能 unit, the cultural traditions of Asia in themselves are a pluralistic social system
Lee Wen’s insistence on doing the performance in person. The artistic idea 对人体的再现。两件行为发生地点的这种差异,让我们不得不讨论
够在作品的创作中消解自己的个人意志吗?如果不能,那么,在实施行为过 including Confucianism, Daoism, Shinto, Buddhism, Hinduism, Islamism,
in the work of Yves Klein was to get rid of his own authorial hands and any Judaism and Christianity. Even within Confucianism there are varied differences 行为与绘画中的身体书写各自的含义。
subjective colors of emotion on the frame in order to have it un-individualized, 程中该如何保守人体媒材作为人的独特尊严,即使在艺术家与他人共同参与
within the Chinese, Korean and Japanese ones. When the Asian lovers for 作为一种题材或创作元素,绘画中的人体是画笔下的身体,属于作
art put on such multi-dimensional looking glasses to read the contemporary 品内在的、有机构成部分,内含着开出细致美学的可能性。它是艺
arts, they will naturally draw many different conclusions from each other,
forming non-centric groups amongst themselves. Though the processes of
their performances may be the same, different interpretive significances and 待着艺术爱者的回应与关注,使人联想到现实生活中各样人物瞬间
possibilities are given because of their different cultural scenarios. 的精神情态。在创作绘画的过程中,艺术家考虑得更多的是如何把
Klein claimed that he had begun to experiment with the monochromatic oil
painting since 1940s. He performed Anthropometries: Blue Period at the
International Gallery of Contemporary Art, in 1960 in Paris. The gallery is 精神姿态;时而处于客观的关系,把画面中的人体当作一个客观的
usually a place where artistic works will be shown. The performance of Klein is 在者来审视、修改、涂抹、着色。行为中的身体作为媒材,却被当
a solitary one in which there is no context of other artistic forms. Although Lee 作为一种题材或创作元素,绘画中的人体是画笔下的身体,属于作
Wen’s performance was made in the warehouse studio space of Red and Grey
Art Contemporary, located in Lan-ding Art Centre, a studio complex of artistic
production in Chengdu where many oil paintings are produced. In the works 术家对人的主观生命情感的图式表达,它静静地呆在画面里面,期
of amongst the artists working there such as He Duoling, Zhou Chunya, Guo 待着艺术爱者的回应与关注,使人联想到现实生活中各样人物瞬间
Wei, Zhao Nengzhi, Wu Jianjun, Wu Yinglong and so on, the body is profusely 的精神情态。在创作绘画的过程中,艺术家考虑得更多的是如何把
represented. The distinction of the places where Lee Wen’s performance and
Klein’s happened makes us wonder about the significances of the writing and 要表达的身体意象准确地呈现出来。他时而与其处于主观的关系,
context of the body in both performance and painting. 设身处地地设想画面中的身体在具体的场景中或抽空后的背景中的
As a subject matter or element of creation, the body in painting is one
painted by brush, belonging to their immanent and organic part, and has a
possibility to open up an exquisite aesthetics. It is a form expression of man’ 作画笔来书写,和作品处于外在的关系,其更多呈现为某种粗旷
s subjective life-emotion by artists, silently staying within the frame, expecting 的、流动的极致美学。艺术家在实施行为过程中的精神生命,决定
the correspondence and concern from the lovers for art, and lets us have 着他的身体运动的形式,而他的身体运动的形式决定着画面的图式
an association with the spiritual instantaneous look at all kinds of people in
reality. In the process of making a painting, the painter will pay more attention
to how to represent exactly the image of the body, which he wants to express. 成绘画作品之后一样。在这个意义上,李文与克莱因的行为,都不
Sometimes he has a subjective relation with the image, and put himself in 是纯粹的以身体为媒材又指向身体的行为艺术,而是以身体为媒材
its position to imagine its spiritual gesture in the frame in some concrete 的行动绘画。因为,它们共同留下了可以作为收藏对象的物件本
scenes or in empty backgrounds, while he has an objective relation with it,
and regards it in the frame as an objective being to be surveyed, amended,
scraped and coloured. However, if the body is used in performance as a
material liken to that of a paintbrush, its exterior relationship with the created 另一方面,绘画中的身体,乃是不可被重复纪念的身体。任何艺术
p.4-13 Anthropometry Revision:Yellow period (after Yves Klein) details: works, have the characteristics of variable, augmented aesthetics. In the 家,如果以纪念的名义重复书写他人在绘画中所表达过的身体,那
- Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, He Liping, 13 April 2008, process of making the performance, the spiritual life of the artist determines
Red & Grey Art Contemporary, Cheng Du, China, Photography: Chua Soo Bin his physical form and movement, which schematically frames it within the 么,他就丧失了作为艺术家的资格,即使在今天这个以复制为特征
created image. Once the performance is ended, like a painter after completing 的后现代多元社会。相反,行为艺术本身的一次性,决定了一些行
his paintings, the body of the artist will be separated from his works. In 为作品只有在被重复表演中才能被记起。这相当于一幅绘画作品在
this sense, the performances of both Lee Wen and Klein are not a pure
performance art in which the body is used as material and which directs to
it, but an action painting in which the body is used as a material, because 绘画还是属于空间艺术的范畴。相反,行为中的身体,是可被纪念
both of them left behind some object which could be collected in a gallery. 的、充满时间性的身体。
On the other hand, the body in paintings is that which could not be 藉着身体这种媒材,行为艺术与绘画艺术原本也可以融通理解。重
commemorated repeatedly. Even in our post-modern pluralistic society of today, 要的不是行为与绘画两种媒介的差别,而是在这两种不同的媒介中
which has the characteristic of replication, if any artist repaints the body that 究竟能否为现代人打开一种什么样的身体观念,以及它们会给一切
others had painted in the past in the name of commemoration, he will lose his
qualification as an artist. On the contrary, the uniqueness of a performance in
itself determines that some works of performance could be remembered only 为,对于成都的艺术生态具有不可替代的象征意义:行为,不一定
in the repetition of the performance. Similarly pictorial representation or an oil 就必然属于转瞬即逝的街头前卫,也可以超越时间的虚无留下绘画
painting can be shown repeatedly at different times and in different spaces. 性的踪迹。只要艺术家的书写活动的目的是为了探寻艺术,只要艺
Therefore, whether in the light of the presence of painting or of its form of 术家不以自己的作品为艺术的唯一标准图式,无论他选择行为、装
communication, it should be seen as special categories of art. Thus due to
the temporal attribute (in German: Zeitlichkeit ) of performance art the body in
performances could be commemorated in time. 品、汽车烤漆、声音还是颜料之类媒材,他们就可以坐在一起共同
Through the differing use of the body as material, performance art and painting 分享各自的精神生命、意识生命。
could draw insights from each other. The difference between the two media in
itself is not so important but more what kind of idea about the body could be
formed with them, and what kind of thinking and philosophy on the body could
be given to all art lovers. Lee Wen’s performance in Chengdu Nan-ding Art 历时性的时间轴上的差异。它体现在两者的行为主体、行为结果、
Centre has an irreplaceable symbolic significance for the artistic surroundings 行为背景之间,体现在行为与绘画之间的身体书写上;延异的赋
of Chengdu. It is not always necessary for performance art to belong to the 形,指李文的行为通过在上述几个方面和克莱因的行为保持差异进
historical avant-garde of being written on the street corners. Performance art 而获取其独特意义的途径。
could transcend the abyss of time and leave behind some trace in painting.
As long as the creative activity of artists aims at experimenting with the arts,
and as long as artists do not consider their own works as an unique standard (2008-7-4一稿、7-11二稿于成都)
of art, whether they choose any media as such, be it performance, installation,
sculpture, new media, painting or they use any materials such as the body, the
ready-made, lacquer for motorcar, sounds, and paint, they might sit together
to discuss the artistic questions of culture about which they give themselves
concern for each other, and share their spiritual life, conscious life as a creator
of cultural life.

