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Optics and
Modern Physics UNIT 4
Section A : Straight Objective Type

1. Answer (2)
Light ray will fall normally on PR. P

Using Snell's law 30º


90º
1 × sin45º =  × sin30º 60º
45º
30º
1 1
 
2 2 
  2 Q R
2. Answer (3)
Spherical aberration is inability of mirror to focus all the rays coming parallel to principal axis at a single point.
So it exists in concave mirror. Chromatic aberration is due to behavior of light. It does not exist.
3. Answer (2)

For refraction at surface OX

1.sin60° = 3 . sin r 60°

O P
X
1 r
 sin r 
2 c

Y
 r = 30°

In OPY, C = Critical angle

OP R R
  [sine law ]
sinC sin(90  r ) cos r

 sin C
OP  .R
cos r

1
 .R
. cos r

1
 .R
3 . cos 30

2R

3

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4. Answer (4)
By Snell’s law for refraction
r = 30°
3
In ABC
2
BC = AC.tan30° 60°

r A

2 3 30°

 OB = OC – BC 60°

3r r
  O B r C
2 2 3
2 3
r
 .
3
5. Answer (2)
u = –(2f0 – 4), v = –(2f0 + 6), where f0 is focal length of lens or f = –f0
1 1 1
using   f0 = 12 cm
v u f
6. Answer (1)
Image should be real and virtual for the same magnification for the two given position of the real object. Therefore

x2 – f
  – 1 ⇒ – x1  f  x 2 – f
x1 – f
 2f = x1 + x2

x1  x 2
 |f | 
2
7. Answer (3)

E 4E

Radius of Radius of Radius of Radius of


beam = r beam = 2r beam = 2r beam = r

Arrangement (1) Arrangement (2)

E represents energy incident (per unit time) which gets focussed on screen for arrangement (1).

E 4E ⎛ E ⎞
I1  I2   16⎜
2

4r 2
⎛r ⎞ ⎝ 4r 2 ⎠
4⎜ ⎟
⎝2⎠

I1 1

I 2 16

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8. Answer (4)
For no average deviation ( = ( – 1)A)
(1.48 – 1)1 – (1.64 – 1)3º + (1.48 – 1)2 = 0
 1 + 2 = 4º
9. Answer (1)
For no emergence,

A
  min  cosec
2

90
  min  cosec
2
= cosec 45°

 2
= 1.414
10. Answer (3)

observer
v fish  v fish   v bird
(as seen by bird) object

1
= 5  3  10
4

55
= m/s
4
11. Answer (3)
2 >  (as it is converging the rays)
and 1 =  (No deviation)
12. Answer (2)
Use the relation
u v
2 2
D –d
f  d
4D
d = v – u = 50 – 30 = 20
D = v + u = 50 + 30 = 80 D
v u
2 2
(80) – (20) (80  20) (80 – 20) 100  60 30 cm
f    50 cm
4  80 4  80 4  80
75
f  cm.
4
13. Answer (3)
360 – D 360 – 210
Deviation = 360 – 2i or i =   75
2 2
Where ever the object is placed in between the mirror it's all the images and object will lie on a circle.

Number of images = 4

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14. Answer (1)

After refraction through water, light is incident normally on the mirror and returns back from the same path and
images formed at the radius of curvature of the mirror.

O
1 15 3
  
 20 4 15 cm

4 5 cm
 =
3

15. Answer (2)

Ray is incident normally. It will not bend and move along x-axis

i.e., y = 0

16. Answer (1)

In new convention

 2 1  2 – 1 1 3
– 
v u R
2
 2  1  2 – 1 v1
  f
v1  R v1

 2  2 – 1

v1 R

 2R
v1 
( 2 – 1 )

The first image will behave like a virtual object for the second surface.
Now the rays are refracted from second surface and will converge at focus

3 2 3 – 2
– 
f v1 –R

 3  2 ( 2 –  1 )  3 –  2
– 
f  2R –R

 3  2 – 1  2 –  3
 
f R R
 3 ( 2 – 1   2 –  3 )

f R
 3 (2 2 – 1 –  3 )

f R
 3R
f 
(2 2 – 1 –  3 )

4 3
Put  3  ,  2  , 1 = 1 and R = 30 cm, f = 60 cm.
3 2
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17. Answer (1)
 sin = constant

3 sin 30  2 sin 

3 3
sin = 
2 2 8

⎛ 3⎞
 = sin ⎜⎜ ⎟
–1
8 ⎟
⎝ ⎠

17(a). Answer (2) (IIT-JEE 2008)


For total internal reflection, at IV,  depends only on I and IV
 IV 1
 sin   
I 8

18. Answer (3)


Using Snell’s Law,
air T.I.R.
sin45° = 2 sin r
60° 60°
1 1 45° 30°
  sin r 30°
2 2 45°
1
sinr =
2
 r = 30°
Now at point R, total internal reflection will take place. Clearly, incident and emergent ray are antiparallel.
T = 180°

18(a). Answer (1, 2, 3) IIT-JEE 2010


At P

1  sin60  3 sinr

 r = 30° 60°
60°
From geometry, angle of incidence at Q is 45° 30°
P
At Q 45° Q
45°
3
3 sin(45)  1
2 90° 30° 75°

R D
 TIR takes place
60°
At R
angle of incidence is 30°
By symmetry R = 60°
From second diagram, angle of deviation is 90°

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19. Answer (4)

⎛ A⎞
min = 2 sin –1⎜  sin ⎟ – A
⎝ 2⎠
min = 2 sin–1(1.5 sin30°) – 60° = 37°
The maximum value of deviation is given by
min = 90 + imin – A
⎧ ⎫
–1 ⎡ 2 ⎤ ⎪using r2  C ⎪
imin = sin ⎢  – 1 sin A – cos A⎥ ⎪ ⎪
⎣ ⎦ ⎨ r1  A – C ⎬
⎪ sin i min ⎪
–1 ⎡ 2 ⎤ ⎪  ⎪
= sin ⎢ (15 ) – 1 sin 60 – cos 60⎥ ⎩ sin r ⎭
⎣ ⎦
= sin–1(0.4682) = 28°
max = 90° + 28° – 60° = 58°

19(a). Answer (1) (IIT-JEE 2008)


A
Angle of refraction at minimum deviation is .
2

20. Answer (3)

1 1 1 P Q Q P
Using   for both Q  and P (end points of the image
v u f 5 cm 5 cm 5 cm
of PQ in plane mirror) we get that image in convex mirror is 15 cm 15 cm
virtual, erect and 3 cm long. 30 cm

21. Answer (4)


45 cm
The ray will be paraxial ray and does not converge at the focus
Use the relation
R
PQ = x = R –
2 cos 
R 30°
x = R–
2 cos 30 30°
R2 x P
x = R– C f Q
2 3

⎛ 1 ⎞
x  R ⎜⎜1– ⎟

⎝ 3⎠

Y
22. Answer (4)
y
tan 30 
20 30°
1 y X

3 20
30°
20
y 
3
⎛ 20 ⎞
 Coordinates of image are ⎜⎜ 20,  ⎟

⎝ 3⎠

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23. Answer (3)


The rays after refraction through lens incidence normally on the curved mirror and after reflection rays retraces
their path and finally form the image at the object.
The focal length of the combination
1 1 1 1
 – 
f f fm f
1 2 1 1 2 2 ⎛ R ⎞
 – ⇒  – ⎜∵ fm  m ⎟ O
f f fm F f R m ⎝ 2 ⎠

Consider u = object distance for the combined system

v = image distance for the combined system


According to the question
u=v f = 30 cm Rm = –30
Thus,
u
f=
2

2 2 2
= –
u f R m

1 1 1
= 
u 30 30
1 2

u 30

u = 15 cm
24. Answer (2)
The vessel should be filled to such a height that a ray diverging from O proceeds along the dotted line. Let h be the
required height. Since the vessel is cubical in shape, ACB = Angle of incidence = 45°
Now NO = h – b = h tanr E
b
or h  A D
1– tan r
sin 45 1
= or sin r  h
sin r 2
B C
N O
2
b b 2 – 1
Hence h = 
1 2 2 – 1 – 1
1–
2
2 – 1

16
10 2  –1
9 10 23 10  4.8
or h =    26.7 cm
⎛ 16 ⎟ ⎞ 23 – 3 4 .8  3
⎜ 2 – 1 – 1
⎜ 9 ⎟
⎝ ⎠

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25. Answer (4)


y I y (0, b, 0)
O (0, a, 0) O (0, a, 0)

x x

Case (1) Case (1)

I (0, –b, 0)

If in case (1), image is as shown (which is given) we can conclude that in case (2) image is as shown
26. Answer (2)
10 cm

20 cm
After refraction through the concave lens, rays become parallel.
27. Answer (2)
y
Direction perpendicular to mirror is y axis. Shown are the components along y-axis,
as only these components change.
2 m/s
 Component of velocity of the image in y-direction Object
= 2 × 3 – 2 = 4 m/s

 Vimage  iˆ  4 jˆ  5kˆ m/s x
3 m/s
28. Answer (2)
At y= x = 0 z

y=0 x = 2. Some where in between, x = .


So only three well defined maximas are formed.
29. Answer (4)
D

d
As water < air
So, if d is decreased, D is increased or  is increased original  can be restored.
30. Answer (1)
2
I1 a1 4I
 2 
I 2 a2 9I

a1 2
 
a2 3
2 2
Imax ⎛ a1  a2 ⎞ 5
 ⎜ ⎟  ⎛⎜ ⎞⎟  25
Imin ⎝ a1  a2 ⎠ ⎝ 1⎠

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31. Answer (3)
As slits are producing same intensities (I ),


Inet = 4I cos2
2
 Imax = 4I

3
 I at point = th of maximum
4
3  4I  3I
=
4

 Inet = 3I = 4I cos2
2
 3
cos =
2 2
 
 = 2n ±
2 6

  = 4n ±
3
2 
 x = 4n ±
 3
 ⎛ ⎞
x = 2 ⎜ 4n  3 ⎟
⎝ ⎠

x = 2n ±
6
dy 
 = 2n +
D 6

D⎛ ⎞
 y = d ⎜ 2n  6 ⎟
⎝ ⎠
For n = 0

3  10 4
y=
6
= 0.05 mm.

