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2 0 0 I Тренировочные варианты

15 The author states that a bike shop can serve different functions be­
cause ...
1) it can simply be a trusted place for bike servicing.
2) it can be a place where you get advice.
3) it can be a core part of the community.
4) it can be a place where you buy a cup of coffee.
Ответ:

16 Most people visit ordinary bike shops to ,


1) chat with the staff.
2) order broken parts of the bike.
3) buy a new bike.
4) repair broken parts of the bike.
Ответ:

17 In the UK a “substantial contraction” is caused b y .


1) the lack of cycling enthusiasts.
2) low rates of import bikes.
3) the fear of motor traffic.
4) the e-bike boom.
Ответ:

18 The main message of the article is th a t...


1) small bike shops struggle to survive.
2) a lot of small bike shops need reconstruction.
3) a lot of small bike shops close because of internet discounts.
4) the bicycle industry is having a tough time as their owners are very
old.
Ответ:
Письменная чааь. Вариант 13 |201

По окончании выполнения заданий 10—18 не забудьте перенести


свои ответы в БЛ АН К ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа
от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки.
При переносе ответов в заданиях 10 и 11 цифры записываются без
пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру
пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в
бланке образцами.

Раздел 3. Грамматика и лексика

Прочитайте приведённые ниж е тексты. Преобразуйте, если


необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк,
обозначенных номерами 19—25, так, чтобы они грамматически
соот вет ствовали содержанию текстов. Заполнит е пропуски
полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному
заданию из группы 19—25.

Protecting animals
The authorities in the Galapagos Islands
have banned the sale and use of fireworks.
19 The campaign already___________ to ANNOUNCE
help animals. Conservationists say that
animals suffered from elevated heart rates,
trembling and anxiety after pyrotechnic
20 events. The G alap ag o s_______ _____ LOCATE
about 1000km off the coast of mainland
Ecuador. The campaign against fireworks
21 ___________ in 2017. The measure, which BEGIN
takes immediate effect, bans transportation
of fireworks to the islands as well as
22 sale or use. THEY
I 202 I Тренировочные варианты

The Crow and the Pitcher


In a spell of dry weather, when the
Birds could find very little to drink, a
thirsty Crow found a pitcher with a little
water in it. But the pitcher was high and
had a narrow neck, and no matter how
23 h e ____________ , the Crow could not TRY
reach the water. The poor thing felt as if
he must die of thirst. Then an idea came
24 to h i m . ____________ up some small PICK
pebbles, he dropped them into the pitcher
one by one. With each pebble the water
25 rose a l i t t l e ____________ until at last it HIGH
was near enough so he could drink. In a
pinch a good use of our wits may help us
out.

Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Образуйте от слов, напе­


чат анных заглавными буквами в конце ст рок, обозначенных
номерами 26—31, однокоренные слова так, чтобы они грамматически
и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните
пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует
отдельному заданию из группы 26—31.

Ап experiment is а procedure used to make a


26 __________ , test something, or demonstrate DISCOVER
a fact. The steps of doing science experiments are
27 part of the ____________ _ method, which are SCIENCE
the rules for doing experiments. Step one involves
a problem, such as what is being investigated
or what problem needs to be solved? Step two
28 includes a ____________called a hypothesis, STATE
which is an explanation that can be tested with
an experiment.
т Письменная часть. Вариант 13 |203 |
II
The next step would be to design the
experiment to test the hypothesis, and then
conduct and control the experiment. As the
experiment is conducted, it is important to make
____________ . Finally, once the experiment has OBSERVE
been conducted and completed, it is important to
30 analyse the results and draw a ____ ________ . CONCLUDE
1^ This can also include a _____________with DISCUSS
other scientists as well.

Прочитайте текст с пропусками, обозначенными номерами


32—38. Эти номера соответствуют заданиям 32—38, в которых
представлены возможные варианты ответов. Запишите в поле
ответа цифру I, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному вами
варианту ответа.

