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Presentation on

Coagulation and Flocculation


Presented by:
Mr. Muhammad Azeem

Presented to:
Engr. Muhammad Sulaiman

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Outlines
 Purpose of Techniques
 Coagulation
 Coagulants
 Selection of Coagulant
 Amount of Coagulant
 Flocculation
 Types of Flocculation
 Flocculation Mixers
 Conclusion
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Purpose
 Settling of stabilized particles
 Destabilization of colloidal particles
 Increase the density of colloidal particles
 Reduction in repulsive forces between
particles
 Diminish the turbidity of water

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Coagulation
Coagulation is the destabilization of colloidal
and fine suspended solids by adding a chemical
coagulant such as alum in the water.
 Neutralization of negatively charged particles
 Micro-flocs formation

Coagulation Destabilization
+ Tank of colloids
Coagulant

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Coagulation
Rapid Mixing

Coagulant Coagulation
Micro-flocs

Water
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Commonly Used Coagulants
Coagulant Formula
Aluminum Sulfate Al2(SO4)3 · 14H2O
Sodium Aluminate Na2Al2O4
Aluminum Chloride AlCl3
Ferric Chloride FeCl3
Ferric Sulfate Fe2(SO4)3
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Selection of Coagulant
A coagulant is selected on the basis of:
 Type of Coagulant (anionic, cationic)
 Molecular Weight (high)
 Charge Density (high)
 Toxicity (non toxic)
 Solubility (insoluble in neutral pH range)

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Type of Coagulant
Cationic:
 In the process of coagulation
 Positively charged coagulant
Anionic:
 In the process of flocculation
 Negatively charged coagulant used as
flocculent

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Amount of Coagulant?

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Jar Test
 Jar test is a laboratory procedure to determine
the optimum pH and the optimum coagulant
dose
 A jar test simulates the coagulation and
flocculation processes
Determination of optimum pH:
 Fill the jars with raw water sample (500 or
1000 mL), usually 6 jars
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Jar Test - Optimum pH
 Adjust pH of the jars while mixing using
H2SO4 or NaOH/lime (pH: 5.0; 5.5; 6.0; 6.5;
7.0; 7.5)
 Add same dose of the selected coagulant (alum
or iron) to each jar (coagulant dose: 5 or 10
mg/L)
 Rapid mix each jar at 100 to 150 rpm for 1
minute. The rapid mix helps to disperse the
coagulant throughout each container
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Jar Test - Optimum pH
 Reduce the stirring speed to 25 to 30 rpm and
continue mixing for 15 to 20 mins. This slower
mixing speed helps to promote flocs formation
by enhancing particle collisions, which lead to
larger flocs
 Turn off the mixers and allow flocs to settle for
30 to 45 mins
 Measure the final residual turbidity in each jar
 Plot residual turbidity against pH
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Jar Test - Optimum pH
Graph b/w Turbidity Remaining and pH
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Turbidity Remaining

15

10

0
4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8
pH

Optimum pH: 6.3 13


Jar Test - Optimum Dose
Optimum coagulant dose:
 Repeat all the previous steps
 This time adjust pH of all jars at optimum (6.3
found from first test) while mixing using
H2SO4 or NaOH/lime
 Add different doses of the selected coagulant to
each jar
(Coagulant dose: 5; 7; 10; 12; 15; 20 mg/L)

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Jar Test - Optimum Dose
 Rapid mix each jar at 100 to 150 rpm for 1
minute. The rapid mix helps to disperse the
coagulant throughout each container. Reduce
the stirring speed to 25 to 30 rpm for 15 to 20
mins
 Turn off the mixers and allow flocs to settle for
30 to 45 mins
 Then measure the final residual turbidity in
each jar
 Plot residual turbidity against coagulant dose 15
Jar Test - Optimum Dose
Graph b/w Turbidity Remaining and Coagulant Dose
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Turbidity Remaining

15

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0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
Coagulant Dose (mg/L)

Optimum Dose: 11.2 mg/L 16


Flocculation
Flocculation is the aggregation of micro-flocs
into macro-flocs to enhance their settling by
gravity sedimentation.
Anions are used as bridging media between
micro-flocs.

….
+ Flocculent
Micro-flocs Macro-flocs
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Flocculation
Slow Mixing
Micro-flocs

Coagulation Flocculation and


Settling
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Types of Flocculation

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Types of Flocculation
 Micro Flocculation
 Macro Flocculation
Micro Flocculation:
 Due to random motion of fluid molecules
 Size range from 0.001 to about 1 µm

Randomly Moving Molecules Flocs Formation


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Types of Flocculation
Macro Flocculation:
 Size greater than 1 µm

Macro Flocculation

Induced Velocity Differential


Gradients Settling
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Induced Velocity Gradients
 Due to change in velocity of particles
 Fast moving particles overtake slow moving
particles
 Large particle formation due to stickiness of
particles
L.P

S.P
Flocs Formation
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Differential Settling
 Large particles overtake small particles

L.P

S.P

Flocs Formation

 Settling through gravity


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Polymeric Flocculation

Polymer Micro-flocs Macro-flocs


Polymeric Flocculation 24
Hydraulic Flocculation
 Due to the flow of water
 Horizontally Baffled Tank
 Vertically Baffled Tank

Horizontally Baffled Tank:


H2O Baffle

H2O

Horizontally Baffled Tank


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Hydraulic Flocculation
Vertically Baffled Tank:
Baffle

H2O
H2O

Vertically Baffled Tank

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Types of Flocculation Mixers
Following are the types of flocculation mixers:
 Static Mixer
 Paddle Mixer
 Turbine Mixer
Static Mixer:
 Static vanes or baffles for mixing
 Water passes through vanes or baffles
 Horizontally baffled tank (slide no. 25)
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Paddle Mixer
 Slow movement of paddles cause flocs formation

Moving Shaft Paddles

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Turbine Mixer
 Mixing due to the movement of blades

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Conclusion
 A coagulant is necessary to destabilize the
stable impurities of water
 Flocculation is necessary to develop the macro-
flocs of impurities that are settled down easily

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References
 Wastewater Engineering Treatment by Metcalf
Eddy
 Water and Waste Water Engineering by
Mackenzie L. Davis
 Unit Operations and Processes in
Environmental Engineering

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Thank
You

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