31(a). Answer (2) JEE (Advanced)-2013

⎛⎞
I  Imax cos2 ⎜ ⎟
⎝2⎠

1 ⎛⎞
 cos2 ⎜ ⎟
2 ⎝2⎠
 cos  = 0
 3 5 7
  , , ,
2 2 2 2

 3 5 
 x  , ,
4 4 4


 x  (2n  1)
4

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32. Answer (4)


y
v
vcos

vs


in

vcos
 
O v x

vsin
(see the figure)

So, v I  v cos 2iˆ  v sin 2ˆj

v I  10cos 2iˆ  10 sin 2jˆ
33. Answer (1)
Path difference = 600 nm S1 2400
P
For maxima
1800
0
300
Path difference = n
 600 × 10–9 = n.
S2
   600 × 10 –9 m
n
 (in nm) = 600, 300, 200, 150 {for n = 1, 2, 3 & 4 }
only  = 600 nm falls in the visible range.
34. Answer (1)
Optical path = n.x (n = refractive index)
Optical path through glass = n × 4
4
Optical path through water = 6
3
4 6
 n×4=
3
 n = 2.
35. Answer (2)
Extra optical path introduced by upper glass
= (n – 1)t
= (1.5 – 1)t
t
= = 0.5 t
2
Extra optical path introduced by lower slab
⎛4 ⎞
= ⎜ 3 – 1⎟ t (2)
⎝ ⎠
2t  0.67 t
=
3
 lower ray travels extra path at centre
 hence central maxima will shift in downward direction.

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Success Magnet (Solutions) Optics and Modern Physics 371


36. Answer (3)
Two independent sources cannot be coherent sources.
37. Answer (1)
For constructive interference in refraction path difference = n
 2t = n

 n = 1 300 300
t   120 nm
2 2  125 2.5
38. Answer (3)
Two independent sources can not be coherent, which is a must to observe interference.
39. Answer (1)

After reflection from mirror, there is a phase change of , which is equivalent to path difference of
2
 After reflection from mirror, for destructive interference,
Geometrical path difference = x = n  BC  CD  3 x
3x 3x 3x
  ⇒   3 x, , etc.
n 2 3
40. Answer (2)
At P, x = d sin ~d sin For maxima, x = n.
41. Answer (3)


As maximum path difference is 5000 Å, three maximas will be formed at  , 0.
d

41(a). Answer (1, 2) (IIT-JEE 2008)


At centre, x = 0 for which maxima is obtained. The path difference at a large distance from the screen
x  d.
When d = , the path difference is between 0 to .
Only central maxima exists in that case
when  < d < 2, x lies between 0 to 2. So more than one maxima will be obtained.
When both the slits give same intensity, dark fringes are perfectly dark.

42. Answer (4)


As minimas of both the wavelengths are formed in the region of complete darkness.
400  D 560 D
The region of completed darkness will satisfy the condition y  (2n – 1)  (2m – 1)
2d 2d
n = 4, m = 3 and n = 11, m = 8 can satisfy the above equation.

42(a). Answer (1, 2, 3) [JEE (Advanced)-2014]


D
Hint :   ⇒ 2  1  ∵ 2> 1
d
y
Also, m  ⇒ m1  m2

D D
3rd maxima of 2 lies at 3(600 nm)   (1800 nm)
d d
D D
5th minima of 1 lies at (2  5  1), 400   (1800 nm)
2d d
 
Angular separation is  ⇒ It is more for 2.
D d

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43. Answer (4)


1.sin1 = sin2

sin 1 1
  p
q
sin  2 r

p
p
 r  2
s s
r
44. Answer (3)
dy
tan    2x  2 y
dx
 2 h
 cos = 1

1  4h
  sec  
1
2  1
h
4
45. Answer (4)
A A⎞
sin ⎛⎜ ⎟
n ⎝ 2 ⎠
A
sin ⎛⎜ ⎞⎟
⎝2⎠
A
2cos n
2
2
1 ⎛ n ⎞ 1 1  n
A = m = 2cos ⎜ ⎟ = 2sin
⎝ 2⎠ 4
46. Answer (3)
( I  I )2  I0 (Initially)
I0
 I
4
When one slit is covered
2
⎛ I ⎞
⎜⎜ I  ⎟  I
⎝ 4 ⎟⎠
9 9I
 I  I 0
4 16
47. Answer (2)
t
⎛ 1 ⎞ t½
N  N0 ⎜ ⎟
⎝2⎠
7
⎛ 1⎞ 2
5  N0 ⎜ ⎟
⎝2⎠
N0 = 60 grams

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48. Answer (1)
Here  > critical angle
1

⎛ ⎞
1
  sin ⎜ 2 ⎟  90 – 
⎝ 1 ⎠
Now, 1sin(90 – ) = 1 × sin
2
sin   1 cos      2
1
2
2

Since,  > critical angle

sin   12  22


49. Answer (4)
PQ = 2r cos
Vrel = 2(PQ) sin
= 2 2r cos sin
= 2r sin2
50. Answer (1)
e –1
f1 
e
1
f2 
2
f1 > f2
51. Answer (1)
v sin   gt
tan  
v cos 
gt
tan   tan  
v cos 

(tan   tan ) v cos 


t
g
52. Answer (3)
Path difference created by medium
l al
= ∫ ( x ) ·dx – dx  ∫ (1  ax )dx – dx  axdx = ∫0 axdx  2
al 2  
For minima at O,  ⇒a  2
2 2 l
53. Answer (3)
·sin45° = 1 × sin
1  0.4t
sin  
2 
45°
d  0.4 d 0.4
cos       2 rad/s
dt 2 dt (1.4)2
2 1–
2
 = 2 rad/s

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54. Answer (1)


2
Speed of mass in medium 2 is V 
1

 2 3 
Speed of mass in medium 2 is V  V 3
1 2 1
55. Answer (3)

R R1 R2

a = R2 =  R1R2
a1 = R12
a2 = R22
a1 a2 = 2 (R1R2)2
a1a2  R1 R2  a

a  a1a2
56. Answer (2)
P  R(t1/2  1 min)
t 0 (4 N0 )

Q  R(t1/2  2 min)
t 0 ( N0 )

N0
After four minutes, the number of nuclei of P and Q are same and equal to .
4
So number of nuclei of R present at this time is

⎛ N0 ⎞ 3N0 9 N0
⎜ 4 N0  4 ⎟  4  2
⎝ ⎠
57. Answer (4) i4 75  25 
Given circuit
i3 = 0
Can be looked upon as
i1 = i 2 + i 4
i2 75  25 
i1 = 0.2 A
i2 = i1 = 0.1 A i1 25 

15 V
58. Answer (1)

92 U238  U234  2He 4


90

90 X 234  91 Y 234  0
1

59. Answer (2)


Z2
13.6  3.4
n2
13.6
Z = 1, n2  4
3.4
n=2
q e nh eh
M L 
2m 2m 2 2m
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60. Answer (3)
M  m1 + m2
 
Rest P1 P2
Using conservation of linear momentum
 
P1  P2  0
 
 P1  P2  P

h
 
P

1
So,   1
2

61. Answer (3)


hc
k W

1242 eV – nm
=  2 eV  1.105 eV
400nm
Linear momentum = mv  2 mk

= 2  9.1 1031  1.105  1019  1.6


= 5.67 × 10–25 kg m/s
mV
Now r 
qB
 B = 35.8 × 10–6 T
62. Answer (1)

A
A
Y = A.B

(AND gate)
B
B

So, if A = 0, B = 1
Y=0
and if A = 1, B = 1
Y=1
63. Answer (3)
When A is at positive potential and B is at negative potential. Diodes are in forward bias.
So, Req = 8 
When A is at negative potential and B is at positive potential
 Reverse bias
Req = 19 

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64. Answer (4)

At same temperature

1
v
m

v1 m2 m1v1 m1  2
  
v2 m1 m2v 2 m2 1

H2 mO2 32
  4
 O2 mH2 2

65. Answer (3)

Using equation

hc hc
KE max  – & 
  cut off
Put values KEmax = 1.5 eV

& cutoff = 230 nm

We get,  = 180 nm

66. Answer (1)

Population covered = P × d 2 (P = population density)

d  2Rh
On solving  Population covered

= 76.8 lakhs
67. Answer (1)
For perfectly absorbing body radiation, force is
I  Area normal to Intensity
F 
Speed of light

IR 2
 F 
c

68. Answer (1)


Using photoelectric equation
hc
eVs  –

1242
eVs  – 2
200
Vs = 4.2 V

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68a. Answer (7) (IIT-JEE 2011)


hc
   ev 0

ne
 v 0  4 r
0
1240 ⎛ xne ⎞
 200 eV  4.7eV  ⎜ 4 r ⎟ eV
⎝ 0 ⎠
9  199  n  1.6  10 –19
 6.2 – 4.7 
10 –2
1.5  102
 n   1.04  107  z  7
9  1.6  1010

69. Answer (3)


E = a(cos0t + cost cos0t)
  0
 Maximum frequency of incident photon is fmax =
2
 KEmax = hfmax – 
70. Answer (1)
Kmax = hf – 
KEmax = hf – hf0
Now KE1 = h × 3 × 1014 – hf0 ...(i)
KE2 = h × 2 × 1014 – hf0 ...(ii)
Divide both (1) & (2) we get
3  1014 – f0
2
2  1014 – f0
 f0 = 1014 Hz

70a. Answer (1) [JEE (Advanced)-2014]


1 hc
mu12  W
2 1
1 hc
mu22  W
2 2
hc
2 W
⎛ u1 ⎞ 1
⎜⎝ u ⎟⎠ 
hc
2 W
2
4hc hc ⎛ u1 ⎞
 4W  W ⎜⎝ ∵ u  2⎟⎠
2 1 2

4hc hc
  3W
2 1

4  1240 1240
⇒   3W  16 – 5 = 3 W
310 248
 11 = 3 W
 W = 3.7 eV

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71. Answer (3)


2hc
E – ...(i)

3hc
2E  – ...(ii)

hc
Solve & then  

72. Answer (2)
E = h –  = 4.9 – 4.5 = 0.4 eV

p  2 mE  2  9.1 10 31  0.4  1.6  10 19


= 3.45 × 10–25 kg m/s
73. Answer (1)
Applying conservation of linear momentum
h
mHVH 

mH = 1.67 × 10–27 kg
 = 122 nm
We get VH = 3.25 m/s
74. Answer (2)
KE max = hf – 
 KE max is not solely dependent on f.
75. Answer (2)
Photon emitted from coolidge tube have wavelength greater than cut off wavelength & till infinity.
76. Answer (2)
As voltage across is increased all wavelength will decrease i.e. in graph shifted towards left.
77. Answer (4)
3
fk   Rc ( z – 1)2
4
2 2
f1 ⎛ Z – 1 ⎞ ⎛ 31– 1 ⎞
 ⎜⎜ 1 ⎟⎟  ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
f2 ⎝ Z 2 – 1 ⎠ ⎝ 51– 1 ⎠

f1 9 25
or  so f2  f1
f2 25 9
78. Answer (1)

f  a(Z  b )
Where a is slope of f , Z graph

⎛ 1 1 ⎞
and a  Rc ⎜⎜ 2 – 2 ⎟⎟
⎝ n1 n2 ⎠
for k n2 = 3 & n1 = 1
k, n2 = 2 & n1 = 1

ak 32

 
ak  27

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79. Answer (2)
99.8% of energy is lost as heat in the target

99.8
 Heat in target = VI  J/s = 238.75 cal/s
100
80. Answer (4)
Value of a is different for different members of a series.
81. Answer (4)

nh
mvr 
2

h
 v1 
2 mr1 (for n = 1)

ev1 eh
i  ev1  
2r1 42 mr12

Magnetic dipole moment,

eh eh
M1  i  A1   nr12 
4 mr1
2 2
4 m

   ehB
  M  B  M B sin30º 
8m

82. Answer (2)

0.53 n 2 n2 1
r   n=2
Z 4 1
Z is Atomic Number
r is orbital radius
83. Answer (1)
No spectral line is emitted as energy required is at least 10.5 eV.
84. Answer (2)
K.E. = |E|
= 3.4 eV
h

2 m(K.E.)
85. Answer (4)

h
  , for e– in uniform magnetic field p is constant  for this e– is constant
p

But for e– in uniform electric field  may increase or decrease as p is variable.


