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МИНИСТЕРСТВО СЕЛЬСКОГО ХОЗЯЙСТВА


РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

ФГБОУ ВО ПЕНЗЕНСКИЙ ГАУ

Кафедра «Философия, история и иностранные языки»

С.Ю. Дмитриева

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
(Грамматика английского языка)

Учебное пособие

Пенза 2019
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УДК 802.0(075)
ББК 81.2Англ. (я7)
Д 53

Рецензент – Т.Н. Чуворкина, кандидат экономических наук,


доцент кафедры «Управление, экономика и право» ФГБОУ ВО
Пензенский ГАУ.

Печатается по решению методической комиссии факультета СПО


(колледжа) от 26 ноября 2018 г., № 4

Дмитриева, Светлана Юрьевна


Грамматика английского языка: учебное пособие / С.Ю.
Дмитриева. – Пенза: РИО ПГАУ, 2019. – 120 c.

Учебное пособие подготовлено в соответствии с рабочей


программой дисциплины «Иностранный язык», разработанной для
студентов среднего профессионального образования, обучающихся
по специальностям 38.02.01 Экономика и бухгалтерский учет (по
отраслям) и 38.02.06 Финансы, а также других направлений
подготовки для повторения основных грамматических структур
английского языка.

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Введение

Данная работа посвящена изучению грамматического строя


английского языка как системы, части которой взаимосвязаны
определенными взаимоотношениями. В преподавании грамматики
английского языка для студентов целесообразно рассматривать
грамматику неотрывно от всего языкового материала, т.к. эти
понятия связаны самым тесным образом между собой. Важную роль
в улучшении обучению грамматике, как одного из аспектов обучения
иностранным языка, является использование новейших материалов,
изданных в Великобритании, США и других англоговорящих
странах, а также учебно-методические материалы отечественных
авторов.
Цель изучения дисциплины (раздел грамматики) –
сформировать у студентов знание об основных грамматических
явлениях английского языка; умения и навыки распознавания в
тексте и грамотного построения речи, используя изученные
грамматические структуры.
Учебное пособие построено по схеме:
1 часть
 1-й этап: Теоретический материал
 2-й этап: Тренировочные упражнения
 3-й этап: Активизация в речи изученных грамматических
структур и явлений.

2 часть
Тексты с лексико-грамматическими заданиями на проверку
сформированных знаний, умений и навыков английской грамматики.
Для лучшего усвоения материала и активизации в речи изученных
грамматических структур в каждую тему введены диалоги для чтения
и прослушивания, которые содержат грамматический материал.

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WORD ORDER
Порядок слов в английском предложении

В английском языке в повествовательном предложении существует


фиксированный порядок слов: 1 место – подлежащее, 2 место –
сказуемое, 3 место – дополнение, 4 место – обстоятельство.
Обстоятельство может стоять также в начале предложения (0 место).
Определение является единственным членом предложения, который
не имеет фиксированного положения. Оно примыкает к
определяемому существительному.
Например: Every week my younger brother buys a new disc in the nearest
shop.
Некоторые обстоятельства, выраженные наречиями
неопределённого времени (always, also, probably, often, seldom, never,
usually, rarely, sometimes, и др.) ставятся сразу перед сказуемым-
глаголом. Если глагол to be входит в состав сказуемого, то такое
обстоятельство стоит после него.
Например: Tom always goes to work by car. She is never asked at
seminars.

Вопросительные предложения
В английском языке существует четыре типа вопросов: общий,
специальный, альтернативный и разделительный.
Общий вопрос (General question) это вопрос, относящийся ко
всему предложению и требующий ответа yes/no. Например: Do you
know the Browns? – Yes, I do / No, I don’t.
Специальный вопрос (Special question) это вопрос к какому-либо
члену предложения и требует конкретного ответа. Здесь участвует
вопросительное слово. Существует два типа специальных вопросов:
– к группе подлежащего (здесь нет вспомогательного глагола.
Например: Who lives in London?)
– к любому другому члену предложения. Например: Where is Mark?
Вопросительные слова: What? When? Who? Why? Where? How many
(much )? How? Whom? Which? Whose?
Альтернативный вопрос (Alternative question) это вопрос, в основе
которого лежит выбор-альтернатива. Здесь ставится союз or.
Например: Do you study English or German?

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Разделительный вопрос (Disjunctive question) это вопрос,


состоящий из двух частей всегда противоположных друг другу
(первая часть – утвердительное или отрицательное предложение,
вторая ( Question tag ) – переспрос, состоящий из вспомогательного
глагола и личного местоимения, заменяющего подлежащее.
Переспрос переводится: «не так ли?»). Например: You don’t like
winter, do you? He was there, wasn’t he?

Порядок слов в вопросительном предложении


Порядок слов в вопросительном предложении определяется одной
схемой, независимо от временной формы глагола-сказуемого.
Рассмотрим пример: We borrow books from the library.

тип вопросит. вспом. подлеж. сказуемое второст.


вопроса слово глагол члены
Общий Do you borrow books
from the library?
Спец. Who borrows books
from the library?
Спец. Where do you borrow books?

Упражнения
1. На основе приведенных слов постройте предложения, соблюдая
порядок слов.
1. she, won, easily, the game
2. tennis, every weekend, Ken, plays
3. quietly, the door, I, closed
4. his name, after a few minutes, I, remembered
5. a letter to her parents, Ann, writes, every week
6. some interesting books, found, we, in the library
7. across from the park, they, a new hotel, are building
8. to the bank, I, every Friday, go
9. on Saturday night, didn't see, at the party, you, I
10. brightly, is, shining, sun, the
11. in, lives, my, sister, New York
12. a, became, doctor, good, Mary
13. a, decided, go, on, picnic, to, we
14. always, at nine o'clock, out of the garage, in the morning, gets, his car,
he
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15. he, into town, after breakfast, often, Mrs Hodges, takes
16 a parking place, near the shops, they, find, rarely
17. sometimes, in a garage, Mr Hodges, his car, parks
18. fly, with my parents, to Florida, sometimes, I, in winter
19. late, came, last year, she, often, to school, in spring
20. often, have, at about three o'clock, a cup of tea, they, at the hotel, in the
afternoon
21. meet, at the bar, they, after dinner, always, their friends
22. enjoys, very much, swimming, in our pool, always, in the morning, she
23 curly hair has her brother.
24. Steve likes cakes.
25. a bad cold has Jessica.
26. it froze hard last night.
27. these exercises I did well.
28. daddy met me at the station.
29. those shoes Mark bought at the market.
30. dinner have they in the big dining-hall.

2. Отметьте предложения, в которых нарушен порядок слов, и


перестройте их в соответствии с правилами:
Образец: Tom walks every morning to work. – Tom walks to work every
morning.

1. Jim doesn't like very much baseball.


____________________________________________________________
2. Ann drives every day her car to work.
____________________________________________________________
3. When I heard the news, I immediately called Tom. (immediately –
сразу)
___________________________________________________________
4. Maria speaks very well English.
____________________________________________________________
5. After eating quickly my dinner, I went out.
____________________________________________________________
6. You watch all the time television.
____________________________________________________________
7. Liz smokes about 20 cigarettes every day.
____________________________________________________________
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8. I think I'll go early to bed tonight.


____________________________________________________________
9. You should go to the dentist every six months. (should – следует)
____________________________________________________________
10. We went last night to the movies.
____________________________________________________________
11. We go every summer to the sea in August.
____________________________________________________________
12. In the evening my parents go to the cinema with their friends.
____________________________________________________________

3. Составьте предложения из следующих словосочетаний,


обращая внимание на место прямого и косвенного дополнений в
предложении.
1. brought, a lot of money, Steve, from his parents.
2. her room, she, showed, to me.
3. often, letters, send, to me, they.
4. Jane, to me, is going, to write.
5. my friends, me, often, books, to read, give.

4. Поставьте вопросы к подчеркнутым словам.


1. He is a student.
2. His name is John.
3. My friends study at this university.
4. They often write letters in English.
5. My sister often gets letters.
6. These are very good textbooks.
7. This girl can play the piano.
8. Fred usually goes home after classes.
9. We often discuss plans with our director.
10. Ann finishes her work at six o’clock.

5. Прочитайте вопросы и найдите тот, на который можно


ответить: He is here.
1. Is your friend Peter Brown?
2. Does he live near his office?
3. What is he doing?
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4. Is he talking to his teacher?


5. Is he in the Far East?
6. Is he very busy now?
7. Does he often come here?
8. Where is he?

6. Прочитайте и переведите следующий текст, обращая внимание


на отрицательную форму предложений. Напишите о том, что не
любите вы.
Some people don’t like to live in big cities. They prefer quiet places.
They don’t like the noise of buses and cars, trains and people. Other
people aren’t happy to live in quiet places. For example my brother
doesn’t feel happy to be away from such things like sport competitions,
concerts, theatres, parties. He can’t live without these things and he is
never tired of them. So, people are very different.

7. Перепишите предложения в отрицательной форме.


1. She is a driver.
2. These engineers are from Moscow.
3. I am tired today.
4. Paul translated many letters into English.
5. I ask a lot of questions.
6. The students work much in summer.
7. Alex is writing now.
8. My parents are watching TV now.
9. I’m having my breakfast.
10. Jessica speaks English well.
11. They will go to the future Olympic games.

8. Задайте разделительный вопрос. Следуйте схеме: + – / – +


1. Ann’s on holiday, …
2. You weren’t listening, …
3. Sue doesn’t like onions, …
4. Jack applied for the job, …
5. He won’t mind if I come early, …
6. He had not seen her before, …
7. She is right, …

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9. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Задайте вопросы к указанным


предложениям (общие / специальные).

The Pet Shop


Cody and his sister April decided to buy a dog (Who). They came to
the local pet store and had a look around (Where).
It is a very small pet store that doesn't have many animals.
The owner of the shop is a nice old man named Mr. Smith. He walked
over and greeted Cody and April.
"How can I help you?" he asked.
"We would like to buy a dog," April responded.
"Ah, well, we are not a big pet shop," Mr. Smith told her. "So we only
have two dogs to choose from. (Why)".
They asked Mr. Smith to show them the dogs (Yes/No).
Mr. Smith led them to the back of store where the two dogs were.
One of them was a very big bulldog named Buster. The other was a
very tiny Chihuahua named Teacup. April wanted Teacup (Who). Cody
wanted Buster (Which dog). They walked outside to discuss (Why).
They couldn’t agree on a dog (Yes/No). April suggested running a race
home for it. So, the winner of the race will choose the dog (What).
Cody agreed, then told April her shoelace was untied. When April
looked down, he ran off and got a head start.
Cody ran as hard as he could. He really wanted that bulldog. He
looked back (Yes/No). April was so far behind he couldn’t even see her.
Cody finally got home. He was tired but happy. He knew that he had
become the winner (What).
April arrived a few minutes after Cody. She congratulated him. They
returned to the pet store to purchase Buster the bulldog (Why).
However, when they arrived they only saw Teacup the Chihuahua
(Whom).
They asked Mr. Smith where Buster was. Mr. Smith gave the details
(Yes/No). He explained that a few minutes after April and Cody left,
two boys walked in and bought the bulldog. Cody looked at April, and
she held back a smile. Cody sighed. He turned back to Mr. Smith.
"Sometimes you win the race, but not the prize!" Cody smiled sadly.
"We’ll take the Chihuahua, please.(Whom)".

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10. Выясните следующую информацию.


a) In the shop
About opening hours;
Getting refunds;
Discounts;
Availability of organic food
b) In the museum
About the location;
Guided tours;
Opening hours;
If a visitor can take pictures
c) In the sport complex
About number of training sessions;
Minimum age;
Duration of training sessions;
If special clothes are necessary
d) At the hotel
About room price per night;
Distance from the city centre;
Hotel facilities;
If breakfast is included

11. Используя фразы, задайте альтернативные вопросы.


Model: a speaker or a listener – Are you a good listener or speaker?
English or German; white or black coffee; full-time or extra-mural
department; city or country; bath or shower; a flat or a house; to give or
to be given presents.

12. ♫ Прослушайте диалоги, содержащие альтернативные и


специальные вопросы. Прочитайте их с правильной
интонацией. Составьте свои диалоги. (6, 10, 31)
a) – That's a Volvo. Is it a Swedish car or a French
car?
– It isn't a French car. It's a Swedish car.
– That's a Citroen. Is it a French car or a Swedish car?
– It isn't a Swedish car. It's a French car.
– That's a Volkswagen. Is it a German car or a Dutch car?
– It isn't a Dutch car. It's a German car.
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– That's a Daf. Is it a Dutch car or a German car?


– It isn't a German car. It's a Dutch car.
– That's a Moskvitch. Is it a Russian car or an English car?
– It isn't an English car. It's a Russian car.
– That's a Morris. Is it an English car or a Russian car?
– It isn't a Russian car. It's an English car.
– That's a Buick. Is it an American car or an Italian car?
– It isn't an Italian car. It's an American car.
– That's a Fiat. Is it an Italian car or an American car?
– It isn't an American car. It's an Italian car.
b) – Is the man fat or thin?
– He's not thin. He's fat.
– Is Mr. Ford hot or cold?
– He's not cold. He's hot.
– Is the air-hostess young or old?
– She's not old. She's young.
– Is the woman thin of fat?
– She's not fat. She's thin.
– Is Mrs. Ford cold or hot?
– She's not hot. She's cold.
– Is the policewoman short or tall?
– She's not tall. She's short.
– Is the milkman old or young?
– He's not young. He's old.
– Is the mechanic dirty or clean?
– He's not clean. He's dirty.
– Is the policeman tall or short?
– He's not short. He's tall.
– Is the nurse clean or dirty?
– She's not dirty. She's clean.

c)– Where's Sally, Jack?


– She's in the garden, Jean.
– What is she doing?
– She's sitting under the tree.
– Is Tim in the garden, too?
– Yes, he is. He's climbing the
tree.
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– I beg your pardon? Who is climbing the tree?


– Tim is.
– What about the dog?
– The dog's in the garden, too. It's running across the grass. It's running
after a cat.

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TO BE, TO HAVE, TO DO
Функции глаголов to be, to have, to do

В английском языке есть ряд глаголов, которые играют


большую роль в грамматическом строе английского языка. Они
многофункциональны, и знание их форм и функций существенно
облегчает освоение и понимание английской грамматики. К таким
глаголам относятся to be, to have, to do.
Формы
To be To have To do
Present am, is, are Present have, has Present do, does
Past was, were Past had Past did
Future will be, Future will have, Future will do,
shall be, shall have, shall do,
‘ll be ‘ll have ‘ll do

Упражнения
1. Употребите правильную форму глаголов a) to be; b) to have;
c) to do.
a)1. What ... your name? — My name ... Mary Brown 2. What ... your
address? — My address ... 175 Grand Central Parkway. 3. What... your
phone number? — My phone number ... 718-1930. 4. Where ... you
from? — I ... from New York. 5. I ... a student of veterinary
department. I … a veterinarian. 6. My father ... not a teacher, he ... a
scientist. 7. ... your aunt a doctor? — Yes, she ... two years ago. But
now she … a pensioner. 8. ... they at home? — No, they ... not at home,
they ... at work. They … at home in three hours. 9. My brother ... a
manager. He ... in his office now. 10. ... you an engineer? — Yes, I ... .
11. ... your sister a typist? — No, she ... not a typist, she ... a student.
12. ... your brother on the farm? — Yes, he ... . 13. ... your sister at the
seashore? — No, she ... in Moscow. 14. My sister ... at home. She …
doing a very urgent work. 15. ... this your house? – No, it ... mine when
I pay for it. 16. She ... a very talented actress and my granny saw all
plays with her. 17. This ... my bag. 18. My uncle ... an office worker
now. But he … a driver some years ago. 19. He ... at work. 20. Helen ...
a painter. She has some fine pictures. They ... on the walls. She has
much paper. It ... on the shelf. The shelf ... brown. It ... on the wall.

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b) 1. I … got a new computer. 2. We … never seen him before. 3 She


… lost the key and … to return back to her parents. 4. Farmers … a new
cattle barn very soon. 5. He … a beautiful garden and all neighbors
came to see it. 6. I … never been to London. 7. … you enough money
for this apartment? – Yes, I … enough. 8. Don’t worry. They …
repaired the tractor before sowing. 9. Не often has to write letters to
foreign companies. 10. They have already discussed the time of delivery
of goods. 11. The firm has extended its resources through the use of
credit. 12. They had to agree to this plan. 13. The owner has invested
some of his money into new businesses. 14. The firm has no securities.
15. New credits have increased the income of the purchaser.
c) 1. … you know Bread Pitt? 2. … you live in Italy two years ago?
3. … he have a dog? 4. … she know him very well? 5. … you play the
drums? 6. … the children learn to cook at school next year? 7. … they
understand him? 8. … her mother work on the farm? 9. Where … your
grandparents live? 10. … she upload pictures? 11. … worry. We … this
work together. 12. We … cook dinner yesterday because we ran out of
eggs and vegetables. 13. … make a noise. Ron is preparing for exams.
14. We … our best to help him, but he … appreciate that. 15. She
doesn't speak English so well as her friend does. 16. They usually study
English every day. And so does he.

2. Выберите правильный ответ на вопрос.


a) Are you a student? – Yes, I (am, is, was).
b) Is your father coming with you? – No, he (am, were, is) at home.
c) Who is Mark? Mark (was, will be, is) my uncle.
d) Will you be ready at seven? – Yes, we (are, were, will).
e) Aren’t they beautiful?! – Yes, they (aren’t, are, were).
f) Do you have practice on the third course? – Yes, I (have, am, do).
g) Have you written your course paper? – No, I (have, haven’t, hadn’t)
h) Has she bought a car? – Yes, she (does, is, has)

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Функции
Смысловой глагол Смысловой глагол Смысловой глагол
(переводится: быть, (переводится: иметь) (переводится: делать,
являться, находиться) I have a house by the выполнять) She does
He is in Moscow. Он sea. У меня есть дом у her work. Она делает
находится в Москве. моря. свою работу.
Глагол-связка (не
переводится) It is cold.
Холодно.
Вспомогательный глагол Вспомогательный Вспомогательный
(помогает образовывать глагол 1)(помогает глагол (помогает
времена и залоги, обычно образовывать образовывать вопрос
не переводится) перфектные времена, и отрицание в
I am working. Я работаю. не переводится) простых временах, не
She is asked. Её We have done the переводится)
спрашивают. work. Мы уже Do you play chess? –
выполнили работу. No, I don’t. Вы
2)входит в структуру играете в шахматы?
have got обозначающ. – Нет.
принадлежность
Часть модальной Часть модальной Глагол-заместитель
конструкции конструкции. чаще всего
(переводится: должен, (переводится: употребляется для
надо) I am to translate the должен, необходимо, усиления значения
text. Мне нужно вынужден) смыслового глагола.
перевести этот текст. В We have to stay at This device does help
будущем времени не home. Мы должны them in their work.
употребляется. остаться дома. Этот прибор
действительно
помогает им в их
работе.
Следует помнить, что модальные конструкции: to be to, to have to
имеют одинаковое значение должен, однако с разными оттенками
долженствования. E.g. I am to go there. – Я обязан ( должен по плану,
по договорённости ) поехать туда. I have to go there. – Я вынужден
поехать туда ( должен вместо Н., который заболел ).

Упражнения
1. Поставьте предложения в прошедшее и будущее время.
1. Where are you? – I am in the kitchen. 2. Where is Fred? — He is in
the garage. 3. Where are Lisa and John? — They are at college. 4. Are
you busy? — No, I am not. Mike is busy. He is the busiest person I've
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ever met. 5. It is ten o'clock. She is late again. 6. I have done the work.
7. We have a beautiful picture. 8. Nick has to correct his plan. 9. We do
homework in the evening. 10. Alice does shopping every Friday. 11. He
doesn’t get up early, because he works at night.

2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на функции


глаголов to be, to have, to do.
1) I don’t play chess well. 2) He is an engineer. 3) She has to work
hard. 4) We have got a new car. It is blue. 5) Pete is in London. He is to
make a report about an agricultural exhibition. 6) Sorry, we are late.
7) They did win all the matches! 8) Why don’t you visit him? 9) He
doesn’t do his work. He is in hospital. 10) We have to correct this
mistake immediately. 11) Her car is broken. 12) Thanks for everything
– we had a great time. 13) Have you ever had your own business?
14) She didn’t pay cash, did she? 15) Let’s have a look at it. 16) Just do
what you have to do. 17) We are what we eat. 18) I am at home. 19) She
was at the Institute yesterday. 20) I am a full-time student. 21) She was
a full-time student. 22) She did all her best to become a full-time
student. 23) Her dream is to go to Italy. 24) You are to come tomorrow.
25) I do everything myself. 26) Do you like music? 27) Don’t drink
cold water! 28) I do milk cows properly! 29) I do like my job! 30) She
danced well. – Yes, she did. But I didn’t. 31) We have to walk all the
way home because we can’t catch a taxi. 32) Janice had to visit her
dentist last Monday. 33) My research work has to be redone completely.
34) Does Michael have to work on Sunday? 35) You did improve your
English! 36) I was invited to my friends’ birthday party.

3. Найдите предложения, где есть значение долженствования.


1. He was at his friends’ on Saturday.
2. She is watching TV now.
3. You are not to go.
4. I didn’t know he had left.
5. They have to make this experiment once more.
6. I was to send a telegram but I forgot to do it.
7. I shall have to stay at home as my mother is ill.
8. She has her hair cut short.