In sum, the meaning of différence in the title of this paper indicates the
diachronic differences between Lee Wen’s Yellow Period (After Yves Klein)
and Yves Klein’s Blue Period in the temporal axis, which are embodied in
their subjects, resulting backgrounds and in the writing of the body between
performance and painting. The extension of form by différence signifies a way
by which Lee Wen’s performance gets its special significance through keeping
these differences from Klein’s.

(First manuscript written in July 4th, the second one in July 11th , 2008, at Chengdu.)
Translated from Chinese by Dr. Zha Changping edited by Lee Wen.

Dr. Zha Changping, born in Chongqing, lives in Chengdu, is an art critic and humanities scholar. His research is based in English, Japanese, Greek and
Hebrew languages, with a doctorate from Renmin University of China, Beijing. His research comprises art criticism, biblical studies, and history-logic. Recent
publications include The Logic of Japanese History (Chengdu, 1995), History and Logic, The Cultural Logic of the Humanitology (‘Humanitology’ coined by
Dr.Zha incorporating: humanit - as the root of the feminine noun and humanitas in Latin): a comparative study of art, religion and history. (Chengdu: Bashu,
2007), translations of Christianity and Western Thought (vol.1, Beijing: Beida, 2005), The Emperor System and Christianity in the Transformation of Modern
Japanese Society (Beijing: Huaxia, 2007) and regularly publishes articles on art, religion and metaphysics. Dr. Zha is chief editor of Classical Translation
Library of Christian Culture , Shanghai since 2006, and Guiyang-based Journal for Humanities and Art 《人文艺术》since 1999, which has a regular highlight
on contemporary art and performance art. He is associate professor and teaches at Christianity Research Centre of Sichuan University, Institute of Daoism and
Religious Studies.
范大学文艺学专业,获硕士学位;2001-2004 中国人民大学哲学系宗教学专业,获博士学位。1990-1995,四川省文史研究馆编辑;1993-1995,兼任成都科技进修学院、
省文史研究馆;2005-至今,四川大学基督教研究中心;1999-至今,《人文艺术》论丛主编。 人生定向:以信仰为基业、以学问为志业、以批评为事业、以教师为职业、
以翻译为副业。 学术方向:艺术评论 、历史逻辑、圣经研究、日本文化。 学术理念:以原创性的逻辑历史学阐释人类历史的逻辑,奠立汉语人文学术发展的内在根基。
ILY - International Lee Yellow