Although healthy chocolate sounds too good to be true, recent


scientific studies suggest that one particular type of chocolate — dark
chocolate — may have some definite health 32_____________. Dark
chocolate has a higher concentration of one of the main ingredients in
chocolate: cocoa. Scientists believe that the cocoa in dark chocolate
might help to 33_____________certain risk factors for heart disease.
Cocoa beans contain substances called flavonoids. Flavonoids have been
linked to improved blood flow and lower blood pressure. Before you go
out and stock up on “healthy" dark chocolate, though, you should be
34____________ of a few things. More importantly, as with any “healthy"
food, scientists are quick to 35_ ________ out that moderation is key. A
little bit of dark chocolate is likely all you need. Eating too much chocolate
too often can lead to weight 36____________ and many related health
problems that could easily and quickly erase any benefits gained. The fat,
sugar, and calories in chocolate, if not eaten in 37____________ , can
lead to higher risk of high blood pressure, heart disease, and diabetes —
the very things the flavonoids are supposed to counteraet! If you want the
health benefits of dark chocolate, doctors suggest eating no more than three
ounces of dark chocolate per day. Also, be sure you're eating dark chocolate
with a cocoa content of 38_______________65 %. Three grams of dark
chocolate daily can still add 450 calories or more to your diet. To make
I 204 I Тренировочные варианты
w
up for these calories, you may want to decrease calories in other areas or
exercise more often.
https://www.wonderopolis.org/wonder/can-chocolate-be-good-for-you
32 1) aids 2) benefits 3) profits 4) gains

Ответ: | |

33 1) reduce 2 )deduce 3) introduce 4) conduce

Ответ:

34 1) conscious 2) fam iliar 3) acquainted 4) aware

Ответ: | |

35 1) refer 2) mention 3) point 4) remind

Ответ:

36 1) expansion 2) gain 3) boost 4) raise

Ответ: [ |

37 1) moderation 2) practice 3) need 4) safety

Ответ: [ [

38 1) at peace 2) at first 3) at last 4) at least

Ответ
О
Письменная часть. Вариант 13 |205 |

По окончании выполнения заданий 19—38 не забудьте перенести


свои ответы в БЛ АН К ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запиитте ответ справа
от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки.
При переносе ответов в заданиях 19—31 буквы записываются без
пробелов, запят ы х и других дополнительных символов. Каждую
букву или цифру пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с
приведёнными в бланке образцами.

Раздел 4. Письмо

Для ответов на задания 39 и 40 используйте бланк ответов № 2.


Черновые пометки могут делаться прямо на листе с заданиями, или
можно использовать отдельный черновик. При выполнении заданий
39 и 40 особое внимание обратите на то, что ваши ответы будут
оцениваться только по записям, сделанным в БЛАНКЕ ОТВЕТОВ
№ 2. Никакие записи черновика не будут учитываться экспертом.
Обратите внимание также на необходимость соблюдения указанного
объёма текста. Тексты недостаточного объёма, а такж е часть
текста, превышаюш,ая требуемый объём, не оцениваются. Запишите
сначала номер задания (39, 40), а затем ответ на него. _____________

39 You have received а letter from your English-speaking pen-friend


Charlie who writes:
Last week our Literature teacher asked us to read a short novel and
be prepare fo r the discussion. But I've seen the film based on the
novel. Do you like reading a book or watching its screen version?
Why? What film based on a great book would you recommend me
to watch ? What things make thisfilm great?
By the way, I've started a new hobby... ____
Write a letter to Charlie.
In your letter
—answer his questions
—ask 3 questions about his new hobby
Write 100—140 words.
Remember the rules of letter writing.
1
I 2 0 6 I Тренировочные варианты

Выберите только ОДНО из двух предложенных высказываний (40.1


или 40.2), укажите его номер в БЛАНКЕ ОТВЕТОВ № 2 и выразите
своё мнение по предложенной проблеме согласно данному плану.

Comment on the following statements.


40.1 Growing up in the countryside is better.
40.2 Not all museums are good fo r children.

What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?


Write 200—250 words.
Use the following plan:
— make an introduction (state the problem paraphrasing the given
statement)
— express your personal opinion and give 2—3 reasons for your
opinion
— express an opposing opinion and give 1-2 reasons for this
opposing opinion
— explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion
— make a conclusion restating your position

ВАРИАНТ 14

Раздел 1. Аудирование

Ш Вы услышите 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие


между высказываниями каждого говорящего A—F и ут вер­
ждениями, данными в списке 1—7. Используйте каждое утвер­
ждение, обозначенное соответствующей цифрой, только один
раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите
запись дважды. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. У вас есть 20
секунд, чтобы ознакомиться с заданием.

1. Ап Internet activity log improves your time management.