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4. Переведите предложения, употребляя глаголы to be, to have,


to do.
1)Мне нужно исправить свою курсовую. 2) Я должен встать в 7
часов. 3) Ты, правда, веришь ему? 4) У тебя есть пара свободных
минут? 5) Ты был в Санкт-Петербурге прошлую зиму? 6) Она
действительно хорошо говорит по-немецки! 7) Кейт слушает
музыку, а мама готовит ужин. 8) У меня новый компьютер. 9) Ты
уже написал письмо? 10) Вам придется поторопиться. 11) Это мой
кот. 12) Это Анина кошка, а это ее котята. 13) Ты устал? – Да.
14) Вы любите театр? – Да. 15) Я не знаю, где он. 16) Где она
работает? – Я не знаю. 17) Я делаю свою работу, а Майк делает
свою.

5. ♫ Прослушайте диалоги с глаголами to be, to have, to do


Прочитайте их с правильной интонацией. Составьте свои
диалоги. (47, 50, 60, 126, 68)
a)
– Do you like coffee, Mrs Price?
– Yes, I do.
– Do you want a cup?
– Yes, please, Mrs Young.
– Do you want any sugar?
– Yes, please.
– Do you want any milk?
– No, thank you. I don't like milk in my
coffee. I like black coffee.
– Do you like biscuits?
– Yes, I do.
– Do you want one?
– Yes, please.
b)
– Does Mary like tomatoes?
– Yes, she does. She likes tomatoes, but she doesn't want any.
– Do you like potatoes?
– Yes, I do. I like potatoes, but I don't want any.
– Does Tom like cabbage?
– Yes, he does. He likes cabbage, but he doesn't want any.
– Does Tom like lettuce?
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– Yes, he does. He likes lettuce, but he doesn't want any.


– Do you like peas?
– Yes, I do. I like peas, but I don't want any.
– Does Mrs White like beans?
– Yes, she does. She likes beans, but she doesn't want any.
– Do you like bananas?
– Yes, I do. I like bananas, but I don't want any.
– Does Mr Jones like oranges?
– Yes, he does. He likes oranges, but he doesn't want any.
– Does George like apples?
– Yes, he does. He likes apples, but he doesn't want any.
– Does Elizabeth like pears?
– Yes, she does. She likes pears, but she doesn't want any.
– Do you like grapes?
– Yes, I do. I like grapes, but I don't want any.
– Does Betty like peaches?
– Yes, she does. She likes peaches, but she doesn't want any.
c)
– I must leave now. What about you?
– I have to leave, too.
– I don't have to get up early tomorrow. What about you?
– I needn't get up early, either.
– Tom must change some money. What about Mary?
– She has to change some money, too.
– Mary doesn't have to drive to London tomorrow. What about Tim?
– He needn't drive to London, either.
– I must go by air. What about you?
– I have to go by air, too.
– I don't have to meet her at the station. What about you?
– I needn't meet her at the station, either.
– Tom doesn't have to be there early. What about Alice?
– She needn't be there early, either.
– Alan must decide immediately. What about George?

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– He has to decide immediately, too.


– I don't have to take a taxi. What about you?
– I needn't take a taxi, either.
– I must catch that bus. What about you?
– I have to catch that bus, too.
SOME, ANY, NO

утвердительные вопросительные отрицательные


предложения предложения предложения
some ( какой-то, any ( какой-нибудь, no, not any ( никакой,
какой-нибудь, сколько-нибудь ) нисколько )
несколько )

В утвердительных предложениях any означает “ любой ”; anything


– “ что-угодно”, anybody –“ кто-угодно ”, anywhere – “ где-
угодно”,“ куда-угодно ”, anyhow – “ во всяком случае ”, anyway “
всё равно ”.
d)
– Have you any butter?
– I haven't any butter, but I have some cheese.
– Have you and Mary any beans?
– We haven't any beans, but we have some potatoes.
– Have Mary and Tom any wine?
– They haven't any wine, but they have some beer.
– Have you any honey?
– I haven't any honey, but I have some jam.
– Have you and Tom any bread?
– We haven't any bread, but we have some biscuits.
– Have Tom and Mary any grapes?
– They haven't any grapes, but they have some bananas.
– Have you any mince?
– I haven't any mince, but I have some steak.
– Have the children any butter?
– They haven't any butter, but they have some eggs.
– Have you any lettuces?
– I haven't any lettuces, but I have some cabbages.
– Have you and Mary any beans?

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– We haven't any beans, but we have some peas.


e)
– When were you at church?
– I was at church on Sunday.
– When was Tom at the barber's?
– He was at the barber's on Thursday.
– When was Mrs Jones at the butcher's?
– She was at the butcher's on Wednesday.
– When were you at home?
– I was at home on Sunday.
– When was Miss Grey at the office?
– She was at the office on Tuesday.
– When was Mary at the baker's?
– She was at the baker's on Friday.
– When were you at the dairy?
– I was at the dairy on Saturday.
– When was George at the tobacconist's?
– He was at the tobacconist's on Wednesday.
– When was Mrs Williams at the grocer's?
– She was at the grocer's on Monday.
– When were you at school?
– I was at school on Monday.

6. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Найдите в тексте глаголы to


be, to have, to do и определите их функции.

The Platypus
In the rivers of south-eastern Australia, you can find an animal called
a “platypus”. The platypus is one of the strangest animals in the world.
It exists only in Australia and belongs to a group called “monotremes”.
When Europeans first saw an example of the animal in the 1700s,
they thought it was a joke. They had never seen anything like it before
and they did refuse to believe that it was a real animal! It was so
unusual!
A second example arrived from Australia, and then more, and the
scientists had to realize that this unusual creature was real.
Today, the platypus lives in the waters around south-east Australia. It
is not very rare, but some ecologists do a lot of research and worry that
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water pollution could be a problem as the water around Sydney gets


dirtier.
We still don’t know much about this mysterious animal and we have
a lot to learn.

7. Ответьте на вопросы и передайте содержание текста.


1. In which country can you find a platypus?
2. Does the platypus live in other countries?
3. When did Europeans first see the platypus?
4. Is the platypus a rare animal?
5. Do we know much about the platypus?

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ФУНКЦИИ МЕСТОИМЕНИЯ IT

Функция Член предложения Пример и перевод

личное местоимение 1)подлежащее; I have a book. It is


(в именит. или объект. 2)дополнение interesting. Take it. У
падеже) меня есть книга. Она
интересная. Возьми её.
указательное подлежащее It is my pen. Это моя
местоимение ручка.
часть безличного формальное It is cold. Холодно.
предложения подлежащее. It is difficult to do this.
Это сделать трудно.
часть усилительной выделяет отдельные It is Popov who
конструкции члены предложения invented the radio.
Именно Попов изобрёл
радио.
После ряда глаголов (to think, to consider, to believe, to find и др.) it
употребляется в функции формального дополнения. Прямое
дополнение при этом обычно выражено инфинитивом или
придаточным предложением. В таких случаях it на русский язык не
переводится. Например:
We believe it possible to take part in this discussion.
Мы считаем возможным принять участие в этом обсуждении.

Упражнения
1. Переведите предложения. Определите функцию it.
1. I have read this book. It is interesting.
2. The book is interesting, read it.
3. It was a 5-kilometre run.
4. It is worth going there.
5. I want to speak with you about it.
6. This is a lathe (токарный станок). Can you operate it?
7. It was snowing when I went out.
8. It is our new laboratory.
9. What is this? It is a hammer.
10. It was only at noon that the travellers reached the town.
11. It is dark here.
12. It is nine o'clock.
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13. It was a sunny afternoon.


14. It seems (that) he works much.
15. It is high time to begin the experiment.
16. It is known that the radio was invented by A. S. Popov.
17. It was this book that I wanted to read.
18. It was not until she passed all her examinations that she wrote
home.
19. We find it necessary to repeat the experiment.
20. I consider it important to answer the letter at once.
21. It always rains in autumn.
22. It was impossible to reach her by phone.
23. It snowed heavily last December.
24. It was six o’clock already.
25. It is much cheaper to get here by train.
26. It was getting cold.
27. It is early morning.
28. It's 10 degrees above zero.
29. It’s quite expensive to buy a brand new car.
30. It’s quite far from the post-office.
31. It will be 5 kilometres to the village.
32. It was quiet and mysterious up in the mountains.
33. It wasn’t cloudy this afternoon.
34. It’s noon.
35. It won’t be easy to find an experienced baby-sitter.

2. Ответьте на вопросы, используя подсказки в скобках.


Обратите внимание на время глагола в вопросах.
1) How long will it take him to become a doctor? (six years) 2) How long
does it take you to get to the restaurant? (40 minutes) 3) How long did it
take her to prepare this salad? (2 hours) 4) How long does it take your son
to cook an omelette? (10 minutes) 5) How long did it take Bob to master
English? (about 5 years).

3. Задайте общие вопросы к безличным предложениям.


1. It’s time to get up.
2. It was getting dark.
3. It takes him 3 minutes to get dressed.
4. It will be late to apologize.
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5. It rained heavily last night.

4. ♫ Прослушайте диалоги с it. Прочитайте их с правильной


интонацией. Составьте свои диалоги. (13, 39, 51)
a) – What colour’s your new dress?
– It’s green. Come upstairs and see it.
– Thank you.
– Look! Here it is!
– That’s a nice dress. It’s very smart.
– My hat’s new, too.
– What’s colour is it?
– It’s the same colour. It’s green, too.
– That is a lovely hat!
b) – What are you going to do with that vase,
Mary?
– I’m going to put it on the radio, John.
– Don’t do that. Give it to me.
– What are you going to do with it?
– I’m going to put it here, in front of the
window.
– Be careful! Don’t drop it!
– Don’t put it there, John. Put it here on this
shelf.
– There we are! It’s a lovely vase.
– Those flowers are lovely, too.
c) – Where do you come from?
– I come from Greece.
– What’s the climate like in your country?
– It’s very pleasant.
– What’s the weather like in spring?
– It’s often windy in March. It’s always
warm in April and May, but
it rains sometimes.
– What’s it like in summer?
– It’s always hot in June, July and August. The sun shines every day.
– Is it cold or warm in autumn?
– It’s always warm in September and October. It’s often cold in
November and it rains sometimes.
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– Is it very cold in winter?


– It’s often cold in December, January and February. It snows
sometimes.

5. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Найдите в тексте


местоимение it и определите его функции.

Parts of the UK
The island known as Great Britain is the largest island of the British
Isles. It includes England, Scotland, and Wales. It is an island state. The
Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland are not part of Great Britain.
The most common name used to describe the country is now the United
Kingdom, or the UK. This political term includes England, Scotland,
Northern Ireland and Wales. It doesn’t include the Republic of Ireland,
which threw off British rule in 1922 to become its own country. It took
the Irish people thirty years to become really independent from Britain.
The six northeastern counties, known as Northern Ireland, remained
within the United Kingdom. It was this part of the country that was
considered the most economically prosperous.
Everybody in the UK calls themselves British, but only people from
England are English. People in Scotland call themselves Scottish,
people from Wales call themselves Welsh, and people from Northern
Ireland call themselves either British or Irish.

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THE NOUN
Имя существительное

В английском языке имя существительное обладает


следующими категориями:
1) Род (gender) – лексическая категория
за некоторым исключением: poet - poetess,
lion – lioness, wait – waitress etc.
2) Число (number)
3) Падеж (case)
В современном английском языке род представляет собой
понятие смысловое: все существительные, обозначающие людей,
принадлежат к мужскому роду ( если относятся к мужскому полу ) и
могут заменяться местоимением he; а также, к женскому роду ( если
относятся к женскому полу ) и заменяются местоимением she. Все
неодушевлённые предметы, явления и процессы относятся к
среднему роду и могут заменяться местоимением it. Помимо
названий предметов, к среднему роду в английском языке относят и
категорию животных, но в современной устной практике
местоимение it часто заменяют местоимениями he или she ( если
животное вам хорошо известно или является героем сказки, либо
текст относится к теме животноводства ).

Упражнения
1. Дайте соответствующие существительные a) женского
b) мужского рода.
a) A lion, a tiger, an actor, a poet, a steward, a man, an uncle, a husband, a
brother, a grandfather, a son, a master, a baron, a count, a shepherd, a host.
b) A lady, a girl, a niece, Mrs. Smith, a widow, a stewardess, a French
woman, a cow, a queen, a princess, a duchess, a hen, a mother.

2. Заполните пропуски личными местоимениями she, he, it.


1) I have a cat. … has two kittens. 2) My blouse is new. … is red.
3) Our dean’s name is Mrs. Brown. … conducts lectures on biology. 4) I
like Ann. … studies with me. 5) Russia is a big country. … covers
Europe and Asia. 6) Usually a cow has one calf. … feeds … for several
weeks. 7) A dog is one of the first domesticated animals. … helped man in
hunting. 8) Don’t take my pen. I need … 9) Lily is my sister’s little
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daughter. … is one month. 10) Tigress can be very aggressive if … feels


danger. 11) My niece Amy is the best student in school. … always gets
good marks. 12) The queen is an official ruler in GB, but … doesn’t rule.

Число имён существительных


Большинство имён существительных английского языка образуют
форму множественного числа с помощью добавления окончания -s, -
es к основе единственного числа. E.g. a book – books [s]
a student – students [s]
a class – classes [iz]
a bag – bags [z]
a match – matches [iz]
Если слово оканчивается на -f или -fe, то f меняется на -ve +s.
E.g. a wife – wives [z]
a leaf – leaves [z]
Но есть исключения: roof – roofs, chief – chiefs, cliff – cliffs, belief –
beliefs, scarf – scarves or scarfs.
Если слово оканчивается на согласную + y, то y меняется на i+es.
E.g . a country – countries [iz]
Некоторые существительные употребляются только во
множественном числе: E.g. contents ( содержание ), clothes ( одежда),
proceeds (выручка), arms (оружие), stairs (лестница), riches
(богатство).
Существительные, не имеющие формы единственного числа,
употребляются с глаголами только во множественном числе:
cattle (КРС), poultry (домашняя птица), binoculars (бинокль), scissors
(ножницы). E.g. Where are the scissors? I can’t find them.
У слов: means, series, species форма множественного, и
единственного числа совпадают. E.g. a means of transport – many
means of transport; a species – 500 species of birds, a TV series – five
TV series.
В английском языке есть существительные, которые сохранили
древнеанглийский способ образования множественного числа. Их
нужно запомнить:
a man – men; a woman – women; a child – children;
a mouse – mice; a foot – feet; a goose – geese
a goose – geese; a tooth – teeth; an ox – oxen

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Некоторые слова латинского происхождения имеют особую форму


множественного числа: datum – data; basis – bases;
crisis – crises; thesis – theses; phenomenon – phenomena
Обратите внимание на употребление следующих существительных:

government, team, family, audience it, they ( as a group of people )


five thousand pounds it ( as a sum of money )
a three week holiday it ( as a period of time )
money it
hair it
jeans, trousers they
a pair of jeans ( trousers ) it
mathematics, physics it
means it, they
species it, they
advice it
news it
suburbs they
spectacles they
cattle they

Упражнения
1. Поставьте следующие существительные во множественное
число (обратите внимание на артикли: неопределенный артикль
во множе­ственном числе опускается, определенный артикль
сохраняется).
A girl, a star, a mountain, a tree, a shilling, a king, a farm, a man, a
woman, the woman, an eye, a shelf, a box, the city, a boy, a goose, the
watch, a mouse, a dress, a toy, the sheep, a tooth, a child, the ox, a deer,
the life, a tomato, a person, a scarf, a roof, a country, a fox.

2. Поставьте следующие предложения во множественное число.


This – these (near) / that – those (far)
1. This is a star. 2. This is a boy. 3. This is a baby. 4. That is a plate.
5. That is a flower. 6. That is a bookshelf. 7. Is this a sofa? 8. Is this a
bookcase? 9. Is this a man? 10. Is that a ball? 11. Is that a train? 12. Is that
a plane? 13. Is the window open? 14. Is the door closed? 15. Is the boy
near the window? 16. That is not a king, 17. That is not a queen. 18. That
is not a bus. 19. This isn't a mountain. 20. That isn't a goose. 21. This isn't
a mouse. 22. It is a sheep. 23. It is a cigarette. 24. It is a cat. 25. It is not a
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book. 26. It isn't a bag. 27. It isn't a tree. 28. It is not a bad egg. 29. It is a
good egg. 30. Is that a flower? 31. This is my friend.

3. Поставьте следующие предложения во множественное число.


1. This man is an engineer. 2. That woman is my sister. 3. This child is my
son, 4. That goose is big. 5. This mouse is white. 6. This man is a doctor.
7. That woman is my cousin. She is a lecturer at the university. 8. That girl
is my niece. She is a pupil. 9. This girl has a blue sweater. 10. This boy has
a good mobile telephone. 11. My uncle has a large garden. 12. There is a
poultry farm in this district. 13. I have a good computer. My computer is in
my office. 14. There is a flower in the vase. 15. This report is interesting.
16.What is that child's name? 17. The cat has caught a mouse. 18. There
was a lady, a gentleman, a boy and a girl in hall. 19. In the farm-yard we
could see an ox, a sheep, a cow and a goose. 20. Is this worker an
Englishman or a German? – He is a Frenchman. 21.This strawberry is still
green. 22. The leaf is falling to the ground. 23. His child studies very well.
24. This man works shifts. 25. There is a new house in our street. 26. This
story is very interesting. 27. I have hurt my foot. 28. The researcher will
study a new phenomenon. 29. He keeps his toy in a box.

4. ♫ Прослушайте диалоги, обращая внимание на


существительные во множественном числе. Прочитайте их с
правильной интонацией. (18)
– What are their jobs? Are they mechanics?
– They aren't mechanics. They're clerks.
– What are their jobs? Are they typists?
– They aren't typists. They're nurses.
– What are their jobs? Are they postmen?
– They aren't postmen. They're milkmen.
– What are their jobs? Are they policewomen?
– They aren't policewomen. They're air-hostesses.
– What are their jobs? Are they customs officers?
– They aren't customs officers. They're engineers.
– What are their jobs? Are they barbers?
– They aren't barbers. They're taxi-drivers.
– What are their jobs? Are they engineers?
– They aren't engineers. They're teachers.
– What are their jobs? Are they policewomen?
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– They aren't policewomen. They're housewives.


– What are their jobs? Are they milkmen?
– They aren't milkmen. They're barbers.

Падеж имён существительных


Имена существительные в английском языке имеют два падежа:
общий (common case) и притяжательный (possessive case).
Притяжательный падеж отвечает на вопрос: Чей? (whose?)
Притяжательный падеж можно образовать двумя способами: 1) с
помощью апострофа (чаще всего употребляется с собственными
именами); 2) с помощью предлога of

С помощью апострофа С помощью предлога of


Слово с апострофом будет отвечать на Слово после предлога будет отвечать
вопрос чей? на вопрос чей?
Mary’s garden A report of the student
Students’ course papers

Упражнения
1. Перепишите предложения, используя притяжательный
падеж существительных используя апостроф. Переведите
готовые предложения.
Model: This car belongs to Sam. – This is Sam’s car.

1) These toys belong to the girls. These are …


2) This notebook belongs to Jane. This is …
3) These suitcases belong to our guests.
4) This idea belongs to my son.
5) These keys belong to Mark.
6) This painting belongs to Picasso.
7) These poems belong to Pushkin.
8) This helicopter belongs to our company.
9) These dictionaries belong to the students.
10) This farm belongs to my parents.
11) This money belongs to Adam.

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2. Определите значение апострофа в предложениях:


а) притяжательный падеж; b) сокращенная форма глаголов to
be, to have
1) Kate’s done the work. Kate’s work is well done. 2) Ann is David’s
wife. Ann’s beautiful. 3) Mary’s day was very hard. She’s got much
workto do. 4) Peter’s a dentist. 5) My son’s girlfriend speaks four
languages. 6) She’s a talented tennis-player. 7) It’s cold today. 8) My
uncle’s lost his passport. He’s a very absent-minded.

3. Прочитайте текст и определите родственные связи героев,


используя притяжательный падеж.
George and Lily are married. They have a son John. Lily has a sister,
Megan. She is single. George has a brother, Harry. Harry has a daughter
Laura. George and Harry are twins. Their mother Ann lives in London.
Model: George is Lily’s husband.
1) Lily is ______ wife.
2) George is __________ father.
3) Lily is _________ mother.
4) John is __________ son.
5) Laura is _______ daughter.
6) John is __________ cousin.
7) Laura is _________ cousin.
8) Megan is _________ aunt.
9) Harry is __________ uncle. (дядя)
10) John is __________ nephew. (племянник)
11) Laura is _________ niece. (племянница)
12) Ann is __________ granny.

4. Перепишите фразы, используя притяжательный с помощью


апострофа или предлога of (иногда возможны оба варианта).
Model: library / academy – the library of the academy
Mother / Ann – Ann’s mother
The camera / Tom, the eyes / the cat, the top / the page, the sister / my
friend, the daughter / Candy, the toys / the children, the name / your wife,
the name / this street, exams / my brother, the new manager / the company,
the result / the foot-ball match, the birthday / my father, the farm / my
uncle, the garden / our neighbours, the ground floor / the building, the
policy / the government, plans / management, Pushkin / poems, students /
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holidays, domestication / animals, testing / new machines, a door /my car,


possibilities / customers.

