Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 44

1

ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ КОМИТЕТ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ


ПО РЫБОЛОВСТВУ

МУРМАНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

Апатитский филиал

М.С.Стрелкова
Сборник упражнений по грамматике английского языка
для студентов старших курсов специальностей (направления БВПО):
130403 “Открытые горные работы”
130403 “Подземная разработка месторождений полезных ископаемых”
511100 ”Геоэкология ”
553200 ”Геология и разведка полезных ископаемых”

Апатиты
2008
2

Содержание

Введение......................................................................................................
Тема 1.
Транслитерация........................................................................................3
Тема 2. Структура английского простого повествовательного
распространённого предложения.......................................................... 3
Тема 3. Употребление артикля “THE” с географическими
названиями..............................................................................................12
Тема 4. Числительные. Сокращения, принятые в научной и
технической литературе.........................................................................17
Тема 5. Множественное число заимствованных слов в английском
языке........................................................................................................20
Тема 6. Инфинитивные обороты...........................................................21
Тема 7. Предлоги времени и выражения, связанные с определением
времени....................................................................................................40

Список использованной
литературы..............................................................................................44
3

Тема 1. ТРАНСЛИТЕРАЦИЯ.

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 1. Написать латинскими буквами фамилии

Съедин, Дзержинский, Шейхулисламова, Ящишина, Ельцин,


Циолковский, Ястржембский, Щекочихин, Ющенко, Ёлкина,
Неёлова, Жамалетдинов, Жиров, Таргульян, Земцовский, Цымляков,
Хлыстовский, Цинзерлинг, Дзердзеевский, Докучаев, Пьявченко,
Пшеничников, Полынцева, Перевозчикова, Мишустин, Чкалов,
Кислых, Мкртчян, Гедройц, Каспарьян, Дзядевич, Хохлов, Карягина,
Коляда, Иезуитов, Багданавичене, Орбакайте, Пугачёва, Еремеев,
Веденеева, Цурюпа, Верхоланцева, Гинзбург, Земятчинский,
Тупицын, Григорьев, Счастная, Рожнова, Михайлов, Лурье,
Полынов, Юрцев, Тюрин, Швецов. Цехомский, Шафрановский,
Чайковский, Архипцева.

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 2. Написать латинскими буквами географические


названия

А. Джаудзекау, Джезказган, Сольцы, Городище, Верещагино,


Подборовье, Пажеривицы, Ножелбицы, Ямм, Замогилье,
Алеховщина, Глажево, Меглецы, Большие Колодези, Вырица,
Лилигумзь, Подпорожье, Сясьстрой, Свапуща, Ендогуба, Лошница,
Козловщина, Друя, Плещицы, Шерешево,
Церковище, Федотьево, Большие Колодези, Белый Разъезд, Дальние
Зеленцы.
В. Лейбушайвиш, Пуатцчерв-тундра, Оцнедыньпакенч-тундра,
Айкуайвечорр, Большой Вудъявр, Ванчемтыйплай,
Вульейльчъяврпахк, Саррлухтнярк, Ылдасрнярк, Ааква-нюацк,
Цассыллухт, Одежъяврйок, Райчоръяуренч, Вэручуайвенч,
Ходрчуолм, Сейдсуоляурнес, Пыртлуутинч, Чачманъявр,
Нюдуайвенч, Гоксейдуайвенч, Ванцемнюацкенч, Поадзьпахк,
Нюхчвыд-тундра,
Ювгайсыш-тундра, Сыдрандэч-тундра, Чурьквярьуайв,
Тунтшлютуайвенч, Пъялкимпорр, Чокуайвиш-тундра.

Тема 2: ПОРЯДОК СЛОВ В ПРОСТОМ


РАСПРОСТРАНЁННОМ ПОВЕСТВОВАТЕЛЬНОМ
ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИИ
4

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 3. Изменить место дополнения.


Образец . Нe gave the box to me He gave me the box.
1. Mr. Smith sent a letter to them................
2. We gave a birthday present to him..........
3. She brought the books to them................
4. Tom handed the newspaper to her...........
5. Did Charles throw the ball to Tom? .......
6. Mrs. Brown sent some flowers to me......
7. He sold the house to Mr. Smith...............
8. The teacher read the story to us...............
9 Mr. Brown wrote a letter to his son.........'

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 4. Изменить место дополнения.


Образец . He gave her the book He gave the book to her. ..
1.We sent a birthday present to Mary..............
2. He gave the girl a gift..................................
3. John sold the car to me yesterday................
4. Mrs. Smith gave Helen the box...................
5. Frank gave the tickets to Charles................
6. He showed Mr. Smith the photographs.......
7. She told an interesting story to us................
8. Mr. Brown mailed us a gift from Mexico. . .
9. Did John lend ten dollars his brother? ........

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 5. Вставить указанные выражения в


предложения, не добавляя других слов.

1. to him 2. him 3. To me 4. me 5. you 6. to you 7. them 8. to them..9


her
Образец . I mailed it...................I mailed it to him.
5

1. They sold the house last week


2. Charles wrote a long letter......
3. Tom told a very funny joke.....
4. Did they send a present? ........

5. Did she return the money? .............

6. The instructor read the story...

7. Did he explain it? ...................


8. I mailed the letter yesterday....

9. He told the truth.............................

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 6. Перевести на англ яз. русские предложения, а


английские поправить, если находите нужным (и объяснить
почему). Перевести подчёркнутые предложения на русский
язык.

A. 1) We have tall enough boys for the basketball team. 2) Пива


недостаточно. 3) She only wrote on one side of the paper. 4) Ему очень
нравится вино. 5) Начинающие не могут говорить по-английски
правильно. 6) He only was married yesterday..7) I haven’t got enough
big nails to mend the cupboard. 8) Эта квартира недостаточно большая
для нашей семьи.9) We only have one orange between us. 10) These
people seem to live for pleasure only. 11) They are arriving Murmansk
tomorrow at six o’clock p.m. 12) Редко в пустыне идёт дождь. 13) Он
умолял учителя не наказывать его. 14) Джон вчера не приходил в
школу. 15) Он всегда опаздывет. 16) Дорогу мне показал старичок.
17) Вряд ли я поеду домой в выходные. 18) John was only punished;
the others were not. 19) Сделанная работа очень помогла получить
хороший результат. 20) Ты надеешься сперва зайти домой, а
времени у тебя достаточно? 21) Мы выиграли 5 игр, и только одну
проиграли. 22) Я недостаточно хорошо его знаю.

B. 1.He carefully wrote his exercise. 2) I haven’t got big enough nails to
mend the cupboard. 3) У тебя достаточно времени? 3) Ты хорошо
организовал это. 4) Мы всегда жили в этом доме. 5) Полученные
результаты эксперимента сильно удивили её. 6) John only was
punished; the others were not. 7) I received from my uncle a nice
6

present. 8) He quickly shut the book. 9) Деньги он положил в карман.


10) Я никогда не был в США. 11) Они уезжают в Лондон нынешним
вечером в 7 час. 12) Он не закончит свою работу к завтрашнему
дню. 13) Я предпочитаю кофе чаю обычно.14) Мне показал дорогу
старичок .15) We have enough tall boys for the basketball team. 16)Я
могу говорить по-английски очень хорошо.17) Мы смотрим эту ТV-
программу регулярно.18) Он только вчера женился. 19) Она
достаточно взрослая (old), чтобы принять решение. 20) I spoke once
to him after that only.
21) Only I and my brother left. 22) Три первые десятилетия ХХ века
были наполнены научными и техническими открытиями. 23) Эта
работа никогда не будет закончена.

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 7. Вставить слова в скобках в предложения, в


нужном месте.
Образец: (always) Is that true? , Is that always true?
1.(either) I didn't mail my application..............
2. (still) Do you find this language simple? ....
3. (ever) have they visited that national park? .
4. (too) Mr. Foster bought a leather briefcase....
5. (yet) Are you accustomed to our climate? ...
6. (never) He has been to Belgium...................
7. (him) We sent a very practical gift...............
8. (often) His brother stays here over the weekend...
9. (either) He didn’t finish his part, did he? ......
10. (still) There are plenty of sandwiches here. ..
11. (usually) We use that word this way............
12. (too) Bill needs some new clothes................:
13. (to her) I mailed the letter several days ago.
14. (always) He does his work at the last minute
15. (yet) I haven’t found a solution to the problem…
16. (seldom) We go to that section of the city....
7

17. (either) They didn’t notice anything unusual


18. (to us,) She didn’t explain the assignment. . .
19. (always) Are their teachers very strict? .......
20. (generally) Does John do his part of it? ......
21. (always) Have you been interested in that subject?
22. (already) You've done that part, haven't you?