2. Reducing the time on the Internet is helpful.
3. Reckoning with the correspondence is an everyday habit.
Письменная часть. Вариант 14 | 207

4. It is necessary to organize the work area.


5. It is better to avoid multitasking.
6. Concentrating on the most important.
7. A plan list is made to achieve the goals.
Говорящий A В С D E F
Утверждение

Вы услышите диалог. Определите, какие из приведённых


утверж дений A —G соответствуют содержанию текста
(1 — True), какие не соответствуют (2 — False) и о чём
в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать
ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 — Not stated).
Занесите номер выбранного вами варианта ответа в таблицу.
Вы услышите запись дважды.

Miss Brown works in the school library.


He likes reading National Geographic and non-fiction books.
Sam always chooses books for reading himself.
D YA books are connected with certain age group of readers.
т Young-adult fiction doesn’t include novels and short stories.
F The settings of YA stories are limited.
Т Sam has already decided what book to speak about at the session.

Утверждение A В С D Е F G
Соответствие
диалогу

Вы услышите интервью. В заданиях 3—9 запишите в поле ответа


цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному вами варианту
ответа. Вы услышите запись дважды.

What inspired Joanna to visit Costa Rica?


1) Her travelling experiences.
2) An article in the magazine.
I 208 I Тренировочные варианты

3) Her relatives’journeys.
Ответ:

What does she think about packing?


1) She manages to pack all necessary things.
2) It is necessary to pack a little more.
3) She always forgets something.
Ответ: | |

How is she going to learn Spanish?


1) She wants to take Spanish classes.
2) She wants to learn Spanish in the village where they are staying
in.
3) She wants to learn Spanish while communicating with native
people.
Ответ:

Where did she buy souvenirs during her trip?


1) At the airport.
2) In small shops.
3) In big department stores.
Ответ:

What surprised Joanna most of all in Costa Rica?


1) Wonderful ocean.
2) Great shops.
3) Great wildlife.
Ответ:

What is the basic Costa Rican food?


1) Scones and sauces.
2) Seasonal fruit and vegetables.
Письменная часть. Вариант 14 |209

3) Rice and fish.


Ответ:

i J What interesting experience does she describe?


1) Buying tropical fruit.
2) Walking in the forest.
3) Watching birds.
Ответ: [ [

По окончании выполнения заданий 1—9 не забудьте перенести свои


ответы в БЛ АН К ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа от
номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки. При
переносе ответов в заданиях 1 и 2 цифры записываются без пробелов,
запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру пишите
в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в бланке
образцами. ____

Раздел 2. Чтение

10 Установите соответствие между текстами А—С и заголовками


1—8. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую
цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.

1. Exclusive fruit 5. Coming from another region


2. Containing full information 6. Enjoyed by the rich and the poor
3. A universal financial value 7. Based on chemical tests
4. Before military expeditions 8. Unexpected trade route

A. For a long time, scholars believed that the Maya did not have mar­
ketplaces. But Mayan cities had more people than their farms could
feed. Also, from AD 300—900, settlements included open spaces with
no clear purpose. These areas were big enough to be marketplaces,
and in 2007, samples were taken to be compared with a modern-day
market. The results showed that the open areas contained up to 40
times more chemicals found in all organic products than Mayan
streets or patios. It proved that the Maya had a market economy.
I 210 I Тренировочные варианты____________
т
B. In ancient Rome, lemons were available only to those who could
afford them. For over 1,000 years, only two citrus fruits were known
in the Mediterranean —the citron and the lemon. The latter was rare
enough in Rome to be very expensive and was prized by the rich for
its flavour and medicinal properties. A 2017 study found that lemons
arrived 400 years after the citron first delighted palates in the Me­
diterranean. In Rome, the earliest lemon was found in the Roman
Forum and the pieces were dated to the first century BC.
C. A surprising discovery was made when a recent study focused on
Irish gold. The artifacts were made during the Bronze Age as early
as 2500 BC. Analysis proved that the gold was not homegrown but
likely originated in Cornwall. There was no need to import. Ireland’s
gold was plentiful. Yet, the goldsmiths seemed to prefer their stock to
be a bit more “foreign.” This suggested that the only value they saw
in it was as something to be traded. The Irish-Cornwall gold trade
proves that the metal was coveted by different people for different
reasons.
D. In 2014, a single coin was found on Elcho Island. It was soon iden­
tified as a brass coin minted 1736-1795 in China during the Qing
dynasty. The first of its kind to be found in Northern Australia, it
supports contact between the locals of this remote island and China.
Thought to have occurred in the 1700s, it is the only evidence of the
Chinese trade reaching this comer of Australia. The coin may be the
first of many things linked to trading with China, but it is old news
to the Aboriginal community.
E. Plenty is known about the Maya and Aztecs’ love of the cacao bean,
which was served liquid and frothy. But little evidence existed about
chocolate’s influence in the American Southwest. Recently, resear­
chers looked at 75 clay pots from two elite sites - Pueblo Bonito,
dating to around AD 900, and Los Muertos in Arizona from the 14th
century. Two-thirds of the elite pots and other vessels that belonged
to ordinary citizens showed that chocolate was enjoyed by all levels
of society and was imported in huge quantities.
F. In 2015, archaeologists examined Monte Testaccio, an artificial hill
in central Rome made of clay shards. About 25 million of them. The
pieces belong to countless amphorae that were broken and stacked
Письменная часть. Вариант 14 | 211 |