86. Answer (1)
13.6Z 2
Binding energy E  eV i.e. E = 13.6 Z2 eV
2
n

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380 Optics and Modern Physics Success Magnet (Solutions)

For third Balmer series

hc ⎛ 1 1 ⎞
 13.6Z 2 ⎜ 2 – 2 ⎟
 ⎝2 5 ⎠

Put values of h, c,  and calculating


13.6Z2 = 54.43 eV as binding energy.
87. Answer (4)
All these series are found in emission spectrum.
88. Answer (1)
Tn  n3
3
⎛n ⎞ n1
8  ⎜⎜ 1 ⎟⎟ ⇒  2
⎝ n2 ⎠ n2
 n1 = 4 & n2 = 2
89. Answer (1)

1 ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ R
R ⎜ 2  2 ⎟ 
 ⎝ 2  ⎠ 4

4 1 ⎡1 1 ⎤
 R ,  R( z  1) ⎢ 2  2 ⎥
3644 C ⎣1  ⎦
z – 1 = 30.2

 z  31

90. Answer (4)

12375 12375
E1  , E2 
1085 304

⎡ 1 1 ⎤
E1 + E2 = 12375 ⎢ 
⎣1085 304 ⎥⎦

2⎡ 1⎤
= 13.6  (2) ⎢1  2 ⎥
⎣ n ⎦

1
 0.04
n2
91. Answer (2)
Shortest wavelength of Lyman series is x
1
R
x
Now wavelength of first member of Balmer series

1 ⎛1 1⎞
R ⎜ – ⎟
 ⎝ 4 9 ⎠

36x
 
5

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91a. Answer (1) (IIT-JEE 2011)

⎡ v ⎤ ⎡v  u ⎤
f = f0 ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎣v  u ⎦ ⎣ v ⎦

⎡ 320  10 ⎤
= 8 ⎢ ⎥
⎣ 320 –10 ⎦

33
= 8
21
= 8.5 kHz

92. Answer (3)


1 ⎛ 1 1 ⎞
 R⎜ 2 – 2⎟ from n = 3, 4, 5 .......
 ⎝ 2 n ⎠
1 5R
For n = 3, 
 36
1 3R
For n = 4, 
 16
93. Answer (1)
Lyman series is in UV range & when system in question will radiate it will radiate in UV region.
94. Answer (1)
Since no energy is absorbed by atom in ground state
 collision must be elastic
95. Answer (2)
1 ⎛ 1⎞
R ⎜1 – ⎟
 ⎝ 9 ⎠
96. Answer (2)
As energy is shared by H atom and e – so electron is emitted with lesser energy and greater wavelength.
97. Answer (1)

R
f R cos  A
2

 R > 2f f
30º

AB = R – f
C B C
BC = (R – f)sin30º
R–F
R f
BC 
2
f
BC 
2
98. Answer (1)
N1  1 = N2  2

NA  x
= B
NB A 1

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99. Answer (3)

Activity, A  – dN
dt
A = + N0e–t
A at t = 0 is

 m NA
A = N0 =
M

99a. Answer (9) (IIT-JEE 2011)

 
2
2 md ⎧ 2 md 2 ma 2 ⎫
IAB = 2  + 2 ⎨  ⎬ = 9 × 10–4 kg-m2
5 4 ⎩5 4 2 ⎭

100. Answer (2)


=i+e–A
(for same deviation there are two values of i) the second value of i for same deviation is the angle of emergence
for first value of i
So, 23º = 15º + 35º – A
 A = 27º

101. Answer (3)

A1 =  N0 e  t1

A2 =  N0 e  t 2

A2
 e  ( t1 – t 2 )
A1
⎛ t1 – t 2 ⎞
⎜ ⎟
A2  A1 e⎝ T ⎠

102. Answer (3)

During  and  decay either atomic number or atomic mass changes.

103. Answer (1)

N = N0 e–t

N1 = N0 e–11t

N2 = N0 e–t

N1 1
 2  e –10t
N2 e

1
  t
5

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104. Answer (3)

2
1H  12H  11H  13H  4.03 MeV

2
1H  13H  24He  10 n  17.59 MeV

10 40 ( 4.03  17.59 )  10 –13


 t  
3 1016

t = 1012 approx
105. Answer (2)
It is chargeless but has spin.
106. Answer (3)
Let N0 be Rn concentration initially.
Approximately 5 half lifes are therefore Rn to convert to Po and 20000 half lifes for Po to Pb and conversion of Pb
to Bi is after 10.6 hrs.
 Pb has maxium number of atoms after five minutes, but Bismuth has least mass.
107. Answer (2)
From Carbon Nitrogen cycle.
108. Answer (1)

f  a( z  b ) (Moseley's law)
for K line b = 1

c
f1   a 2 ( z1  1)2
1

c
f2   a 2 ( z2  1)2
2

1 ( z2  1)2
 
 2 ( z1  1)2
2
 ( z  1)
  2 2
4 (11  1)
 z2 = 6

108a. Answer (2) [JEE (Advanced)-2014]

2
 Cu (ZMo  1)2 ⎛ 41⎞
  ⎜ ⎟  2.14
Mo (ZCu  1)2 ⎝ 28 ⎠

109. Answer (4)

E = 13.6 (Z–1)2

 Z = 1.7

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110. Answer (3)

h mv m 2v 2 h
mvr  r or 
2 eB eB 2

heB
 v
2m2
111. Answer (1)

⎛ hc ⎞
Hard X-ray means smaller wavelength ⎜  eV ⎟
⎝  ⎠

 V is increased.

112. Answer (1)


As V is increased then min decreases but k remains same

 (k – min) increases.

113. Answer (4)


Both characteristic & continuous X-rays are possible.
114. Answer (3)
Since collision is head on
 One photon hits electron first & no energy is gained by electron as EP <  & same phenomena with other
photon

 No emission of electron.

115. Answer (4)


By, Einstein’s photoelectric equation,

1 hc
mv 2  –
2 

hc
k1 = –

4 hc
k2 = –
3

4 
k2 – k1 
3 3

4 
k2 = k1 
3 3

1/ 2
4 ⎛4⎞
k2 is more than k1 so v2 is more than ⎜ ⎟ v.
3 ⎝3⎠

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116. Answer (2)

⎛ 30 × 42.5 ⎞ ⎡ 1⎤
⎜ 100 ⎟  13.6 ⎢1– 2 ⎥
⎝ ⎠ ⎣ n ⎦

1 3  42.5
2
 1–
n 136

136 136
n2    16
136 – 127.5 8.5

n=4

4(4 – 1)
Number of lines in emission spectra = 6
2
117. Answer (2)

9
N0  N0 e – t
10

N = N0 (1 – e–2t )
N ⎛ 81 ⎞
= 1– ⎜ ⎟
N0 ⎝ 100 ⎠

N
 100 = 19%
N0

118. Answer (3)


M = iA
eV 2 e Vr e neh
 r   mVr 
2r 2 2m 4m
for first excited state n = 2
eh
m
2m
119. Answer (2)

1 e2 1 ⎛ 1 e2 ⎞
·  ⎜ · ⎟
40 r 8 ⎜⎝ 80 r ⎟⎠

 r = 16 r0
 r = n 2r 0
n=4

⎡ 1⎤
E = E2 – E1 = 13.6 ⎢1– ⎥  E = 12.75 eV
⎣ 16 ⎦

1 ⎛ m1m2 ⎞   2 1⎛ m ⎞ 2 3
⎟ v1 – v 2  (1– e )  ⎜ ⎟ v 
2
E  ⎜
2 ⎝ m1  m2 ⎠ 2⎝ 2 ⎠ 4

1
mv 2  34 eV
2

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120. Answer (4)


⎛   ⎞
Most energetic electrons will be obtained from radiations of frequency ⎜ 0 ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠
⎛   0 ⎞ ⎛   0 ⎞
h⎜ ⎟    KEmax    h ⎜ ⎟ – KEmax
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠

⎛ 3.6  1015  6  1014 ⎞


  6.6  10 –34 ⎜ ⎟⎟  0.592  10
–19
⎜ 2  22
⎝ ⎠

7  0.3  4.2  1015–34


 – 0.592  10 –19 = (4.41 – 0.592) × 10–19 J
2
 2.39 eV

  

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Section - B : Multiple Choice Type Questions


1. Answer (2, 3)

To retrace its path, ray should be normally incident, as shown

By Snell’s law
A
3
. sin 60   sin 
2

⎛ 3⎞1⎜ 3 60°
   sin ⎜ ⎟
⎟ 
⎝ 4 ⎠

⎛3 3 ⎞ B C
   cos 1⎜ ⎟
⎜ 4 ⎟
⎝ ⎠

For refraction at AC,

3 3
sin   sin 45
2 2 2
A

1
 sin  
2
 
45°
  = 30° 

  = 30°

  = 30° C
B

  = 45°

  = (45° – ) + (180° – 2) + ( - )

= 15° + 120° + 15° = 150°

2. Answer (2, 3, 4)
I1 = 9 cm
I2 = 4 cm

O  I1 I2  6 cm

D = 90 cm

9 3 v1
m1   
6 2 u1

5 D

2 u1

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2D 2
u1    90  36 cm , v1 = 54
5 5

4 2 v2
m2   
6 3 u2

5 D

3 u2

3D
u2 
5

D 90
d  u2  u1    18 cm
5 5

1 1 1 1 ⎛ 1 1⎞
   
t 54 36 18 ⎜⎝ 3 2 ⎟⎠

6
t  18   21.6 cm
5
3. Answer (1, 2, 3, 4)

F1
O

Due to right side of slab, converging beam emerging from convex lens is converged slightly towards right of
focus F1 as shown, at O. Now, depending on the focal length of concave lens it could be placed between
(a) Slab and F1 : d < f1
(b) F1 and O : d > f1
Also, d may be > , < or = f2
And since d + f2 = f1 + shift due to slab
d = f1 – f2 + shift due to slab
 d > f1 – f2