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 8. Добавить указанные определения в


предложения в правильном порядке.

Образец blue, large, very, the


He put the very large blue book on the table.

1. wool, pretty, her, new, very

Mary wore .............................................. dress to the party.

2. new, an, historical, interesting

Mr, Smith read .......................................... novel last week.

3. two, those, small, first

..................................................................papers are mine.

4. good looking, his, velvet, new

John bough ............................................... suit at that store.

5. hot, some, good, very

We drank ............................................ coffee at the cafeteria.

6. European, an, old, interesting

That is ...................................................... custom of theirs.

7. pretty, colonial, new, that, little

We looked at ....................................... house on First Street.


8

8. comfortable, their, brown, old

They sold .................................................. chair yesterday.

19. beautiful, Italian, a new

Mr. Brown has .................................................. carnow,

20. cold, delicious, some, very

We ate .......................................................... fruit at lunch.

21. valuable, some, very, old, Roman

The museum owns .............................................. statues.

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 9. Добавить указанные слова в предложения в


правильном порядке.

Образец two, difficult, history, very

We are studying ............................................. two very difficult


history .............. books now.

1. old, lovely, Catholic, a

There is ............................................ church in the next block.

2. chilly, a, autumn, very

Yesterday was ........................................................ day.

3. last, Edward's, two


............. names are Garcia and Perez.

4. American, some, boys', two, first


.........names are also family names.

5. steel, strong, gray, a

The machine has .................................................. cover.

6. tiny, two, flat


9

They selected ............................................ pieces of metal.

7. new, important, federal, an

That's ...................................................................... law.

8. plastic, loose, the

.................................................................... ring protects it.

9. summer, his, favourite


sports is golf.

10. gold, delicate, new, a

She has ................................................................ watch.

11. soft, a, square, rubber

We bought .................................................. toy for the dog.

12. unusual, modern, blond, much

There is ................................................ furniture in that room.

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 10. Добавить указанные выражения в


следующие предложения в правильном
порядке.

Образец: last, night, to the concert

We went tо the ............ concert last night.......

1. tomorrow, at work

Mr. Williams will be ......................................

2. with her father, yesterday, to school

Miss Smith rode .............................................

3. now, carefully
10

The student is pronouncing the word .............

4. for three weeks, in Mexico, next summer

Mr. and Mrs. Brown will be ...........................

5. at the university, this year

Mr. Gregory is a student ................................

6. every night, very much, at home

Dick studies ....................................................

7. on time, every day, to class

That student comes .........................................

8. now, very well

I know the irregular verbs ..............................

9. with his friend, for two hours, at the library

George is going to study .................................

10. before three, at your house

We'll arrive .....................................................

11. now, in the dormitory

Does he live ............................................................... ?

12. yesterday, with them, at the lecture

Were you.................................................................... ?

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 11
Добавить указанные выражения в следующие предложения в
правильном порядке

Образец: very much, last night


11

We liked the movie ....... very much last night

1. with the boys, to the baseball game, every Sunday

Mr. Brown goes ...........................................

2. right now, very hard

The boys are studying ..................................

3. with her grandmother, every summer, to Vermont

She goes .......................................................

4. on Thursday, at Wilson's house, by accident

They met him ...............................................................

5. quickly, a minute ago, down the street

The boys ran .................................................................

6. by special delivery, this morning, to us

Their letter came ..........................................................

7. in Miami, last Tuesday, with his friend

He arrived ....................................................................

8. carefully, on page 171, last night

We studied the lesson ...................................................

9. last year, to England, by plane

The Wilsons flew .........................................

10. about that, recently, to her

Have you spoken ....................................................... ?

11. last week, in my head

I had a bad cold ............................................................


12

13. alone, on Saturday, at home

He did the work ..................................................

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 12
Переписать предложения, ставя все слова в правильном
порядке
Образец: She - loses - at school - pens - often She often loses
pens at school.

1. Tom - the show - liked - last night - very much


2. He - knows - now - very well - the irregular verbs
3. They - study - at home - their lessons - in the evening
4. The Browns - have - been - in Ecuador – never
5. That girl – in time – comes – always – to work
6. He - his pay check - spends quickly – usually
7. Bill – is – at the university – a – year – student – this
8. She - chose - without difficulty - a dress - there
9. He - has - described - to me - them - carefully - never
10. We - sat - until late - with them - in the library - often
11. They - wrote - quickly- the words - in their papers
12. He - explains - always - the lesson - to them - first
13. The boy's - are waiting - friends - three - now - outside
14. He - embarrassed - at the meeting - accidentally - me
15. Someone - took - else - off the table - that glass
16. The table - long - wide - is - six feet - and - 38 inches
17. She - in the kitchen - works - sometimes - for hours
18. He - brings - after work - to his wife - flowers - often
19. She - tells - the news - me - before class – always
20. The water - is - in the pan - now - enough - hot
21. Dick - has - a question - seldom - asked - in class
22. Tom's - is - car - new - high - five feet
23. I - study - over the weekend - seldom - my lessons
24. Don't - speak - you - with your friends - English - ever

Тема 3. Употребление артикля THE c географическими


названиями
13

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 13. Исправьте некоторые предложения, вставив


артикль THE по необходимости.
1. Last year we visited Canada and United States.
2. Africa is much larger than Europe.
3. South of England is warmer than north. (the south,~north)
4. We went to Spain for our holidays and swam in Mediterranean.
5. Tom has visited most countries in western Europe.
6. A friend of mine used to work as a reporter in Middle East.
7. Next year we are going skiing in Swiss Alps.
8. Nile is longest river in Africa.
9. United Kingdom consists of Great Britain and northern Ireland.

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 14. Ответьте на вопросы, выбирая нужный ответ в


скобках. Вставьте артикль THE, где необходимо.
.
Example: What is the longest river in the world? (Amazon/Rhine/Nile)
the Amazon
1. Where is Bolivia? (Africa/South America/North America)
2. Where is Ethiopia? (Asia/South
America/Africa)......................................
3. Of which country is Manila the capital? (Indonesia/Philippines/Japan)
4. Of which country is Stockholm the capital?
(Norway/Denmark/Sweden)
5. Which country lies between Mexico and Canada? (Venezuela/El
Salvador/ United States)
6. Which is the largest country in the world? (United States/China/Soviet
Union)
7. Which is the largest continent? (Africa /South America/ Asia)
8. What is the name of the mountain range in the west of North America?
(Rocky Mts/ Alps/ Andes)
9. What is the name of the ocean between America and Asia?
(Atlantic/Pacific/Indian Ocean)
10. What is the name of the ocean between Africa and Australia?
(Atlantic/Pacific/Indian Ocean)
11. What is the name of the sea between England and France?
(Mediterranean Sea/ English Channel/French Sea)
12. What is the name of the sea between Africa and Europe?
14

(Black Sea/Mediterranean Sea/Red Sea)


13. What is the name of the sea between Britain and Norway?
(Norwegian Sea/
English Channel/North Sea)
14. Which river flows through Vienna, Budapest and Belgrade?
(Rhine/Danube/
Volga)
15. What joins the Atlantic and Pacific oceans? (Suez Canal/Panama
Canal)

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 15. Вставьте артикль THE перед названиями