5. ♫ Прослушайте диалоги, обращая внимание на


существительные в притяжательном падеже. Прочитайте их с
правильной интонацией. (12)
– Whose is that handbag? Is it Miss Dupont's?
– It isn't Miss Dupont's. It's Stella's.
– Whose is that car? Is it Mr. Ford's?
– It isn't Mr. Ford's. It's Paul's.
– Whose is that coat? Is it Stella's?
– It isn't Stella's. It's Miss Dupont's.
– Whose is that umbrella? Is it Paul's?
– It isn't Paul's. It's Mr. Ford's.
– Whose is that pen? Is it your father's?
– It isn't my father's. It's my son's.
– Whose is that dress? Is it your mother's?
– It isn't my mother's. It's my daughter's.
– Whose is that suit? Is it son's?
– It isn't my son's. It's my father's.
– Whose is that skirt? Is it your daughter's?
– It isn't my daughter's. It's my mother's.
– Whose is that blouse? Is it your mother's?
– It isn't my mother's. It's my sister's.
– Whose is that tie? Is it your father's?
– It isn't my father's. It's my brother's.

Существительное в роли определения


В английском языке одно или несколько существительных могут
выполнять функцию определения к другому существительному. В
такой « цепочке» последнее существительное будет отвечать на
вопросы: кто? что? Все предыдущие существительные являются
определением к нему и отвечают на вопросы: какой? чей?
E.g. sugar beet – сахарная свёкла; beet sugar – свекольный сахар
soil conservation practices – мероприятия по сохранению почвы

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Упражнения
1. Составьте словосочетания и переведите их.
Harvest, school, university, centre, time, day, the Earth, year,
government, duty, village, autumn, apple, population, lamp, pie, home,
assistant, task, lab, cattle, table, beef, library.

2. Переведите словосочетания.
An iron bridge, cane sugar, sugar cane, life insurance, a payment
agreement, the cotton market, an exam session, summer holidays, table
lamp, home food, home market prices, meat price decrease, cotton yarn
production figures, a ten-pound note, heart attack, greenhouse effect,
luxury goods, pedestrian crossing, mother tongue, birth control, road
works, human rights, arms race, alarm clock, pocket money, hay fever,
blood donor, blood pressure, data processing, generation gap, kitchen
scissors, assembly line, sunglasses, labour force, race relations, windscreen
wiper, brain drain, a baby – sitter, a traffic jam, income tax, a tin opener, a
water pump, a bank safe, a car key, a chair leg, a kitchen sink, Moscow
stadium, London airport, a horror film, a factory worker, a milk bottle,
morning coffee, an evening dress, spring flowers.

3. Образуйте словосочетания.
Летнее платье, субботний вечер, молочный коктейль, яблочный
пирог, рыбный суп, мясной салат, зимние ботинки, осенняя погода,
утренний рейс, сливочное масло, томатный сок, фарфоровый сервиз,
кожаная куртка, мировой кризис, хлопчатобумажная футболка,
металлический каркас, школьные учебники.

4. Перефразируйте словосочетания.
Model: a factory which produces automobiles – an automobile factory
1) A man who drives a bus; 2) a machine that washes dishes; 3) paper
for writing letters; 4) a shop that sells books; 5) an editor of a newspaper;
6) a person who pays taxes; 7) a brush for shoes; 8) cake made with raisin;
9) a garage for cars; 10) a company which provides insurance; 11) a bag
made of leather; 12) a tool for sharpening pencils; 13) a book which has
cheques; 14) a machine for washing clothes; 15) a license to drive a car;
16) a person who dresses and cuts hair; 17) an office that sells tickets;
18) a device for opening tins. 19) She’s got a flat of two rooms. 20) His
trip lasted six days.
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5. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Найдите в нем


существительные в роли определения.

December traditions
There are many December traditions in the United Kingdom. One of
them is annual pantomimes. These are plays for children, and are based on
popular fairy tales, such as Cinderella or Aladdin. They have songs, dances
and are usually funny.
Another tradition is sending Christmas cards. People send these cards
with holiday greetings to their friends and family. Some stores even sell
them and promise to donate the money they earn from them to charity.
Christmas is also extremely popular. Children wake up on 25
December and look for presents under a tree or in stockings over the
fireplace or on their beds. Later families enjoy a large traditional
Christmas dinner, which includes turkey, roast potatoes and pudding for
fest desert.

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DEGREES OF COMPARISON
Степени сравнения

1-syllabic words + polysyllabic words


degree 2-syllabic words (adverbs ending in exceptions
степень (ending in -y; -er; -ly кроме “early”)
ow)
POSITIVE high, easy interesting good, well, bad,
положительная little, many,
much, far
COMPARATIV higher, easier more interesting better, worse,
E less, more,
сравнительная farther
( further )
SUPERLATIVE highest, easiest most interesting best, worst, least,
превосходная most, farthest
( furthest )

Перед прилагательными в превосходной степени ставится


определённый артикль the. E.g. the biggest room, the most important
event, the best student.

Сравнительные конструкции
… than … ( чем )
the … the … ( чем …, тем …)
as … as … ( так (ой) же, как и … )
not so … as … ( не так(ой) …, как …)
much … than … (гораздо)

Упражнения
1. Поставьте прилагательные и наречия в правильную форму.
Иногда возможны два варианта.
1) Moscow is (big) than Samara. 2) The Nile is (long) river on the Earth.
3) Rose is one of (beautiful) flowers. 4) She speaks English (well) than
you. 5) Yesterday the weather was (bad) than now. 6) This is
(interesting) book in this library. 7) I get up (early) than my brother. 8) It
takes me (little) than 15 minutes to get to my office. 9) Mary is (good)
student in our group. 10) This truck is (heavy) than that one.11) Today it is
(cold) than yesterday. 12) Winter is (cold) season of the year. 13) Baseball

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and football are ( popular ) sports in America. 14) Potato grows ( well ) in
humid zones than in arid areas.

2. Составьте предложения, объединяя колонки A и B.

A B
The earlier we leave, … … the more the cost.
The longer he waited, … … the more profit you make.
The more I travel, … … the sooner we’ll arrive.
The longer the journey, … … the more impatient he became.
The more powerful is engine, … … the better.
The more goods you sell, … … the less I like it.
The more you practice your … the more efficient the device.
English, … … the better you’ll speak.
The sooner, … … the more you want.
The more you have, …

Remember: the most + adjective = самый …


most + adjective = очень …
most + noun = большинство …
much + comparative degree ( bigger, more interesting )=
намного

3. Переведите предложения.
1) This is the most interesting book.
2) The book you gave me was most interesting.
3) Most people like music.
4) Joe has got the most beautiful garden in our town.
5) This task was much more difficult than that one.
6) It was most generous of you to help me.
7) It is the most expensive dress in the shop.
8) My house is much farther from the station than yours.
9) To my mind Baikal is the most beautiful lake.
10) Most of the students in our group have computers.
11) Most of the equipment on the farm is out of order.
12) The Fountain square is the busiest and most beautiful place in
our town.

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13) Most city transport is concentrated in the city centre and near
the main railway station.
14) Chemistry is much more interesting for me than other subjects.

4. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык.


1. а. Я знаю интересную историю.
б. Он знает более интересную историю.
в. Она знает самую интересную историю.
2. а. Это длинный путь.
б. Этот путь длинее.
в. Это самый длинный путь.
3. а. Ее работа очень важна.
б. Его работа важнее.
в. Моя работа самая важная.
4. а. Это плохая песня.
б. Это песня хуже.
в. Это самая плохая песня.
5. а. Он хороший инженер.
б. Он лучше инженер чем ты.
в. Он лучший инженер.
6. а. Это красивый цветок.
б. Этот цветок красивее.
в. Это самый красивый цветок.
7. а. Она счастливый человек.
б. Он стал счастливее.
в. Мы самые счастливые люди.

5. Вставьте as ... as или so ... as.


1. Mike is ... tall ... Pete. 2. Kate is not ... nice ... Ann. 3. My room is ...
light ... this one. 4. This book is not ... thin ... that one. 5. Sergei is ... old
... Michael. 6. She is ... young ... Tom's brother. 7. This method is ...
good ... that one. 8. Nick's English is not ... good ... his friend's. 9. I am
not ... tall ... Pete. 10. This woman is ... young ... that one. 11. I am ...
thin ... you. 12. Kate is ... lazy ... her brother. 13. This child is not ...
small ... that one. 14. We like theater not … much … cinema.

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6. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык.


1. The new cinema in our district is much bigger than the old one.
2. He is one of the most danger¬ous criminals in the world. 3. Nevsky
Prospect is much more beautiful than our street. 4. Our house isn't as
big as yours. 5. That's the funniest story I've ever heard. 6. The tram
system isn't as reliable as it used to be. 7. What is your height? You are
taller than me. 8. She felt as strong as her brother. 9. We started earlier
than you. 10. He was more careful than I. 11. This student is the most
attentive in our group. 12. I need a warmer coat. 13. He is as tired as
you. 14. He was one of the most experienced combine operators on the
farm. 15. Better late than never. 16. She is not so attractive as her
mother. 17. His work is not so difficult as mine. 18. He was the eldest in
the family. 19. It is easier to swim in the sea than in the river.
20.This is the smallest room in our flat.

7. Раскройте скобки, употребляя требующуюся форму


прилагательного.
1. We should eat (healthy) food. 2. Today the streets aren't so (noisy) as
they used to be. 3. It's (bad) mistake he has ever made. 4. This man is
(tall) than that one. 5. Asia is (large) than Australia. 6. The Volga is
(short) than the Mississippi. 7. Which building is the (high) in Moscow?
8. Mary is a (good) student than Lucy. 9. The Alps are (high) than the
Urals. 10. This garden is the (beautiful) in our town. 11. She speaks
Italian (good) than English. 12. Is the word "newspaper" (long) than the
word "book"? 13. The Thames is (short) than the Volga. 14. The Arctic
Ocean is (cold) than the Indian Ocean. It is (cold) ocean on our
planet.15. Chinese is (difficult) than English. 16. Spanish is (easy) than
German. 17. She is not so (busy) as I am. 18. It is as (cold) today as it
was yesterday. 19. She is not so (much) interested in sports than my
brother is. 20. Today the weather is (windy) than it was yesterday.
21. This book is (interesting) of all I have read this year. 22. January is
the (cold) month of the year. 23. My sister speaks English (bad) than I
do. 24. Which is the (hot) month of the year? 25. Which is the
(beautiful) place in this part of the country? 26. This good-looking girl
is the (good) student in our group.

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8. Подберите русские эквиваленты следующим крылатым


высказываниям и поговоркам.
1. A friend is easier lost than found. 2. Action speaks louder than
words. 3. The chain is no stronger than its weakest link. 4. Blood is
thicker than water. 5. Enough is better than too much. 6. He gives twice
who gives quickly. 7. He who knows most who speaks least. 8. The
highest tree has the greatest fall. 9. The wearest day draws to an end.
10. Time is the best counselor. 11. Truth is stronger than fiction.
12. The longer the night, the shorter the day. 13. The wish is father to
the thought. 14. Put your hand no further than your sleeve will reach.
15. Least said, soonest mended. 16. Whom we love best to them we can
say least.

9. ♫ Прослушайте диалоги, содержащие прилагательные –


антонимы. Выпишите их парами. Прочитайте диалоги с
правильной интонацией. (22)
a) – Give me a cup, please.
– Which one? This dirty one?
– No, not this dirty one. That clean one.
b)– Give me a glass, please.
– Which one? That full one?
– No, not that full one. This empty one.
c) – Give me a bottle, please.
– Which one? This large one?
– No, not this large one. That small one.
d)– Give me a box, please.
– Which one? That little one?
– No, not that little one. This big one.
e) – Give me a tin, please.
– Which one? This new one?
– No, not this new one. That old one.
f) – Give me a knife, please.
– Which one? That blunt one?
– No, not that blunt one. This sharp one.
g) – Give me a spoon, please.
– Which one? This new one?
– No, not this new one. That old one.
h) – Give me a fork, please.
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– Which one? That small one?


– No, not that small one. This large one.

10. ♫ Прослушайте диалоги, обращая внимание на степени


сравнения прилагательных. Прочитайте диалоги с
правильной интонацией. (107, 108)
a) – Do you like this dress, madam?
– I like the colour very much. It's a lovely dress, but it's too small for
me.
– What about this one? It's a lovely dress. It's very smart. Short skirts
are in fashion now. Would you like to try it?
– All right. I'm afraid this green dress is too small for me as well. It's
smaller than the blue one. I don't like the colour either. It doesn't suit me
at all. I think the blue dress is prettier. Could you show me another blue
dress? I want a dress like that one, but it must be my size.
– I'm afraid I haven't got a larger dress.
– This is the largest dress in the shop.

b) – This policeman is tall.


– But that one is taller. He is the tallest policeman I have ever seen.
– This woman is short.
– But that one is shorter. She is the shortest woman I have ever seen.
– These cars are cheap.
– But those cars are cheaper. They are the cheapest cars I have ever
seen.
– This knife is sharp.
– But that one is sharper. It is the sharpest knife I have ever seen.
– This girl is pretty.
– But that one is prettier. She is the prettiest girl I have ever seen.
– The clerks are lazy.
– But those clerks are lazier. They are the laziest clerks I have ever
seen.
– This church is big.
– But that one is bigger. It is the biggest church I have ever seen.
– This test is easy.
– But that one is easier. It is the easiest test I have ever seen.
– This knife is blunt.
– But that one is blunter. It is the bluntest knife I have ever seen.
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11. Образуйте прилагательные. Прочитайте и переведите тексты.


a) All my classmates say that I’m (1)________. I TREND
enjoy wearing (2)________ clothes. I like to
look smart and (3)________. We can’t go STYLE
through life with the same hairstyle or make-up. ATTRACT
It’s very (4)_________ to follow fashion. I hate
when people dress alike, because they buy IMPORTANCE
clothes in “chain” stores. I prefer hand-made or
design clothes. My classmates say that I’m MATERIALIST
(5)________, but it’s not a sin, is it? Sometimes EXTRAVAGANCE
I turn up in something really (6)_________.
When you are up with fashion you feel you are
individual.
b) For (1)_________ people, the ‘Far East” is the RUSSIA
broad coast along the Pacific Ocean, facing
Alaska in the far north and Japan in the sub- MARSH
tropical south, and including the large island of MOUNTAIN
Sakhalin. Inland lie forests, mountains, lakes,
rivers and marshes known as Siberia. Siberia is SIBERIA
usually divided into Western and Eastern, the
former is (2)________ and low-lying and rich in
oil, the latter is (3)________and rich in minerals,
gold and diamonds. The twenty million people
who live in this region are mostly Russians and
Ukrainians by origin. Besides there live other
people. They all call themselves (4)_______ and
speak of Russia as beginning west of the Urals.
c) Water pollution is a serious (1)________ ECOLOGY
problem today. “Water, water everywhere, not
any drop to drink,” said the sailor from SALT
Coleridge’s poem describing to a friend how DANGER
awful it was to be without drinking water on a
ship in the middle of the ocean. It is strange to INDUSTRY
thinkthat the water around his ship was probably
quite safe to drink. It was (2)________ but not
polluted. The sea waters today are much more
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3)_________ . Many seas are used for dumping


(4)________ and nuclear waste.

12. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на


сравнительные конструкции.
1) The new method is much more efficient than the old one.
2) The nearer the Earth, the denser the atmosphere.
3) Winter holidays are not so long as summer holidays.
4) London is older than Moscow.

13. Составьте свою “ Guinness Book of Records ”.


1) I think that the richest man in the world is …
2) To my mind the strongest man is …
3) The most talented singer is …
4) The most interesting book is …
5) The oldest country is …

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THERE IS / THERE ARE

В предложениях с вводным словом there (конструкция: there


is/there are) слово: there является формальным элементом и на
русский язык не переводится. Данная конструкция употребляется для
указания на наличие или отсутствие лица или предмета в
определенном месте. Глагол to be обычно согласуется с
подлежащим, непосредственно следующим за ним..Если за
конструкцией следует цепочка существительных, то выбор формы
глагола to be зависит от числа первого существительного. Eg. There
is a cooker, two chairs and five plants. There are five plants, a cooker
and two chairs. Перевод конструкции следует начинать с
обстоятельства места. Если обстоятельства места нет, то перевод
начинают со слов: существует, имеется, есть, различают и т. д. Eg.
There is a big library in the new building. (В новом корпусе
находится большая библиотека). There are many different crops.
(Существует много с/х культур ). В данную конструкцию, кроме
глагола to be, могут входить и некоторые другие непереходные
глаголы, например: to exist – существовать, to come –приходить, to
live – жить и другие, а также глаголы в страдательном залоге.
Eg. There exist a great number of butterflies. (Существует огромное
количество бабочек). Если слово there употребляется самостоятельно
и не участвует в конструкции, то оно является наречием и
переводится: там, туда. Eg. I have to go there. (Я должен пойти туда ).

Повествовательн Вопросительное Отрицательное


ое предложение предложение предложение
There is a cat in
Is there a cat in the There isn’t a cat in the
the basket. basket? (Yes, there is. basket. (or: There is no cat
No, there isn’t). in the basket.)
There are three Are there three There are not three
windows in the windows in the windows in the classroom.
classroom. classroom? (Yes, (or: There are no windows
there are. No, there in the classroom. There
are not). aren’t any windows ).

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Упражнения
1. Вставьте is или are и переведите предложения.
There … many old trees in the park.
There … children playing in the yard.
There … a lake in the park.
There … boats on the lake.
There … woman in the boat.
There … a glass on the table.
There … a cup of coffee on the coffee-table.
There … flowers in the vase.
There … seven bottles under the table.
There … a water-melon, three oranges and a cake in the fridge.

2. Составьте предложения из слов.


a) five, there, in the park, children, are
b) on the, there, a cat, is sofa
c) little, balls, there, three, are, floor, on , the
d) big, dog, in the, there, hall, is
e) a cake, in the, there, picture, is.

3. Поставьте во множественное число.


1) There is a bicycle under the tree.
2) There is a book on the shelf.
3) There is a sweet in the box.
4) There is a bird in the cage.
5) There is a pear on the dish.
6) There is a student in the reading-room.
7) There is a mistake in your course paper.

4. Составьте предложения (вопросительные, повествовательные,


отрицательные), используя таблицу.

Eg. Is there any TV set in your sitting-room?


There is a sofa in the bedroom.
There are no pictures in the kitchen. / There are not any pictures in the kitchen.

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Is there any in your sitting-


Are there a room?
Can we see
Have you got

There is a in our bedroom.


There are some
You can see a lot of
We have got

There isn't any in our kitchen.


There are not -
There is no a
You can't see
We haven't got

5. Вставьте there is / there are в соответствующей форме.

1. Look!_________their telephone number in the letter.


2. Chester is a very old town. _________many old buildings there.
3. Excuse me,________ a restaurant near here?
4. How many students_________in your group?
5. I was hungry but_________anything to eat.
6. _____ a football match on TV last night.
7. ___________many people at the meeting?
8. Look!__________an accident. Call the ambulance!
9. __________24 hours in a day.
10. This box is empty.___________nothing in it.
11. ________somebody at the airport to meet you when you arrive
tomorrow.
12. When we arrived at the cinema _________a lot of people outside.

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6. ♫ Прослушайте тексты, содержащие конструкцию there is / are.


Прочитайте их с правильной интонацией. Опишите свою
аудиторию (комнату, спальню и т.д.).

Text 1
Mrs. Smith's kitchen is small. There is a refrigerator in the kitchen.
The refrigerator is white. It is on the right. There is an electric cooker in
the kitchen. The cooker is blue. It is on the left. There is a table in the
middle of the room. There is a bottle on the table. The bottle is empty.
There is a cup on the table, too. The cup is clean.

Text 2
Mrs. Smith's living-room is large. There is a television in the room.
The television is near the window. There are some magazines on the
television. There is a table in the room. There are some newspapers on the
table. There are some armchairs in the room. The armchairs are near the
table. There is a radio in the room. The radio is near the door. There are
some books on the radio. Here are some pictures in the room. The pictures
are on the wall.

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TENSE SYSTEM IN ACTIVE VOICE


Система времен в действительном залоге

Active Voice
Present Past Future
Констатация факта Факт в прошлом Действия в будущем
V, V-s (3л. ед.), am, is, Ved, V2, was, were Shall/will+V, will be
Simple are I played football. I’ll play football
I play football. I am a I took books. We were Will you play football?
Indefinite student. at home. Yes, I will
Do, does (3л. ед.) Did He will not (won’t) play
Do you play football? – Did you play football? football.
Yes, I do. She doesn’t play Did you take books?
football. Are you a Yes, I did. Were you at
student? – No, I am not. home? – Yes, we were.
Continuo Процесс в момент Процесс в опред. Процесс в опред.
us говорения момент в прошлом момент в будущем
Progressi Am, is, are +Ving Was, were+Ving Will (shall)be+Ving
ve I am reading now. He was reading at 5 I’ll be reading at 5
Are you reading? Was he reading? Will you be reading at 5?
He is not reading. He was not reading. –Yes, I will
Perfect Результат к моменту Результат к опред. Результат к опред.
говорения моменту в прошлом моменту в будущем
Have(has)+V3 Had+V3 Will have+V3
I have done it. We had done this work I will have done this
Have you done it? –Yes, I Had he come? work by 5.
have He hadn’t come. Will you have done the
She hasn’t asked yet. work by 5?
Yes, I will
I won’t have done the
work by 5.
Perfect Уже есть результат, но Уже был результат, но Уже будет результат,
Continuo действие продолжается действие но действие ещё будет
us Have (has) been+Ving продолжалось продолжаться
He has been eating the Had been+Ving Will have been+Ving
melon for half an hour. I had been writing. I will have been writing
Has he been eating the Had you been writing? for two hours.
water melon? Yes, I had /No, I hadn’t Will you have been
Yes, he has/ No, he hasn’t writing?
Yes, I will/ No, I won’t

* Следует помнить, что в придаточных времени и условия The Future


Simple не используется. The Present Simple употребляется в
значении будущего времени. E.g. If you come in time we’ll go together.
When he brings the book I’ll give it to you. ( Если ты придешь вовремя,
мы пойдем вместе. Когда он принесет книгу, я дам ее тебе ).