3a. Answer (2) [JEE (Advanced)-2014]

Hint : (P)

1 ⎛ 1 1⎞ ⎛ 2⎞ 1
 (u  1) ⎜  ⎟  (1.5  1) ⎜ ⎟ 
f ⎝r r⎠ ⎝r⎠ r ⇒f r

1 1 1 r
  ⇒ f'
f ' f1 f2 2

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Success Magnet (Solutions) Optics and Modern Physics 389

P2

(Q)

1 ⎛ 1 1⎞ 0.5
 (1.5  1) ⎜  ⎟  ⇒ f1  2r  f2
f1 ⎝ r⎠ r

1 1 1 1 1 1
  ⇒   ⇒f r
f f1 f2 f 2r 2r

Q4

(R)

1 ⎛ 1 1⎞ 0.5
 (1.5  1) ⎜  ⎟   ⇒ f1  2r
f1 ⎝ r⎠ r
1 ⎛ 1 1⎞ 0.5
 1.5  1 ⎜   ⎟   ⇒ f2  2r
f2 ⎝ r ⎠ r
1 1 1 1 1
   
f f1 f2 2 r 2r

f  r
R3

(S)

1 ⎛1 1 ⎞ 2 1
 (1.5  1) ⎜  ⎟  0.5   ⇒ f1  r
f1 ⎝ r r ⎠ r r
1 ⎛ 1 1⎞ 1 0.5
 (1.5  1) ⎜  ⎟ ⇒   ⇒ f2  2r
f2 ⎝ r⎠ f2 r
1 1 1 1 1 1
    
f f1 f2 r 2r 2r ⇒ f  2r
S1
4. Answer (1, 4)
Refraction at AB, A
1
sinC 
2
e
Refraction at AC, 90° c 90°– c
sin e
cos C 
2 B C

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390 Optics and Modern Physics Success Magnet (Solutions)

 22  12 sin e
 
2 2
 12 + sin2e = 22
If ray fails to emerge out at AC,
1 1
 sin(90  C )  
2 3
2
 sinC 
3
5. Answer (3, 4)
For an object between pole and focus a concave mirror forms a virtual, erect and magnified image.
6. Answer (1, 2)
As deviation produced by glass slab is zero, so incident ray and emergent ray will be parallel.
7. Answer (2, 3, 4)
At centre path difference = (  1)t

 
= (1.5  1)  
3 6

2  
   
 6 3


I  I0  I0  2 I0 I0 cos
3
I = 3I0

4I
Imax = 4I0 =
3
8. Answer (1, 4)
Central maxima will remain at centre.
n D
Other maxima will change position as y n  and D changes
d
D
As   , it will also change
d
 
Angular width is  (independent of D).
D d
9. Answer (1, 2, 3)
In AOD,
A
y
 sin 
xy
x
2y y 3
 x ⇒  sin   sin   
3 2y 5
y
3
Now, In ABC,
BC D
 tan 
x  2y O

BC 3
 
2y 4 B C
 2y
3
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Success Magnet (Solutions) Optics and Modern Physics 391

8y 3
 BC    2y
3 4

Similarly, for x = y, BC  3 y . Also, if the surrounding medium has certain refractive index as 3, it does

not make difference. Radius of shadow is still 2y for x  2y .


3
10. Answer (1, 3)
Focal length of the arrangement can be calculated as below

R
For beam 1, f 
  
R
For beam 2, f 
  
which are independent of  and  >  for beam 2  f is positive.

10a. Answer (1, 3) [JEE (Advanced)-2014]


Hint : As thickness of film is uniform, the effective power of the film is zero.

 We can find the answer just by considering glass-air interface.

2 1 2  1
In case-1,  
v u R

1.5 1.5  1
Gives f  0  R ⇒ f1  3R
1
1.5

1.4 R
2 1 2  1
In case-2,  
v u R

1 1  1.5
Gives f  0   R
2

 f2 = 2R

11. Answer (1, 2, 4)


Actual velocity
Apparent velocity =

where  is refractive index of object’s medium w.r.t. observer.

11a. Answer (3) (IIT-JEE 2009)

Speed of ball = 2  10  7.2  12 m/s

speed of ball as seen by fish = v

4
=  12 = 16 m/s
3

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392 Optics and Modern Physics Success Magnet (Solutions)

12. Answer (1, 3)


r
As h decreases, r decreases. hC R
The percentage of light coming out is
S
2 R 2 (1– cosC )
 1– cosC
4 R 2
This is independent of depth h.

12(a). Answer (6) IIT-JEE 2010


Light will appear only from a circular region because rays going out at an angle greater than c will suffer
TIR.
1 3
sin c  
 5
R
From figure
R
sin c 
R  82
2
8 cm
Equating
R 3

R 8
2 2 5

Solving
R = 6 cm

12(b). Answer (3) [JEE (Advanced)-2014]

10 mm
10 mm1  = 30°
sin  
2.72

S

sin30 
2.72
2.72

2
1.36 = 

13. Answer (1, 2, 3, 4)

Size of image on the retina depends on the angle subtended by the object at the eye. Concave mirror can
form real as well as virtual image. For a real object, convex mirror will form a virtual image.

14. Answer (1, 2, 4)

Soap bubble shows colours due to interference. Prism generates colours due to dispersion. Rainbow forma-
tion is due to partial reflection.

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Success Magnet (Solutions) Optics and Modern Physics 393

15. Answer (1, 2, 3, 4)


sin60
2 sin60  1 sin r ⇒ sin r 
K
As K  , r  0

|r – i|  60°
when K = 1, r = 60°
|r – i| = 0
when K = sin60, T / R occurs, r = 90°
|r – 1| = 30°
16. Answer (1, 2, 3, 4) A

 
 ⇒ d   x 
4d 4 B
C

  
2

 Resultant intensity = I  I  2I cos
2
= 2I

n
Also, Angular position of nth maxima =
d

does not depend on D. Also, in a case like as shown, path difference between AB and CB may be equal to
zero.

D D
Also, fringewidth = . In oil, new fringe width =
d d

17. Answer (2, 4)


For normally incident rays
(a) Reflected light, destructive interference
n
t
2

 
 t min  
2 2
where  = wavelength in oil
(b) Transmitted light, destructive interference

 , if  = wavelength in air
t  (2n  1)
4
 
  (2n  1)
3 4

 2n  1  4
3
n may have integral values  possible

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But, if  = wavelength in medium

(2n  1)
t
4

 (2n  1)
   2n  1  4
3 4 3

 No integral values of n.

18. Answer (1, 2, 3)

1. If source moves up, P will move down in same proportion So, if source performs SHM, P will also perform
SHM of same frequency.

For d = 20.7the path difference on the screen will tend to 20.7  as one moves to infinity. So, there will be
20 maxima above central maxima and 21 minima above central maxima.

d
when = 20.2. Above the central line, 20 maxima and 20 minima

19. Answer (1, 2, 4)

Least energy is 4.2 eV

1240
So, max   295 nm
4.2
20. Answer (2, 4)

Stopping potential does not depend on distance between source & cell (i.e., intensity)

⎛ 1 ⎞
and saturation current depends on Intensity ⎜ I  2 ⎟
⎝ r ⎠
(0.2)2
 I  18
(0.6)2

I = 2 mA

21. Answer (3, 4)

For photoelectric emission  <  threshold

5200 Å is in visible light region but for photo electric effect to take place we must use UV lamp.

22. Answer (1, 2, 3, 4)

h
1.  : as V increase  decrease :
2mqV

2. Due to increase in energy of striking electrons.


3. It depends only on the atomic no the target
4. Tube current depends on temperature.

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Success Magnet (Solutions) Optics and Modern Physics 395

23. Answer (2, 4)

1
As r 
m

Em

V  m0

where m is mass of particle revolving about nucleus.

24. Answer (1, 2, 3)

25. Answer (1, 2)

In reflection energy loss takes place due to absorptions of photons.

26. Answer (1, 2, 3, 4)

There are infinitely many such transitions

6  5 & 90  9

7  5 & 35  7

and lots more

27. Answer (2, 4)

As the photon moves up small amount dh, let the corresponding change in frequency is d.

Thus, by energy conservation

hd + mgdh = 0

h
 hd  gdh  0
c2

d  g
  2 dh
 c

 h
d  g



 2 dh
c 0 ∫
 gh
c2
    e

But speed of photon remains unchanged.

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28. Answer (1, 4)

28(a). Answer (1) JEE (Advanced)-2013

hf 
V  
e e
h
Slope = .
e
It is same for both.

29. Answer (1, 2, 4)

For destructive interference,


x  (2n  1)
2

dy 
  (2n  1)
D 2

⎛d ⎞
d⎜ ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠  (2n  1) 

D 2

d2
 
(2n  1)D
2 2 2
   d , d , d etc.
D 3D 5D
30. Answer (1, 2)
2L
 . As L increases,  decreases so energy increases.
n
31. Answer (1, 3)
KE = – TE = + 3.4

h C 2rn
 or   n  = 2 r0 n [n = 2]
P n n
32. Answer (1, 2, 4)
Position of n th maxima is given by
n D
y
d
dy
 n
D
As D increases, n decreases. But angular position of any maxima is given by
y n
 
D d
which is independent of D.

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Success Magnet (Solutions) Optics and Modern Physics 397


33. Answer (1, 2, 3, 4)
nh
L and it does not depend on atomic no. Z. Wavelength emitted in transition n = 5 (fourth excited state)
2
to n = 1
1 ⎛ 1 ⎞
 R.5 2 ⎜1  2 ⎟
 ⎝ 5 ⎠
1
  24R  p(of B4+ ion)  h  24hR  mv
 
24hR
 v
m
Now, for He+ ion,
1 ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞
 R 22 ⎜ 2  2 ⎟  R.2 2 ⎜  2⎟
 ⎜ ⎟ 2
⎝ n1 n2 ⎠ ⎝2 4 ⎠

⎛ 1 ⎞
 R ⎜1  2 ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠

   4R
3
which is maximum wavelength of Lyman series (UV region)
(N  M )(N  M  1) (5  2)2 (5  2  1)
maximum no. of spectral lines is given by (N – M + 1)C   6
2
2 2

33(a). Answer (1, 3) JEE (Advanced)-2013

h 3h
n

2 2
 n=3
n2
4.5a0 = a0
Z
 Z=2
Possible transitions are 3  2, 3  1 and 2  1

1 ⎡ 1 1⎤ ⎡ 9  4 ⎤ 5R
For 3  2 :  R(2)2 ⎢  ⎥ = 4R ⎢ ⎥ 9
 ⎣4 9⎦ ⎣ 36 ⎦
9
 
5R
1 ⎡ 1⎤ 8 32R
31:  R(2)2 ⎢1  ⎥ = 4R ⎛⎜ ⎞⎟ 
 ⎣ 9⎦ ⎝9⎠ 9

  9
32R

1 ⎡ 1⎤ ⎛3⎞
21:  R(2)2 ⎢1  ⎥ = 4R ⎜ ⎟  3R
 ⎣ 4⎦ ⎝4⎠
1
 
3R

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398 Optics and Modern Physics Success Magnet (Solutions)

34. Answer (1, 4)


For Li2+ (n = 3),

E0Z 2 E 0 (3 ) 2
Ionisation energy    E0
n2 32
For He+ (n = 4), ionisation energy

E0Z 2 E 0 ( 2) 2 E0
 2
 2

n 4 4
Now, max. K.E. = Energy of photon – Ionisation energy
For Li2+, Max. K.E. = x – E0

E0
For He+, Max. K.E. = x 
4

1⎛ E ⎞ E 0 7E 0   7  ⎛  1 E ⎞
 x  E0  ⎜x  0 ⎟  x  2E 0   ⎜ ⎟
2⎝ 4 ⎠ 4 4 2 ⎝ 2 0⎠
= –3.5 × E
Also, as x increases, only the maximum kinetic energy of photoelectrons increases not the difference in
maximum kinetic energies.

