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The Object

By :Zahraa Hussain Abd AL- Ameer

Study :Morning

Third stage

Contents:

-Definition of object.

-The direct object.

-The indirect object.

-The major characteristics of direct object.

Definition:

Altenberg & Vago (English Grammar Understanding The Basic: 265)defines the
object :the object refers to direct object , indirect object or object of a
preposition.

Greenbaum (The Oxford English Grammar:63)divided the types into:

-Direct object :

Herring(Complete English Grammar Rules :950) defines the direct object as :a


person or thing that directly receives the action of the verb.

Greenbaum (The Oxford English Grammar:63) explains the direct object as:

-When the main verb does not have a complement, it is intransitive. When it has a
direct object(O), it is transitive. Many verbs can be either intransitive or trnsitive:

-I (S) am eating(V).

-I (S) am eating (V) my lunch(O).


If a sentence has only one complement of the verb and that complement is a
direct object, its basic structure SVO. . Greenbaum (The Oxford English
Grammar:64) explains the indirect object as :

-Indirect object:

Altenberg & Vago (English Grammar Understanding The Basic: 264)defines the
indirect object as: a noun phrase that functions as the recipient of the direct
object.

Greenbaum (The Oxford English Grammar:64/65) explains the indirect object as:

We have so far encountered two basic structures :SV and SVO, exemplified in :

-My glasses(S) have disappeared(V).

-Our country(S) is absorbing (V) many refugees(O).

The verb disappear here is an intransitive verb, since it does not have a
complement. The verb absorb is here a transitive verb, since it has direct object as
its its complement. The indirect object can generally be paraphrased by a phrase
introduced by to or for ,but that phrase follows the direct object (e.g)we tell
everything to each other.

The major characteristics of the direct object:

Greenbaum (The Oxford English Grammar:63/64) explains the major


characteristics as:

1-The direct object normally comes after the verb .Like in(I am eating my lunch.).

2-Some pronouns have a distinctive form when they function as direct object .For
example: My shoes are killing me. I don’t like them at all.

3-If the object and the subject refer to the same person or thing, the direct object
is reflexive pronoun (which ends with –self or –selves):

-I could kick myself.


4-When we change an active sentence into passive sentence ,the active object be
-comes the passive subject:

-The massive costs harm the film industry.

Abstract:

This report talks about the object ,how it is divide and explain the two
types(direct and in direct).It is also explain the position of the direct object by four
characteristics of it.

References :

-Herring.Peter.(2016).Complete English Grammar Rules .Farlex International.

-Evelyn P. Altenberg & Rpbert M. Vago.(2010).English Grammar Understanding


The Basic. Cambridge University Press.

-Sidney Greenbaum.(1996).The Oxford English Grammar .Great Britain TJ


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