континентов, стран, штатов, городов, где необходимо

1. In his youth Mr. Curry had been abroad a great deal, had lived in ...
Ceylon, ... Singapore and ... India. 2.He made ... England too hot to hold
him; fled to ... Central America, and died there of yellow fever. 3. The
wealth of Mary's husband flowed from his being ruler-owner of
manganese deposits in ... southwestern Asia.
4. I hear he's off to ... Central Africa. 5. The young man will be as safe
in ... Devonshire as in ... London. 6. My great-grand-father was Governor
of ... North Carolina. 7.Several show cases are devoted to the
reunification of ... Ukraine with Russia. 8. We drove up from ... Valencia.
9. Here are some of his belongings such as the sword given to him in ...
Caucasus and many historical documents. 10. One of the most striking of
the many unique exhibits is a marble sarcophagus—a relic of ancient art
found in excavations on ... Taman Peninsula in ... Crimea.
11. ... Yorkshire is famous for some delicious foods, including Yorkshire
pudding and roastbeef. 12. In ... Netherlands and ... Belgium St. Nicholas'
Day, December 6 is the children's festival, on the eve of which the saint is
supposed to come riding from ... Spain with presents for all good
children. 13. . The first three department stores in ... United States were in
... Chicago. 14. Anyhow they lived in ... South China. 15. He's moved
to ... Lebanon. 16. "I wonder," he said suddenly, "where that ballet goes
after ... Argentine." 17. The next day in searching the woods, I found a
tree of that wood, or like it, which in ... Brazil they call the iron tree, for
its ex exceeding hardness. 18. "I'm a socialist," said the man, "I
15

sympathize with ... USSR." 19. ... Columbia city was not so far away,
even once she was in ... Chicago. 20. Having stayed near four months
in ... Hamburgh, I came from thence by land to ... Hague.
УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 16.Вставьте артикль THE перед названиями рек,
морей, океанов, заливов, проливов, каналов, стран , штатов и
городов, где необходимо.
1. How ill she was when there was a storm in ... Indian Ocean. 2.
Every ferryboat that crosses ... East River brings or takes away
girls from Long Island. 3.... New York, the largest city in the USA,
is situated at the mouth of …Hudson river, sometimes called …
North river. 4. He had grown up at the shores of ... Lake Superior
and had sailed small boats ever since he was a kid. 5.They sent us a
post card of ... Lake of Geneva. 6. They were in ... Mediterranean
passing ... Gibraltar, but the weather, if anything, was worse. 7. …
Potomac flows from ...West Virginia into ... Chesapeake Bay. 8.
Warm air began to move from ... Gulf of Mexico across Texas into
New Mexico. 9. He said he was a Dane, but in ... Torres Straits he
was known as German Harry. 10. Isabel bought the house, a replica
of a palace on ... Grand Canal at …Venice. 11. Had it not been my
custom to run up to see him every Saturday afternoon and to stop
over till Monday morning, this particular January Monday
morning would not have found me afloat on ... San Francisco Bay.
12. Wisconsin was on ... Wisconsin River, on the north bank, a
matter of seven miles above the junction with ... Mississippi. 13. . I
collected my baggage and stepped out of the train, and there was ...
Grand Canal at my feet. 14. June read: "... Lake Okanagen,
...British Columbia. I'm not coming back in ...England. Bless you
always. Jon." 15. ... Pacific Ocean is rich in mineral raw materials.
16. A new coal deposit with an estimated 2 billion tons of coal
capacity has been discovered near ... Lake Shubarkol. 17.
Production centres of Saudi Arabia are along ... Persian Gulf.

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 17. Вставьте артикль THE перед названиями


полуостровов, пустынь, островов, водопадов (рек, морей,
океанов, заливов, проливов, каналов, стран , штатов и городов),
где необходимо.
1. She has lived on … Long Island twenty years and never saw …New
16

York City before. 2. ... Rocky Mountains extend from …Mexico to …


Canada. 3. He took her for a ride on the river under ... Niagara Falls. 4.
On the edge of ... Sahara we ran into a plague of locusts and the chauffeur
explained kindly that they were bumble-bees.5. He had a small house
in ... Bermudas.6. The shell was found overturned, the next day, near ...
Bear Mountain. 7. The photographer gave us the picture of me, my hair
limp over the rail on the boat to ... Capri.
8. No one should leave the park without visiting the outlook station on
the rim of ...Great Canyon for a view of ... Lower Falls of …Yellowstone
River. 9. Kilimanjaro is a snow covered mountain 19,700 feet high and is
said to be the highest mountain in Africa. 10. Of course she had read
novels about ... Malay Archipelago and she had formed an impression of
a sombre land with great ominous rivers and a single silent impenetrable
jungle. 11. We shall try to break through direct for ... North Cape. 12. ...
Strait of Georgia had gale-force winds, in the high elevations of ... Sierra
Nevada and ... Cascades there was snow. 13. The main part of the United
States presents four physical divisions: two elevated and two lowland
regions. 14. The elevated are... Appalachian Mountains in the east and ...
Rocky Mountains or Cordilleran system in the west. 15. … Kalambo
River, part of the border between …Zambia and …Tanganyika, passes
over ... Kalambo Falls in a spectacular 704 feet drop. 16. … People’s
Democratic Republic of Yemen lies on the southern tip of ... Arabian
Peninsula. 17. …Spain is a country of about 194,883 square miles
(including ... Balearic Islands and ... Canary Islands) occupying the larger
part of ... Iberian Peninsula in …southwestern Europe. 18. …Mongolia
spans a huge steppe plateau and ... Gobi Desert.

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 18 . Перевести предложения на английский язык

1.В США существует 9 городов с названием New Haven.


2. Африка и Азией разделяется Красным морем.
3. Географы США выделяют пятый океан, Антарктический,
расположенный вокруг Антарктиды и включающий южную часть
остальных.
4. На Пиренейском полуострове расположены горы Пиренеи, с
самой высокой горой Монблан , по которым проходит граница
между Францией и Испанией.
5. Панамский канал разделяет Северную и Южную Америку и
находится в Панаме.
17

Тема 4. Числительные. Сокращения, принятые в научной


и технической литературе
УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 19.Числовые выражения и единицы измерения
при числительных, даты-годы написать словами, как если бы
их произносили вслух. Выражения со словом equals переписать и
перевести в метрические единицы измерения. Словесные
выражения переписать в виде числовых. (Примечание: ac.No
=account number)

1) 94.5 ml; 35 3/8 dl; 184,000 km2 ; Dec.22, 2003; ac.No


4059578367262 ; 7 3

Reserves are NN deposit to 91-m (300-ft) depth of 25.5 (820,000 oz) of


gold.
74__ ; 4 5/16 kg
703

2) 5 May, 1799; 865 034 003; tel. 921 6649820; 250 per capita/y; 2.87 $
/Troy ounce; 12 –5
21.56 g; 67 4/11.

3) 16,175 st; 245.04; 1st of March, 2008; 3 in equals ______.; 11/34 cm;
Sept.18 , 1607; 205 964 473 035; 17–6

4) 9/11/ 02; 1000 ft equals ______. ; 43 094 054 108 ; Oct.31, 988; 1,840
lb; ½ t; 3.456 %;
12 –7

5). 540 309 039 280; 1,567 oz/month; 23 Jun. 1800; ¼; 6. 3 lb equals
_____; 7.67 m/s; 16 3

6). 25 km/h; 2.5 %; 1,876 oz/y; 58 2 ; 1200 lt/mth; 8.0067 mg; 0.1; 1
046 050 330; 6 ¾ ; 5 April 2000.

7). 2,500,000 mi; 5.45%; 4 Jan. 2000; 2 ½ g; 11_; 1,500kg/m3 ; ac. No


304957278540965; 15 3 876
18

8). Feb.9, 1956; 2,500 cu yd/y; 0.0345; 256.5st; tel. (095) 933 36 12;
1789 BC; 50 kg/ m2; 2 Troy ounce equals _____. 53 -3; 57_
347

9). 3bbl equals _____.; 1/3 t; 34 ½; tel.pr. (203) 389 6630; 0.02 dl;
03.02.2002; 12_; 23 –4
354

10). 2 gallons equals ca. _____ ; 0.03 g; tel.of. 776 63 244l; 10 knots=…
km/h; 3 March 1809; 3 4/7 kg; 23 –4

11). 3 oz equals ______. ; ac. No 034985938547; 23 July 1700; 2000


r.p.m.; 5/16; 8 –5

12). 169 bbl/y; 307 050 302 ft; 1440AD; 13 November 1803; 0.0774;
4__; 45 6
229

13) 23.49 g; March 28, 1988; 28$/oz; six to the minus fourth power; 2.5
doz =…; 125 kg per capita; Acc.No 4985298000448521; 234,500 sq.km;
five and three ninths; 2dm=….cm;

14) tel. of. 776 63 244; 34 over nine- seven-one; thirty-three point eleven;
08/12/2004; 0.25kg = …g; 2lb=…oz; 1450 BC;

15)10,000 BP; forty-five and three quarters kg; tel.245 50 85; 3 miles= …
cables;
Ten to the minus fourth degree= 0.0004; 1600 BC; 45.5 ct; 83 mg∙g-1

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 20. Переведите на английский язык

миллионы тонн угля и железа;


десятки килограммов золота;
миллионы тонн ежегодно;
500 миллиметров осадков в год;
три дюжины коробок; полдюжины яиц ; у неё дюжины приятелей.