Dr.Lukasz Guzek
卢卡兹.古泽博士 博士

In the year 1947 on a beach, under the blue, cloudless sky of the French 1947 年,在尼斯“法国利维埃拉” 碧蓝无云的天空下,三个好友将宇 followed by many different applications. It also has meta-character for other 姿势中,构成这些姿势的基础,它自然而显著地构成其后各种姿势的基础,
Riviera in Nice, three friends divided the world between themselves: Arman 宙瓜分:土地归阿尔芒( Arman ),空气归克鲁德·帕斯卡尔( Claude gestures – it constitutes their basis which is so obvious and natural that in 于是在随后的显现中,它“单凭信仰”而出现,由此终被“遗忘”。
took the Earth with its riches, Claude Pascal took the air and Yves Klein took Pascal),天空归伊夫.克莱因(Yves Klein)。他们都忠于各自的领域:尽 subsequent realizations it is taken ‘on faith’ and, in this way, ‘forgotten’.
the sky. They have remained faithful to this division: Arman in art, Pascal in
管他们的行业各异—阿尔芒从事艺术,帕斯卡尔写诗,克莱因创造了他自己 李文再次扮演了克莱因的姿态,并在其中引进一系列变化。表演者李文作出
poetry. Klein created IKB - International Klein Blue - his own blue. Blue is the While re-enacting Klein’s gesture, Lee Wen introduces a series of changes
expression of Klein’s deep metaphysical beliefs. However, it was not the type 的蓝色—国际克莱因蓝,但都忠实遵守了当初划分的领域。 蓝色表达了克 in it. As a performer, Lee Wen carries out the gestures of pictorial expression 了自己的画面传达姿态;他使用的黄色源自其特定的文化语境,克莱因以单
of metaphysics that separates life from the World and detaches the body 莱因深层的形而上信仰。然而,这一信仰并未分离生活与世界、身体与精 by himself; he uses the yellow colour which results from the context of his 音调音乐(管弦乐队只发出一个音)伴奏其单色画,李文则用中国传统的五
from the spirit – on the contrary – it allows one to feel them. 神,正相反,它许可人感受所有这一切。 own cultural specificity; Klein’s monochromatic painting was accompanied 音音阶伴奏;艺术家 蒋晶决定穿衣表演,因为在她看来,裸体已经成为陈
by monotone music (the orchestra plays one note), while here a traditional
The three friends were united by one more thing – their inclination for judo. Chinese pentatonic (five-tone) scale is used; the artist Jiang Jing decided to
Klein reached the highest possible level of mastery for a European in this perform in a costume, because she found nudity to be a cliché – too direct a
sport, studying it also in Japan. In the art of the Far East, e.g. in calligraphy, 欧洲人在此项运动中的最高等级。在书法等远东艺术中常常可以显示出两个 link to models in ‘Anthropometries’. 李文在文章出提出,是否可能在亚洲语境中再次扮演克莱因的姿态。但他并
one can distinguish two levels (phases, or planes): preparation, which 层次(或者说阶段、水平):先在准备阶段召唤一个人的内在力量,然后再 非要遵照克莱因原本的想法。“人体测量术”的框架允许具体的亚洲个性,
consists of summoning one’s inner strengths, and the performing gesture. In 摆出姿势。在西方艺术中,这一划分可以对应于两个截然不同乃至完全相反 In his text, Lee Wen asked if it is possible to re-enact Klein’s gesture in 比如对公共空间中人体艺术的态度就体现了这一点。尽管,画面姿态的表达
the art of the West, this division would correspond to two completely different 的趋向—表现主义意图和观念意图。克莱因通过在艺术作品(画面)创作过
the Asian context. It is not about the conformity with the original idea. The
or even contrasting tendencies – the expressionist tendency and the frames of ‘Anthropometries’ allow for the specific Asian character, which
conceptual tendency. Klein united them by eliminating direct, ‘manual’ labour 程中去除直接的“手工”劳动而统一了这两个意图。 becomes visible in, e.g. the attitude to body in art, in public space. It seems, 经获得了艺术的解决,但东西方画面姿势的遭遇似乎仍将是一个未可穷尽的
of the artist from the process of creating a work of art (a picture). though, that an especially interesting element is the way in which the issue 艺术课题。
李文特别从这个角度关注了克莱因的艺术。同时,西方艺术—特别是其人体 of expression of pictorial gesture, so important in the art of Asia, is artistically
Lee Wen pays special attention to this aspect of Klein’s art. At the same 题材,一直以手上工夫为基础,古典美的概念从而被具体化。在克莱因的艺 solved. The confrontation of pictorial gestures of the East and the West still
time, manual skills are basic for Western art, especially in the topic of nude, seems to be an inexhaustible topic in art.
in which the concept of classical beauty used to materialize. In Klein’s art,
the body functions by itself, body as body, and not only as a picture and 式的关系而言,它是“因”,视觉形式是“果”,从而在概念上取代了艺术
representation. In relation to visual forms, it functions as the causative agent, 家的位置。
replacing the artist, who takes the conceptual role. Dr. Lukasz Guzek received his Phd from Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland with focused research on performance and installation art.
He published his thesis in a book entitled: ‘Installation Art. The question of the relationship between space and presentness in contemporary
The title: ‘Anthropometries’ indicates a measuring unit for this kind of art. It is art’ . Guzek is also working in collaboration with Polish art magazine Obieg , and editorial commitee member of Quebec-based art magazine,
a human being – its physical and mental condition, which allows joining the ‘Inter’ . He is also actively involved as a curator, art historian and theoretician, author of numerous publications on contemporary art, founder-
visual form, the expression of gesture and its inner, conceptual basis. Klein’ 观念基础。克莱因的艺术本身就是东西方的融合,或许正因如此,至今仍然 member of the Fort Sztuki Association, editor of an online contemporary art journal www.spam.art.pl.
s art combines in itself the East and the West and that may be why it still is a 成为人们的灵感之源。
source of inspiration. 题》亦获得发表。古泽也与波兰艺术杂志《Obieg》合作,并且是魁北克艺术杂志《Inter》的编委会成员。他还是一个活跃的策展人、艺术史学家和艺
“人体测量术”的特点是所谓的“好姿势”。布莱恩·欧多赫堤( Brian 术理论家,撰写了多部当代艺术著作,并且是艺术堡垒协会(Fort Sztuki Association)的创始成员、在线当代艺术杂志spam.art.pl的编辑。
‘Anthropometries’ have features of a so-called ‘good gesture’. The concept
O’Doherty )在他的书中描述了艺术中的“好姿势”概念—“在白色立
of ‘good gesture’ in art was described by Brian O’Doherty in his book – ‘Inside
the white cube” with reference to the choices that Duchamp made when 方内”,参照杜尚在 1938 年巴黎巴黎美术学院画廊“国际超现实主义展
arranging the space of International Surrealist Exhibition in Galerie Beaux – 览”的空间选择。它特别提到“1200个煤袋”。杜尚“选择了没人要的地
Arts in Paris in 1938. It especially referred to ‘1200 Coal Bags’. Duchamp ‘took 方”—天花板,在现代主义的“白色立方”中,这个选择意味着将整个空间
what nobody wanted’ – the ceiling, which, in the context of the modernist 视为一个关于空间的艺术品。欧多赫堤说,“好姿势”就像一个发明,会伴
‘white cube’, means paying attention to the whole of space as the space of a
work of art. O’Doherty says that a ‘good gesture’ is like an invention which is
Anthropometry Revision