35. Answer (1, 2, 4)

For least energetic photon, x = 3

For most energetic photon, x = 


36. Answer (1, 3, 4)

h

mv

h h
 
2mE 2mqv

37. Answer (1, 2)

Ke 2
U= –
3r 3
Ke 2
 F= –
r4
Ke 2 mv 2 nh
  and mvr 
R4 R 2
Squaring and eliminating v 2 we get,

r m

1
r
n2

so, En  n6 and En  m–3

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Success Magnet (Solutions) Optics and Modern Physics 399

38. Answer (1, 4)


Wavelength is independent of isotopic masses. It depends on atomic number.
39. Answer (1, 2, 3)
h h h h
   
p mv 2 mK 2mqV
40. Answer (3, 4)
Sum of masses of all nucleons is more than mass of nucleus.
41. Answer (A, B, C)
AC DA
If is dimensionless then cannot be dimensionless as D and C has different units.
B B
42. Answer (1, 2, 3)
We know rn  n2
Hence graph between rn and n will be parabola
r
∵ n  n2
r1
⎛ rn ⎞
log ⎜ r ⎟ = logn2
⎝ 1⎠
r
log n  2log n
r1

graph between log rn and logn will be straight line.


r1
An A
 n 4 ; log n  4log n
A1 A1
43. Answer (1, 2, 3, 4)
  1  2  t
N A  N0 e
dNB
 1N0 e  1 2 
   t

dt
1
NB 
1   2
N0 1  e  1 2 
   t
 
2
N0 ⎡1  e  1 2  ⎤
   t
NC 
1   2 ⎣ ⎦

N B 1

NC  2

dNB
 1N A
dt
dNC
  2 NB
dt

16 1

9 2

ln2
At t 
25

N0
NB  NC 
2
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400 Optics and Modern Physics Success Magnet (Solutions)

44. Answer (1, 2, 4)


For choice (1),
By Moseley’s law,

1

(Z  1)2

2
20 ⎞ 4
   ⎛⎜ ⎟ 
⎝ 30 ⎠ 9
For choice (2),
10 years = 2 half lives

⎛ 1⎞
 No. of nuclei that decay = N 0 ⎜1  ⎟
⎝ 4 ⎠

3N 0

4

3N 0
3
 Probability of decay  4 
N0 4

For choice (3),


Mass number is equal to atomic no. for hydrogen atom
For choice (4),
Gamma rays are emitted by nuclear de-excitation.

  

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Success Magnet (Solutions) Optics and Modern Physics 401

Section - C : Linked Comprehension Type


C1. 1. Answer (1) f = 40 cm
O1
2 cm/s 2 cm
3 cm
O2
30 cm

The rays through optical centres O1 and O2 passes undeflected. The image of object are formed at I1
and I2 due to upper and lower lenses respectively.
The number of images formed = two
uf 30  40 1200
v    = –120 cm
uf  30  40 10
2. Answer (1)
Image will be virtual
I v
m  
O u
For upper half,
120 ( y  2)
 1  y1 = – 6 cm
30 2
For lower half,

120 I ( y 2  3)
 
30 O 3

y2 = 9 cm
3. Answer (1)
Both images will move with equal velocity parallel to principal axis. So their relative velocity is zero.
C2. 1. Answer (1)
Let central maxima is obtained at P. Now
S2P + (m g – 1)t – S1P = 0
(m g – 1)t – (S1P – S2P) = 0

⎛ 2d ⎞ S1
Here S1P – S2P = ⎜ ⎟y 2d O
⎝ D ⎠ y
S2 P
⎛ g ⎞ 2yd
 ⎜⎜  – 1⎟⎟t  D
⎝ m ⎠

⎛ g ⎞ tD
or y = ⎜⎜  – 1⎟⎟ 2d
⎝ m ⎠

⎛ 1.5 ⎞ (10.4 10 –6 )(1.5)


= ⎜ 4 / 3 – 1⎟ (Thickness of glass sheet is 10.4 m)
⎝ ⎠ (0.45 10 – 3 )

= 4.33 × 10–3 m = 4.33 mm.


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2. Answer (2)
For point O, we have path difference

x = (mg – 1)t

2
Phase difference = × path difference

⎛ 2 ⎞
  = ⎜ ⎟( m  g – 1)t
⎝  ⎠

⎛ 1 .5 ⎞ 10.4 10 –6
= 2  ⎜ – 1⎟
⎝ 4 / 3 ⎠ 600 10 – 9

13
= 
3

 Intensity at O with respect to maximum intensity

⎛ 13 ⎞
I 0  I 0  2 I 0I 0 cos⎜  ⎟
I ⎝ 3 ⎠

Imax 4I 0

3
I= Imax  0.75 Imax
4

3. Answer (3)

Path difference at O is given by

⎛ 1.5 ⎞
x = ( m g – 1)t = ⎜ – 1⎟  (10.4 10 – 6 )
⎝ 4/3 ⎠

= 1300 × 10–9 m = 1300 nm

For maxima at O, path difference x = n

1300
= nanometer
n

(where n = 1, 2, 3 …)

So 1 = 1300 nm, 2 = 650 nm

3 = 433.34 nm, 4 = 325 nm

The required wavelength in the given range are 650 nm and 433.34 nm

C3. 1. Answer (3)

2. Answer (1)

3. Answer (2)

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Central maxima does not move along y-axis hence.
Velocity of central maxima always along x-axis.
a = 2t
v 3
∫0 dv = ∫0 2tdt
v  [t 2 ]30  32  02  9 m/s
Position of screen,

dx  vdt

D t 2
∫D0 dx  ∫0 t dt

t3
D  D0 
3

t3
D  D0 
3

Position vector of nth maxima

 D ˆ
rn  Diˆ  n j
d

 ⎛ t3 ⎞ ⎛ t3 ⎞
rn  ⎜ D0  ⎟ iˆ  n ⎜ D0  ⎟ ˆj
⎜ 3 ⎟⎠ d ⎜⎝ 3 ⎟⎠

Diff. w.r.t. time,


  
 
v n  0  t 2 iˆ  n 0  t 2 jˆ
d

 n 2 ˆ
v n  t 2 iˆ  t j
d

Position vector of 2nd maxima

 D ˆ
r2  Diˆ  2 j
d

Position vector of 1st minima as other side

 1 D ˆ
r1  Diˆ  j
2 d

Relative position of 2nd max. w.r.t. 1st minima


 5 D ˆ
r21  0iˆ  j
2 d
 5 ⎛ t3 ⎞
r21  ⎜ D0  ⎟ ˆj
2 d ⎜⎝ 3 ⎟⎠

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404 Optics and Modern Physics Success Magnet (Solutions)

d 
dt
 r21  
5
2d
 
0  t 2 jˆ


v 21 
5
2d

0  t 2 jˆ
5 ˆ
a tj
d
C4. 1. Answer (1)

Focal length of the combination

1 1 1 d
  –
F f1 f2 f1f2

1 f f d
⇒  2 1 – f1 f2
F f1f2 f1f2
d
Now put d = (f1 + f2)

1 (f  f ) – (f1  f2 )
 2 1  0
F f1f2

 F=
2. Answer (1)
Intensity of light rays increases after second refraction because beam diameter of emergent beam is lesser
than incident beam.
As f1 > f2 ,
d1 > d2
f1 f2

d1 d2

3. Answer (2)
As emergent beam is also parallel, so it behaves as glass slab.
C5. 1. Answer (2)
Image S of point source S can be considered to be another point source of light. From figure, S is at
a distance 200 unit from screen and we know, for point source,

Intensity  1
r2
50 50 100
P
I S S
 Intensity due to S 
4

I Screen
 Total intensity = I   1.25 I
4

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Success Magnet (Solutions) Optics and Modern Physics 405


2. Answer (3)

50 100
⎛ 1⎞ P
Intensity of light reaching the mirror = 4I ⎜ as intensity  2 ⎟. S
⎝ r ⎠

⎛ R ⎞
Also, as the source is at the focus ⎜ f   50 unit ⎟ of the mirror, the diverging beam becomes parallel
⎝ 2 ⎠
after reflection. That means same intensity 4I will reach the screen

 New intensity = I + 4I = 5I

3. Answer (3)

Intensity reaching the lens is 4I. After refraction, as the beam becomes parallel, same intensity reaches
the screen.

C6. 1. Answer (1)

Phase reversal will take place when light is reflected from denser medium.

2. Answer (1)

As both p and q undergo phase change due to difference in refractive indices, for constructive interference
optical path difference = 2n2tcosr = n

3. Answer (2)

For constructive interference (as ray after reflection at interface of n3 and n2 under goes phase change
of ),


2n2t cos r  (2n  1)
2

C7. 1. Answer (2)

At O, x = d = 20 × 10–6 m = n

2 10 –5
 n=  100
2000 10 –10

for the maxima just above O,

1/ 2 1/ 2
⎡ d⎞ ⎤
2 ⎡ d⎞ ⎤
2
2 ⎛ ⎛
x = 99 = ⎢r  ⎜ D  ⎟ ⎥ – ⎢r 2  ⎜ D – ⎟ ⎥
⎢⎣ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎥ ⎢⎣ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎥
⎦ ⎦

Use binomial expansion to find r.

2. Answer (3)

∫ IdA = Average power due to sources on the screen.


Half the power of each source will be incident on the screen.