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 21. Прочитать вслух и перевести на русский язык


19

1)10-7m/cycle
2) 765 M cubic feet a year; 12513 feet high; annual value of $ 57000.
3)…world production of mined nickel increased 12% in 1995 to 867,000
tonnes in 1994 and refined nickel production by 9.3 %.
4) The average cash price for high-grade nickel is expected to increase to
US$9,500 per tonne (US$4.31 per lb).
5) Probable reserves are estimated to be 3.1 million tones at an average
grade of 13.77 % zink, 1.5 % copper and 1.40 oz silver and 0.02 oz gold
per tonne.
6) The 900-tonne-per-day operation is scheduled to produce gold in
April, 1997.
7) Production is expected to hit 80,000 ounces per year.
8) Mineral resources of the property stand at about 2.4 million tones
grading 8.63 % zink and 6.33 % lead.
9) In 1996 the estimated reserves were 7Mt (7.7 million st) with grades of
about 16% zinc, 35 lead and 103 g/t (3 oz/st) of silver.
10) Visible gold was evident in several holes. One hole cut 9 m (30 ft)
with a gold grade of 4.6 g/t (0.134 oz/st) and 4.5 m (15 ft) of 3.7 g/t
(0.108 oz/st). Another hole cut 5.3 m (17.5 ft) of 7.3 g/t (0.212 oz/st).
11) 1,000-foot ship ; 1,830 m (6,000 ft) of core; up to 2.4 g/t (0.07 oz/st).
12) 9.6 km or 6 miles west of Fairbanks…
13) Reserves are NN deposit to 91-m (300-ft) depth of 25.5 t(820,000 oz)
of gold.
14) The shear extends at least to the 335-m (1,100-ft) depth.
15)...with gold grades from 9.9 g/t to more than 35 g/t.
16) XX started the project by funding the $5.5 million, 46-hole, 14,385-m
(47,200-ft) drilling program.
17)…government invests roughly $100 per capita annually to prevent
environmentally deterioration.
18) Population of 10.3 million who inhabit 78,864 sq.kilometers…
19) at pH 4.3-2.3
20) 540,000 t of suphur dioxide; 160,000 t of nitrous oxide and 60,000
particulates; pollution grew 210 percent between 1950 and 1985.
21) Nitrogen oxide emissions peaked in 1980 at 1.6 million t per annum.
By 1980 they had decrerased to 950,000 t, roughly 7.7t /km2.
22) Austria in 1993 emitted a total of 70,800 t of SO2, roughly 9 kg per
capita.
23) In 1994 the Czech Republic emitted a total of 1,270,000 t, roughly
20

149 kg per capita.


24) Total emissions of NOx have also dramatically decreased, down to
369,000 t from the level of 920,000t.
25) Output of carbon monoxide has leveled off at approximately 970,000
t per year.
26) The life expectancy of men increased from 69.28 to 69.53 years
between 1993 and 1994, fro women – from 76.35 to 76.55 years. The
infant mortality rate dropped from 9.9 per 100 birth to 7.7.
27) 262,000-hectare area; more than 100,000 varieties
28) Production has grown from 52.8 t (1.7 million oz) in 1993 to almost
83.9 (2.7 million oz) in 1998.
29) Natural gas output averages well over 765 M cubic feet a year.
30) Sand and gravel averages an annual value of $ 57000.

Тема 5. МНОЖЕСТВЕННОЕ ЧИСЛО ИНОЯЗЫЧНЫХ СЛОВ В


АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 22 . Перевести на английский язык.

1) Вулканы и торнадо– природные явления; 2) мои любимые


кактусы; 3) многочисленные анализы; 4) новые гипотезы; 5) варёные
картофелины; 6) сочные манго; 7) прекрасные фрески; 8) конспект
по математике; 9) международные форумы;10) опасные бактерии и
вирусы; 11) несколько критериев; 12) химические индексы; 13)
научные симпозиумы; 14) красные помидоры; 15) серьёзный стимул
для студентов; 16) розовые фламинго; 17) ужасные бандиты; 18)
полезная бактерия; 19) упрощённые формулы; 20) единственный
критерий; 21) вкусные бананы; 22) дипломная работа; 23)
докебрийские слои; 24) водоёмы с чистой питьевой водой; 25)
точные анализы; 26) количественный и качественный анализ; 27)
Какой следующий вопрос в (on) повестке дня?

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 23.Определить число имён существительных.

Smoking men, 25 feet, natural phenomenon, precise analyses,


Precambrian stratum, new formula, these apparatuses, the data of
investigations, chemical syntheses, useful bacteria, fossil vertebra,
21

international fora, geological symposia, collection of cacti, serious


stimulus, difference between these formulas, differing criteria.

Тема 6. ИНФИНИТИВНЫЕ ОБОРОТЫ

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 24. Перевести на русский язык.

1. Geographically, extinctions during this period appear to have been


most numerous, on islands, island archipelagos, and in freshwater
ecosystems.
2. The soil fauna is known to affect the microflora in several ways.
3. Inbreeding depression is likely to be important only under special
circumstances.
4. They are taxa that are no longer known to exist in the wild after
repeated searches of their type localities.
5. Domesticates can truly be said to be human cultural product.
6. The wild ancestor of cattle, the aurochs (зубр), is known to be
extinct.
7. The earthworms are possible to can depress the fungal
development in the soil by feeding on fungal mycelia.
8. Fungal mycelia only seem to develop abundantly in soils of
temperate regions.
9. DNA methods are likely to simply join the rank of “good
techniques for right problems”, as they become simpler and better
understood.
10.Cornell (1993) pointed out a particular model of local coexistence
to predict niche differentiation.
11. Ecosystem processes in tundra are expected to differ quantatively
in their response to abiotic factors.
12.XX expected ecosystem processes in tundra to differ quantatively
in their response to abiotic factors.
13.Large mammals become known to have needed many millions of
years to become as diverse as dinosaurs they replaced.
22

14.Scientists stated large mammals to become as diverse as dinosaurs


they replaced during many millions of years.
15.Several versions of competitive coexistence don’t require niche
differentiation and thus seem to be capable of explaining the
competition in colonizing areas.
16.Cowling (1983) showed within forest biomes in South Africa
increasing species richness in 100 m2 plots to be correlated with
increasing habitat diversity.
17.At the regional scale, diversity represents the balance between
extinction and species proliferation, and differences between
regions are likely to reflect differences in either or both of them.
18.The life span of plant species was found to be in the order of one to
5 million years.
19.Niklas et al. (1983) has found the life span of plant species to be in
the order of one to 5 million years.
20.These results show beta diversity to be largely responsible for the
greater species richness of insects feeding on more widespread
plants.
21.From these results beta diversity was shown to be largely
responsible for the greater species richness of insects feeding on
more widespread plants.
22.Methane is generated from anaerobic decomposition in wetlands,
and increases in the area of permanently flooded rice cultivation
are thought to account for a significant proportion of the increase in
net CH4 emissions.
23.Marginal effects of losing any one of taxonomic groups seems
reasonable to presume to be high soon
24.Sientists consider the ecosystem to be the functional unit in
ecology, because it includes all of the interactions of communities
with both their living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic)
environments.
25.Emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, dimethyl sulphide and
volatile organic chemicals, each seem to depend on a limited
number of taxonomic groups with functionally similar properties.
26.We know less about the distributions of smaller organisms, such as
fungi, which seem to be abundant in cool soils.
23