110 x 75cm
acrylic on paper

Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China

Anthropometry Revision

110 x 75cm
acrylic on paper

Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China

Anthropometry Revision: JJ02 Anthropometry Revision: JJ04
改写人体测量学: JJ02 改写人体测量学: JJ04

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Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China
李文与蒋晶,中国成都 李文与蒋晶,中国成都
Anthropometry Revision: JJ07 Anthropometry Revision: JJ08
改写人体测量学: JJ07 改写人体测量学: JJ08

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Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China
李文与蒋晶,中国成都 李文与蒋晶,中国成都
Anthropometry Revision: HLP06 Anthropometry Revision: HLP07
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Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China
李文与何利平,中国成都 李文与何利平,中国成都
Anthropometry Revision: HLP02 Anthropometry Revision: HLP03
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Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China
李文与何利平,中国成都 李文与何利平,中国成都
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Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China
李文,中国成都 李文,中国成都
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Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China
李文,中国成都 李文,中国成都
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Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China
李文与蒋晶,中国成都 李文与蒋晶,中国成都
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Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China
李文与蒋晶,中国成都 李文与蒋晶,中国成都
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Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China
李文与蒋晶,中国成都 李文与蒋晶,中国成都
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Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China Lee Wen with Jiang Jing, Cheng Du, China
李文与蒋晶,中国成都 李文与蒋晶,中国成都
LEE Wen The Future of Imagination 2, Sculpture Square, SINGAPORE
Born in Singapore, 1957 2003 Aciones en Ruta, Mexico City and Encuentro Intl de Performance Yucatan, Merrida, MEXICO
The Future of Imagination, The Substation, SINGAPORE
Education 2002 4th Asiatopia, Bangkok THAILAND
2006 MA Fine Arts, LaSalle-SIA College of the Arts, SINGAPORE “Alter-Native Dialogues”, Video/ Performance collaboration with James Luna, Tokyo, JAPAN
1992 City of London Polytechnic, London, UK Recontre Int’l d’art performance de Quebec 2002, LELIEU, Quebec, CANADA
1990 LaSalle-SIA College of the Arts, SINGAPORE 2001 EXIT International Festival for Unusual Live Performances, Cable Factory, Helsinki, FINLAND
2nd Open Art Festival, Pengshan, Leshan and Chengdu, Sichuan, CHINA
Solo Exhibitions: Theertha International Artists Workshop - 2001, Lunaganga, SRI LANKA
2007 Freedom to Daydream, Mothers of Imagination, Your Mother Gallery, SINGAPORE 2000 Critical Response, Ivan Dougherty Gallery, University of New South Wales, Sydney, AUSTRALIA
2004 Unframed¬7, P-10, SINGAPORE Expo 2000, Performance with Black Market International, Hanover, GERMANY
2003 Stramge Fruit, The Substation, SINGAPORE TransEuropa -Theatre Festival 2000, Hildesheim, GERMANY
2002 Everybody Should Be Happy, Utterly Art, SINGAPORE Artists Investigating Monument - AIM projects, Raffles Landing Site, Singapore.
1996 Hand-Made Tales, The Black Box, Theatre Works, SINGAPORE 1999 Rånd, Festival der Regionen, Zuckerfabrik Enns, AUSTRIA
1995 Neo-Baba, VA-nishiogi Gallery, Tokyo, JAPAN The Third Asia Pacific Triennale of Contemporary Art, Queensland Art Gallery, Brisbane, AUSTRALIA
1993 Journey of a yellow man no.3: DESIRE, The Substation, SINGAPORE Nokia Singapore Art 1999, Singapore Art Museum, SINGAPORE
1998 Construction in Process VI - The Bridge, The Artists Museum, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA
Selected Exhibitions: Sub-Fiction, Werkleitz Biennale 1998, Tornitz & Werkleitz, GERMANY
“3rd Asian Performance Art Series”, Tokyo, JAPAN
2008 “Small East Co-prosperity Restaurant 08”, Tokyo, JAPAN
Asiatopia, Bangkok, THAILAND
Intervene! Interrupt! Rethinking Art as Social Practice, University of California, Santa Cruz, USA
ZUG. Flexible:X, Performance Art Operation Work, Dresden, GERMANY
Ket Noi : Vietnam-Singapore Performance Art Dialogue, Singapore Art Museum, SINGAPORE
1997 Simposio International De Escultura Mexico-Japon, Tuxtla Guttierez, Chiapas, MEXICO
Performatica’08, Four Artists From Singapore, 26cc, Rome and La Casa Verde, Foligno, ITALY
Sexta Bienal de La Habana, Havana, CUBA
Blow!5- Performance Art Meeting between Singapore and Germany, Hildesheim & Ilsede, GERMANY
SeptFest Art Conference-Multi-culturalism, The Substation, SINGAPORE
2007 National Review of Live Art 2007, Glasgow, SCOTLAND