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** Следующие глаголы, выражающие чувства, восприятия и


умственную деятельность, обычно не употребляются в формах
Continuous: to hear, to know, to see, to understand, to like, to want, to
seem, to wish, to love, to agree, to hate, to understand. С глаголами
движения to go, to start, to leave, to come the Present Continuous
Tense Forms употребляются для выражения будущего действия.
E.g. Tomorrow I am leaving for Moscow. (Завтра я уезжаю в Москву).

Упражнения
1. Вставьте глагол to be в Present Simple.
1) What ... your name? — My name ... Dan Frank. 2. What ... your
address? — My address ... 175 Grand Central Parkway. 3. What... your
phone number? — My phone number ... 718-1930. Where ... you from?
— I ... from New York. 2) I ... a student. My father ... not a teacher, he ... a
scientist. 3) ... your aunt a doctor? — Yes, she .... 4) ... they at home? —
No, they ... not at home, they ... at work. 5) My brother ... a zoo-engineer.
He ... at work. 6) ... you an engineer? — Yes, I ... . 7) ... your sister a
typist? — No, she ... not a typist, she ... a student. 8) This ... my bag. 9)
My uncle ... an office worker. 10) Where ... you? — I ... in the kitchen.
Where ... Fred? — He ... in the garage. Where ... Lisa and John? — They ..
at college. 11) ... you busy? — No, I... not. Mike ... busy. He ... the busiest
person I've ever met. 12) It... ten o'clock. She ... late again.

2. Вставьте глагол to be в Past Simple.


1) The weather ... terrible. It ... cold and rainy. Ann’s husband ... not
at home. He ... at hospital because he ... sick. 3) We … in the yard. But
Den … not with us. He … busy with his course paper. 4) The TV ...
broken. The children ... not only upset, they ... very angry. The neighbours
... not happy because the children ... too noisy. 5) The house ... not clean.
The sink ... broken. There ... dirty dishes on the kitchen table and in the
sink. There ... nothing in the fridge. There ... no vegetables for dinner,
there ... no juice for her children. There ... not even bread in the house!

3. Вставьте глагол to be в Present Simple, Past Simple или


Future Simple.
1) The students ... in the Russian Museum. 2) Last month they ... in
the Hermitage. There ... an interesting exhibition there. 3) In two weeks
they ... in the Tretyakov Gallery. They ... lucky. 4) My father ... a teacher.
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5) He ... a pupil twenty years ago. 6) I ... a doctor when I grow up. 7) My
sister ... not ... at home tomorrow. 8) She ... at school tomorrow. 9) ... you
... at home tomorrow? 10) ... your father at work yesterday? 11) My sister
... ill last week. 12) She ... not ill now. 13) Yesterday we ... at the theatre.
14) Where ... your mother now? — She ... in the kitchen. 15) Where ... you
yesterday? — I ... at the cinema. 16) When I come home tomorrow, all my
family ... at home. 17) ... your little sister in bed now? — Yes, she ....
18) ... you ... at school tomorrow? — Yes, I ... . 19) My friend ... in
Moscow now. 20) He ... in St. Petersburg tomorrow. 21) Where ... your
books now? — They ... in my bag. 22) What your neighbours (to do)
yesterday?

4. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Simple.


(USUALLY) 1. My working day (to begin) at seven o'clock. I (to
get) up, (to switch) on the radio and (to do) morning exercises. It (to take)
me about fifteen minutes. At half past seven we (to have) breakfast. My
father and I (to leave) home at eight o'clock. He (to drive) to his factory.
My mother (to be) a doctor, she (to leave) home at nine o'clock. In the
evening we (to gather) in the living room. We (to watch) TV and (to talk).
2. My sister (to get) up at eight o'clock. 3. She (to be) a schoolgirl.
She (to go) to school in the afternoon. 4. Jane (to be) fond of sports. She
(to do) her morning exercises every day. 5. For breakfast she (to have) two
eggs, a sandwich and a cup of tea. 6. After breakfast she (to go) to school.
7. It (to take) her ten minutes. 8. Classes (to start) at 1 pm. Every day she
(to have) five or six lessons. 9. She (to like ) French. 10. She (to speak)
French well. 11. You speak French well? 12) Nelly (not to speak) French
well.

5. Опишите свой выходной, употребляя глаголы в Past


Simple. Используйте следующие словосочетания:
To get up, to have a shower (a bath), to have breakfast, to walk the
dog, to play computer games, to invite guests, to do homework, to watch
TV, to hang out with friends, to go to bed.

6. Употребите Present Simple или Future Simple.


1) In two weeks they (to be) in the Tretyakov Gallery. They (to be)
lucky. 2) Tomorrow we (to meet) our uncle from Canada. 3) I ... a
doctor when I ( to grow up ). 4) After the doctor (to take) my blood
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pressure, he (to take) some blood for a blood analysis. 5) We never (to
meet) again. 6) I (not to play) chess tomorrow because I (to be) busy
with my course paper on agronomy. 7) He (not to play) chess every day.
8) According to the forecast the weather (to be) fine and our group (to
have) practice in the field. 9) If the weather (to be) fine our group (to
have) practice in the field tomorrow. 10) You (to think) it (to be) easy
or difficult to choose the right presents for people? 11) When I (to
finish) painting the room I (to help) you. 12) When you (to eat) healthy
food you (to lose) weight quickly. 13) Nobody (to help) you, only
yourself. 14) If I (to stay) some more days in your town, I (to call) on
you and we (to have) a good talk.

7. Поставьте глаголы в a) Present Continuous; b) Past


Continuous; c) Future Continuous.
a) 1)What he (to read) now? 2) The mechanic (to repair) a tractor.
3) Engineers (to develop) devices for reducing soil compaction.
4) Present state of technology (to change) quickly. 5) We (not to wait)
for him, but for her. 6) Our house (to become) shabby and deserted. 7) I
(to make) a report on ecology.
b) 1) I (to write) an essay at this time yesterday. 2) Natasha (to wait)
for him at five p.m. 3) My friends (not to do) their homework at seven
o'clock yesterday. They (to play) volleyball. 4) I (to go) to the cinema
when you met me. 5) What you (to do) when I rang you? 6) I (not to
play) the piano at four o'clock yesterday. I (to read) a book. 7) My
parents (to travel) from August till September.
c) 1) I (to wait) for you at seven p.m. 2) Kate will be busy: she (to
prepare) for grammar test. 3) Den (to work) as a veterinarian for three
years after graduating from the university. 4) Tomorrow this time I (to
fly) to New York. 5) Don’t disturb me in the evening, I (to prepare) for
exam. 6) At 6 I (not to sleep) yet. 7) At 7 o’clock we (to have)
barbecue, you are welcome to join.

8. Поставьте глаголы в a) Present Perfect; b) Past Perfect; c)


Future Perfect.
a) 1) We (to finish) just the work. 2) They (to be) never abroad. 3) I (to
buy) the ticket. 4) Kate (not to translate) the text yet. 4) England (to
be proud) always of its traditions. 5) You (to water) the vegetables?

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6) What's the matter? Why he (to stop)? 7) You only (to have) a
piece of cake? You (not to eat) much.
b)1) Tom (to return) from the cinema by five o'clock. 2) He thought
that he (to lose) the money. 3) When father to returned from work,
we already (to do) our homework. 4) By the time you came Peter (to
fix) already the car engine. 5) I (to see) her so upset before that time.
6) By two o'clock the teacher (to examine) all the students. 7) On my
way to the college I remembered that I (to leave) my report at home.
c) 1) By the time you come back Lily (to graduate) from the university.
2) By 10 the bookkeeper (to prepare) the financial report. 3) I’m
afraid he (not to make up) his mind before the time the meeting
starts. 4) We are sure that Steve (to pass) all the exams before July.
5) Mother (to cook) dinner by 3. 6) Tom (to finish) the work on the
farm by the time his parents come? 7) Nina (not to write) her essay
before midnight.

9. Употребите глагол в Perfect Continuous Tenses.


1) He (to work) at this problem for two years. 2) We (to do) this
experiment for two hours before you came. 3) When I return to the
reading-room my friend (to work) there for several hours. 4) The
engineers (to use) this method of irrigation for 2 years. 5) A never-
ending water cycle (to go on) for thousands of centuries. 6) I (to dig) in
the garden since I came. 7) They (to build) a new school since May.

10. ♫ Прослушайте диалоги и тексты, обращая внимание на


время глагола-сказуемого. Прочитайте их с правильной
интонацией. Составьте свои диалоги. (32, 47, 50, 55, 72, 73, 85, 91,
93)
a) – Is Miss Grey making the bed?
– No, she isn't making the bed.
– What's she doing?
– She's typing a letter.
– Is Jack putting on his shirt?
– No, he isn't putting on his shirt.
– What's he doing?
– He's reading a magazine.
– Is the dog drinking its milk?
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– No, it isn't drinking its milk.


– What's it doing?
– It's eating a bone.
– Is your sister emptying the basket?
– No, she isn't emptying the basket.
– What's she doing?
– She's looking at a picture.
– Is Tim cleaning his teeth?
– No, he isn't cleaning his teeth.
– What's he doing?
– He's sharpening a pencil.
– Is the cat eating?
– No, it isn't eating.
– What's it doing?
– It's drinking its milk.
– Is Sally dusting the dressing-table?
– No, she isn't dusting the dressing-table.
– What's she doing?
– She's shutting the door.
– Is Mr Richards turning on the light?
– No, he isn't turning on the light.
– What's he doing?
– He's opening the window.

b) – Do you like coffee, Mrs Price?


– Yes, I do.
– Do you want a cup?
– Yes, please, Mrs Young.
– Do you want any sugar?
– Yes, please.
– Do you want any milk?
– No, thank you. I don't like milk in my coffee. I like black coffee.
– Do you like biscuits?
– Yes, I do.
– Do you want one?
– Yes, please.
c) – Does Mary like tomatoes?
– Yes, she does. She likes tomatoes, but she doesn't want any.
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– Do you like potatoes?


– Yes, I do. I like potatoes, but I don't want any.
– Does Tom like cabbage?
– Yes, he does. He likes cabbage, but he doesn't want any.
– Does Tom like lettuce?
– Yes, he does. He likes lettuce, but he doesn't want any.
– Do you like peas?
– Yes, I do. I like peas, but I don't want any.
– Does Mrs White like beans?
– Yes, she does. She likes beans, but she doesn't want any.
– Do you like bananas?
– Yes, I do. I like bananas, but I don't want any.
– Does Mr Jones like oranges?
– Yes, he does. He likes oranges, but he doesn't want any.
– Does George like apples?
– Yes, he does. He likes apples, but he doesn't want any.
– Does Elizabeth like pears?
– Yes, she does. She likes pears, but she doesn't want any.
– Do you like grapes?
– Yes, I do. I like grapes, but I don't want any.
– Does Betty like peaches?
– Yes, she does. She likes peaches, but she doesn't want any.

d) – What did you do yesterday?


– I aired the room yesterday.
– What did she do last night?
– She listened to the radio last night.
– What did he do this morning?
– He shaved this morning.
– What did she do the night before last?
– She telephoned her husband the night before last.
– What did you do last night?
– I called the doctor last night.
– What did she do the day before yesterday?
– She emptied the basket the day before yesterday.
– What did I do yesterday morning?
– You boiled an egg yesterday morning.
– What did you and Tom do yesterday?
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– We cleaned our shoes yesterday.


– What did the children do yesterday afternoon?
– They played in the garden yesterday afternoon.
– What did he do today?
– He stayed in bed today.

e) – Has Mr West sold his house yet?


– Yes, he has. He sold it last week.
– Has he moved to his new house yet?
– No, not yet. He's still here. He's going to move tomorrow.
– When? Tomorrow morning?
– No. Tomorrow afternoon. I shall miss him. He has always been a
good neighbour. He's a very nice person. We shall all miss him.
– When will the new people move into this house?
– I think that they will move in the day after tomorrow.
– Will you see Mr West today, Mrs Brown?
– Yes, I shall.
– Please give him my regards. Poor Mr West! He didn't want to
leave this house.
– No, he didn't want to leave, but his wife did!

Text 1
Mr Hill our new next-door neighbour. He's BIAS pilot. He was in the
RAF during the war. He will fly to New York next month. The month
after next he will fly to Tokyo. At the moment, he's in Madrid. He flew
to Spain a week ago. He will return to London the week after next. He's
only forty-one years old and he has already been to nearly every country
in the world. Mr Hill is a very lucky man. But his wife isn't very lucky.
She usually stays at home!

Text 2
The Sawyers live at 87 King Street. In the morning, Mr Sawyer goes
to work and the children go to school. Their father takes them to school
every day. Mrs Sawyer stays at home every day. She does the
housework. She always eats her lunch at noon. In the afternoon, she
usually sees her friends. They often drink tea together. In the evening,
the children come home from school. They arrive home early. Mr
Sawyer comes home from work. He arrives home late. At night, the
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children always do their homework. Then they go to bed. Mr Sawyer


usually reads his newspaper, but sometimes he and his wife watch
television.

f) – Hello, Ken.
– Hello, George.
– Have you just been to the cinema?
– Yes, I have.
– What's on?
– "Paris in the Spring".
– Oh, I've already seen it.
– I saw it on a BBC television programme last year.
– It's an old film, but it's very good.
– Paris is a beautiful city.
– I have never been there. Have you ever been there, Ken?
– Yes, I have. I was there in April.
– Paris in the spring, eh?
– It was spring, but the weather was awful. It rained all the time.
– Just like dear old London!

Text 3
Last week Mrs Mills went to London. She does not know London
very well and she lost her way. Suddenly, she saw a man near a bus-
stop. "I can ask him the way," she said to herself. "Excuse me," she
said. "Can you tell me the way to King Street, please?" The man smiled
pleasantly. He did not understand English! He spoke German. He was a
tourist. Then he put his hand into his pocket and took out a phrase-book.
He opened the book and found a phrase. He read the phrase slowly. "I
am sorry," he said. "I do not speak English".

11. Сравните времена и переведите предложения.


Present Simple / Present Progressive
1) The kettle is boiling. Can you turn it off, please? – Water boils at 100
degrees Celsius. 2) Listen to those people. What language are they
speaking? – I don’t speak French. 3) Where is Tom? – He is playing
football. – Tom plays football every Friday. 4) That machine isn’t
working. It broke down this morning. – That machine doesn’t work.
It hasn’t worked for years.
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Present Perfect Continuous / Present Perfect


1) Ann’s clothes are covered in paint. She has been painting the ceiling.
– The ceiling was white. Now it is blue. Ann has painted it. 2) Tom’s
hands are very dirty. He has been repairing the car. – The car is
going again now. Tom has repaired it. 3) Ann has been writing letters
all day. – Ann has written thrirteen letters today. 4) How long have
you been reading this book? – How many pages of this book have
you read?
Present Perfect (Continuous)/ Past Simple
1) When did it start raining? – How long has it been raining? 2) It
started raining an hour ago. – It has been raining since morning. 3) I
lived here twenty years ago. – I have lived here all my life. 4) They
have known each other since they were at school. 5) It is two years
since I hade a holiday. – I haven’t had a holiday for two years.

12. На каждую ситуацию составьте по два предложения


используя a) the Present Perfect and b) the Present Perfect
Continuousю
Model: Tom is reading a book. He started two hours ago and he is on
page 59.
a) He has been reading for two hours.
b) He has read 59 pages.
1) Father is in the garden. He is digging round the apple-trees. He began
his work two hours ago.
2) Linda is travelling round Europe. She began her tour three months ago.
Now her tour list consists of six countries.
3) Bill and Andrew are farm engineers. They started working together
when they left academy. Not long ago they opened their own repair shop.

13. Обратите внимание на следующие предложения:


When mother came home, I was reading. / When mother was
reading, I came home. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в
Past Simple или Past Continuous.
1. When I (to come) home, my little sister (to sleep). 2. When Nick (to
come) home, his brother (to write) an essay on veterinary. 3. When
mother (to come) home, I (to do) my homework. 4. When father (to
come) home, Pete (to sleep). 5. When mother (to come) home, the
children (to play) on the carpet. 6. When I (to get) up, my mother and
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father (to drink) tea. 7. When I (to come) to my friend's place, he (to
watch) TV. 8. When I (to see) my friends, they (to play) football.
9. When I (to open) the door, the cat (to sit) on the table. 10. When Kate
(to open) the door, the children (to dance) round the fir-tree. 11. When
Tom (to cross) the street, he (to fall). 12. When I (to go) to the
university I (to meet) my friend. 13. When we (to go) to the cinema, we
(to meet) grandmother. 14. When grandmother (to deliver) lectures in
anatomy, she (to meet) his future husband, our granny. 15. When Henry
(to walk) about in the forest, he (to find) a bear cub. 16. When we (to
walk) about in the forest, we (to see) an old rare oak. 17. When I (to
wash) the floor, I (to find) my diary under the sofa. 18. When granny
(to read) a book on the sofa, she (to fall) asleep. 19. When I (to play) in
the yard, I suddenly (to see) my old friend. 20. When Nick (to run)
about in the yard, he (to fall).

14. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в правильном


времени.
1.My friend (to like) pies. He (to eat) pies every day. When I (to meet)
him in the street yesterday, he (to eat) a pie. He (to tell) me that he (to
buy) that pie at the corner of the street. Look at my friend now! He (to
eat) a pie again. 2. I always (to come) to the university at a quarter to
eight. 3. Yesterday I (to come) to the university at ten minutes to eight.
4. Tomorrow Nick (not to go) to the cinema because he (to go) to the
cinema yesterday. He already (to be) to the cinema this week. He (to
stay) at home and (to play) a computer game. 5. What your brother (to
do) now? 6. My father (to work) in an office. It (to be) Sunday now. He
(not to work), he (to read) at home. 7. I (not to see) you for a while!
You (to be) busy at work? — I (to have) an awful week, you (to know).
8. What he (to do) at ten o'clock last night? — He (not to do) anything
really. He just (to look) at some magazines. 9. We (to have) rather a
difficult time at the moment. — I (to be) sorry to hear that.
10. Something awful (to happen). Her little daughter (to swallow) a
coin. 11. She (to ask) me if I (to see) her backpack. 12. After the boys
(to do) all the work, they (to go) to the pictures.

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TENSE SYSTEM IN PASSIVE VOICE


Система времен в страдательном залоге

Страдательный залог употребляется в тех случаях, когда лицо или


предмет, которое обозначает подлежащее, не само совершает
действие, а терпит на себе действие со стороны другого лица или
предмета.
Существует три способа перевода страдательного залога на русский
язык:
а) быть+краткая форма причастия; б) глаголами на -ся; в)
неопределённо-личным оборотом ( когда не упоминается носитель
действия ).
E.g. The goods will be delivered tomorrow. (Товары будут доставлены
завтра). The house is being built. (Дом строится). We are taught
English. (Нам преподают английский).

The Passive Voice


To be + Participle II ( V3 )
Present Past Future

Indefinite Am, is, are +V3 Was, were +V3 Will (shall)be+V3
(Simple) She is asked. I was asked. He will be asked.
Is she asked? Were you asked? Will he be asked?
She is not asked. I was not asked. He won’t be asked.
Continuous Am, is, are+being+V3 Was, were+being+V3
(Progressive) I am being asked. She was being asked.
Are you being asked? Was she being asked? --------
I’m not being asked. She wasn’t being
asked.
Perfect Have, has+been+V3 Had+been+V3 Will(shall)+have+
I have been asked. I had been asked. Had been+V3
Have you been asked? I you been asked? I I will have been
haven’t been asked. hadn’t been asked. asked. Will you have
been asked? I won’t
have been asked.

Упражнения
1. Найдите страдательный залог.
am spoken about; are writing; will be built; have been in London; will
be described; have been visited; is washing; are washing; were interesting;
have been done; will be reading; is being read; will be translated; have
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been spoken about; have done; is asking; is being asked; are fed;
understood; has understood; had been understood; are cultivated; am
having breakfast.