27.The equilibrium between the carbon in the world’s forests and in


the atmosphere is known to remain constant until recent centuries.
28.Researchers estimate the earth’s mean temperature to could rise
1.5°C to 4.5°C by the middle of the next century.
29.The earth’s mean temperature was estimated to could rise 1.5°C to
4.5°C by the middle of the next century.
30.Till, formed from X, was found to contain very little bedrock.
31.Changes in microbial diversity are thus more likely to be important
in the production and degradation of unusual substrates than in the
normal processing of plant litter and soil organic matter.
32.The composted sludge was also found having a high affinity for
metals and this metal uptake property appears to be particularly
pronounced for lead.
33.There appears to be another interaction of importance, this time
between the soil invertebrates and the protozoa.
34.The process of comminuting and distributing dead plant litter
throughout the surface layers of the soil was found to be the
predominant action of the larger soil invertebrates on the microbial
population.
35.In the rock and soil mercury is found to be measured in fractions of
one part per million.
36.The world production of mercury has been found to amount to
about 10000 tons per year.
37. Due to the large-scale use a considerable amount of mercury
wastes is likely to flow into environments.
38. The strata at all the producing petroleum wells became
apparent to be sedimentary and the structure to consist of
anticlines.
39. Oil contains nitrogen and certain compounds (porphyrins) that
scientists believe can only originate in living matter
40.The mechanism that finally triggered the most recent ice age
appears to have been the change in ocean-current circulation
resulting from the collision between South and North America,
which was completed by 2 million years ago.
24

41.These trends are likely to be due to increased pollution by heavy


metals.
42.Most of the species were found to belong to genera that today live
in warm areas of the world.
43.Upon microscopic examination the insoluble residue was seen to
contain silicified legs, mouth parts and heads of many small
insects.
44.Organic remains are most likely to be preserved in fine-grained
sediments, provided that they are buried quickly enough to avoid
decay or scavenging.
45.This history shows that international demand for nearly any forest
product is more likely to promote forest distribution than
conservation, even if the product will be harvested without cutting
trees.
46.But Greenpeace said that Norway’s determination to oppose the
ban on dumping new installation seemed to be in total opposition
to the strong line taken on reprocessing.
47.Destruction of the soil showed the more then 95 % of the total Cd
content to has been extractable with 0.43 M HNO3.
48.As the mobile region sorption affects only the parameter values of
the transport model and not the effect of nonlinearity, the sorption
in the mobile region is assumed to be zero.
49.The Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster in 1986 caused large
parts of Europe to be contaminated with radioactivity.
50.Function of potassium appears rather to be catalytic in nature.

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 25. Перевести на английский язык с


использованием инфинитивных оборотов.

1. Древние думали, что электричество является невидимой


жидкостью.

2. Мы считаем, что атомная энергия является главным


источником тепловой энергией.
25

3. Он, конечно, выяснит это предположение.


4. По-видимому, этот вывод не всегда является
справедливым(is true).
5. Было подсчитано (to estimate), что в одном лишь Марокко (in
Marocco alone) эти отложения содержат 3 млн.тонн урана.
6. Из его данных рассчитано, что содержание азота в почвах
составляет 3.8 %
7. Можно доказать, что этот факт имеет большое значение для
новой концепции.
8. Из его данных мы рассчитали, что содержание азота в
почвах составляло 3.8
9. К.полагал, что валентность (valency) есть свойство атомов и
является постоянной для каждого элемента.
10.Из его данных мы рассчитали, что содержание железа в
породах будет возрастать в следующем слое.
11.Эти авторы заявили, что обнаружили алмазоносные породы
на Кольском п-ве.
12.Мы знаем, что катастрофы на атомных станциях иногда
имеют глобальный характер.
13.Студенты передали, что уже готовы к тестированию.
14.Они планировали, что за первым проектом последует новый
проект по ипытанию сортов кормовых трав.
15.Специалисты планировали, что вскоре они смогут провести
полевые опыты в нескольких местах.
16.Они, по-видимому, были первыми, подтвердившими этот
механизм почвообразования.
17.Они доказали , что проведение этих исследований было
необходимым
18.Мы знаем, что температура воздуха понижается по мере
того, как увеличивается высота.
19.Хорошо известно, что катастрофы на атомных
электростанциях иногда имеют глобальный характер.
20.Они считали, что, судя по наблюдениям, процесс загрязнения
происходит в несколько стадий
26

21.Они доказали, что были первыми, предложившими этот


механизмпочвообразования.
22.Не планировалось, что за первым проектом последует новый
проект по ипытанию сортов овощей.
23.Не планируется, что за первым экспериментом последует
новый эксперимент.
24.Безусловно, за первым проектом по поиску золотоносных
пород последует новый проект.
25.Сначала было высказано предположение, (to postulate), что
эта кристалличеcкая решётка (lattice) содержит атомы и Mg.
26.Мы полагаем, что перспективы (the prospects) для экспорта
натуральных камней будут хорошими.
27.Они сообщили, что, судя по наблюдениям, реакция являлась
многоступенчатой.
28. Они должны были доказать, что этот факт имеет большое
значение для развития геоэкологии.
29. Они доказали, что этот факт имел большое значение для
развития геоэкологии.
30. Планировалось, что вскоре они должны будут провести
полевые исследования на нескольких участках.
31. Полагают, что современные преобразования биосферы,
вызванные деятельностью человека, являются
необратимыми.
32. Специалисты полагают, что современные преобразования
биосферы, вызванные деятельностью человека, являются
необратимыми.
33. Мировое промышленное хозяйство явилось причиной того,
что в настоящее время окружающая среда преобразована.
34. Надо отметить, что толщина слоя биосферы, содержащего
наивысшую концентрацию живого вещества , варьирует от
нескольких метров до сотен метров.
35.Известно, что биосфера – это сложная система
преобразования энергии и круговорота веществ.
36.Было обнаружено, что захоронение городских отходов
проводится нелегально..
27

37.Безусловно, кислотные дожди сокращают урожаи с/х


культур.
38.N сообщает, что агар (agar) является подходящей средой для
выращивания этих бактерий.
39.Специалисты только что сделали открытие, что вещество Х
является канцерогеннным.
40.Докучаев полагал, что химический состав есть свойство почв
и является довольно постоянным для каждого типа почв.
41.Мы всегда помним, что Вернадский предложил современную
концепцию биосферы .
42.Учёные надеются, что нынешние студенты продолжат
начатые исследования в геоэкологии.
43.В общем, маловероятно, что уровни содержания (levels)
меди, с которыми столкнулись (to encounter) , в этом
исследовании, являются токсичными.
44.Концентрации кобальта в почвах в среднем составляли 83
mg/g и считали, что они являются нетоксичными для
производства овощей.

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 26. Перевести на русский язык

1) Individual layers appear to have been broken up


2) The composition of layers is quite uniform throughout the Rum
Complex, and this appears to suggest that 16 regular pulses of fresh
magma of the same composition were injected from below and
immediately began to cool and crystallize.
3) About half of oil shale reserves was considered to be workable, but the
yield wouldn’t be very high
4) There could be as much as billion tonnes of oil shale still remaining,
but the costs of mining, processing, waste disposal and environment
reclamation are very high and the material is unlikely to be extracted.
5) The chemical composition of the rocks can be expected to differ from
that of unaltered mafic volcanics or dykes.
6) The Fe-toleiitic cycles at both Koli and Kovero seem to have signs of
crustal contamination with a potassium enrichment trend.
28

7) Carbon is known to occur in two crystalline forms


8) In the rock and soil mercury is found to be measured in fractions of
one part per million.
9) The world production of mercury has been found to amount to about
10000 tons per year.
10) Due to the large-scale use a considerable amount of mercury wastes is
likely to flow into environments.
11) The surface shown is assumed to have resulted from erosion of older
underlying sediments and rocks during a time of lowered sea level.
12) This disruption seems to be related to the process of consolidation.
13) These rocks are thought to be younger than the deposits of Pechenga.
14) These layers are considered to be linked to the sedimentary
environments.
15) The charcoal date is considered to be more accurate, hence late-
glacial age is indicated.
16) Organic remains are most likely to be preserved in fine-grained
sediments, provided that they are buried quickly enough to avoid decay or
scavenging.
17) The strata at all the producing petroleum wells became apparent to be
sedimentary and the structure to consist of anticlines.
18) Upon microscopic examination the insoluble residue was seen to
contain silicified legs, mouth parts and heads of many small insects.
19) Most of the species were found to belong to genera that today live in
warm areas of the world.
20) These trends are likely to be due to fractional crystallization during
magma evolution.
21) Thus high Nb/Ta ratio appears to be associated with high 143 Nb/144Nb
22) Komatiite residues appear to form linear correlation with slightly
different slopes.
23) In the high Alps thrusting appears to have developed on a much
grander scale than in the Appalachians.
24) Isolated mountain ranges are separated from intervening lower land
by normal faults of great displacement, and seem to be giant pieces of
crust punched upward from below.
25) Continuous breakups have frequently been considered to be largely
29

the result of decompression melting of ascending mantle.