1996 Recontre International d’art Performance Et Multi-media 1996, Quebec, CANADA
Perfurbance #3, “spiritual renewal”, Yogyakarta, INDONESIA
Between the Visible and Invisible, Lahore International Arts Workshop, PAKISTAN
Là-bas-> Hyper Center in Helsinki, FINLAND
1995 2nd Nippon International Performance Art Festival, Tokyo & Nagano, JAPAN
IX Międzynarodowy Festiwal Sztuki Akcji “Interakcje 2007” Piotrkow Trybunalski; Bielsko-Biała, POLAND
Castle of Imagination, 3rd International Artists Meeting, Bytow, POLAND
Made In China, Louisiana Museum of Modern Art; Humlebæk, DENMARK
Kwang Ju Biennale,, Kwang Ju, KOREA
Future of Imagination 4, 72-13, TheatreWorks, SINGAPORE
MA: East West Study Project, Dusseldorf & Darmstadt, GERMANY
Maju Jaya – CHAOS Dab!, Jogjakarta National Museum, Jogjakarta, INDONESIA
Chiang Mai Social Installation, Chiang Mai, THAILAND
Vital 07: essence of performance, Chinese Art Center, Manchester, ENGLAND
1994 4th Asian Art Show, Fukuoka Art Museum, Fukuoka and Setagaya Art Museum, Tokyo, JAPAN
LONG’ACTION 07- rencontres franco-chinoises d’art performance, Sète FRANCE
1993 5th Fukui International Video Biennale, Tawara, Fukui City, JAPAN
2006 M1 Singapore Fringe Festival 2006, SINGAPORE
Sense Yellow, Concrete House, Nontburi, THAILAND
Satu Kali, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
1992 International Sculpture Symposium, Gulbarga, Karnataka, INDIA
The Future of Imagination 3, The Substation, Singapore Art Museum, SINGAPORE
1990 TIME Show, Artists Village, Ulu Sembawang, SINGAPORE
TROUBLE #2, halles de schaerbeek, Brussels, BELGIUM
acción!06MAD - III Encuentro Internacional de Arte de Acción. Madrid, SPAIN
C.A.R.E.: Concerned Artists for the Environment, Artist Village, Singapore Art Festival, SINGAPORE
Ctrl+Alt+Del, Singapore Management University Arts Fest 2006, SINGAPORE
1989 HAPPENINGS, National University of Singapore, SINGAPORE
4th DaDao Live Art Festival, Beijing, CHINA
The Drawing Show, Artists Village, Ulu Sembawang, SINGAPORE
S+S, 1, ALL_2, Shenyang, CHINA
7a*11d International Festival of Performance Art, Toronto, CANADA
DEFORMES, Primera Bienal de Performance, Santiago, CHILE Awards
Birds Migration: Indonesia International Performance Art Event [IIPAE] 2006, Jakarta, INDONESIA 2008 Artist-in Residence, Red & Grey Contemporary, Chengdu, China
Episode5: 12-Hour Performance, Sound and Video Festival, SINGAPORE 2005 Cultural Medallion, Singapore
2005 Performance Site, Myanmar 05, Borders:withIN withOUT, NICA, Yangon, MYANMAR 2002 Artist in Residence, La-Salle-SIA College of the Arts, Singapore
National Review of Live Art, 2005 , Glasgow, SCOTLAND 1998 Artist in Residence (Asia Europe Ministerial Meeting, Cultural and Arts Program) supported by Visiting Arts,
Crossing Time International, Dartington College of Arts, Totnes, Devon, ENGLAND Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Gasworks Studios, London, UK
3 Encuentro Internacional de Performance, Institut Valencia D’Art Modern (IVAM), Valencia, SPAIN
National Review of Live Art – MIDLAND 05, Perth, AUSTRALIA Selected Bibliography:
Stopover, Japan Singapore Performance Art Meeting, FronT Room Gallery, SINGAPORE Chin Hock Seng (1981)
Situations, Museum of Contemporary Art, Sydney, AUSTRALIA ‘Pop dog’ artist shares a dream
REACH OUTLYING 2005 Tipalive Taiwan International Performance Art Festival, Taipei, TAIWAN The Straits Times, Singapore. May 9, 1981
“UGNAYAN‘05”, 4th Philippine International Performance Art Festival (PIPAF), Manila, The Philippines
Spaces and Shadows: Politics of fun, House of World Culture, Berlin, GERMANY Lee Wen,
Self-portrait Performativ, langaut, Golberode, Dresden, GERMANY A Waking Dream- drawings and poetry,
BLURRR 5 biennial of performance art, Tel Aviv, ISRAEL Select Books, Singapore, 1981
Bone 8, Schlachthaus Theater, Bern, SWITZERLAND
2004 130 Bank Gallery, 10th Anniversary Commemoration Exhibition, Kitakyushu, JAPAN Ng Sek Chow
National Review of Live Art, 2004, Glasgow, SCOTLAND Yellow reflections
Perform:State:Interrogate: Performance Studies international Conference (PSi#10), The Substation, SINGAPORE The Straits Times, Singapore, July 23, 1993
2nd DaDao Live Art Festival, Beijing, CHINA
Giving Water An Image, Hanoi University of Fine Arts, Hanoi, VIETNAM Chandrasekaran.S., Langenbach, R. & Lee Wen (1993)
Sea Art Festival, Busan Biennale 2004, Pusan, S. KOREA Local Performance Art, Democracy: Commentary.
Voice of Site, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, Tokyo, JAPAN Journal of the National University of Singapore Society, Singapore, National
Sustainable, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, Tokyo, JAPAN University of Singapore Society (Vol.11 No. 2)