2. Ответьте на вопросы.
1) I was followed by my friend. Кто был впереди? – а) Я б) Мой друг
We were told this story by our grandmother. Кто был рассказчиком? –
а) Мы б) Бабушка
2) The lecturer was asked many questions. Кто кому задавал
вопросы? – а) Преподаватель задавал вопросы б) Преподавателю
задавали вопросы
3) We are given a new task by the teacher. Кто выполняет задание? –
а) Мы б) Учитель
4) She is much spoken about. Как говорят? – а) Она говорит. в) О ней
говорят.
5) After the rock concert the stadium was destroyed by hundreds of
fans. От кого пострадал стадион? – а) От музыкантов в) От
фанатов
6) The industry is controlled by the state. Что верно? – а) Государство
контролирует промышленность. в) Промышленность оказывает
влияние на экономику.
7) His ideas were influenced by the theory. Что оказало влияние? –
а) Идеи в) Теория
8) The Greeks were attacked by the Persians from the sea. Кто напал с
моря? – а) Персы в) Греки
9) Ann told Kate a very interesting story. Кто рассказал историю? –
а) Аня в) Катя
10) She is taught French every week. Что она делает? – а) изучает
французский в) преподает французский

3. Прочитайте текст и найдите предложения, в которых


сказуемое стоит в страдательном залоге.
London
1. London is the capital of Great Britain. 2. It is the political,
economic and cultural centre of the country. 3. It is one of the largest
cities of the world. 4. Its population is more than 11 million people. 5.
London is situated on the river Thames. 6. The city is very old and
beautiful. 7. It was founded more than two thousand years ago.
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8. Traditionally London is divided into three parts: the City, the East
End and the West End. 9. The City is the oldest part of London, its
financial and business centre. 10. The West End is the part where rich
people live. 11. It is known as the most beautiful part of the capital. 12.
The best hotels, restaurants, shops, clubs, parks and houses are located
there. 13. The East End is spoken of as an industrial district of London.
14. There are many factories and plants there. 15. Tourists are often
shown London’s places of interest, such as the Houses of Parliament,
the Clock Tower, Buckingham Palace, St. Paul’s Cathedral and others.
16. All of them are connected with the history of the country. 17. Many
things are produced in London: clothes, food, planes, and cars. 18. They
are exported to different parts of the world.

4. Поставьте глагол-сказуемое в the Present Indefinite Passive,


the Past Indefinite Passive, the Future Indefinite Passive.
Используйте обстоятельства: usually, yesterday, tomorrow.
1) The postbox ( to empty ) by his sister. 2) The stamps ( to buy ) at the
post of-fice. 3) The letters ( to sort ) into different towns. 4) The Tower
of London ( to visit) by several groups of Russian tourists. 5) You ( to
meet ) at the station.

5. Употребите правильную форму глагола.


1) My question (not to answer) yesterday. 2) Ice-hockey (to play) in
winter. 3) Mushrooms (to gather) in autumn. 4) Many houses (to burn)
during the Great Fire of London. 5) His new book (to finish) next year.
6) Flowers (to sell) in shops and in the streets. 7) St. Petersburg (to
found) in 1703. 8) Bread (to eat) every day. 9) Cows (to milk) twice a
day. 10) These trees (not to plant) last autumn. 11) Lost time never (to
find) again. 12) Rome (not to build) in a day. 13) I (to tell) you about
this a week ago. 14) This new equipment (to demonstrate) at the next
lesson on Monday.

6. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на форму


глагола-сказуемого.
1. The room was cleaned and aired. 2. Have all these books been
read? 3. Whom were these letters written by? 4. The letter has just been
typed. 5. She showed me the picture which had been painted by her
husband. 6. I shall not be allowed to take part in the experiments. 7. He
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has been told everything, so he knows what to do now. 8. All the


questions must be answered. 9. The door has been left open. 10. Betty
was met at the station. 11. The girl was not admitted to the university.
12. She said that the new timetable had not yet been hung up on the
notice board. 13. The roast chicken was eaten with appetite. 14. It was
so dark, that the houses could not be seen. 15. The light has not yet been
turned off. 16. The cows were thoroughly examined by the veterinarian.
17. By three o’clock everything had been prepared. 18. The test was
written without mistakes. 19. Whom was the poem written by? 20. Her
dress was washed and ironed. 21. I was not blamed for the mistakes.
22. The papers had been looked through and corrected. 23. This house
was built last year. 24. The letter has just been sent. 25. This article will
be translated at the lesson on Tuesday. 26. When will this book be
returned to the library?

7. Переведите действительный залог в страдательный.

Example: Their parents taught Spartan children to endure all hardships.


– Spartan children were taught by their parents to endure all hardships.
1) He seldom mentioned this name in his novels. 2) My brother has
just translated the article in ecology. 3) I often tell Nick about it. 4) Ann
is visiting her granny now. 5) Sportsmen have never climbed this
mountain before. 6) Adam Smith’s ideas had influenced his work.
7) People have always used money as a medium of exchange, a measure
of value and a store of value. 8) They looked for the girl everywhere.
9)They did not listen to the boy. 10) She looks after the patients well.
11) They asked for our address. 12) He will give my brother English
lessons. 13) The students greeted the famous lecturer warmly. 14) They
have recently built a spacious cattle barn for Holstein breed of cattle.
15) We must finish the work by tomorrow. 16) When I fell ill, my
mother sent for the doctor. 17) They showed Helen the nearest way to
the theatre.

8. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на послелоги.


1)He was talked about. 2) He was sent for. 3) He was being waited
for. 4) He was being looked at. 5) He was being listened to. 6) He
was laughed at. 7) This house is not lived in.

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9.♫ Прослушайте диалоги и тексты, обращая внимание на


залог и время глагола-сказуемого. Прочитайте их с правильной
интонацией. Составьте свои диалоги. (141, 144, 142, 143)
Text 1
Last week, my four year old daughter, Sally, was invited to a
children's party. I decided to take her by train. Sally was very excited
because she had never travelled on a train
before. She sat near the window and asked
questions about everything she saw.
Suddenly, a middle-aged lady came
into our compartment and sat opposite Sally.
"Hello, little girl," she said. Sally did not
answer, but looked at her curiously. The lady
was dressed in a blue coat and a large, funny
hat. After the train had left the station, the lady opened her handbag and
took out her powder compact. She then began to make up her face. "Why
are you doing that?" Sally asked. "To make myself beautiful," the lady
answered. She put away her compact and smiled kindly. "But you are still
ugly," Sally said. Sally was amused, but I was very embarrassed!

Text 2
I live in a very old town which is surrounded
by beautiful woods. It is a famous beauty spot. On
Sundays, hundreds of people come from the city
to see our town and to walk through the woods.
Visitors have been asked to keep the woods clean
and tidy. Litter-baskets have been placed
under the trees, but people still throw their rubbish everywhere.
Last Wednesday, I went for a walk in the woods. What I saw made
me very sad. I counted seven old cars and three old refrigerators. The
litter-baskets were empty and the ground was covered with pieces of
paper, cigarette-ends, old tyres, empty bottles and rusty tins. Among the
rubbish I found a sign which said: "Anyone who leaves litter in these
woods will be prosecuted!"
Dialogs
a) – Does anyone ever open this window?
– Yes, it is opened regularly.
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– Does anyone ever take him to school?


–Yes, he is taken to school
regularly.
– Did anyone ever repair that car?
– Yes, it was repaired regularly.
– Does anyone ever air this room?
– Yes, it is aired regularly.
– Does anyone ever correct these
copybooks?
– Yes, they are corrected regularly.
– Does anyone ever invite him to a party?
– Yes, he is invited regularly.
– Does anyone ever meet them at the station?
– Yes, they are met at the station regularly.
– Did anyone ever sharpen this knife?
–Yes, it was sharpened regularly.
– Did anyone ever sharpen these knives?
– Yes, they were sharpened regularly.
– Did anyone ever watch them?
– Yes, they were watched regularly.

b) – Has anyone opened the window yet?


– Yes, it has already been opened.
– Has anyone corrected these copybooks yet?
– Yes, they have already been corrected.
– Will anyone sweep the floor?
– Yes, it will be swept soon.
– Will anyone tell them about it?
– Yes, they will be told about it soon.
– Has anyone invited them yet?
– Yes, they have already been invited.
– Will anyone serve him?
– Yes, he will be served soon.
– Has anyone repaired this car yet?
– Yes, it has already been repaired.
– Will anyone find them?
– Yes, they will be found soon.
– Has anyone sharpened this knife yet?
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– Yes, it has already been sharpened.


– Will anyone sharpen these knives?
– Yes, they will be sharpened soon.

10. Используя страдательный залог, опишите картинки.

Example: The film is being watched by the


whole family.
Verbs for ideas: to follow, to read, to eat, to
listen, to speak, to interview, to sweep, to
build.

1 2

3 4 5 6

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PARTICIPLES
Причастия

Причастие – это неличная форма глагола, имеющая признаки как


прилагательного, так и глагола. Различают причастие настоящего
времени (Participle I) и причастие прошедшего времени (Participle II)
Причастие не обладает категориями рода, лица. Времени
Participle I
Forms Active Passive
Non-Perfect asking being asked (V3)
Perfect having asked (V3) having been asked (V3)

Следует помнить, что перфектные формы выражают действие


предшествующее действию глагола-сказуемого, а неперфектные
формы – действие одновременное с действием глагола-сказуемого.
Перевод причастия настоящего времени зависит от функции,
которую оно выполняет в предложении. В предложении Participle I
может быть:
1) определением ( может стоять перед определяемым словом или
после него ); переводится причастием действительного залога с
суффиксами -ущ, -ющ, -ащ ,-ящ, -вш, -ш или определительным
придаточным предложением. Только неперфектные формы могут
выполнять функцию определения.
E.g. Boiling water changes into steam. (Кипящая вода
превращается в пар).
The water boiling in the vessel changes into steam. (Вода,
кипящая в сосуде, превращается в пар).
2) обстоятельством; переводится деепричастием с суффиксами -а, -я,
-ав,
-ив или обстоятельственным придаточным предложением.
Если перед причастием стоит союз ( when, while) , то переводится
либо деепричастием, либо деепричастным оборотом, или
придаточным предложением с союзами когда, в то время как, или
фразой при+существительное.
E.g. Having visited Western Europe we went to Canada.
(Посетив Западную Европу, мы отправились в Канаду).
When combining chemically hydrogen and oxygen form water.
(Когда водород и кислород вступают в химическую реакцию,
они образуют воду).
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3) частью сказуемого во временах группы Continuous и Perfect


Continuous переводится глаголом в личной форме.
E.g. They are reading. (Они читают.) He has been working in the
laboratory since early morning. (Он работает в библиотеке с раннего
утра.)
Упражнения
1. Образуйте разные формы причастия от данных глаголов.
To give, to translate, to speak, to plant, to comprise, to found, to build,
to do, to protect, to show, to make, to construct, to understand, to write.

2. Подберите правильный перевод.


A B
Discussing the project … Исследователь, проводящий
The sun heating the coast… эксперимент торговлю …
Having asked … Когда его спросили, он …
Conducting the experiment Обсуждая проект …
the researcher … Когда его спрашивают, он …
The researcher conducting Студент, спрашивающий
the experiment … преподавателя …
Having conducted the Солнце, согревающее
experiment the researcher … побережье …
While discussing the Согреваясь солнцем,
project … побережье …
Having been asked he … Проводя эксперимент,
Being asked he … иссследователь …
The student asking the Проведя эксперимент,
teacher… исследователь …
Being heated by the sun the Спросив …
coast … Во время обсуждения проекта…
Inviting guests … Пригласив гостей …
Having invited guests … Приглашая гостей …

3. Определите функцию причастия. Переведите предложения.


1) The garden was full of children, laughing and shouting. 2) Be careful
when crossing the road. 3) We are leaving for London. 4) We saw trees
growing everywhere. 5) Having been translated into Russian this article
made a sensassion in the world of science. 6) Having sent a lot of materials
the producer hoped to receive a good profit. 7) I felt much better having
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said the truth. 8) He looked at Ann smiling. 9) A developing country


needs new technologies for industry. 10) While visiting New York we saw
buildings attracting many visitors. 11) Not having seen each other for
ages, they had much to talk about.12) The flame is burning. 13) She was
doing shopping from morning till five o’clock. 14) A country having a
favourable geographical position gets much benefit from trade. 15) They
were watching the moving particles. 16) The method of cultivation being
applied in our enterprise gives good results. 17) Voters are electing
Members of the House of Commons. 18) Prevailing winds in Britain are
south-westerly. 19) Being evenly distributed throughout the year rainfall is
more than 1600mm. 20) Developing aircraft industry Britain has become
one of the leading exporters. 21) Everybody looked at the dancing girl.
22) The man playing the piano is Kate's uncle. 23) Entering the room, she
turned on the light. 24) Coming to the theatre, she saw that the
performance had already begun. 25) Looking out of the window, he saw
his mother watering the flowers. 26) Hearing the sounds of music, we
stopped talking. 27) They were loudly discussing the new project.

4. Переведите словосочетания, образуя правильную форму


причастия.

Человек, совершенствующий английский to carry out


язык … to improve
Усовершенствовав свой английский, он … to develop
Разработав новое оборудование, инженеры … to publish
Проводя эксперимент …
Опубликовав свою статью …
Они разрабатывают новое оборудование.

5. Объедините два предложения в одно, используя причастие I.


For example: He was jumping down the stairs. He broke his leg. – He
broke his leg jumping down the stairs. (Он сломал ногу, прыгая вниз по
лестнице.)
1)Tom was watching the film. He fell asleep.
The pupils opened their textbooks. They looked for the answer.
2) Julia was training to be a designer. She lived in Milan for 3 years.
3) They are vegetarians. They don’t eat meat.
4) Jane was tidying up her bedroom. She found some old letters.

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6. Объедините два предложения в одно, используя перфектное


причастие I.
For example: He handed in his test. He had written all the exercises. –
Having written all the exercises, he handed in his test. (Написав все
упражнения, он передал свою контрольную.)

1) She went to her car and drove off. She had closed the door of the house.
2) I sent him an SMS. I had tried phoning him many times.
3) We moved to Florida. We had sold our cottage.
4) His head was aching at night. He had studied all day.
5) He knew all the goals by heart. He had seen that match several times.

Причастные обороты
Причастие с относящимися к нему словами образует причастный
оборот.
Объектный причастный оборот (конструкция, в которой
причастие находится в таком же отношении к дополнению, как
сказуемое к подлежащему, переводится обычно придаточным
предложением): I saw him working in the garden. (Я увидел, что он
работает в саду). We observed the cattle being fed. (Мы наблюдали
за кормлением животных).
Обстоятельственный причастный оборот (выполняет функцию
обстоятельства): Going along the street I met my friend. (По дороге я
встретила подругу). Having installed the new equipment British
specialists gave some recommendations. (Установив новое
оборудование британские специалисты дали несколько
рекомендаций).
Определительный причастный оборот (выражается
неперфектным причастием с зависимыми словами, отвечает на
вопрос: какой?): The fence surrounding the garden is newly painted.
(Забор, окружающий сад, только что покрашен). The oceans washing
the British shores influence the weather in the country. (Океаны,
омывающие британские берега, влияют на погоду в стране).
Особое место среди причастных оборотов занимает Независимый
причастный оборот. Он распознаётся по двум признакам: 1) На
письме отделяется запятой; 2) Имеет собственное подлежащее. На
русский язык НПО переводится в соответствии со следующим
правилом:
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В начале предложения НПО переводится придаточным


предложением с союзами когда, после того как, поскольку, так как
и др.
E.g. The weather being rainy, we stayed at home. (Так как погода
была дождливой, мы остались дома).
Если причастный оборот стоит в конце предложения, он
переводится самостоятельным предложением бессоюзным или с
союзами а, и, но, если, причём.
E.g. The students wrote their English test-paper, each doing his
variant.
( Студенты писали контрольную работу по английскому, причём
каждый выполнял свой вариант ).
Упражнения
1. Определите тип причастного оборота. Переведите
предложения.
1) We were in Great Britain after having visited France.
2) While learning to speak a foreign language you must have much
practice.
3) There are many crops, wheat being the most useful.
4) Having been repaired, the tractor became more powerful.
5) We saw students sitting at the lecture.
6) Britain has trade relations with all countries having sea ports.
7) The bridge having been swept away by the flood, the train was late.
8) They watched the temperature gradually rising.
9) Watering the cabbages I noticed that some of the vegetables had
wilted.
10) Silver being very expensive, we only rarely use it as a
conductor.
11) Being an important source of power, tractor finds its many uses
in agriculture.
12) We are looking for a person knowing London well.
13) Computers represent a new branch of science, the first of them
having appeared in the middle of the 20th century.
14) The moon having no atmosphere, its surface experiences great
extremes of temperature.
15) Being very tired he decided to have a rest.
16) Walking about the city I met an old friend of mine.

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17) They have booked two seats for the plane leaving for Paris
tomorrow morning.
18) Peter and John stood at the window watching a football game in
the yard.
19) The man greeting my father is a famous actor.
20) While walking about Suzdal the tourists looked with interest at
wonderful monuments of the past.
21) We study many subjects, chemistry being one of the most
difficult.
22) I noticed him standing at the door.
23) Knowing Japanese well, she managed to negotiate with our
foreign customers.
24) You must have much practice when learning to speak a foreign
language.
25) When speaking English, pay attention to the order of words.
26) The young man helping the professor in his experiments studies
at our university.
27) Nobody saw Kate crying.

2. Обращая внимание на место независимого причастного


оборота, переведите предложения.
1) Doctor Ivanov being a good surgeon, the operation lasted only two
hours.
2) He made complicated operations, the last one lasting four hours.
3) The agenda being discussed, the conference started its work.
4) The wind being strong, we heard nothing.
5) Any moving object can do work, the quantity of kinetic energy
depending on its mass and velocity.
6) The student knowing English well, the teacher asked him to meet the
delegation.
7) The area having sufficient fresh water, arable-farming developed well.
8) Many operations have been mechanized, feeding being one of them.
9) Manchester is the second biggest city in Lancashire, Liverpool being
the first.
10) The University of London includes internal and external students, the
latter only coming to London to take their examinations.
11) The Belarusian girls won the competition, the Polish athletes placing
second.
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12) The steamer could not enter the dock, its length exceeding 120
metres.
13) The children being afraid of cold water, we didn’t swim in the river.
14) The book having been discussed at the lesson, we went home.

PARTICIPLE II
Причастие прошедшего времени
Форма причастия прошедшего времени V3 у правильных глаголов
образуется, подобно Past Simple ( Indefinite ), путём добавления -ed к
основе глагола: to work – worked; to ask – asked; to translate –
translated; to visit - visited
Формы Past Participle ( Participle II ) неправильных глаголов
даются в списке неправильных глаголов. E.g. to go – gone; to speak –
spoken.
В предложении причастие прошедшего времени может быть:
1) определением; переводится причастием страдательного залога с
суффиксами – окончаниями -нный; -емый; -имый; -тый; -шийся;
вшийся. Может стоять перед определяемым словом и после него.
E.g. tractors produced by our plant ( тракторы, изготовленные нашим
заводом), a broken cup ( разбитая чашка ).
2) обстоятельством; как правило, перед ним ставятся союзы: when, if,
unless, as. Такой причастный оборот переводится придаточным
обстоятельственным предложением, а иногда – фразой:
при+существительное.
E.g. As seen in the article these engines are very economical in fuel
consumption.
(Как видно в статье, эти двигатели очень экономичны в потреблении
топлива).
3) частью сказуемого в страдательном залоге и временах группы
Perfect; переводится глаголом в личной форме.
E.g. We have done the work. (Мы выполнили работу).

Упражнения
1. Образуйте причастие прошедшего времени от глаголов.
to do, to cultivate, to cross, to conduct, to develop, to take, to
understand, to cut, to break, to ask, to go, to lose, to know, to describe.

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2. Сравните a) словосочетания b) предложения и переведите их.


a) a developing country – a developed country
a translating student – a translated text
a breaking stone rock – a broken stone rock
a printing secretary – a printed article
a speaking man – a spoken language
b) 1) He saw some people in the post office sending telegrams. 2) When
sending the telegram, she forgot to write her name. 3) Some of the
questions put to the lecturer yesterday were very important. 4) The girl
putting the book on the shelf is the new librarian. 5) While putting the
eggs into the basket, she broke one of them. 6) A fish taken out of the
water cannot live. 7) A line when seen through this crystal looks double.

3. Определите функцию причастия прошедшего времени.


Переведите предложения.
1) I went to the lighted window. 2) The work carried out by your
department is interesting. 3) The experiments performed by Timiryasev
laid the foundation for a new branch of science. 4) We saw a broken cup.
5) The farmers discussed new methods used in field cultivation. 6) He
seemed frightened. 7) He spoke about his holidays spent in England.
8) When translated the article turned out to be very informative. 9) We
have lost the key. 10) He never says a word unless asked. 11) A letter sent
from St. Petersburg today will be in Moscow tomorrow. 12) When spoken
in time a word may have very important results. 13) They have broken a
new vase. 14) Nina has never been here. 15) While speaking to Nick some
days ago, I forgot to ask him about his sister.

4. Выберите из скобок правильный вариант. Переведите


предложения.
1. a) The girl (writing, written) on the blackboard is my younger sister.
b) Everything (writing, written) here is quite right.
2. a) We listened to the girls (singing, sung) Russian folk songs.
b) We listened to the Russian folk songs (singing, sung) by the girls.
3. a) The girl (washing, washed) the floor is my sister.
b) The floor (washing, washed) by Helen looked very clean.
4. a) Who is that boy (doing, done) his homework at that table?
b) The exercises (doing, done) by the students were easy.

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5. a) The house (surrounding, surrounded) by tall trees is very beautiful.


b) The wall (surrounding, surrounded) the house was very high.
6. a) Name some places (visiting, visited) by you last year.
b) (Visiting, visited) new places I always keep a diary.
7. a) She was reading the book (buying, bought) the day before.
b) (Buying, bought) a new pair of shoes be sure that you haven’t much
walk.
8. The children were (thrilled, thrilling) with the clown’s tricks.
9. She felt (relaxed, relaxing) in the warm bath.
10. He was very (surprised, surprising) by her sudden change of attitude.
11. Joan’s experience was (terrified, terrifying).
12. What an (amazing, amazed) boy he is!
13. She was (interested, interesting) in painting.
14. He found the music lesson extremely (bored, boring).

5. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Раскройте скобки, выбрав


нужное причастие. Найдите в тексте независимый причастный
оборот.
Devon
Devon is (situating/situated) in the south-west of England.
Agriculture and fishing have always (been/being) important parts of the
local economy, but these days most income is (receiving-received) from
tourism. Nearly five million people visit the area each year, many of them
coming to enjoy Devon’s beaches and to surf along its north coast.
Apart from the beaches, Devon is also well (known/knowing) for its
beautiful countryside and old traditional cottages.
A lot of coastal towns in Britain have (suffering-suffered) as more
and more people go abroad on holiday. However, on the south Devon
coast, resort towns such as Brixham and Torquay are (enjoyed/enjoying)
new life as the English Riviera, (offering/offered) mild weather and sandy
beaches.
Another reason for its popularity is that it’s possible to get to Devon
from London in a short time by car. The capital is (connecting/connected)
to Devon by two motorways, the M4 and the M5. So, in just four or five
hours Londoners can be (enjoying/enjoyed) a cream tea or a
(relaxing/relaxed) country walk.

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6. Передайте содержание текста по плану:


Plan
I Location
II The main source of income
III Countryside
IV Resort town
V Two motorways

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THE GERUND
Герундий

Герундий – неличная форма глагола, обозначающая название


действия и обладающая свойствами глагола и имени
существительного. Кроме того, формы герундия полностью
совпадают с формами причастия настоящего времени.
В русском языке аналога герундию нет. По своему значению
герундий приближается к русским существительным, обозначающим
процесс (обсуждение, возделывание, хождение, чтение и т. п.).
Forms of the Gerund
Aspect ↓ Voice→ Active Passive
Non-perfect writing being written
Perfect having written having been written

Общие черты герундия и глагола


Подобно глаголу герундий
– обозначает действие; E.g. to interrupt – прерывать; interrupting
– прерывание
имеет форму залога и относительного времени. Неперфектная форма
герундия обозначает действие, одновременное с действием
сказуемого или будущее действие по отношению к действию глагола-
сказуемого. Перфектная форма герундия обозначает действие,
предшествующее действию глагола-сказуемого; E.g. I hate
interrupting people (Active Voice) – Терпеть не могу прерывать
людей.
I hate being interrupted (Passive Voice) – Терпеть не могу, когда меня
прерывают.
He dreams of becoming a scientist. (Non-Perfect) – Он мечтает стать
учёным.
He is proud of having won the prize. (Perfect) – Он гордится тем, что
выиграл приз.
– принимает прямое дополнение; E.g. Reading books is my hobby.
– определяется наречием; E.g. reading books aloud

Общие черты герундия и существительного


Подобно имени существительному герундий
– может употребляться с предлогом;

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– может стоять после определения, выраженного притяжательным


местоимением или существительным в притяжательном падеже;
– выполняет те же функции в предложении.
Рассмотрим примеры:
Before sleeping I like to read – Перед сном я люблю почитать. I insist
on going there – Я настаиваю на том, чтобы поехать туда.
Do you mind our being present? – Вы не возражаете против нашего
присутствия?
Функции герундия в предложении:
Подлежащее
Smoking is a bad habit. – Курение – дурная привычка.
Часть сказуемого
His hobby is travelling. – Его хобби – путешествия.
They started arguing. – Они начали спорить.
Дополнение (как прямое, так и предложное)
Avoid catching cold. – Избегайте простуды.
There is no harm in trying. – Попытка – не пытка.
Определение
The idea of using new methods is useful. – Идея применения новых
методов полезна.
Обстоятельство
He left without saying goodbye. – Он ушёл, не попрощавшись.

Перевод герундия на русский язык


На русский язык герундий переводится: существительным,
инфинитивом, деепричастием, придаточным предложением.

Герундий, причастие и отглагольное существительное


Так как формы герундия и причастия настоящего времени
совпадают, ино-гда трудно их различить. Кроме того, у них есть
некоторые общие синтаксические функции. Рассмотрим следующие
примеры:
Герундий в функции определения Причастие I в функции
определения
I like the idea of going there. A going man is my brother.
Мне нравится идея пойти туда. Идущий человек – мой брат.
Герундий стоит после определяемого слова idea и может
переводиться существительным или инфинитивом. Причастие может
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стоять перед определяемым существительным и после него, но на


русский язык переводится причастием несовершенного вида.
Герундий в функции обст-ва Причастие в функции обст-ва
After delivering the report I went home. Delivering the report I looked
at you.
После представления своего доклада я Делая доклад, я посмотрел
пошёл домой. на тебя.
Перед герундием стоит предлог, а перед причастием – союз ( when,
while ).
Герундий в функции части сказуемого Причастие в функции части
сказуемого
(именного) ( глагольного )
My hobby is reading. Ann is reading.
Моё хобби – чтение. Анна читает.
Герундий не следует путать с отглагольным существительным.
Оно обладает всеми свойствами существительного: имеет форму
множе-ственного числа, определяется прилагательным,
употребляется с артиклем, не принимает прямого дополнения (только
дополнение с предлогом of). E.g. a meeting – a big meeting – many
meetings

Упражнения
1. Образуйте формы герундия от глаголов.
To use, to read, to cultivate, to sow, to repair, to break down, to write, to
ask, to do, to visit, to observe, to understand, to forgive, to open, to
develop, to cut, to abolish, to give, to take, to speak, to describe.

2. Определите форму герундия.


Being asked, making, having elected, having been done, being repaired,
smoking, having left, having been translated, trying, being developed,
breeding, watering, having bred, having been watered, being pruned,
having irrigated.

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3. Обращая внимание на форму и функцию герундия, подберите


перевод словосочетаний.
about my being ill; о том, что я болел
about my having been ill; о том, что я болен
about the car’s having been о ремонте машины
repaired; о том, что машину ремонтируют
about repairing the car; о том, что машину
about the car’s being repaired отремонтировали
the molecules’ breaking down; расщепление молекул
after the molecules’ having broken после расщепления молекул
down; без нагрева земля…
by heating the earth’s surface; за счёт нагревания земной
without being heated, the earth… поверхности

4. Переведите предложения с герундием.


1. Repairing cars is his business. 2. It goes without saying. 3. Have you
finished writing? 4. Taking a cold shower in the morning is very healthy.
5.1 like skiing, but my sister prefers skating. 6. She likes sitting in the sun.
7. It looks like raining. 8. My watch wants repairing. 9. Thank you for
coming. 10. I had no hope of getting an answer before the end of the
month. 11. I had the pleasure of dancing with her the whole evening.
12. Let's go boating. 13. He talked without stopping. 14. Some people can
walk all day without feeling tired. 15. Living in little stuffy rooms means
breathing poisonous air. 16. Iron is found by digging in the earth.
17. There are two ways of getting sugar: one from beet and the other from
sugarcane. 18. Jane Eyre was fond of reading. 19. Miss Trotwood was in
the habit of asking Mr. Dick his opinion. 20. His father disliked wasting
time on such trifles. 21. Avoid making mistakes if you can. 22. The
neighbours saved our life by lending us that money. 23. Beethoven
continued writing music after he became deaf. 24. Don't make so much
fuss over losing your money.

5. Определите часть речи –ing форм в предложениях. Переведите


предложения на русский язык.
1) Living things need oxygen for breathing. 2) While heating water
becomes steam. 3) I like your singing. 4) At the beginning of the 20th
century farmers used ploughs. 5) The cell could divide itself making the
new ones. 6) Automating re-sulted in higher labour productivity. 7) Thank
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you for having come. 8) While testing the motor they put down the results.
9) After testing the motor they put down the results. 10) A further step in
rubber technology was the combining of rubber with metals, wood and
asbestos. 11) Synthesis is the process of combining elements. 12) Analysis
is the splitting of compounds into elements. 13) Breeding fine-fleece sheep
is his main business. 14) A working motor was designed in Great Britain.
15) Planting trees you save nature and make our air healthier. 16) Planting
trees is useful for conserving nature. 17) Before planting this apple tree
apply some manure. 18) By burning coal we obtain the necessary heat.
19) The testing of engines should be done under normal running
conditions. 20) They are testing new engines. 21) Testing the soil we
found many harmful elements. 22) The film is worth seeing. 23) We were
surprised at hearing the news. 24) It’s no use talking.

6. Измените предложения, используя герундий.


Model: Would you like to go to the theatre? – How about going to the
theatre?
1) Would you like to go somewhere for the week-end? 2) Shall we
invite the Hunters? 3) Will you add a bit more manure to the soil? 4) Do
you study German? 5) Let’s arrange a party. 6) I’d like to go to the sea-
shore in summer. 7) Would you like to cook a pie for Kate’s birthday?

7. Напишите предложения, употребляя правильную форму


герундия (Active or Passive).
1. Why do you avoid (to speak) to me? 2. She tried to avoid (to speak)
to. 3. The doctor insisted on (to send) the sick man to hospital. 4. The child
insisted on (to send) home at once. 5. Do you mind the cow (to examine)
by a veterinarian? 6. He showed no sign of (to recognize) me. 7. She
showed no sign of (to surprise). 8. He had a strange habit of (to interfere)
in other people's business. 9. I was angry at (to interrupt) every other
moment. 10. He is good at treating pets. 11. He was very glad of (to help)
in his difficulty. 12. In (to make) this experiment, they came across some
very interesting phenomena. 13. The results of the experiment must be
checked and rechecked before (to publish).

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8. Составьте пословицы и поговорки с герундием.


Learn to swim by ... speaking
Think twice before ... swimming
Doing is better than ... breaking eggs
Seeing is ... saying
Appetite comes with ... eating
You can’t make an omelet without boiling
... paying
A watched pot is long in ... washing
Clean hands want no ... crying over the split milk
It is no use … believing
He who likes borrowing dislikes ...

9. Найдите в тексте –ing формы и определите их часть речи.


Переведите текст.
Text
Reading books
Reading plays a very important role in the life of people. It educates a
person, enriches his intellect. Books help to mould a person's character,
from his moral values. Besides, books bring pleasure and delight. It's a
wonderful way of spending spare time. Sometimes we read the same book
again and again. Thanks to books we learn to express our thoughts and
feelings more exactly. The book is faithful and understanding friend.
Books appeared ages ago and took different forms. The oldest form is
probably the roll (30-40 centuries B.C.). It appeared in Ancient Egypt, and
was as well used in Ancient Greece. The Egyptians used papyrus, brush
and red and black ink to draw hieroglyphs, which at first meant things and
animals and then started to mean sounds. Another ancient form was codex
where pages were put one on another. The form of codex was used in
Mesopotamia (where the pages were made of clay), Rome and other
countries. Chinese’s inventing paper was very important after different
materials, mostly skins of animals being used. The books were copied by
hand and cost a whole fortune. Later the printing press was invented so the
books became popular and rather cheap. The first printed book was
produced in Korea in the 8th century. In China the printing press began to
work in the 11th century, in Europe – in the 15th century.
There are many genres of books around us. They can be divided into
fiction and non-fiction books.
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Non-fiction books contain real information and are used for education
and work. They are reference books, dictionaries, atlases, biographies and
autobiographies, scientific reports, textbooks and encyclopedias.
Fiction books are written to give pleasure. This word is mostly used
when we speak about stories, novels and romances. «War and Peace» by
Leo Tolstoy is an example of fiction. But the young usually prefer fantasy
books and science fiction. The difference between them is the following:
fantasy books usually describe the events and countries in the form of a
legend and narrate about the past. A good example of fantasy is «Conan
the Barbarian». A lot of people remember having seen the film on this
book with Arnold Schwartsneger. Science fiction books describe events in
the future, the characters and places are given as imaginary and usually
take place in the future. «Starship Troopers» by Heinlein, «Stainless Steel
Rat» (Крыса из нержавеющей стали) by Harry Harrison are examples of
the style.

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THAT, ONE, AS и их функции

that
местоимение союз, часть усилит. слово-заместитель
конструкции
1) указательное Присоединяет Заменяет имя
2)oтносительное придаточные существительное.
предложения. Имеет форму мн.
числа (those).
1)This is new equipment, Mendeleyev was sure that This livestock
that is old. (Это – новое the missing elements would department is much
оборудование, а то – be found. (Менделеев был bigger than that on the
старое). уверен, что недостающие farm “Rassvet”. (Это
2)I saw the book that you элементы будут найдены). помещение для скота
need. (Я видел книгу, It is his experiment that намного больше, чем в
которая тебе нужна). influenced the science. хозяйстве «Рассвет»)
(Именно его эксперимент
повлиял на науку).

one
количественное слово-заместитель формальное
числительное подлежащее
Переводится: «один». Заменяет исчисляемое Выступает в качестве
сущ. в ед. числе. Имеет подлежащего
форму мн. числа (ones). безличного
На русский язык может предложения. Ставится
переводиться чаще всего перед
существительным, модальным глаголом.
которое замещает, или На русский язык не
вообще не переводится. переводится.
I need only one pencil. The right hand is usually One can see a beautiful
(Мне нужен только stronger than the left one. garden in this part of
один карандаш). (Обычно, правая рука London.
сильнее левой (руки). (В этой части Лондона
можно увидеть
прекрасный сад).
to be at one with smb. ( smth. ) – быть заодно, быть в единении

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Упражнения

1. Переведите предложения с “that”, “one”.


1) This farm is more profitable than that one. 2) Sam’s just heard that
one of his houses has caught fire. 3) That room was much better than this
one. 4) These books are boring, I need some new ones. 5) One mustn’t
smoke here. 6) I know that you will go there. 7) The freezing point of
water on the Centigrade scale is 0° and that on the Fahrenheit scale is
+32°. 8) I’m sure that she will enjoy travelling. 9) There is one student in
the classroom. 10) One can take those bicycles to ride in the mountains.
11) That trip around England was very exciting. 12) All the castles and
museums that we have seen are of great historical value. 13) I think his
best poems are his early ones. 14) The breed of sheep that is developed by
farmers in Yorkshire is more productive than that of other regions.
15) Have a glass of juice. – Thank you, I have already got one. 16) I’ve
always wanted a CD player and I’ve just saved enough money to buy one.
17) One morning I was sitting at my desk when a policeman knocked at
my door. 18) He said that the teacher would ask him at the next lesson.
19) One should follow the doctor’s advice. 20) One in three people in
developing nations is unable to find enough to eat. 21) The earth’s supply
of nonrenewable resources – those that cannot be regenerated – is limited.
22) A weekend in the country, when you can feel at one with nature, will
be useful for you. 23) Show me the water that was used in the first
experiment. 24) One never knows what his answer may be. 25) I’ve lost
my pen. I’ll buy a new one. 26) One should always inspect a tractor or any
other farm equipment before he turns it on. 27) No one could see him.
as
как, в по мере того, так как, составляет так (ой)же,
качестве как ( в то поскольку (ют), столько – как и
время, как ) сколько, всего,
целых
He works As he was She can’t come The outer and He plays
as a driving a car he as she is ill. inner walls of tennis as
designer. thought of his the house are as well as a
mother. thick as 5 cm. sportsman.
as if – как если бы; as well (as) – также (как и); as for – что касается;
as far as – насколько

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2. Переведите предложения с “as”.


1) At present plastics as well as metals are widely used in different
branches of industry. 2) The most interesting places such as St. Paul’s
Cathedral and Madam Tussaud’s Museum of Waxworks will always
attract tourists’ attention. 3) The advance in the science of physics in the
19th century was as great as in other spheres of human activity. 4) As you
see my house is rather small. 5) As time passed the castle became old and
deserted. 6) As for me, I wouldn’t advise this. 7) As far as I know he lives
not far from here. 8) It is as cold in January as in December. 9) The film is
not so interesting as the book. 10) My cat is as white as snow. 11) I won’t
go out as it is going to rain. 12) As I felt tired, I went to bed early. 13) As
they live nearby, we see them very often. 14) I saw Peter as I was getting
off the bus. 15) Turn off the light as you leave, please. 16) Just as I sat
down the phone rang. 17) Do it as soon as you can. 18) As I mentioned in
my last letter, I’ll be back in London in June. 19) Helen worked as a guide.
20) During the war this building was used as a hospital. 21) The house
looked as if nobody lived in it. 22) You look as if you haven’t slept for
several days. 23) I don’t like Norman, because he talks as if he knew
everything. 24) Ring me up as soon as you can. 25) Londoners don’t
think of London as “a city”, but as a number of cities and villages that
have grown together. 26) As for me I prefer big cities to towns. 27) In
Britain as many as thirty million newspapers are sold every day.
28) The distance from the Sun to the Earth is as great as 150 million
kilometers. 29) As for me I’ve never been to London before.

3. Письменно прокомментируйте следующие высказывания,


используя связующие элементы с as, that, one:
As for me … – Что касается меня …
As far as I’m concerned, … – Насколько я могу судить, …
I believe that … – Я верю (полагаю), что …
I am sure that … – Я уверен, что …
There is no doubt that … – Нет сомнения в том, что …
It goes without saying that … – Само собой разумеется, …
No one can deny that … – Никто не может отрицать, что …
One can be sure that … – Можно быть уверенным, что …
In spite of the fact that … – Несмотря на то, что …
On the one hand …, on the other hand … – С одной стороны, … с
другой стороны, …
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All in all I believe that … – В целом я считаю, что …

Придерживайтесь следующего плана:


1. Вступление (Обозначьте проблему, взгляд, мнение и т.д.).
2. Выразите свою позицию, приведя два-три аргумента.
3. Напишите противоположную точку зрения, приведя один-два
аргумента.
4. Объясните свое несогласие, приведя контраргументы.
5. Сделайте вывод

Statement 1
It is better to an only child in the family.

Statement 2
Cars should be banned from the centres of big cities.

Statement 3
Fast food is harmful to our health.

Statement 4
Giving extra pocket money for good marks is a perfect way to encourage
children to do well at school.

Statement 5
Computer games teach us nothing and young people should avoid them.

Statement 6
Governments spend too much money on space research while there are
still a lot of social problems.

Statement 7
Extreme sports are not worth the risk.

Statement 8
Getting a good salary is more important than job satisfaction.

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THE INFINITIVE AND INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTIONS


Инфинитив и инфинитивные обороты

Инфинитив, неопределённая форма глагола – это часть речи,


которая только называет действие, не указывая ни на лицо, ни на
время. Все глаголы в словаре даны в форме инфинитива.
Как правило, перед инфинитивом стоит частица to.
E.g. to go (ходить), to plough (пахать), to ask (спрашивать), to
translate (переводить), to travel (путешествовать).
Частица to не ставится после модальных глаголов, а также, после
глаголов: to make, to let, to see, to hear, to feel и некоторых других,
выражающих чувства и восприятие. Инфинитив имеет пять форм.

Формы инфинитива
Aspect ↓ Voice→ Active Passive
to ask (спрашивать) to be asked
Indefinite (Simple) (опрашиваться)

to be asking (спрашивать ---------------------------


Continuous в опред. момент)
to have asked (уже to have been asked
Perfect спросить) (уже быть
опрошенным)

Упражнения
1. Определите форму инфинитива.
To collect, to have been collected, to use, to have used, to be using, to
have been done, to write, to have written, to be writing, to feed, to have
repaired, to be repairing, to have been repaired, to be visited, to represent,
to have been represented, to be keeping, to be feeding, to have been fed, to
have limited, to be approved, to approve, to have been approved, to sow, to
be sowing.

2. Образуйте форму инфинитива, указанную в скобках.


to plant (Perfect Active), to work (Continuous Active), to buy
(Indefinite Passive), to protect (Perfect Passive), to remain (Indefinite
Active), to protect (Continuous Active), to understand (Perfect Active), to
misunderstand (Perfect Passive).

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3. Выберите правильный перевод инфинитива.


To do (делать, сделать), to be writing (быть написанным, писать в
определённый момент), to have been built (уже построить, уже быть
построенным), to be sent (отправлять, быть отправленным), to be
approved (одобрять, быть одобренным), to approve (уже одобрить,
одобрять), to have asked (спрашивать, уже спросить), to be feeding
(кормить, кормить в определённый момент), to be discussing
(обсуждать в данный момент, обсуждаться в данный момент), to have
been understood (понять, быть понятым), to be developed (развивать,
развиваться).
Функции инфинитива

Функция Перевод Пример


Подлежащее (стоит 1)Инфинитив To read is useful.
в начале 2)Существительное (Читать полезно. Чтение
предложения) полезно).
Неформальное It is necessary to go there.
подлежащее в (Необходимо поехать туда.
предложениях, Поездка туда необходима).
начинающихся с
“it”
To read this article they went
to the reading-room. (Чтобы
Обстоятельство Чтобы+инфинитив прочитать эту статью, они
цели пошли в читальный зал.)

Часть сказуемого Инфинитив He must go there. (Он должен


пойти туда).
Дополнение 1)Инфинитив I like to read.(Я люблю
2)Существительное читать. Мне нравится
чтение).
Определение Который… (часто The man to go there is my
со значением brother. (Человек, который
долженствования) поедет туда - мой брат).

4. Обращая внимание на функции инфинитива, переведите


предложения.
1) Westminster Abbey is one of the most attractive places in London to
be visited by tourists. 2) To raise the fertility of soil is the problem of the
world agriculture. 3) To raise the fertility of the soil they use mineral
fertilizers. 4) The variety to be sown is of good quality. 5) They like to be
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in New York where buildings can reach the sky. 6) It is very exciting to
see the Statue of Liberty. 7) We promised to come early in the morning. 8)
Our farmers have to do much in order to raise the efficiency of agriculture.
9) To maintain peace and security in the world the United Nations
Organization was founded in October 1945. 10) I like to read horror books.
11) He went to London to study English. 12) It is easy to do it. 13) It is too
good to be true.