26) This theoretical limit is confirmed by observation of breakwaters and
other structures, which are found to be only rarely affected by surf at
depth of more than about 7 m.
27) Tingey summarized the geology and history at discovery of the
various iron occurrences and concluded that none are likely to be
economically developed.
28) Several of the faults were responsible for the location of Caledonian
granites, which appear to have made their way up to higher levels in the
crust along these lines of weakness, which opened up spaces during fault
movement.
29) The mechanism that finally triggered the most recent ice age appears
to have been the change in ocean-current circulation resulting from the
collision between South and North America, which was completed by 2
million years ago.
30) Although layered komatiite flows with spinifex-textured upper parts
and olivine enriched lower parts are commonly thought to provide firm
evidence of magmatic differentiation by olivine settling, there are,
however the reasons for some other suggestion.
31) Oil is believed to be the product of the decomposition of organic
matter, both plant and animal.
32) Other factors such as duration of emplacement, the total volume of
granitoid masses, the silica content and the activity of the volcanoes
seems to decrease from older to younger complex
33) The Bait Hill volcano is believed to have originated as a mildly
alkaline seamount which was accreted from the subducting Iapetus plate.
34) As adiabatic fractional melting is believed to closely approximate to
adiabatic decompression melting of the mantle, this is considered to
provide more accurate results for the generation of the Guddapah lavas.
35) The modal contents of constituent minerals and their melting
proportions are taken from James (1992) and are assumed to closely
approximate to peridotite KLB-1.
36) The initial concentrations and partition coefficients for Nb are used
for melting calculations and assumed to be similar to those of primitive
mantle melts.
37) Some trace element features appear to be associated with particular
30

isotope signature and there is a long-standing debate over the extent to


which enriched components reflect intra-mantle processes.
38) Oil contains nitrogen and certain compounds (porphyrins) that
scientists believe can only originate in living matter
39) NGU also considers the prospects to be good for export of natural
stones.
40) Negative charge greater than average may only point the rejuvenation
to have progressed considerably in the main valley but not very far in the
subsidiary valley.
41) Value limits presented above are intended to apply only in the case of
the studied area.
42) Periglacial conditions seem to result in drainage network with a very
high density even though the earlier evolution of relief took place under
different conditions and the structure of the bedrock doesn’t favour the
occurrence of high density values.
43) The proving that the evolution model is correct is based only on those
relief characteristics which are assumed to originate from the evolution
which the model seeks to explain.
44) Crustal thickening and metamorphism are thought to have resulted
from the collision of the various continental blocks, which followed
oceanic closure by subduction.
45) On a broader scale, these events have been suggested to may be
linked to a major phase of crustal extension have led to rifting apart of
Baltica from Laurentia at this time.
46) The presence of normal faults in the Lewisian basement, which were
active at the time of sedimentation, suggests the deposition of the Stoer
Group to have been linked to major lifting during crustal stretching.
47) The supercontinent that was assembled in the Palaeoprorerozoic by
the amalgamation of Archaean terranes is thought to have existed until
c.1400 – 1300 Ma.
48) The basement gneisses and mafic inclusions, thought to have been
dykes or sills, contain relicts of high-pressure eclogite-facies mineral.
49) Although the base in unexposed, the Sleat Group is thought to lie
uncomformably on the Lewisian basement.
50) The petrology of the clasts within the Torridon Group suggests them
31

to have been derived from the erosion of Lewisian gneisses and


supracrustal rocks.
51) This chemical signatures indicates these rocks are the residues left
behind the after partial melting and melt extraction accompanying
granulite-facies metamorphism
52) Recent studies have established the Lewisian Complex to comprise a
series of crustal blocks (terranes) that evolved separately before they
were welded together by collision during the Palaeoproterozoic.
53) The chemical compositions of the gneisses indicate them to be related
to magmas generated at subdiction zones, whereas mafic and ultramafic
rocks are broadly comparable with modern tholeiitic basalts.
54) The rocks are therefore considered to have originated in oceanic
island-arc environments.
55) Isotopic studies indicate the rocks of the Rinns Complex to have been
formed as newly differentiated (Juvenile) mantle-derived materials.
56) Provenance studies of locally-derived granitic boulders in younger
sediments show them to be petrographically and chemically similar to
components of the Rinns Complex.
57) These data suggest that rocks found in the Rinns Complex were once
much more widespread.
58) Specialists therefore considered these rocks to have originated in
oceanic island-arc environments.
60) Furthermore, Rb – Sr ages from the Diabeg and Applecross
Formations are interpreted to date diagenesis at c.994 Ma and 977 Ma
respectively.
61) The detrital zircon ages are similar to those from the Moine
Supergroup, which suggests the sediments to have been derived from a
similar source region.
63) These granites are supposed to have been formed as a result of partial
melting of Moine rocks at a deeper crustal level, and recent isotopic
dating of several of these bodies indicates an age of c.873 Ma for their
emplacement.
64) Field relations indicate these pegmatites to have been emplaced
during regional ductile deformation and metamorphism.
65) The ages of the shear zones are considered to be c.806 Ma, based on
32

the dating of monazite that crystallized during metamorphism.


66) From the available evidence the Moine Supergroup and Dava are
concluded to have been deformed and metamorphosed during the
Knoydartian Orogeny at c.840-780 Ma.
67) In many studies the evolution of relief has been proved to be very
sensitive to certain crustal movements.
68) Likewise assymetrical or other anomalous features in drainage basins
have been shown to be dependent on late deformations of the earth’s
crust.
69) Oil is known to be one of the most important sources of energy.
70) Petroleum is believed to have been formed from decaying plant and
animal remains.
71) Drilling is considered to be the principal exploration method and it is
widely used when deposits are of large dimensions.
72) Coal is still the most important fuel and is likely to remain the main
source of energy for years to come.
73) Neighbouring coal beds seemed to be sloping gently.
74) The computerized systems of planning and control proved to be
reliable.
75) Komatiite residues appear to form linear correlations with slightly
different slope.
76) Locally eugranular and porphiritic dikes and sills, thought to be
related to the Jurassic granodiorite stock, intrude the Devonian
sedimentary rocks along northwest trending structures.
78) All deposits lie along the northern side of the synform which is
considered to be a refolded fold.
79) Though porphyritic, the granite is likely to represent liquid sorting
and accumulation of K-feldspar phenocrysts being very local.
80) Two formations appear to be separated by an undulating and SE
dipping plane of unconformity.
81) Quartz crystals in sandstones at depths of 1200-14oo m below the
surface appear to reach solubility equilibrium with the 4He-concentration
in the surrounding pore- or groundwater after some time.
82) These deposits appeared to form with a high degree metamorphism.
83) When considering actual liquid crystals on a quantitative level
33

quantifiable the ultimate goal appears to be discouragingly hard to reach.


84) 3D Dynamic melting, where lateral migration of several melt
fractions is considered to contribute to the cooling magma batches at the
centre of mantle plume.
85) Dain et al. suggested earliest channels to have been eroded
subaerially in area undergoing uplift probably as response to impact of
Icel plume.
86) Lateral symmetry of the original data indicates dip directions and
some of the isoclinal folds appear to be overturned.