2006年 新加坡拉萨尔-新航艺术学院美术硕士
Swinson, James 1992年 英国伦敦市理工学院
Lee Wen Connection / Location 1990年 新加坡拉萨尔-新航艺术学院
Third Text/ no.45 Winter, London 1998-99 - pp.95-97
Lee Weng Choy 2007年 《做白日梦的自由,想像的母亲们》, 新加坡Your Mother画廊
Artist essay on Lee Wen 2004年 《无框-7》, 新加坡P-10
The Third AsiaPacificTriennale 1999 Catalogue, 2003年 《奇异果》, 新加坡电力站
Queensland Art Gallery, Brisbane Australia. 2002年 《大家都应当快乐》, 新加坡Utterly Art画廊
1996年 《手工故事》, 新加坡剧艺工作坊黑箱剧场
Lee Weng Choy, (2000) 1995年 《新峇峇》, 日本东京VA西荻画廊
Just What Is it that Makes the Term Global-Local So Widely Cited, Yet So Annoying? 1993年 《一个黄人的旅程3:欲望》, 新加坡电力站
“Flight Patterns: picturing the Pacific Rim” catalogue
Museum of Contemporary Art Los Angeles
2008年 “小东亚共荣餐馆08”, 日本东京
(A shorter version of this essay was first published in Artlink, Volume 20 Number 2, June 2000.) “介入!打断!-反思作为社会行为的艺术”, 美国加州大学圣克鲁斯分校
“连接:越南-新加坡行为艺术对话”, 新加坡美术馆
Woon Tien Wei “Performatica 08:四位来自新加坡的艺术家”, 意大利罗马的26cc、福利尼奥的绿屋
Between Journeys: an Interview with Lee Wen “Blow!5-新加坡与德国行为艺术交流会”, 德国希尔德斯海姆、伊尔瑟德
Performance Research 6(l), pp.3 7 © Taylor & Francis Ltd 2001 2007年 “现场艺术国家评论2007”, 苏格兰格拉斯哥
“精神更生”(第3届都市行为艺术节), 印尼日惹
Barragan, Paco Là-bas->“超级中心”行为艺术节, 芬兰赫尔辛基
The Art To Come “互动2007”(第9届国际行为艺术节), 波兰别尔斯科-比亚瓦的彼得库夫-特雷布纳尔斯基
Subastas Siglo XXI, Madrid 2002 “中国制造”, 丹麦胡姆勒拜克的路易斯安那现代美术馆
“想像的未来4”, 新加坡剧艺工作坊72-13
Oon, Clarrisa “前进成功-CHAOS Dab!”, 印尼日惹国家博物馆
Hello, yellow fellow “活力07:行为艺术之精髓”, 英国曼彻斯特中华艺术中心
The Straits Times, Singapore, October 21, 2003 “长度作用07-法中行为艺术大会”, 法国塞特
2006年 M1新加坡艺穗节2006, 新加坡
Glenis Israel “一次”, 马来西亚吉隆坡
“想像的未来3”, 新加坡电力站、新加坡美术馆
Senior Artwise 2 visual arts 11-12,
“麻烦2”, 比利时布鲁塞尔的斯哈尔贝克文化中心
Part 3 Asian Artists – contemporary, Chapter 14
“行动!06MAD-第3届国际行为艺术大会”, 西班牙马德里
John Wiley & Sons Australia Ltd, Sydney 2004 “Ctrl+Alt+Del”(新加坡管理大学艺术节2006), 新加坡
中国北京 第4届大道现场艺术节
HO Tzu Nyen 中国沈阳ALL_2 1号 “S+S”
“strange fruit” 加拿大多伦多 7a*11d 国际行为艺术节
Art Asia Pacific / Spring 2004 No.40 智利圣地亚哥 “畸形:第1届行为艺术双年展”
印尼雅加达 “候鸟迁徙:印尼国际行为艺术活动[IIPAE]2006”
Gunalan Nadarajan, Russell Storer and Eugene Tan 新加坡音响视频节 “第5集:12小时的演出”
Contemporary Art in Singapore 2005年 缅甸仰光NICA 缅甸05“边界:里里外外”表演场地
Institute of Contemporary Arts Singapore, LASALLE, Singapore 2007 苏格兰格拉斯哥 “现场艺术国家评论2005”
英国德文郡托特尼斯的达廷顿艺术学院 “跨越国际时间”
Valentin Torrens, Editor 西班牙巴伦西亚现代艺术学院(IVAM) 第3届国际行为艺术大会
Pedagogia De La Performance, Programmas de Cursos y Talleres 澳洲珀斯 “现场艺术国家评论-内地05”
Diputacion Provincial De Huesca, Barcelona, Spain, 2007 新加坡FronT Room画廊 “中途停留”(日本-新加坡行为艺术交流会)
澳洲悉尼当代美术馆 “情势”
台湾台北 “不动:要动_2005台湾国际行为艺术节”
Public Collections:
菲律宾马尼拉 “连接05:第4届菲律宾国际行为艺术节(PIPAF)”