5. Сравните the Active Infinitive и the Passive Infinitive. Переведите


предложения на русский язык.
1) I want to be told the results in advance. – I’ll tell you in advance.
2) Cabbages like to be intensively watered. 3) Which is more pleasant to
give or to be given presents? 4) Nature has many secrets to be discovered.
5) He doesn’t want to be disturbed. 6) Visitors like to be entertained.
7) People in the USA celebrate Independence Day to be held on the 4 th of
July. 8) To improve your pronunciation you should record yourself and
then analyze your speech. 9) No one likes to be cheated. 10) The moving
parts of the tractor are to be repaired.

6. Сравните the Indefinite Infinitive и the Perfect Infinitive.


Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1) I am glad to see you. 2) I am glad to have seen you. 3) The child was
happy to have been brought home. 4) I’m sorry to have broken your cup.
5) Maggie was so happy to have passed the exams. 6) The farmers are
ready to start their work in the fields. 7) The sea is one of the greatest
wonders of the world to be on the Earth. 8) The sea is one of the greatest
wonders of the world to have been on the Earth. 9) We are glad to have
visited National Museum. 10) They hope to visit California in future.

Инфинитивные обороты
Предикативные инфинитивные обороты выступают в роли
сложного дополнения и сложного подлежащего. Инфинитивный
оборот с предлогом for может также выступать в роли обстоятельства
и именной части сказуемого. Рассмотрим структуры инфинитивных
оборотов.
Сложное подлежащее – (Complex subject)
Подлежащее + формальное сказуемое (как правило, в
страдательном залоге) + инфинитив с частицей to

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E.g. He is known to be a good driver. Может переводиться: простым


предложением с вводной фразой, сложноподчинённым
предложением, неопределенно-личным предложением. 1) Он, как
известно, хороший шофёр. 2) Известно, что он хороший шофёр.
3) Его знают как хорошего шофера.
Следует обращать внимание на форму инфинитива: если
инфинитив перфектный, то действие будет относиться к прошедшему
времени.
E.g. They are reported to have left the USA. 1) Они, как передают,
уже покинули США. 2) Передают, что они уже покинули США.
!!! Некоторые глаголы в качестве формального сказуемого
употребляются в действительном залоге. Запомните их: to seem, to
happen, to appear, to prove, to be likely, to be unlikely, to be sure, to
be certain.
E.g. It seems to be raining. (Кажется, идёт дождь). You appear to
manage all the problems. (По-видимому, Вы справитесь со всеми
делами ). She is unlikely to come here. (Вряд ли она приедет сюда).
Сложное дополнение – (The Complex object)
Подлежащее+сказуемое+сущ. или личное мест. в объектном
падеже+инфинитив После некоторых глаголов инфинитив
употребляется без частицы to. Переводится сложноподчинённым
предложением
E.g. The President wants Congress to approve this project.
(Президент хочет, чтобы Конгресс одобрил этот проект). My mother
wants me to come in time. (Моя мама хочет, чтобы я пришёл
вовремя). They saw the farmers work in the field. (Они видели, как
фермеры работают на поле).
Предложный инфинитивный оборот – (For -to- infinitive
construction)
Инфинитивный оборот с предлогом for состоит из предлога
for+существительное или местоимение в объектном падеже (хотя при
переводе на русский язык местоимение будет стоять в именительном
падеже)+инфинитив с частицей to. Весь оборот рассматривается как
один сложный член предложения и может выполнять в предложении
функции подлежащего, части сказуемого, обстоятельства и
определения.
E.g. It is necessary for a farmer to be hard-working. ( Фермеру нужно
быть трудолюбивым ). It is for me to do it. ( Это я должен сделать это
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). He stepped aside for me to pass. ( Он отошёл в сторону, чтобы я


смог пройти ). The first thing for him to do is to report everything to
the chief. ( Первое, что он должен сделать, это доложить обо всём
начальнику ).
Упражнения
1. Выберите правильный вариант.
1) She … to speak on TV. a) expect b) is expecting c) is expected 2) They
… to have lived in Vienna for a long time. a) is believed b) are believed c)
believe 3) Your roses … to give new buds. a) seem b) seems c) is seeming

2. Поставьте частицу “to” где необходимо.


1) He asked me … check the facts. 2) They made me … repeat my story.
3) Everybody heard him … say it. 4) We allowed them … carry out the
experiment. 5) What makes you … suspect him? 6) Mark asked me not …
tell this to anyone. 7) She felt blood … rush to her face.

3. Найдите предложение(я), где “for” переводится как “чтобы”.


1) It is better for you. 2) It is better for you to come in time. 3) We
waited him for an hour. 4) As for me I don’t like winter. 5) She has been
living in London for two years. 6) These flowers are for you. 7) Farmers
decided to build a new school for their children to study in better
conditions.
4. Переведите предложения с инфинитивными оборотами.
1) Jack is considered to be a good engineer. 2) The bridge can be raised
for large ships to pass. 3) We shall drive slowly for you to see the sights.
4) Oscar Wilde is considered to have been a good stylist. 5) I expect him to
be back on Sunday. 6) We expect him to be very talented. 7) He heard the
telephone ring. 8) The capital of London is too noisy for me to live there.
9) Hollywood appears to be the factory of film stars. 10) It would be
wrong for them to support the project. 11) The budget is known to have
been adopted. 12) We want your team to win the game. 13) For the plan to
be launched on time the management employed new workers. 14) Mr.
Hudson is reported to have flown from France to Britain. 15) The
agronomist recommended a new fertilizer to be applied to winter wheat.
16) My roses are unlikely to withstand this soil. 17) An important
discovery in the sphere of ecology was announced to have been made.
18) He ordered everything to be arranged. 19) The facts seem to have been
proved. 20) A new irrigation canal was built for the water problems to be
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solved. 21) They appeared to have lost the way. 22) The milking
machines seemed to be in good conditions. 23) Cattle breeders want the
new feeding supplements to be rich in vitamins.

5.♫ Прослушайте диалоги и тексты, обращая внимание на


инфинитивные обороты. Прочитайте их с правильной
интонацией. Составьте свои диалоги. (104, 105)
a) – Could he answer all the questions?
– Yes, he could. They were easy enough for him
to answer.
– Could he answer all the questions?
– No, he couldn’t. They were too difficult for him
to answer.
– Could they hear the radio?
– Yes, they could. It was loud enough for them to hear.
– Could they hear the radio?
– No, they couldn’t. It was too low for them to hear.
– Could she eat the orange?
– Yes, she could. It was sweet enough for her to eat.
– Could she eat the orange?
– No, she couldn’t. It was too sour for her to eat.
– Could he buy the car?
– Yes, he could. It was cheap enough for him to buy.
– Could he buy the car?
– No, he couldn’t. It was too expensive for him to buy.
– Could he climb over the wall?
– Yes, he could. It was low enough for him to climb.
– Could he climb the wall?
– No, he couldn’t. It was too high for him to climb.
b) – Where's Miss Simpson, Bob? I want her.
– Do you want to speak to her, sir?
– Yes, I do. I want her to come to my office. Tell her to come at once.
– Did you want to see me, sir?
– Ah, yes, Miss Simpson. How do you spell "Intelligent"? Can you tell
me?
– I-N-T-E-L-L-I-G-E-N-T.

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– That's right. You've typed it with only one "L". This letter's full of
mistakes. I want you to type it again.
– Yes, sir. I'm sorry about that.
– And here's a little present for you.
– What is it?
– It's a dictionary. I hope it will help you.

6. Прочитайте и переведите текст, обращая внимание на


инфинитив и инфинитивные обороты.
Text
Weather forecast
The weather is known to affect many aspects of our life and
researchers are constantly looking for ways in jrder to produce accurate
forecasts. Our ability to predict the weather depends on the information
we have. For specialists to collect weather data special equipment is
used. The data include amount of rainfall, temperature and wind speed
and direction from all over the world. Computers make a comparison
between these present-day figures and historic records then try to
predict the future on the basis of the past. People hope the computers to
produce a detailed picture of the likely weather using a model of the
Earth in their memories. Even with these aids, nature is so unpredictable
and our forecasts are unlikely to be accurate for a week, only for some
days.

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MODAL VERBS
Модальные глаголы

В английском языке существует особая группа глаголов, которые


называются модальными. Они не обозначают действия, а выражают
отношение к нему, т.е. возможность, вероятность, или необходимость
совершения действия. Это: can (могу, умею: умственная и
физическая способность; возможность, обусловленная
обстоятельствами; разрешение ), may (могу, смею: разрешение, –
можно), must (должен, необходимо: обязательство; в отрицат.
предложениях запрет – нельзя), should (следует: совет), ought to
(необходимо, обязан), don’t have to (не нужно, нет необходимости не
обязательно). У модальных глаголов есть ряд характерных
особенностей: 1) они не имеют личных форм – инфинитива,
герундия, причастия; 2) не имеют формы будущего времени (гл.
must, should, ought to не имеют форм прошедшего времени); 3) они
не изменяются по лицам и числам, т.е. в третьем лице ед. числе к ним
не прибавляется окончание -s; 4) после них не ставится частица
to (за исключением ought to). 5) они не являются самостоятельным
членом предложения, а вместе с инфинитивом образуют составное
глагольное сказуемое; 6) в вопросительных и отрицательных
предложениях они занимают место вспомогательного глагола; 7) у
модальных глаголов есть эквиваленты, имеющие то же самое
значение.
Modal verb and Present Past Future
its equivalent
can I can swim well. I could swim I will be able to
to be able to well. swim well.
may I may take this I was allowed to I will be allowed to
to be allowed to book. take this book. take this book.
must/should I must help my I was to help my I will have to help
(ought to) brother. You brother. I had to my brother. I will
to be to, to have should come in rewrite the test. have to rewrite the
to time. test.

Модальные эквиваленты могут употребляться также в настоящем


времени наравне с модальными глаголами. E.g. I have to help my
brother.

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* Обратите внимание на то, как меняются глаголы в некоторых


кратких ответах для точной передачи смысла.
I can play the piano. Can you play the piano? – Yes, I can / No, I
can’t (cannot). You may come in. May I come in? – Yes, you may /
No, you mustn’t* (нельзя). He must go there. Must he go there? –
Yes, he must. / No, he needn’t* (нет необходимости).
* Обратите внимание на то, как меняются глаголы в некоторых
кратких ответах для точной передачи смысла.

Упражнения

1. Выберите подходящий вариант: can (can’t), may (not), should


(not), must (not).
1) I ( надо ) water my roses.
2) We ( можем ) go sightseeing because the weather is fine.
3) You ( нельзя ) cross the street here.
4) He ( мог ) see lots of interesting things in London.
5) If you have done the work you ( можешь ) go home.
6) ( можно ) I take this pen?
7) ( можешь ) you translate this text without a dictionary?
8) One ( невозможно ) see anything from this window.
9) You ( нельзя ) smoke here.
10) What ( могу ) I do for you?

2. Переведите на русский язык.


а) 1. Her grandmother can knit very well. 2. I can answer the questions.
They are very easy. 3. This trip is too expensive for me. I can't afford it. 4.
She can type. She can speak well on the telephone. She hopes she can find
the job she's looking for. 5. Can you go to have lunch with me? — I'm
sorry. I can't. 6. Mike can run very fast. 7. They can understand French. 8.
Kate can speak English well. 9. My brother can come and help you in the
garden. 10. Can you speak Spanish? 11. Can your brother help me with
mathematics? 12. I can sing, but I cannot dance. 13. Can't you wait till
tomorrow morning? — I can wait, but my toothache can't.
в) 1. They can (never) appreciate your kindness. 2. I was sure you could
translate that article (after you had translated so many texts on physics).
3. You can go to the country (when you have passed your last

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examination). 4. We can pass to the next exercise (when we have done this
one). 5. I can give you my book for a couple of days (after I have read it).

3. Переведите на русский язык.


а) 1. May I take your pen? 2. You may go now. 3. If you have done your
homework, you may go for a walk. 4. May I ask you a question? 5. May I
go to the post office with Mike? 6. May I take Pete's bag? 7. May we take
notes with a pencil? 8. You may not cross the street when the light is red.
9. May I shut the door? 10. It stopped raining, and mother said that we
might go out. 11. May children play with your dog?
b) 1. He was not allowed to smoke in the room. 2. We are allowed to make
the experiment in the laboratory. 3. Kate will be allowed to put on
mother’s earings. 4. They are allowed to visit granny in the hospital.
5. The students are allowed to use dictionaries during exams in English.

4. Переведите на русский язык.


a) 1. You must work hard at your English. 2. You must learn the words.
3. Must we learn the poem by heart? 4. You must not talk at the lessons.
6. Everybody must come to school in time. 7. You must not make notes in
the books. 9. I must help my mother today. 10. You must not argue with
the boss. 11. She must stop eating much and she must lose weight. 12. You
must stop smoking! If you don't, you're going to have serious problems
with your lungs some day.
b) 1. I have not written the composition. I shall have to write it on Sunday.
2. We did not have to buy biscuits because our granny had baked a
delicious pie. 3. Will you have to get up early tomorrow? 4. I had to do a
lot of homework yesterday. 5. She had to stay at home because she did not
feel well.

5. Переведите предложения с a) modal verbs; b) modal equivalents.


a) 1) We must use new methods in our research work. 2) Thanks to your
help we could see the most interesting places in London. 3) Thank you,
you may go now. 4) We cannot use another fertilizer at our
experimental plot. 5) Warm winds from the Atlantic can easily penetrate
British Isles. 6) May I use your phone? 7) You shouldn’t neglect your
duties. 8) We must take two exams. 9) He should learn to be more polite.
10) I think you ought to make more time for yourself to relax.
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b) 1) She was to prepare a report on biology. 2) Romans had to build


many roads in early Britain. 3) She will be allowed to watch the new
project before the conference. 4) They are to study various natural
phenomena and to make all kinds of observations. 5) They were allowed to
occupy the laboratory in the morning. 6) She is able to correct my project.
7) He had to book the room beforehand. 8) The conference will take place
in our largest hall; therefore we shall be able to invite many people.
9) These questions had to be discussed at the last meeting.

6. Задайте вопросы к предложениям. Дайте отрицательные


ответы.
1) I may borrow his pen. 2) We can try this new method. 3) She must go to
Moscow. 4) You should visit the Tate Gallery. 5) They may go home.
6) We can do it ourselves. 7) My cat may sleep in my bed. 8) We should
take care of them.

7. Поставьте предложения в прошедшее и будущее время,


используя модальные эквиваленты.
1) My friend can do this work himself. 2) You must be there. 3) This
young man cannot take part in our meeting today. 4) We must hurry up to
catch the train. 5) Mary may take my car today.

Некоторые особенности перевода модальных глаголов.


Как было отмечено выше, помимо основного значения некоторые
модальные глаголы могут иметь второе значение, которое не
распространяется на их эквиваленты.

модальный значение примеры и перевод


глагол
can ( could ) 1) способность, 1) I can speak English. ( Я умею
умение; разговаривать по-английски).
2) предположение, 2) It can snow. (Возможно,
сомнение пойдёт снег).
may ( might ) 1)возможность, 1) May I come in? (Можно мне
разрешение; войти?) 2) It may rain. (Возможно,
2) предположение, пойдёт дождь)
сомнение
must 1) необходимость; 1) She must work hard. (Ей приходится
2) предположение, упорно работать). 2) This must be your
уверенность coat. (Должно быть, это Ваше пальто).
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8. Переведите предложения.
1) Originally, the Earth’s temperature must have been extremely high.
2) She may be at home. 3) It can be stopped. 4) She must be late. 5) She
must have been late. 6) They can come soon. 7) The weather may change.
8) It must be very interesting. 9) They must be still working. 10) It can be
quite cold here at night. 11) 2000 dollars for that old car? You must be
joking! 12) Don’t go alone, you may lose your way. 13) It must be very
difficult to learn Chinese. 14) Let me see: I ... not come tomorrow, for I
must be at the meeting, but on Sunday I'll find time.

9.♫ Прослушайте диалоги, обращая внимание на модальные


глаголы. Прочитайте их с правильной интонацией. Составьте
свои диалоги. (77)
– Good morning, Mr Croft.
– Good morning, nurse. I want to see the dentist, please.
– Have you an appointment?
– No, I haven't.
– Is it urgent?
– Yes, it is. It's very urgent. I feel awful. I have a terrible toothache.
– Can you come at 10 a.m. on Monday, April 24th?
– I must see the dentist now, nurse.
– The dentist is very busy at the moment.
– Can you come at 2 p.m.?
– That's very late.
– Can't the dentist see me now?
– I'm afraid that he can't, Mr Croft.
– Can't you wait till this afternoon?
– I can wait, but my toothache can't!

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NUMERALS
Числительные
cardinal numerals ordinal numerals (порядковые)
(количественные)
1 one 1st first
nd
2 two 2 second
3 three 3d third
th
4 four 4 fourth
th
5 five 5 fifth
th
6 six 6 sixth
th
7 seven 7 seventh
th
8 eight 8 eighth
th
9 nine 9 ninth
th
10 ten 10 tenth
th
11 eleven 11 eleventh
th
12 twelve 12 twelfth
th
13 thirteen 13 thirteenth
th
14 fourteen 14 fourteenth
th
20 twenty 20 twentieth
st
21 twenty-one 21 twenty-first
nd
32 thirty-two 32 thirty-second

40 – forty, 50 – fifty
100 – a hundred, one hundred, 300 – three hundred
1000 – a thousand, one thousand
5000 – five thousand
5067 – five thousand and sixty-seven
1 000 000 – a million, one million

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Словообразование при помощи аффиксов


Слова в английском языке образуются путем аффиксации, когда к
началу или концу слова (корня) прибавляются префиксы en-joy, dis-
like, re-read или суффиксы develop-ment, self-ish.
Аффиксы — это префиксы и суффиксы. Префиксы стоят в начале
слова, а суффиксы — в конце.
Префиксы, как правило, изменяют значение слова, но не меняют его
принадлежности к той или иной части речи:
order (существительное) порядок — disorder (существительное)
беспорядок.
Суффиксы служат для образования одной части речи из другой:
beauty (существительное) красота — beautiful (прилагательное)
красивый.
Префиксы
Префиксы с отрицательным значением
Префиксы с отрицательным значением — un-, in-, dis-, non-.
Un-
comfortable — uncomfortable,
limited — unlimited.
Префикс un- иногда присоединяется к глаголам для выражения
противоположного действия:
to load — to unload,
to lock — to unlock,
In-
ability — inability,
complete — incomplete.
Перед l префикс in- превращается в il-, перед r — в ir-, а перед m и p
— в im-:
legal — illegal,
regular — irregular,
patient — impatient.
Dis-
Этот префикс выражает отрицание или противоположное действие:
отрицание противоположное действие
to like — to dislike, to appear — to disappear,
honest — dishonest, to arm — to disarm.
Non-
Слова с префиксом non- чаще всего пишутся через дефис:
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conductor — non-conductor.
Префиксы с разными значениями
anti- отрицание
анти- противо-
fascist - antifascist
co- между, взаимно
existence – co-existence
counter- контр-
attack - counterattack
ex- бывший, экс-
champion – ex-champion
en- делать, воплощать, усиливать
rich – enrich
inter- между, среди, взаимно
national - international
mis- неправильно, неверно
to understand – to misunderstand
over- сверх, чрезмерно, пере-
to load – to overload
post- после (противоположен по значению префиксу pre-)
war – postwar
pre- перед, ранее, до-
historic - prehistoric
re- снова, заново, вновь, пере-
to read – to reread
sub- под
division – subdivision
ultra- ультра-, сверх
short - ultrashort
under- недостаточно (противоположен по значению префиксу over-)
to pay - to underpay

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Основные суффиксы имён существительных

-er, -or, -r a worker, a farmer, a doctor


-ist a specialist, an economist, a scientist
-ure a lecture, a culture, agriculture
-ion, -ation, -ian cultivation, session, examination
-ship friendship, scholarship, worship
-ment development, improvement,
armament
-ence/ance importance, maintenance
-dom kingdom
-ness usefulness
-man fireman
-age passage
-y poverty
-hood childhood
-ism Marxism

Суффиксы прилагательных

-ful helpful, beautiful


-less useless, jobless
-ic periodic, scientific
-al natural, agricultural
-able comfortable, changeable
-ant (-ent) important, different, ignorant
-ive effective, progressive
-y frosty, angry
-ous famous, serious
-an American, human
-ar popular, regular
-ish selfish, reddish
-en woolen, silken, golden, wooden
-like bird-like

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Тексты с лексико-грамматическими заданиями

Text 1
Washington D.C.

Washington D.C. is known to be the capital of the United States. It is


sometimes called the heart of America because it is the centre of its
government. The capital was named after the first president George
Washington. It was founded in 1790. It is situated on the Potomac River in
the District of Columbia. Washington is not the largest city in the country.
Its population is only 900 000.
There are a lot of long wide avenues, gardens, beautiful parks in
Washington. But there are no skyscrapers. The White House is much
written about. It’s President’s residence. All American presidents except
George Washington lived there. It was built in 1799.
Washington is a large scientific and cultural centre. Big institutes and
universities are located here. One of the most famous buildings is the
Pentagon. It is known as the residence of the US Military department. It is
situated to the South of Potomac.
Why is the White House white? For us to know it there is a historic
event dated to 1812. We know England to have been at war with America
at that period of time. The British captured the city and some of the
buildings, including President’s House, were set on fire. In 1814, for the
marks of the fire to be hidden, the brown stone walls of President’s home
were painted white – and it has been the “White House” ever since.