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 27. Перевести на английский язык с


использованием инфинитивных оборотов.

1. Автор метода сообщил (to report), что он рассчитал все параметры.


2. Инженер установил , что он сделал ошибку в расчётах
(calculations).
3. Геологи рудника полагают, что они могут рассчитывать на (to rely
on) новые запасы руды.
4. Начальник отряда подтвердил, что он информировал рабочих о
новых методах.
5. Исследователь сообщил (to report), что он нашёл ошибку в
расчётах (calculations).
6. Исследователь сообщил (to report), что найдена ошибка в расчётах
(calculations).
7. Сообщили (to report), что найдена ошибка в расчётах (calculations).
8. Сообщают (to report), что найдена ошибка в расчётах
(calculations).
9. Сообщили (to report), что скоро будет найдена ошибка в расчётах
(calculations).
10. Автор метода сообщил (to report), что все параметры
рассчитаны.
11. Исследователь сообщил (to report), что все параметры
эксперимента будут рассчитаны через неделю.
12. Сообщают (to report), что все параметры эксперимента будут
рассчитаны через неделю.
34

13. Сообщили (to report), что все параметры эксперимента будут


рассчитаны через неделю.
14. Сообщили (to report), что все параметры рассчитаны.
15. Говорят, что этот рудник скоро закроют.
16. Говорили, что этот рудник скоро закроют.
17. Можно предположить, что этот метод разведки очень
эффективен.
18. Предполагали, что этот метод разведки очень эффективен.
19. Предполагают, что этот метод разведки очень эффективен.
20. Предполагают, что этот метод разведки станет очень
эффективным в близком (next) будущем.
21. Предполагают, что этот метод разведки былочень эффективен.
22. Нужно отметить, что этот метод разведки очень эффективен.
23. По данным измерений установлено, что эта порода очень
стабильна.
24. По-видимому, эта порода очень стабильна.
25. Определили, что содержание меди в Мончегорских рудах
составляет 1.6% .
26. Маловероятно, что эти породы очень устойчивы к бурению.
27. Безусловно, техника безопасности горных работ представляет
чрезвычайную важность.
28. Маловероятно, что эта порода очень стабильна.
29. Геологи сообщают, что эти условия могут быть найдены во
многих золотых рудниках.
30. Геологи сообщают, что эти условия были найдены во многих
золотых рудниках.
31. Геологи сообщают, что эти условия не были обнаружены
(discovered) во многих золотых рудниках.
32. Они доказали, что были первыми, предложившими этот
механизм формирования рельефа.
33. Они планировали, что за первым проектом последует новый
проект по поиску золотоносных пород.
34. Специалисты планировали, что вскоре они смогут провести эти
полевые исследования.
35

35. Они, по-видимому, были первыми, предложившими этот


механизм формирования рельефа.
36. Они поняли, что проведение этих исследований было
нецелесообразно (unnecessary).
37. Он, конечно, выяснит это предположение.
38. По-видимому, этот вывод не всегда является справедливым(is
true).
39. Из его данных рассчитали, что содержание железа в породах
равняется 8.9%
40. Можно доказать, что этот факт имеет большое значение.
41. Из его данных мы рассчитали, что содержание железа в породах
равнялось 8.9%
42. К.полагал, что валентность (valency) есть свойство атомов и
является постоянной для каждого элемента.
43. Не планировалось, что за первым проектом последует новый
проект.
44. Безусловно, за первым проектом по поиску алмзоносных пород
последует новый проект.
45. Было высказано предположение, что (to postulate), что эта
кристалличеcкая решётка (lattice) содержит атомы Fe и Mg.
46. Норв. геол. служба полагает, что перспективы (the prospects) для
экспорта природного камня хорошие.
47. Они считали, что, судя по наблюдениям, реакция является
межмолекулярной.
48. Они должны были доказать, что этот факт имеет большое
значение.
49. Они доказали, что этот факт имел большое значение.
50. Планировалось, что вскоре они смогут провести эти полевые
исследования.
51. Известно, что тепло солнца вызывает расширение пород.
52. Тепло солнца является причиной того, что породы расширяются .
53. Вероятно, этот процесс имел место во всех отложениях.
54. Заметили, что некоторые камни имеют отличимые кристаллы.
55. Подсчитали, что даже в районах с самой большой мощностью
36

(the thickest) кора представляет лишь около 1% земного радиуса.


56. Несомненно, метморфизм изменяет исходные характеристики
пород и минералов.
57. Надо отметить, что этот процесс имел место во всех отложениях.

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 28. Перевести на русский язык

1. Milling will be gravity and carbon-in-pulp for a 95% recovery rate and
costs are expected to be US$ 3.86 per tonne.
2. Cash operating costs are expected to average US$ 218 per ounce.
3. With depreciation, amortization and reclamation factored in, total
production costs are expected to be 319US4 per ounce.
4. Mining costs are expected to be US$ 1.13 per tonne of ore and waste
moved.
5. This system of mining appears to differ from the one used before.
6. There could be as much as billion tonnes of oil shale still remaining,
but the costs of mining, processing, waste disposal and environment
reclamation are very high and the material is unlikely to be extracted.
7. The grades of copper deposits are known to have varied widely.
8. Copper deposits are unlikely to exist in the Khibiny mountains.
9. Process engineering was scheduled to be completed at the end of the
first quarter of 1996.
10. That project is expected to cost $410 million.
11. We know the pressure to decrease as altitude increases.
12. This limitation appeared to be overcome
13. More than 250 tons are produced per day and better production results
may be expected to be realized in the future.
14. Under normal conditions the results obtained on this face are said to
be 32.1 tons output per shift per face worker.
15. The properties of the ore are known to have varied widely.
16. The average number of years of work experience is estimated to be 18
or 19 years.
17. Many managers believe that any measurements of productivity is
more likely to backfire ( ) than produce useful results.
37

18. The competition is likely to continue for as long as mineral producers


see an economic edge in acquiring lager trucks and shovels.
19. Distribution of the coal basins appears to be determined by the relief
of the land surface, which has been formed before the peat deposition.
20. Construction of the mill is estimated to take 20 month.
21. These conditions are likely to be found in many gold mines.
22. We consider nuclear energy to be the prime source of heat energy.
23. The early discoveries in nuclear science showed the atomic nucleus to
be a vast source of energy.
24. We know the temperature in deep mine to decrease with its depth.
25. We know step room and pillar to be a variety of room-and-pillar
mining method.
26. Step room and pillar is known to be a variety of room-and-pillar
mining method.
27. The results of testing new explosives are known to have been used in
practice.
28. We hoped new methods of loading to appear in practice soon.
29. Specialists believe new explosives to be used in practice soon.
30. New loading equipment is expected to appear in practice soon.
31. New loading equipment was expected to appear in practice soon.
32. After the production was found to be low, new mining method was
used.
33. This loading equipment is sure to be perfect for this mine.
34. Only small-size equipment may be expected to fit recovery of veins.
35. Mining institute researchers reported new method to be successfully
tested.
36. Mining institute researchers reported new method to have been
successfully tested.
37. Diesel exhaust has been found to contain 35 chemicals, which can
damage human health.
38. Engine maintenance is sure to play an important role in diesel
emissions control in the underground mining.
39. Brunswick Mining&Smelting company reported $61 million to be
spent on underground mobile equipment maintenance, and $2.1 million is
38

said to be spent on the diesel engines themselves.