20  20
So, ∫ IdA  2
 20 W

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406 Optics and Modern Physics Success Magnet (Solutions)

3. Answer (4)
As in part 1, at O, 100th order maxima is formed. There will be 99 maxima above this. This will not include
the maxima at , where zero order maxima is formed.
C8. 1. Answer (4)

Central
bright
fringe
d min y=0

+y
Path difference = SS1 – SS2 + S1O – S2O
dy
= D2  d 2  D 
2D
⎛ 2⎞
= D ⎜1  1 d ⎟  D 
dy
⎝ 2D ⎠
2 2D

d 2 dy
x = 
2D 2D
d
At O, y 
2
d2 d2 d2 3 
=  =  
2D 4D 2D 2 2

2D
d
3
2. Answer (3)
For central maxima path difference = 0
hence y = – d
d 3d 3 2D 3 D
The distance of central maxima from O,  d   
2 2 2 3 2
C9. 1. Answer (2)
Q = BEY + BEX – BEW
 Q = E2N2 + E3N3 – E1N1
2. Answer (1)
The average mass per nucleon will be greater when mass defect is small.
Mw MY Mx
  
N1 N2 N3
3. Answer (3)
As mass number increases, total binding energy must increase, but the variation is non -linear in general.

C9(a). Answer (2, 4) (IIT-JEE 2008)


When BE/necleon increases, energy is released.
If final product has atomic number between 100 and 200, energy will be released.

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C10. 1. Answer (2)
Rate of disintegration of Y = Rate of disintegration of X – Rate of formation of Z
dN
and  N
dt

dNY N
  0.1N X – Y
dt 30
2. Answer (3)
Time at which Y is maximum
dNY
When  0
dt

N0  X
i.e., 0.1 N0 e –  X t  (e – Y t – e –  X t )
30 ( X – Y )
 t = 15 ln3
3. Answer (1)
Nx = N0 e   x t
–15
n 3
20 10
= 10 e

10 20 3
Nx 
9
C11. 1. Answer (1)
Reduced mass
IE   IE of hydrogen atom
Mass of e –
= 6 × 13.6 eV.
m1m2
Reduced mass =  =
m1  m2
 IE = 81.6 eV
2. Answer (2)
First radius

r0
r  me

r = 0.088 Å
3. Answer (2)
 R
R  R ⇒  6
me R
C12. 1. Answer (2)
As the centre of mass remains at rest therefore both must have equal momentum.
2. Answer (1)
E1  m
E2  
mM
E2 
mM
E1 m  M

E2 M

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C13. 1. Answer (2)

mv
r 
qB

mv nh
i.e. r  and mvr 
eB 2

nh
So r 2 
2eB

nh
r 
2eB

2. Answer (1)

1
K  mv 2
2
1 m 2v 2
K 
2 m
1 e 2B 2 r 2

2 m
nhBe
 K 
4m
3. Answer (4)
Potential energy = –2 × Kinetic energy.
C14. 1. Answer (4)

Z2
B  13.6
n2
22
 13.6
22
= 13.6 eV
2. Answer (4)
X = 3.4 eV
Y = 13.6 eV
KX = E – X
KY = E – Y

KX E – 3 .4
 2 
KY E – 13.6

 E = 23.8 eV
3. Answer (4)
Difference in maximum K.E. is constant, for a given incident frequency.

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Success Magnet (Solutions) Optics and Modern Physics 409


C15. 1. Answer (2)
2. Answer (1)
3. Answer (3)

hc 6.4  1034  3  108


Energy, E    10 eV
 1216  1010
emits the radiation of six possible wavelength,
n = 1,2,3,4

z2
En  13.6  eV
n2
⎛ 1 1 ⎞
10 eV   13.6  z 2 ⎜ 2  2 ⎟
⎝4 2 ⎠
⇒ z=2
E1 = –54.4 eV
E2 = –13.6 eV
E3 = –6.04 eV
E4 = –3.6 eV
Emax = 54.4 – 3.4 = 51.0 eV

hc 19.9  1026
min    245Å
Emax 2.64  1.6  1019

Emin  E3  E4  2.64

19.9  1026
min   4700Å
2.64  1.6  1019
C16. 1. Answer (2)
0.53n2
r0  for nth hydrogen orbit
Z
m
r  r0 where  is reduced mass

m = mass of electron

0.53n 2
 r 
208Z
2. Answer (3)
Putting value of r  of that of first orbit of hydrogen atom
n = 25
3. Answer (1)
⎛⎞
E  ⎜ ⎟ 13 .6eV
⎝m⎠
hc
 E 3 – E1 

So  = 0.548 Å

  
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410 Optics and Modern Physics Success Magnet (Solutions)

Section - D : Assertion - Reason Type


1. Answer (4)
For sharp image | u | + | v |  4f. If object and image are at distance 4f then there will be unique position of
object and image.
2. Answer (3)

1
Resolving power  .
diameter of lens

3. Answer (4)
Focal length for paraxial and marginal rays are different.
4. Answer (4)
As different colours have different refractive indices, spherical lenses show dispersion. Infact, any two refracting
surfaces inclined at each other show dispersion.
5. Answer (4)
Lateral displacement can never be greater than thickness.
6. Answer (3)
All images and object lie on a circle.
7. Answer (2)
Statement-1 is justified by diagram below

Dark region

Bright region

Dark region
Screen

Also, a biconvex lens when surrounded by a medium of lower refractive index behaves as diverging lens.
8. Answer (4)
Concave mirror will form virtual, erect and magnified image of an object when placed in between pole and
focus.
9. Answer (2)

Height of image hi
m 
Height of object h0

negative sign suggests that image is inverted and | m | > 1 will mean that hi > h0
10. Answer (4)
Intensity of characteristic X-ray is independent of applied voltage.
11. Answer (2)
When surrounded by a medium of lower refractive index, a convex lens behaves as diverging lens. Also, a
convex lens shows both spherical and chromatic aberration.

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12. Answer (4)

⎛ 1⎞
Normal shift = t ⎜1– ⎟
⎝ n⎠

where n = refractive index.

13. Answer (4)

R
Fmirror = , which is independent of refraction.
2
14. Answer (3)

Young's double slit experiment is based upon interference and interference is applicable for both transverse
and longitudinal.

15. Answer (4)

All particles lying in a plane which is perpendicular to ray are in same phase.

y direction of wave

16. Answer (4)

Maximas are formed at different angular positions and so are not equispaced.

0
 
2 2

3 3
S1 S2
2 2
 
0
Maximum path difference = 3

In first quadrant number of maximas = 4

Number of maximas in circle = 4 × 4 = 16, but four maximas are common. Total maximas are 12

17. Answer (1)

Wave front due to a source at  is planar, because rays are parallel.

18. Answer (4)

If fringe width is large, dark and bright fringes are not equally spaced. In an interference energy is
redistributed.

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19. Answer (4)


Photoelectric emission will not take place for  < 0, so no stopping potential.
20. Answer (4)
If beams are parallel, it is not necessary that path difference is zero.
21. Answer (3)
Net amplitudes of sources are a, 2a, 3a then maximum amplitude = 6a and minimum amplitude = 0.
22. Answer (4)
Image will not move if the mirror moves parallel to itself.
23. Answer (2)
From property of triangle AB + BC > AC. Both statements are true.
24. Answer (2)
N
Both are correct as heavy elements exhibit radioactivity as ratio is greater than specified value but reason
P
don't explain phenomena in assertion.
25. Answer (4)
IE  m, so assertion is wrong.
26. Answer (2)
Both are correct but explanation for first comes from E = mc2
27. Answer (1)
Both are correct, since energy, momentum and mass all conservations are valid.
28. Answer (3)
Mass of nucleus < mass of sum of nucleons.
29. Answer (1)
Both statements are correct, and statement-2 clearly suggests why statement-1 is correct.
30. Answer (3)
Neutrons inside nucleus disintegrate forming e–. Otherwise e– is not inside nucleus.
31. Answer (3)
Mass of neutron (mn) is greater than mass of proton (mp). Thus for the decay
p  n + + + 
m = mp – mn < 0
 Q value of the decay = mc2 < 0
32. Answer (1)
Since proton is not stable so it try to stabilise by absorbing neutron.
33. Answer (2)
Wavelength of Balmer series corresponds to visible region.
34. Answer (4)
N0
N 
2n
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35. Answer (1)
Nuclear density depends on size of nucleus & mass of nucleons and is almost constant for all atoms.
36. Answer (1)
All electromagnetic rays travel with speed of light.
37. Answer (2)
No correct explanation both are independently true.
38. Answer (2)
Ozone layer prevent harmful radiations to reach earth. But it donot explain why UV rays are harmful.
39. Answer (3)
Speed of  rays is 9 to 99% of speed of light.
40. Answer (1)
Nuclear forces are non-central.
41. Answer (1)
Eg  1 eV (for semiconductor)
42. Answer (3)

N
 1 for X
P
1
size  A 3

43. Answer (3)


N = N0e–t
 unit of  is sec–1
44. Answer (2)
Both are independently true.
45. Answer (2)
0.693
 
t1
2

46. Answer (2)


Speed of  > speed of  particles
 penetration power is more and mass and charge on  > mass and charge of 
 Ionising power of  is more
47. Answer (1)
Centrifugal force balances Coloumbs Force

  

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414 Optics and Modern Physics Success Magnet (Solutions)

Section - E : Matrix-Match Type


1. Answer A(q), B(r, t), C(p), D(s)
(A) Burning candel thermal source of light, containing a whole continuous range of visible wave length
(B) New bulb emits light of red colour, sodium vapour lamp emits light of yellow colour of light
(C) Emission of light by a cool body
2. Answer A(q, t), B(p, s), C(p, t), D(r, t)
For a real object, m = 1 for plane mirror, 1 < m < 0 for convex mirror, a concave mirror can have any
negative value of magnification but it does not have positive value of |m| < 1.
3. Answer A(r, s, t), B(p, q, t), C(r, s), D(r, s, t)
(A) When an object is placed between the pole and focus of the lens, it's image will be virtual and upright.
(B) When an object is placed between centre of curvature and focus its image will be real and inverted.
(C) When an object is placed infront of a plane mirror its image will be virtual and upright (with respect
to the object)
(D) When an object is placed between pole and focus of the concave mirror its image will be virtual and
upright with respect to the object. In case of silvered mirror also a single image is formed.

3(a) Answer A(p, q, r, s); B(q); C(p, q, r, s), D(p, q, r, s) (IIT-JEE 2008)
In all cases, u is negative
(A)  p, q, r, s

f
Magnification for mirror, m 
f u
f is negative. Depending on valve of u, m can be positive or negative and | m | can be > 1 or < 1.
(B)  q
f
m
f u
f is positive 0 < m < 1, for any value of u
(C)  p, q, r, s
f
m
f u
f is positive m can be positive or negative and | m | can be > 1 or < 1 depending on u.
(D)  p, q, r, s
f
m
f u
f is positive m can be positive or negative and |m| can be > 1 or < 1 depending on u.