together for three centuries. Each jar came with the equivalent of a
bar code—an inscription about content, weight, origin, jar maker’s
name, when it left for Rome, the arrival date, who imported it, and
taxes paid. This information enabled scientists to map the complex
web in the Mediterranean which brought goods to Rome nearly
2,000 years ago.
Г. Historically, the start of the Viking Age is June 793. That month,
the Norwegians sailed over to an English island called Lindisfame
and sacked it. However, a 2015 study of combs carved from reindeer
antlers is changing the Viking story. The combs were retrieved from
Ribe, one of Denmark’s oldest trade hub. Reindeer are not native to
Demnark, but they did shed their antlers all over Norway. The Vi­
kings probably honed their famous maritime skills by taking antlers
to Ribe’s market. Antler combs were big business during this time
and the centuries that followed.
https;//listverse.com/2017/12/28/top-10-fascinating-finds-about-ancient-
trade/

A В C D E F G
Ответ;

11 Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A—F частями


предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1—7. Одна из частей
в списке 1—7 лиш няя. Занесите цифры, обозначающие
соответствующие части предложений, в таблицу.

There’s one letter in the alphabet that almost no one can write. It’s a
letter everyone can read, but a new study finds A ____ _____________ .
The lowercase letter “g” has two forms: the “opentail” one most people
use, and the “looptail” form commonly seen in print and online in fonts
such as Times New Roman. Researchers from Johns Hopkins University
found that В ___________________ , most people can’t write it or
even correctly identify when it’s on its own. “We think that if we look at
something enough, especially C as we do during
reading, then we would know what it looks like,” Michael McCloskey, the
study’s senior author, said in a news release. “But our results suggest that’s
not always the case.” When presented with four versions of it — three of
I 212 I Тренировочные варианты____________

them incorrect — 7 out of 25 people were able to pick the right “g.” “We
would say: ‘There’re two forms of g. Can you write them?’ And people
would look at us and just stare for a moment because they had no idea,”
Kimberly Wong, a junior undergraduate at Johns Hopkins, said in a news
release. “Once you really nudged them on, D ___________________ ,
some would still insist there is no second g.” In yet another experiment,
16 people were given a paragraph that showed the looptail g 14 times.
Respondents were asked to speak each word aloud, then researchers
requested E __________________ . Half wrote the opentail form anyway,
and while the rest attempted the looptail g, only one wrote it correctly.
“Our findings give us an intriguing way of looking at questions about F
___________________,” McCloskey said.
https://www.huffpost.com/entry/the-letter-no-one-can-write_n_5ac45205e4b
Oac473edb3491
1. insisting there are two types of g
2. the importance of writing for reading
3. while everyone can read the looptail g just fine
4. that they write the letter
5. children have some reading disadvantage
6. if we had to pay attention to its shape
7. that almost no one can write it
A В C D E F
Ответ:

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12—18. В каждом задании


запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую
выбранному вами варианту ответа.