Singapore Art Museum, Singapore 德国柏林世界文化馆 “空间与阴影:乐趣的政治”
Fukuoka Asian Art Museum, Fukuoka, Japan 德国德累斯顿戈柏若德的Langaut艺术空间 “自画像”行为艺术项目
Queensland Art Museum, Brisbane, Australia 以色列特拉维夫 “BLURRR 5”行为艺术双年展
瑞士伯尔尼屠宰场剧场 “骨8”
2004年 日本北九州市 130 银行画廊10周年纪念展
Affiliation: 苏格兰格拉斯哥 “现场艺术国家评论2004”
Honorary member of Artists Village, Singapore, 新加坡电力站 “表演:陈述:审问:人类表演学国际会议(PSi#10)”
Black Market International, (international performance art “group”) 中国北京 第2届大道现场艺术节
Artistic Director, “Future of Imagination”, International Performance Art Event, Singapore 越南河内美术大学 “赋水以形”
Guest Curator: UP-ON First International Live Art Festival, 2008 Cheng Du China. 南韩2004年釜山双年展 “海洋艺术节”
Guest Curator: DEFORMES 2008, Second International Performance Biennial, Santiago Chile 日本东京国立艺术大学 “场地的声音”
日本东京国立艺术大学 “可持续的”
新加坡雕塑广场 “想像的未来2”
2003年 墨西哥市 “途中行动”;墨西哥尤卡坦州梅里达 国际行为艺术大会 <本地行为艺术、民主>
新加坡电力站 “想像的未来” 见新加坡国立大学校友会期刊《评述》(第11辑第2期)(新加坡国立大学校友会出版)
2002年 泰国曼谷 第3届Asiatopia国际行为艺术节
日本东京“另类/改变本土对话” 与詹姆斯•鲁纳合作的视频/行为艺术表演 詹姆斯•斯维逊
加拿大魁北克市LELIEU艺术中心 2002年魁北克国际行为艺术大会 <李文联系 / 地点>
2001年 芬兰赫尔辛基电缆厂 “退场-国际特异现场表演节” 《第三文本》/ 第45期,冬季号(伦敦,1998至99年)– 第95至97页
中国四川省彭山、乐山、成都 第2届“打开”国际行为艺术节
斯里兰卡鲁纳甘加 提尔塔国际艺术家工作坊2001 李永财
2000年 澳洲悉尼新南威尔士大学伊凡窦格提画廊 “临界反应” 关于李文的艺术家专文
德国汉诺威2000年博览会 与“黑市国际”合作的表演 《1999年亚太三年展》画册
德国希尔德斯海姆 “跨欧罗巴-戏剧节2000” 澳洲布里斯班昆士兰美术馆出版
新加坡莱佛士登陆点 “艺术家探讨古迹-AIM项目”
1999年 奥地利恩斯的制糖厂文化中心 “边缘”区域节 李永财(2000年)
澳洲布里斯班昆士兰美术馆 第3届当代艺术亚太三年展 <“环球本土性”这个词何以如此广为人用又如此令人恼怒?>
新加坡美术馆 “诺基亚新加坡艺术1999” 《飞行模式:想像太平洋沿岸地区》画册
1998年 澳洲墨尔本艺术家博物院 “施工中VI-桥梁” 洛杉矶当代美术馆出版
德国托尼茨、沃克雷茨 “子虚”(沃克雷茨双年展1998) [本文的缩略版先前发表于《艺术连接》杂志第20辑第2期(2000年6月)。]
日本东京 “亚洲行为艺术系列3”
泰国曼谷 Asiatopia国际行为艺术节 云天伟
德国德累斯顿 “ZUG. 灵活:X-行为艺术行动工作” <旅程之间:访问李文>
1997年 墨西哥恰帕斯州图斯特拉—古铁雷斯 墨西哥-日本国际文化讨论会 《表演研究》 6(l), 第3至7页(泰勒弗兰西斯有限公司2001年版权所有)
古巴哈瓦那 第6届哈瓦那双年展
新加坡电力站 九月艺术节艺术会议-“多元文化主义” 帕科•巴拉甘
1996年 加拿大魁北克 1996年国际行为艺术与多媒体艺术大会 《将来的艺术》
巴基斯坦 拉合尔国际艺术工作坊“有形与无形之间” 马德里21世纪拍卖出版社2002年版
1995年 日本东京、长野 第2届日本国际行为艺术节
波兰比托 第3届“幻想城堡”国际艺术家大会 Clarissa Oon
韩国光州 光州双年展 <你好,黄色的老兄>
德国杜塞尔多夫、达姆施塔特 “MA:东西方学习项目” 新加坡《海峡时报》(2003年10月21日)
泰国清迈 “清迈社会装置”
1994年 日本福冈亚洲美术馆、东京世田谷美术馆 第4届亚洲艺术展 格列尼斯•以色列
1993年 日本福井市田原 第5届福井国际视频双年展 《Senior Artwise 2 (视觉艺术 11-12)》
泰国暖武里混凝土屋 “感觉黄色”联展 第3部分“亚洲当代艺术家”(第14章)
1992年 印度卡纳塔克邦的古巴加 国际雕塑讨论会 悉尼约翰威立父子澳洲有限公司2004年版
1990年 新加坡乌鲁三巴旺艺术村 “时光展”
香港QU*ART画廊 “事件II” 何子彦
新加坡艺术村 新加坡艺术节“C.A.R.E.:关心环境的艺术家” <奇异果>
1989年 新加坡国立大学 “精彩事件” 《亚太艺术》/ 第40期,2004年春季号
新加坡乌鲁三巴旺艺术村 “素描展”
奖项 《新加坡当代艺术》
2008年 中国成都红与灰艺术当代的常驻艺术家
2005年 新加坡文化勋章 瓦伦廷•托仁斯(编辑)
2002年 新加坡拉萨尔-新航艺术学院的常驻艺术家 《表演教学:课程与工作坊计划》
1998年 常驻艺术家(亚欧部长会议文化与艺术计划)-由英国艺术访问署、英国外交及联邦事务部及伦敦煤气厂艺术工作室所支持 西班牙巴塞罗那韦斯卡省代表团2007年版