4. Answer A(q), B(p), C(r), D(s, t)


5. Answer A(p, s), B(p, t), C(p, s), D(p, t)

⎛ 1 1 ⎞
. fL  (  1) ⎜  ⎟
⎝ R1 R2 ⎠

1 2 1
 
Feq fl fm for silvered lens

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6. Answer - A(t), B(p), C(q, s), D(r)

Deviation is angle between incident and emergent ray

7. Answer - A(p, q), B(t), C(s), D(r)

(A) When n1 = n2, initial path covered by ray from upper slit is more, so central maxima shifts up.

(B)  = 30° and n1 > n2

So, path of ray from upper slit is more.

Hence central maxima shifts up.

(C) In this case, path of any ray can be more, or it may be same for both.

(D) In this case, path of rays from the two slits is same.

So x = 0 at origin.

7a. Answer A(p, s); B(q); C(t), D(r, s, t) (IIT-JEE 2009)


Case (A)

P0 P1 P2

 
x 0
4 3
 2
 0
2 3

I 4I0 2I0 I0

Case (B)

P0 P1 P2

 
x 0
4 12
 
 0
2 6

I 2I0 4I0 I0 (2  3 )

Case (C)

P0 P1 P2

  
x
2 4 6
 
 
2 3

I 0 2I0 3I0

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Case (D)

P0 P1 P2

3  5
x
4 2 12
3 5
 
2 6

I 2I0 0 I0 (2  3 )

8. Answer A(q), B(r), C(p), D(t)

t
y1 y2

d d D – 2d

t y1 (D  2d )t
(A)  ⇒ y1 
2d D  2d 2d

t y2 (D  d )t
(B)  ⇒ y2 
d Dd d
y 2  y1
(C)
D
2t

D
(D) Fringe width =
2t
9. Answer A(p, q), B(r, s), C(s, t), D(p)
(A) At infinite distance, x = 0. At a point close to S2, x = 2. This will be maxima. In between,

 3
there will be minima, for x = and and
2 2
there will be maxima for x = 
So 2 minima and 2 maxima will be formed.
S1S2
(B) Number of maxima = Number of minima = 4n, where n = .

Here, n = 1
 Number of minima or maxima = 4

(C) At the point of contact of mirror and screen, a minima with x = – is formed
2
  3 5
 Minima for x = – , , , will be there. Inbetween 2 minima, there will be a maxima.
2 2 2 2
(D) The path difference on the screen is x = 2 cos 
for  = 0 and 60°, x = 2 and . So, 2 maxima and 1 minima in between the two maxima will be
formed.
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Success Magnet (Solutions) Optics and Modern Physics 417


10. Answer A(p, r), B(p), C(p, r, t), D(s)
Except photoelectric effect, all other support wave nature. Photoelectric effect supports particle nature.
Interference and scattering depend on wavelength. Dispersion is due to different deviation suffered by
different wavelength.
11. Answer A(p), B(r), C(q), D(s, t)

Radiation pressure implies transfer of momentum, so it supports particle nature. Threshold wavelength is
hc
equal to maximum wavelength of photon at which electron can be emitted 
 max
hc
KE max  –   eVs

nh h
mvr  2r  n yields  
2 mv
12. Answer A(s, t), B(r), C(q), D(p, t)
Photo electric effect shows particle nature since it is explained by collision of photon with e– 's.
Saturation photo current depend on intensity of photons not on energy of photons.
Since most of photon pass through empty spaces of atom  photon efficiency is very low.
Work function depends on ionisation energy.
13. Answer A(q, s), B(r, t), C(p), D(p, q, r, s)
Characteristic X-ray is produced when e– is knocked of its shell to other shell and explains Moseley’s
law

f  b (z – a)
Continues X-rays is due to bending of e– in atom
hc
 cutoff 
eV
X-ray production explains all above phenomenon.
14. Answer A(r), B(q, t), C(s), D(p)
Bohr’s atomic model is defined on fixed orbits
R and m Atomic excitation is only due to transfer of energy by collision.
15. Answer A(q, t), B(p, r), C(q), D(p, r, s)
Hydrogen bomb is thermonuclear fusion reaction atom bomb is due to fission of radioactive nuclear.
Stellar energy is energy in stars i.e. due to fusion.
Nuclear reactor controls fission reaction.
16. Answer A(q, t), B(p, r), C(s), D(p, r)
 decay produces neutrino & atomic number decreases by 1. In  decay there is no change in atomic
number. ke– capture is analogue to  decay.
17. Answer A(q, r), B(r), C(s), D(p, t)
Isobars have different atomic number  different chemical properties and same mass number.
Isotones have different chemical properties.
Isotopes have different mass number not atomic number.
Nuclear force shows saturation after certain distance.

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418 Optics and Modern Physics Success Magnet (Solutions)

18. Answer A(p), B(q, r, s), C(p, t), D(q, r, s)


19. Answer A(q), B(r), C(p, t), D(s)
20. Answer A(p, s), B(q, s), C(r), D(p, s)

. a : r  n2

⎡a : r  n 2 ⎤
⎢ ⎥
⎢b : v  1 : k  1 ⎥
⎢ n n2 ⎥
⎢ M q ⎥
⎢c :  ⎥
⎢ L 2m ⎥
⎣d :   n ⎦
21. Answer A(r, t), B(q), C(p), D(s)
Photoelectric effect was explained by Einstein for which he got Nobel prize
X-ray were discovered by William Roentgen
Characteristic X-ray was studied by Moseley for spectrum.
Radioactivity has a unit after the name Rutherford.

  

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Success Magnet (Solutions) Optics and Modern Physics 419

Section - F : Subjective Type


1. When two interfering waves are of equal amplitude, the intensity distribution is given by

⎛⎞
I  I 0 cos 2 ⎜ ⎟
⎝2⎠
2
where  = phase difference = (path difference) and I0 = Intensity at maxima (central point) when glass

plate is introduced

Path difference = ( – 1)t

2 2 ⎛  – 1 ⎞
 I(t) = I 0 cos ⎜ ⎟t
 ⎝ 2 ⎠

Intensity at 0 will be maximum when

( – 1)t
  n

⎡ n ⎤
 t = ⎢ ( – 1) ⎥
⎣ ⎦

⎡⎛ 2n  1 ⎞ ⎛  ⎞⎤
and minimum when t = ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎥
⎣⎢⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝  – 1 ⎠⎦⎥
n = 0, 1, 2, 3 …

y
2. y
C
–4j
1
x z x
2
A –3i
z
B

Apply Snell's law at yz plane {n1 sin1 = n 2 sin2 }

5
 sin 1  2  sin  2 Refractive index for x > 0 is 2
2

2 2
sin 1  sin  2
5

4 2 2
 sin  2
5 5

4
 sin  2
2 2 5

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420 Optics and Modern Physics Success Magnet (Solutions)

2
 sin  2
5

Let AB ⇒ – ai – bj

AB is a unit vector

| AB |  1  a 2  b 2  1

3
a = 1 cos2 =
5

2
b = 1 sin2 =
5

Vector along refracted ray

3ˆ 2ˆ
AB  – i– j
5 5

3. For a ball,

u = +30 m/s

a = –10 m/s2 (acceleration due to gravity) 30 m/s

t = 4s 15 m
f = 10 cm
1 2
s = ut  at
2

1 2
= 30  4 – 10  4
2
= 120 – 5 × 42

= 120 – 80 = 40 m

Velocity of object

v = u + at

= 30 – 10 × 4 = –10 i.e., 10 m/s downward

Distance of object 

u = (40 + 15) m = 55 m

Distance of object is large (u >> f )

u=

v=f

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Success Magnet (Solutions) Optics and Modern Physics 421

v2
Vi = .Vobject
u2
f2
= . (10 )
u2
2
(0.10)2 ⎛ 0 .1 ⎞ 0 .1
= 10  ⎜ ⎟ 
(55)2 ⎝ 55 ⎠ ( 55 )2

Vi = velocity of image = 0.03 mm/s

4.

B C
0
12 

90°
A


D

 1 × sin = 2 × sin …(i)

For total internal reflection

sin  sinc

1
sin  
2
  30° …(1)

For ABCD

90 + 120 + 90 –  + 90 –  = 360°

210 + 90 + 90 –  –  = 360°

30 =  +  …(2)

 for max max min

⎧ min  30

⎨  max  0
⎪⇒ 
⎩ max  0

5.

10 cm
60° P
O 7.2

17 cm

Rays are converging at point P (without lens)

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422 Optics and Modern Physics Success Magnet (Solutions)

Let OP = x
10
tan 30° =
x
0 .1
x=
tan 30

0 .1
x=  0.1 3  0.17 m  17 cm
1/ 3
For lens
u = +17 cm

1 1 100
f=  m= cm
P 8 8

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 100  136
–      
v u f v u f 17 100 1700

v = 7.2 cm
So new semi vertex angle is tan–1 (1.38).
 New angle of cone = 2tan–1 (1.38)

R R = 40 cm
O

6.
t (t  0)

Case-1
One image is by mirror alone and coincides with object i.e., object is placed at centre of curvature
u = –40 R = –40
v = –40
For second image
u = – × 40 v = –60
1 1 1
 
v u f
1 1 1
– –
v   40 20
1 1 1
–  –
60   40 20
1 1 1
– 
20 60   40
2 1

60   40

6 3
 = 2 4  4

 < 1, which is not possible.