40. Diesel engines in underground machinery were said to be more
efficient than gasoline engines, reaching 40% work recovery from the
total energy in the fuel.
41. This technique is expected to become an industry standard next future
for the borehole measurements of uranium ores.
42. Uranium ores are found to have significantly less problems for
researchers in gamma-ray exploration method.
43. Designers announced the thermal neutron measurement to be used for
stratigraphic correlation and porosity/moisture studies in the borehole to
meet the needs of the Canadian uranium mining industry.
44. Quantec company claims some of their newly-developed method to
be suitable in borehole applications for oil and gas exploration.
45. Looking at the delicate balance of supply and demand in the world’s
nickel market, demand is expected to outstrip supply soon.
46. Roskill Information Services of the UK has stated the world
production of mined nickel to have increased 12% in 1995 to 867,000
tonnes in 1994 and refined nickel production by 9.3 %.
47. The average cash price for high-grade nickel is expected to increase
to US$9,500 per tonne (US$4.31 per lb) in 1997 as a result of the
supply/demand disbalance.
48. Factors driving the increased demand for nickel are listed to be
growth in demand for rechargeable nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydride
batteries and applications in the aerospace industry.
49. Quantec company claims to have developed some new method which
are suitable in borehole exploration for oil and gas mining.
50. Probable reserves are estimated to be 3.1 million tones at an average
grade of 13.77 % zinc, 1.5 % copper and 1.40 oz silver and 0.02 oz gold
per tonne.
51. The 900-tonne-per-day operation is scheduled to produce gold in
April, 1997.
52. Production is expected to hit 80,000 ounces per year.
53. Mineral resources of the property stand at about 2.4 million tones
grading 8.63 % zinc and 6.33 % lead and are planned to be mined by a
combination of open pit and underground methods at the deign capacity
39

of the mill.
54. The extent of remineable reserves is proved to be less than first
anticipated.
55. Even though an appreciable portion of the basin, especially in the
eastern part, is only partially mined and appears to contain possible coal
resources adjacent to old
56. Various investigations, both in the USA and Sweden, indicate flyrock
to be more frequent when the blasthole is top-initiated than when it is
bottom-initiated.
57. A shortened bottom charge to reinforce the priming of the ANFO was
shown to be effective.
58. 500 miners were said to be in employment.
59. The mine was said to be the richest mine for its area in Europe.

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 29. Перевести на английский язык с


использованием инфинитивных оборотов.

1. Считается, что круглое сечение ствола наиболее легко


выкапывается (to dig).
2. Известно, что нормальные автосъезды (ramp) имеют уклоны от
1:10 до 1:5.
3. Всегда считалось, что техника безопасности горных работ
представляет чрезвычайную важность.
4. Время работы этого рудника (life-time), определённо, составит не
менее 25 лет, судя по запасам руды.
5. Сообщили, что проходка ствола займёт 3 месяца.
6. Инженеры оценивают, что сооружение дробилки займёт 20
месяцев
7. Специалисты считают, что эти медные руды не являются
высокосортными.
8. Объявлено, что эта смена начинается в 6 часов утра.
9. Мастер объявил, что эта смена начинается в 6 часов утра.
10.Хорошо известно, что выработки могут быть горизонтальными,
вертикальными и наклонными.
40

11. Несомненно, эти результаты анализа неверны (false)


12. Мастер (foreman) подтвердил, что информировал рабочих о
новых нормах
13. Они считали, что, судя по наблюдениям, эти породы очень
устойчивы к бурению.
14. Сообщили (to report), что все параметры рассчитаны.
15. Говорят, что этот рудник скоро закроют.
16. Говорили, что этот рудник скоро закроют.
17. Можно предположить, что этот метод разведки очень
эффективен.
18. Предполагали, что этот метод разведки очень эффективен.
19. Предполагают, что этот метод разведки очень эффективен.
20. Предполагают, что этот метод разведки станет очень
эффективным в близком (next) будущем.
21. Предполагают, что этот метод разведки былочень эффективен.
22. Нужно отметить, что этот метод разведки очень эффективен.
23. По данным измерений установлено, что эта порода очень
стабильна.
24. По-видимому, эта порода очень стабильна.
25. Определили, что содержание меди в Мончегорских рудах
составляет 1.6% .

ТЕМА 7. ПРЕДЛОГИ И ВЫРАЖЕНИЯ, СВЯЗАННЫЕ С


ПОНЯТИЕМ «ВРЕМЯ»

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 30. Перевести выражения на русский язык

а. over many years f. in the course of a few million


b. most recently years
c. most of the time g. within the next few years
d. in the very long (short) run h. for a while
e. throughout the 20th century i. within the span of 200 years
41

j. up to now q. well before


k. shortly after r. day in and day out
l. every now and then s. over a period of 50 years
m. by (toward) the end of century t. by day
n. from this time on v. this day week[fortnight]
o. at about the same time w. to a day
p. as early as 1800 y. red-letter day

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 31. Вставить пропущенные предлоги.

1. The course begins _____7 January and ends _____10 March.


2. I went to bed _______midnight and got up _______6.30 next morning.
3. We travelled overnight to Paris and arrived _______5 o’clock
______the morning. 4. Mozart was born in Salzburg _______ 1756.
5. Are you doing anything special _______week-end?
6. Hurry up! We have to go ______five minutes.
7. I haven’t seen Ann _____a few days.
8. I last saw her____ Tuesday.
9. I might not be at home _____morning. Can you phone
_______afternoon instead? 10. Tom’s grandmother died ______ 1977
_____ the age of 79.
11. Jack’s brother is an engineer but he’s out of work ______the moment.
12. The price of elecricity is going up______ in October.
13. _______Sunday afternoons I usually go for a walk in the country.
14. There are usually a lot of parties_____New Year’s Eve.
15. I like walking round the town _____ night. It is so peaceful.
16. Do you fancy going to the cinema _______Friday night?
17. Tom doesn’t see his parents very often these days - usually only
______X-mas and _______ summer ____ a few days.
18. I have been invited to a wedding ______ 14 February.
19. I’m just going out to do some shopping. I’ll back ______half an hour.
42

20. Carol got maried _______17, which is rather young to get married.
21. Ann works hard during the week, so she likes to relax _______week-
ends.
22. The telephone and the doorbell rang _______ the same time.
23. Mary and Henry always go out for a meal_____ their wedding
anniversary.
24. Mr.Davis is 63. He’ll be retiring form his job in two years’time.
25. It was quite a short book and easy to read. I read it ______ a day.

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 34. Вставить пропущенные предлоги или


перевести на английский язык

1 Я увижу тебя после обеда.


2. If my wife goes away _____ a week, who will look after me and my
children?
3. Я увижу тебя около 6 часов.
4. Come and see me tomorrow any time ______ five o’clock. (До пяти
часов)
5. Это произошло в 400 году до н.э.
6. I will not be here ______seven o’clock. (Ранее 7 час.)
7. нахожусь здесь в течение недели.
8. Мы обычно заканчиваем работу рано по пятницам.
9. (К) ______the time you get this letter, I shall be in Miami.
10. She wrote this article ( в течение) ______her holiday.
11. The children aren’t there ________the moment, but they’ll be back
_____a few minutes.
12. Can you come to tea with us _______next Sunday?
13. I want to be at the stadium early so that we’re ______ time to get
good seats.
14. Please don’t touch anything ______ the police arrive.
15. I should be free by 3 p.m. If the meeting doesn’t end _____time, I
shall have to make my apologies and leave.
16. I am not sure whether it’ll be Thursday or Friday, but I’ll definitely be
43

back ______the weekend.


17. Will you finish the work _______time to do the shopping?
18. We always used to have a party _____ the end of term.
19. I’d like to hold our next meeting ______ 23rd March. Will that suit
you?
20. Вегетационный период на севере длится с июня до середины
сентября.

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 35. Перевести на английский язык.

В течение семинара, в полдень, в Бронзовом веке, на закате


солнца, в начале курса лечения, в рождественские каникулы, через
два дня (в будущем), через 2 дня (после какого-то события), дважды
в день, в конце 1979 г, в пять часов, ровно в пять, с пяти часов, к
полуночи, с полудня, с прошлого года, в прошлом году, в этом году,
с утра, жду до без десяти четыре, ночью, к первому ноября, с лета, в
половине третьего, весной, прошлой осенью, через год, через
несколько минут, в выходной, за пять лет, в течение практики, до
Нового года, после рождественских праздников, в день юбилея, в
воскресенье люди не любят вставать на рассвете (=восходе).
44

СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ

Л.А.Бармина, И.П.Верховская. Практикум по аглийскому языку: артикли.


М., Астрель-Аст. 2002.191 с.
R.Murphy. English grammar in use. 1992.259 с.
G.Taylor. English in development.Учебное пособие.Work-book-3. 1997.63 с.