参考文献选列: 公开收藏:
陈福成(译名)(1981年) 日本福冈亚洲美术馆
<“波普狗”分享一个梦想> 澳洲布里斯班昆士兰美术馆

李文 团体归属:
《醒着的梦:素描与诗歌》 新加坡艺术村荣誉成员
新加坡Select Books 1981年版 “黑市国际”(国际行为艺术“团体”)
吴石周(译名) 中国成都2008年第1届UP-ON(向上)国际现场艺术节特邀策展人
<黄色思考> 智利圣地亚哥“畸形:第2届国际行为艺术双年展”特邀策展人

作者 李文

策划 蔡斯民

文稿 李文
Adele Tan
Ray Langenbach/
Zha Zhangping
Lukasz Guzek
设计 吕一飞
英译 吴锦汉
制版 与之堂
印刷 四川荣盛彩色印刷有限公司
出版 新加坡斯民国际艺苑
版次 2008年8月初版

Author Lee Wen

Curator Chua Soobin
Essay Contributor Lee Wen
Adele Tan
Ray Langenbach/
Zha Zhangping
Lukasz Guzek
Graphic Design Lu Yifei
Translation (English) Ng Kum Hoon
Colour Separation YOSHIDO Art Design
Printer Sichuan RongSheng Art Printing co.,ltd
Publisher SooBin Art Int'l Singapore

Red & Grey Art Contemporary Chengdu

Date of Publication Aug 2008


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detail: Journey of a yellow man no.3: DESIRE Copyright © 2008, by publishers, artist and authors.
Solo Exhibition, Installation and performance
The Substation, Singapore 21-25 July 1993 ISBN 978-981-08-1343-7
Photo: Koh Nguang How