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Success Magnet (Solutions) Optics and Modern Physics 423


Case 2
One image which is due to refraction + reflection is at the source itself.
1 1 1
– –
– x x 20
2 1 40
 ⇒ x …(i)
x 20 
Image due to single reflection is at 20 cm from object

40
u= –

R
⎛ 40 ⎞ O
v =  ⎜⎜  20 ⎟⎟
⎝  ⎠
40 40 cm
1 1 1 
 
v u f

1 1 1
   
⎛ 40 ⎞ 40 20
⎜⎜   20 ⎟⎟ 
⎝ ⎠

   5 1

Only possible answer is 5 1

7. We know that

I = a12  a22  2a1a2 cos 

At central point  = 0, if I0 be the intensity, then

I0 = a12  a22  2a1a2  (a1  a2 )2

= 9a2 (a1 = a and a2 = 2a)

⎛ I0 ⎞
 a2 = ⎜ ⎟
⎝9⎠

For any other direction

Path difference = =2d sin

2 2 2 ⎛ 2 ⎞
 I = a  4a  4a cos⎜  2d sin  ⎟
⎝  ⎠

2⎡ ⎛ 2 ⎞⎤
= a ⎢5  4 cos ⎜   2d sin  ⎟⎥
⎣ ⎝ ⎠⎦

I0 ⎡ 2⎛  ⎞ ⎤
= 9 ⎢5  8 cos ⎜   2d sin  ⎟ – 4⎥
⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦

I0 ⎡ 2  ⎤
=
9 ⎢1 8 cos  2 d sin ⎥
⎣ ⎦

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424 Optics and Modern Physics Success Magnet (Solutions)

8. The path difference at O is given by

 = S2O – S1O

d
 
1 S1 S2
From figure, S2O =  2  (d )2 2

1
 D
⎡ 1 ⎛ d ⎞2 ⎤ 2 ⎡ 1 ⎛ d ⎞2 ⎤
 S2O =  ⎢1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎥   ⎢1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎥
⎢⎣ 2 ⎝  ⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 ⎝  ⎠ ⎥⎦

⎡ 1 ⎛ d ⎞ 2 ⎤ (d ) 2 O
Now x =  ⎢1 ⎜ ⎟ – 1⎥ 
⎢⎣ 2 ⎝  ⎠ ⎥⎦ 2

(2.2 10 –3 )2
=  1.110 – 6 mm
2  2.2

The interference will be constructive if path difference is an integral multiples of wavelength i.e., n = 1, 2, 3 …

x 1.1 10 –6
n =  2 (constructive interference)
 5.5 10 – 7

 (5.5 10 –7 )(2.2)


fringe width   
d 2.2 10 – 3
= 5.5 × 10–4 m

= 0.55 mm
9. As shown in figure AB and AC are the glass plates making contact along one edge A. These are separated
by a thickness t of tin foil.

t
tan= (∵ is small)
AC
When viewed in reflected light, let PQ and RS be the position of two consecutive bright fringes. Let t1 and t2
be the thickness of air film at P and R for constructive interference seen in reflected light. Hence
2t1 = n …(i)
2t2 = (n + 1) …(ii) B

where  = refractive index of air R


from equation (i) and equation (ii) P  t

 t1 t2

t2 – t1 = …(iii) A
2 Q S C

t 2 – t1
Further  tan    …(iv)

Here () represents width of bright fringes from equation (iii) and equation (iv) we get

 
2
 
or  =  ( = 1 for air)
2 2
t  ⎛ t ⎞
or  ⎜   ⎟
AC 2 ⎝ AC ⎠

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Success Magnet (Solutions) Optics and Modern Physics 425

t 
or 
40 2
or t = 20
 t = 20 × (5.89 × 10–5) = 0.001178 cm
10. Energy of photon
E = hf dx
hf f
Momentum p =
c R
hf
Mass m =
c2
x
 Force of attraction between star and photon is

GM ⎛ hf ⎞ GM hf
F= ⎜ ⎟ =
x2 ⎝ c2 ⎠ c2x2
GM hf
So elementary work done in moving out through dx = – dx
c2x2
dU = –dE
GM hf
dx = –hdf Solving differential equation
c2x2
GM
f –
2
 = 1 – e Rc
f
11. Using Moseley's law

f1 b(Z1 – a )
=
f2 b(Z 2 – a )

(Z1 – 1)2
 2 = 1
(Z 2 – 1)2

  2 = 179.76 Å
12. Reduced mass of atom

mM
= = 186 me
mM

h 20 1
Radius corresponding to n = 1 for hydrogen atom is r = 2  r
me e m
 For such given atom

⎛ me ⎞
r = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ r = 2.85 × 10–7 m
⎝  ⎠
Similarly, E  m
 Ionisation energy of given atom is


E = m Eoriginal = –186 × 13.6 eV
e

= –2.53 keV

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426 Optics and Modern Physics Success Magnet (Solutions)

f
13. v v
n state m state Photon

hf
mv = mv   ... (i) Conservation of momentum
c

1 1 2
mv 2  E n = mv   E m  hf ... (ii) Conservation of energy (En – Em = hf0 )
2 2

Solving both we get


–1
⎛ v⎞
f  f0 ⎜ 1 – ⎟
⎝ c⎠

⎛ v⎞
 f  f0 ⎜1 ⎟ [As (1 + x)n  1 + n x, if x << 1]
⎝ c⎠

14. N = N0 – N0 e – t
t = 1.58 × 10–18 × 3.15 × 107 = 5 × 10–11
This value is small so exponential term can be expanded (en  1 + n)
 N = N0 – N0(1 – t)
 N = N0t, N 0 = 2.6 × 1021
 N = 2.6 × 1021 × 5 × 10–11 = 13 × 1010

14(a) Answer - (4) JEE (Advanced)-2013

N  N0 e t

N t
 N  e
0

ln 2
N  80
  e 1386
N0

0.69380
N 
  e 1386
N0

N 0.04
 N  e
0

0.04
N ⎛ 1⎞
 
N0 ⎜⎝ e ⎟⎠
0.04
N ⎛ 1⎞
Fraction of nuclei decayed = 1   1 ⎜ ⎟ = 0.04 = 4%
N0 ⎝e⎠

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Success Magnet (Solutions) Optics and Modern Physics 427


15. For the decay of radon, decay is governed only by the decay rate as production rate is very slow
So, N = N0(1–e–t )
 ln 2
where,  
3.83

now, N  N 0  9
10
– t 1
 e 2 =
10
T1/ 2
 t= log10
log 2
t
 = 3.32
T1/ 2
16. Let   and   be decay constants for  and  emission. The effective decay constant is   +  

66
 = 
100

34
 = 
100

0.693
and = = 1.91 × 10–4 sec–1
T1/ 2
   = 1.26 × 10–4 sec–1
  = 0.65 × 10–4 sec–1
17. Let age of boat be t years
At any time the number of nuclei C14 are N = N0e –t

0.693
and =
T1/ 2
 = 1.24 × 10–4 yr –1
Fresh carbon activity = N 0 = 15.6
Activity of old wood = N = 3.9

N0 15.6
 =
N 3.9
Using equation N = N0e –t
t = 1.118 × 104 yrs.
18. Number of atom is 2 gm of 235
92U

2  6.03 10 23
= atom
235
Energy released per fission = 200 MeV
 Energy by 2 gm of 92U
235

E = 4.55 × 104 kWh.

  

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428 Optics and Modern Physics Success Magnet (Solutions)

Section - G : Integer Answer Type


1. Answer (2)

1 ⎛  2  1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞
Faced placed in air = f  ⎜  ⎟⎜
R

R

⎝ 1 ⎠⎝ 1 2 ⎠

3
R1 = +20, R2 = –20, 2  , 1  1.0 , ....
2
fair = 20 cm
air in the object space and water in the image space

1 ⎛  2  1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞
⎜ ⎟⎜  ⎟
f ⎝ 1 ⎠ ⎝ R1 R2 ⎠

3 4
R1 = +20, R2 = –20,  2  , 1  w  , fw = 40 cm
2 3
40
ratio is = 2
20
2. Answer (4)

hc
 e(3V0 ) +  ...(i)

hc
 eV0   ...(ii)
2
from equation (i) and (ii)

hc hc hc
2  or   4
2 0

0 = 4
 Value of n is 4
3. Answer (1)
In arrangement (1)
2
      1 t

2  
  
 6 3

I  I0  I0  2 I0 I0 cos
3
I  3I0
In arrangement (2)
2
     r  1 t
medium

3 2 ⎛ 4 ⎞ 
   1 
2  ⎜⎝ 3 ⎟⎠ 3

I  I0  I0  2 I0 I0 cos
3
I  3I0

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4. Answer (2)
mv = qBr
h h
 
mv qBr
P 2
  2
 1
5. Answer (2)

hc ⎛ 1 1⎞
Shortest wavelength of Brackett series  13.6 Z 2 ⎜  ⎟
 Br ⎝ 16  ⎠

hc ⎛1 1⎞
Shortest wavelength of Balmer series for hydrogen  13.6 ⎜  ⎟
 Bl ⎝4 ⎠
16
 Z 
2
Z=2
4

5a. Answer (1) (IIT-JEE 2011)

⎡ v ⎤ ⎡v  u ⎤
f = f0 ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎣v  u ⎦ ⎣ v ⎦

⎡ 320  10 ⎤
= 8 ⎢ ⎥
⎣ 320 –10 ⎦

33
= 8
21
= 8.5 kHz

6. Answer (3)
POA = 60º
sini = sinr P
i 0º
r=3
r=
30º
sin 60 3 i 
   3
sin30 2  1 A O

x=3
7. Answer (2)
u = –x v = –2x f=2m m = +2

1 1 1
   x=1
2x x 2
u = –y v = +2y f=2m m = –2

1 1 1
  y=3m
2y y 2

y–x=2m

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430 Optics and Modern Physics Success Magnet (Solutions)

8. Answer (6)
lens
1 1 1
Assume S1 is real for S2 ,   
y 24  x 9 S1 I S2
1 1 1 x x –x
24
  x = 6 cm y
y x 9

9. Answer (5)

 2 1  2  1
  Air
v u R

O I
3 3
1
1
 2  2
5 ( 3) R 5/2 cm

2

R = –5 cm 3 cm
10. Answer (9)
The second focus of the convex lens should coincide with the first focus of concave lens for the given image
formations

d 5 cm

14 cm
d = 14 – 5 = 9 cm
11. Answer (5)

O 4
3f

4f
y1
lens

O
4f
3

4f
 2f
y2 5
Required ratio =  3 
y1 4f 2
3
 n=5

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Success Magnet (Solutions) Optics and Modern Physics 431


12. Answer (2)
 = 4.21
hc
   eV

12375
 4.18  eV
2000
V = 6.1875 – 4.18
V = 2.0075
V  2v
13. Answer (4)
When the lenses are in contact
P1 + P2 = 10 ... (i)
When lenses have d separation
P1 + P2 – dP1P2 = 6 ... (ii)
From equation (i) and (ii)
P1 = 8
P2 = 2
P1
 4
P3
14. Answer (4)

⎛ 1 ⎞
Ephoton = 13.6 ⎜ 1  ⎟  13 eV
⎝ 25 ⎠

E 13  1.6  1019
V    4 m/s
mC 1.67  1027  3  108
15. Answer (1)
1 1
E Pr  EL  2
n   n 1
n n
 x=1
16. Answer (1)
10  103  1 0.5
E  e  20  103   1W
e 100
 x=1
17. Answer (8)

R1R2 ⎛ 6  3⎞ 2 2
(R  ⎜ ⎟  10  2  10
R1  R2 ⎝ 6  3 ⎠

R R1 R
2
 
R R12 R22

2⎡ 9 36 ⎤
R = (200) ⎢ 2
 ⎥
⎣ (300) (600)2 ⎦

4⎡ 36 ⎤
⎢ 9
4 ⎥⎦
= =8
9⎣

  
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432 Optics and Modern Physics Success Magnet (Solutions)

Section - H : Multiple True-False Type


1. Answer (1)
2. Answer (2)
3. Answer (3)
4. Answer (2)

  

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