Word list
government – правительство
to be founded – быть основанным
skyscraper – небоскреб
event – событие
to capture – захватить
to set on fire – сжечь

Задания к тексту 1
1. Прочитайте и переведите текст.
2. Найдите в тексте предложения со страдательным залогом.

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3. Найдите в тексте предложения с инфинитивными


оборотами.
4. Найдите предложение с конструкцией there is/are и задайте к
нему вопросы (общий, специальный).
5. Ответьте на вопрос: What new information have you learnt
from the text? Начните свой ответ с фразы: I have learnt about
(that) …
Text 2
Vegan Living

A large number of people do not eat meat. Vegans have taken this a
step further by refusing to consume or use anything that comes from
animals. This means that they not only do not eat meat, but they do not eat
fish, poultry or dairy products either. So why have vegans adopted this
way of life? Although a vegan diet may be strict, there are certain
advantages to be gained.
Firstly, because a vegan diet is law in fat and cholesterol, the risk of
heart disease is reduced.
Secondly, there is less pressure on farmers to keep animals under
cruel conditions to produce milk, eggs and poultry.
On the other hand, humans are natural meat eaters and some essential
ingredients in our diet can only come from animal products. For example,
we cannot get enough vitamin B12 from plants, so vegans have to take this
vitamin, made from yeast (дрожжи), as a supplement to their diet.
Moreover, the human digestive system cannot digest certain plant
proteins, and this can lead to stomach problems.
Although there are some disadvantages to adopting such a strict diet,
I feel that overall; it is a healthier way of life. Furthermore, it is cruel to
kill animals for food and if everybody adopted a vegan diet, our whole
outlook on life would change for the better.

Word list
vegans – вегетарианцы
to refuse – отказаться
to consume – потреблять (зд. в пищу)
natural meat eaters – природные мясоеды
way of life – образ жизни
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strict – строгий
disease – болезнь
digestive system – система пищеварения
cruel – жестокий, жестоко

Задания к тексту 2
1. Прочитайте и переведите текст.
2. Найдите в тексте существительные в роли определения.
3. Найдите в тексте предложения с глаголом to have и
определите его функцию.
4. Найдите в тексте прилагательные в сравнительной степени.
5. Найдите в тексте предложения, содержащие герундий.
6. Составьте небольшое сообщение о вашем отношении к
данной проблеме. В своем ответе коснитесь следующих
пунктов:
Why vegan living is becoming popular nowadays;
What advantages and disadvantages of vegan living are;
Whether you adopt vegan living or not, and why
Use the linking phrases:
Without any doubt, …; Firstly, …; Secondly, …; Last but not least
However, …; In my opinion, …; On the one (other) hand, …; To sum it
up, …

Text 3
Copper

As you all know today’s topic is the latest trend in alternative


medical treatments involving the natural mineral copper.
There is no doubt that copper, along with other minerals, is essential
to our general health. Copper is known to help the body to absorb iron and
vitamin C, as well as helping keep bones strong and healthy. In fact,
copper is found in almost all body tissue, the highest concentration being
in the liver and the brain.
So, where do we get copper from? Well, as with the other vitamins
and minerals our bodies require, we get what we need from the food we
eat. A healthy varied diet including nuts, vegetables and olive or sunflower
oil will provide us with our daily requirements of copper. Copper
deficiency is usually only found in children suffering from malnutrition
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and can cause breathing difficulties and skin problems as well as a lack of
resistance to disease.
Another health problem linked to a copper deficiency is anaemia.
This is a condition that occurs when red blood cells do not carry enough
oxygen to the body tissues. Because copper helps absorb iron, which
maintains red blood cells, someone with a lack of copper in their system
could become anaemic. The symptoms of anaemia include tiredness,
weakness and difficulty in thinking clearly.
But it is also important that we don’t overdo it. A diet including too
much copper can be harmful. It can cause nausea and intestinal disorders
as well as reducing resistance to infection. However many people who
suffer from rheumatism and arthritis say that wearing a copper bracelet
helps to relieve the pain. Some even swear that it helps them get rid of
headaches.
Word list
treatment – лечение
copper – медь
to absorb – поглощать, впитывать
to suffer from … – страдать
body tissue – ткани тела
liver – печень
brain – мозг
skin – кожа
blood cells – клетки крови
tiredness – усталость
to overdo – превысить норму
intestinal disorders – кишечные расстройства

Задания к тексту 3
1. Прочитайте и переведите текст.
2. Найдите в тексте предложения, содержащие:
а) инфинитивные обороты; б) причастные обороты и
определите их тип.
3. Найдите слова с суффиксом –ness и определите их часть
речи.
4. Найдите слова с –ing окончанием и определите их часть
речи.

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5. Ответьте на вопрос: What new information have you learnt


from the text? Начните свой ответ с фразы: I have learnt about
(that) …
Text 4
World Food Problems

The essence of agricultural enterprise is providing food, the right food to


sustain people’s life and their health. All people must not only have
enough to eat, but they must have enough information to know what to eat.
A healthy diet is the cornerstone of good health. Many people work in
the field of nutrition and meal planning, among them agricultural
producers, educators, and students.
Availability of food within a country is often not a problem; it is the
lack of purchasing power that is the problem. Incomes in many developing
countries are insufficient to purchase a nutritionally adequate diet. In 1990,
per capita GNP in the developed countries exceeded $20 000. Incomes in
the developing countries averaged less than $1 000. The problem lies not
only in the low income levels, but also in low growth rates. Too little food
and a limited variety of food are serious problems in a great number of
developing countries, particularly in Africa. Both problems can usually be
traced to resource characteristics, government policies, or both. Hot desert
winds, infrequent rains contribute to low yield of a few adapted crops.
It is well known that a lot of the world’s people do not live where much
of the world’s food is produced. Industrial countries produce about half of
the world’s grain, but they have less than fourth of the world’s population.
In most cases, it is possible to reduce both chronic and transitory food
problems, but solutions can be costly and they require planning.

Word list
essence – суть, сущность
to sustain – поддерживать
healthy diet – здоровое питание
cornerstone = basis, main thing
availability – наличие, доступность
income – доход
to be traced – прослеживаться
costly – дорогой, дорого, накладно
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Задания к тексту 4
1. Прочитайте и переведите текст.
2. Найдите в тексте предложения, содержащие:
а) усилительную конструкцию; б) прилагательные с
отрицательными приставками; в) страдательный залог.
3. Найдите слова с –ing окончанием и определите их часть
речи.
4. Ответьте на вопрос: What new information have you learnt
from the text? Начните свой ответ с фразы: I have learnt about
(that) …
Text 5
Ancient Greeks

The ancient Greeks built one of the greatest (civil) in the world. It
began some 4000 years ago when wandering tribes from (centre) Europe
came to the land that we now call Greece.
The country was developed over centuries. Cities were built. (craft)
made beautiful gold ornaments and btonze weapons. Art, music and poetry
flourished. Greeks had many gods, but the greatest was Zeus, king of the
gods. The (beautiful) of life in Athens can be seen from the ruins which
still remain.
About 2500 years ago the Greeks of Athens set up a new form of (to
govern), called democracy, which meant “rule by people”. All the (city)
had a right to say how they were to be ruled. This was an important new
idea.
Life in Athens was relaxed. Athenians built fine temples and public
buildings. They were very fond of art, (philisopher) and athletics.
Greek ideas have survived many centuries, and have had great
influence on the world.

Word list
ancient – древний
tribe – племя
weapon – оружие
to flourish – процветать
temple – храм

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Задания к тексту 5
1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Образуйте от слов в скобках
подходящие по смыслу.
2. Найдите в тексте предложения, содержащие:
а) степени сравнения прилагательных; б) страдательный залог.
3. Используя план, составьте краткий пересказ текста.

Plan
I The beginning of the civilization
II Flourishing of the nation
III First democracy
IV Life in Athens

Text 6
The Story of English

Nearly two thousand years ago the Romans invaded Britain and then
stayed there for 400 years. The Britons didn’t learn Latin; they continued
to speak their Celtic language.
The Angles and the Saxons came from Germany, and spoke a
Germanic language. They invaded Britain in the 7th century, and they
pushed the Celtic speakers into Scotland and Wales. Today some people in
Wales, Scotland and Ireland still speak Celtic languages.
In 1066 William the Conqueror and the Normans invaded England.
They came from Normandy in France, and they spoke French. At first the
two languages were quite separate. The King and the aristocrats spoke
French, and the ordinary people went on speaking Anglo-Saxon. But
slowly they mixed, their children played together, and Normans married
Anglo-Saxons. And little by little the languages also mixed. The result was
English. The grammar (including word order) was mostly Anglo-Saxon,
and a lot of words were French.
Chaucer wrote The Canterbury Tales in about 1387. It was one of the
first books in English.

Word list
Romans – римляне
to invade – вторгаться
to push – (зд.) вытеснять
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Chaucer – Джефри Чосер, английский поэт, «отец английской


поэзии».
The Canterbury Tales – Кантерберийские истории

Задания к тексту 6
1. Прочитайте и переведите текст.
2. Используя информацию текста, заполните таблицу и
прокомментируйте ее (на ее основе изложите содержание
текста).

Development of the language in the development of the country

Who invaded Where did When did What What was


the country? they come they come? language did the result?
from? they speak?
Romans …

3. Ответьте на вопрос: What new information have you got from


the text?

Text 7
Ecology

Ecology is the study of the interactions between organisms and their


environment The biosphere is a closed system. All of the materials
essential to life come from within it and must be recycled over and over
for life to continue.
The biosphere is divided into regions, called biomes, each with unique
plant and animal life. A biome is a region with a particular climate and
thus a particular type of vegetation and animal life. Precipitation and
temperature are the most important climatic factors.
Ecosystems are networks consisting of organisms, their environment,
and all the interactions that exist between them. Ecosystems consist of
biotic (living) and abiotic (nonliving) components. The biotic components
are physical and chemical factors needed for life. These are fungi, plants,
animals and microorganisms.
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Each organism operates within a range of tolerance.


In all ecosystems one abiotic factor usually limits growth and is
therefore called a limiting factor. Rainfall, temperature, sunlight etc. are
called abiotic factors.
Organic matter produced by living things is called biomass. Productivity
is the measure of biomass production. Regions with high productivity,
such as tropical rain forests, are important to people because they supply
many valuable resources.

Word list
environment – окружающая среда
essential to life – жизненно важный
to recycle – возобновляться
plant and animal life – растительный и животный мир
vegetation – растительность
a range of tolerance – предел допустимости
living things – живые существа
valuable – ценный

Задания к тексту 7
1. Прочитайте и переведите текст.
2. Найдите в тексте предложения, содержащие:
а) предложный инфинитивный оборот; б) причастия;
в) страдательный залог.
3. Задайте вопросы к предложениям:
а) Ecosystems consist of biotic (living) and abiotic (nonliving)
components.
б) In all ecosystems one abiotic factor usually limits growth.
в) Organic matter produced by living things is called biomass.

Text 8
Parts of Plants

There are two main parts of the plant: the root system below the ground
and the stem and leaves which are above the ground. In some cases roots
are found above the ground and stems grow below. The plants have roots,
leaves, main stem, flowers.

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The root fixes the plant in the soil, takes in food and water, and in some
cases stores food. The stem supports the leaves and flower which grow out
of it, acts as a channel between roots and the leaves, taking water and
foods from one to the other, and sometimes is used for storage.
The leaves are green, thin and arranged on the stem so that they get as
much light and air as possible. Inside the leaf there are veins which
strengthen it and carry water and foods.
The flower only appears at certain times in the life of a plant. The
stamens, the male part of the flower, produce pollen which fertilize the
female part of the flower, and this leads to the formation of a seed which
ripens on the plant.

Word list
root – корень
stem – стебель, ствол
storage – хранение
vein – вена, жилка
stamen – тычинка
pollen – пыльца
to fertilize – оплодотворять, удобрять
to ripen – созревать
Задания к тексту 8
1. Прочитайте и переведите текст.
2. Найдите в тексте существительные в роли определения.
3. Задайте вопросы к предложениям:
а) The root fixes the plant in the soil, takes in food and water.
б) The stem supports the leaves and flower.
в) Inside the leaf there are veins.
4. Используя информацию текста, заполните таблицу и
прокомментируйте ее (на ее основе изложите содержание
текста).

Part of a roots
plant
Function …

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Темы
Career in agriculture

Dialogue

– What do you think about career in agriculture?


– What are you interested in?
– Well … My father is an agricultural engineer and my mother is a
food technologist. Maybe I’ll try myself in food industry. I haven’t
made up my mind yet.
– The matter is agriculture is much more than the production,
marketing, and distribution of food. People involved in the
agricultural industry also work to produce raw materials for clothing,
shelter, energy, and medicine, as well as to provide opportunities for
recreation.
– You’re right, there are lots of options.Farms and ranches are only
two types of places where agricultural production occurs. Dairies,
fish hatcheries, nurseries, greenhouse facilities, forests, and
rangelands are also areas where plants and animals are raised for
food and other agricultural products.
– Consequently, there are also all kinds of problems with making
choice and putting all the ideas into practice.
– What do you mean by that?
– Lots of things: how to choose the right career for you, how to get
accepted by a university where you can go to study your specific
subject and finally where you can work after you finish your course.
– You’re right. The matter is on the one hand, this sphere is in great
demand.
– And on the other…?
– Unfortunately, it is not a well-paid profession.
– Looks like that. Modern society with its crises, unemployment and
inflation, makes a poor choice of profession a bad mistake. You can
choose a profession you really like, and face problems when looking
for a job. Or you can find a job you like, but it will be underpaid.
Nevertheless, I know quite a number of successful people who work
in agricultural production. They are professionals.
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– I’ll do my best to become a professional. I am interested in farm


production and recognize its importance for the society.There is such
a sense of satisfaction when you actually make something yourself.
– Whatever you decide to do, remember that you must work hard to be
wealthy.

Tasks
1. In pairs, act out the dialogue.
2. Using the dialogue match the translation of the phrases.

1)чувство удовлетворенности A I haven’t made up my mind yet.


2) проблема выбора B putting all the ideas into
practice
3) разведение рыб C to become a professional
4) питомники D fish hatcheries
5) осуществить все идеи на E a sense of satisfaction
практике
6) стать профессионалом Fnurseries
7)Я пока не принял G problems with making choice
окончательного решения
8)Дело в том,что … I The matter is …

3. Choose the correct variant.

Agriculture …
a) is the production, marketing, and distribution of food.
b) is a very broad concept.
c) includes only dairies, fish hatcheries, nurseries, greenhouse facilities,
forests, and rangelands are also areas where plants and animals are
raised for food and other agricultural products.
An advantage of working in agriculture is …
a) there are quite a number of successful people who work in
agricultural production.
b) it is not difficult to enter the university.
c) there is such a sense of satisfaction when you actually make
something yourself and your work is very important for a society.
A disadvantage of working in agriculture is …
a) this sphere is underpaid.
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b) there are problems when you’re looking for a job.


c) there are no successful people in this sphere.
4. Share your opinion about career in agriculture.
Speak about:
 the importance of agriculture
 the demand for particular specialists in the labour market
 sphere of your interests, your talents and personality
 career prospects

Use the phrases:


There is no doubt that …
It is better to make the right choice at the very beginning.
If you’re interested in … you can try yourself in …
A young person can specialize in …
finding the perfect match between your personality, interests, and skills

WHAT IS YOUR JOB?

Mark, Den and Anthony were fellow


students. They graduated from Harper
Adams University ten years ago. Now
they work in the sphere of agriculture.
Here is how they describe their work.
Mark: I am a science and engineering
expert who researches and develops strategies to process, package, and
safely distribute food products. Some my collegues work in laboratories to
investigate the physical and chemical properties of foods, while others are
employed by processing plants to design new production techniques. So
am I. Ultimately, we ensure the foods citizens consume are safe and
nutritious.
What is Mark’s job?
Den: I have an opportunity to apply my knowledge of animal biology,
biochemistry, molecular biology, and other life sciences in animal
breeding and genetics, nutrition, physiology, growth, behavior, and
management, zoo hygiene, ecology and microbiology; ichthyology and

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fish breeding. I am engaged in farm animals breeding, maintenance and


reproduction.
What is Den’s job?
Anthony: I’m a medical professional who protects the health and well-
being of both animals and people. My task is to diagnose and control
animal diseases and treat sick and injured animals. I also advise owners on
proper care of their pets and livestock. I have an opportunity to provide a
wide range of services in private practice, teaching, research, government
service, public health, military service, private industry, and other areas.
What is Anthony’s job?
(for help: veterinarian, food technologist, zoo-technic)

Text
Some information about Harper Adams University

Harper Adams University is a public university located close to the


village of Edgmond (near Newport), in Shropshire, England. It is a
specialist provider of higher
education for the agricultural
and rural sector.
Thomas Harper Adams, a
wealthy Shropshire gentleman
farmer who had died in 1892,
bequeathed his estate 'for the
purpose of teaching practical
and theoretical agriculture'.
Harper Adams College was
opened in 1901; Headworth
Foulkes was the first principal of the College and there were six
students. Now courses are offered via five academic departments:
 Animal Production, Welfare and Veterinary Sciences
 Crops and Environment Science
 Engineering
 Food Science and Agri-Food Supply Chain Management
 Land, Farm and Agri-Business Management
The University also offers a range of masters' courses (MSc, MEng
and MBA), research opportunities at PhD and post-doctoral levels, as well
as work-based learning opportunities.
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Tasks
1. Scan the text.
2. Answer the question: What new information have you got from
the text? Begin with:I have learnt that (about) …
3. Find information about history of your university and share it in
class.
4. In pairs, act out a conversation between students of two
universities: the university you study at and Harper Adams
University. Discuss: history, faculties, subjects, levels of study.

How to Apply for a Job

1. Find a job, research the


requirements, and ensure that
you meet them.
2. Write a resume and cover
letter.
3. Get some references from
past employers or professors.
4. Apply for the job in person, online, or by mail.
5. Contact the hiring manager after the one week after applying.
6. Submit your resume to lots of job portal services

How to Write a Resume

There is no doubt that having an up-to-date resume is highly


important. Resumes not only outline your education and work
history, but they can also point to specific projects you’ve worked on
or awards you’ve won. Information to include on your resume should
entail:
Your current contact information, including your full name,
phone number, mailing address, and email address.
Your educational background. List the colleges you have
attended (beginning with your most recent), the year you attended,
and any degrees or certificates earned.
Your work history for the past few years. The unofficial rule is
one resume page per ten years of experience. Be aware that large
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gaps in employment, or multiple jobs within a short amount of time,


will be something you may be asked about in an interview. Be sure to
include dates of employment, the company name, your title, and a
brief description of your activities.
Your relevant skills. This is your opportunity to list all the skills
you have acquired through the years. Knowledge of office
equipment, familiarity with computer operating systems, software
programs (such as Microsoft Office Suite or Adobe Creative Suite),
database experience, and other relevant information should be
included in your resume.

Task
Write your resume and act out an interview.

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Список использованной литературы

1. Klekovkina, Ye. Practice tests for the Russian State Exam / Ye.
Klekovkina, Malcoln Mann, Steve Taylore-Knowels. – Macmillan
Education, Oxford OX4 3PP, 2010. – 247 p.
2. Дмитриева, С.Ю. English for agricultural students. Английский
язык для студентов сельскохозяйственных вузов: учебное
пособие / С.Ю. Дмитриева. – Пенза: РИО ПГСХА, 2012. – 232 с.
3. Rundell, Michael. Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced
Learners / Michael Rundell, Michael Hoey. – International Students
Edition includes CD-ROM. – British Council, Macmillan Publishers
Limited, 2006. – 1692 c.
4. Голицынский, Ю.Б. Английский язык. Грамматика. Сборник
упражнений / Ю.Б. Голицынский. – 7 издание. – Москва: КАРО,
2011.
5. Безкоровайная, Г.Т. Planet of English: учебник английского
языка для учреждений НПО и СПО / Г.Т. Безкоровайная, Н.И.
Соколова – Москва: «Издательский центр «Академия», 2012.–
256 с.
6. Murphy, R. English Grammar in Use: Self-study Reference and
Practice Book for Intermediate Students / R. Murphy. – Cambridge
University Press: 4th. ed., 2012. – 394 p.

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Содержание

Unit 1 WORD ORDER ............................................................................. 4


Unit 2 T TO BE, TO HAVE, TO DO ..................................................... 13
Unit 3 THE NOUN ................................................................................. 26
Unit 4 DEGREES OF COMPARISON ................................................. 35
Unit 5 THERE IS / THERE ARE ........................................................... 43
Unit 6 TENSE SYSTEM IN ACTIVE VOICE ...................................... 47
Unit 7 TENSE SYSTEM IN PASSIVE VOICE .................................... 58
Unit 8 PARTICIPLES ............................................................................. 65
Unit 9 THE GERUND ............................................................................ 75
Unit 10 THAT, ONE, AS ....................................................................... 82
Unit 11 THE INFINITIVE AND INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTIONS .. 86
Unit 12 MODAL VERBS ...................................................................... 93
UNIT13 NUMERALS……………………………………………… 98
WORD-BUILDING………………………………………………… 99
TRAINING TEXTS………………………………………………… 102
References ........................................................................................... 118

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