Enjoy your walk in the country, but please don’t abuse


farmers’ hospitality
During the summer holidays, you may be heading into the British
countryside for a leisurely walk. However, the idea of the rural idyll is not
what you may think. Country paths are often strewn with litter blown into
ditches or piles of rubbish. Most people who access the countryside
respect it and want to look after it. After all, many of us enjoy exploring it
and some of us still make our living within it. Yet, social media is awash
1
Письменная часть, Вариант 14 | 213

with farmers and landowners vending their frustration at the way some
people act, with gates left open and dogs allowed to run off the lead near
cows and sheep.
On my 300-hectare coastal farm in Essex I’m lucky that there are quite
a few regular walkers who act as our unofficial farm neighbourhood watch.
They want to see the land looking good as much as 1 do and are the first to
air their grievances to me if they have come across piles of rubbish. These
people stick to public footpaths and permissive paths, leave gates as they
found them and respect others. Unfortunately, there are people who do
the opposite, but it seems impossible to catch them in the act. We need to
collectively shame people, but finding them is not easy.
Since 2013, we have had sheep on the farm as well as cattle during the
summer. Most people aren’t aware of the risks dogs pose to livestock, as
well as the work created by people who leave gates open or those who close
gates that have been deliberately left open.
However, we do have the Countryside Code: a set of guidelines to
ensure that we can all respect and enjoy the countryside. First drawn up in
the 1950s, the code is regularly updated by Natural England.
A lot of the code seems common sense: respect other people, leave
gates and property as you find them, follow paths unless other wider
access is available, take your litter home, plan ahead and keep dogs under
effective control. In almost all situations, the latter means “keep your dog
on a lead”. Yet dozens of farmers have told me that they have suffered as a
result of dog owners believing that their pet won’t act aggressively towards
livestock. The risk is always there. Even if no contact is made a dog can
have an impact. The problem seems to be that the consequences of ignoring
the code’s principles aren’t taken seriously enough by people, or that they
don’t even know about the code.
What is obvious to some people might not be clear to others,
especially if you live in a town or city and have no interaction with rural
dwellers and little understanding of farming practices and stewardship of
the countryside. Not everyone, for instance, might know that leaving gates
as you found them is vital for farmers and that any dog has the capacity to
worry cows and sheep.
So, public education needs to greatly improve. This could involve
posters highlighting the code near public footpaths, or given to farmers
to place on their land. In the past there have been television adverts but
214 I Тренировочные варианты

perhaps targeted social media posts would have greater impact today. Car
parks, bus stops and country pubs might also be other places where the
code, and other advice on how to act appropriately in the countryside,
could be publicized.
The countryside is an asset for us all, but we also have a shared
responsibility to ensure that it looks good and works effectively.
https://www.theguardian.com /comm entisfree/2019/aug/16/walk-country-
farmers-countryside-code-public-education

12 At the beginning of the article the author states that farmers and lan­
downers ‘vending their frustration’, that means...
1) they are disappointed.
2) they are discouraged.
3) they show their approval.
4) they express permission.

Ответ
О
13 Which of the following does NOT describe quite a few regular wal­
kers?
1) They stick to public footpaths and permissive paths, leave gates as
they found them and respect others.
2) They always respect farmers and landowners.
3) They enjoy exploring the farm neighborhood.
4) They act with dogs allowed to run off the lead near cows and
sheep.
Ответ: | |

14 The Countryside Code is ...


1) a set of guidelines for famers and landlords.
2) a set of guidelines for irresponsible country visitors.
3) a set of guidelines to ensure people’s behavior in the countryside.
4) a set of guidelines that regulates property in the countryside.

Ответ:
О
Письменная часть. Вариант 14 | 215

15 Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the Countryside Code?


1) To respect other people.
2) To keep dogs under effective control.
3) To leave gates and property as you find them.
4) To interact with rural dwellers.
Ответ
a
16 The author believes th a t...
1) some clear things are not evident for famers.
2) all people understand how to behave in rural area.
3) city dwellers have little understanding of farming practices.
4) city dwellers know how to look after the cattle.
Ответ:

17 Which form of public education is NOT mentioned?


1) Organizing special events.
2) Public service announcements on TV.
3) Targeted social media posts.
4) Billboards and banners in public places.

18
Ответ:
■a
The main message of the article is th a t...
1) people should be close to nature.
2) visitors who ignore the Countryside Code put farmers’ livelihoods
at risk.
3) people who visit countryside abuse farmers’ hospitality.
4) people should spend more time outdoors.
Ответ:
■a
216 I Тренировочные варианты

По окончании выполнения заданий 10—18 не забудьте перенести


свои ответы в БЛ АН К ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа
от номера соответствуюш,его задания, начиная с первой клеточки.
При переносе ответов в заданиях 10 и 11 цифры записываются без
пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру
пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в
бланке образцами.

Раздел 3. Грамматика и лексика

Прочитайте приведённые ниже тексты. Преобразуйте, если


необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк,
обозначенных номерами 19—25, так, чтобы они грамматически
соот вет ствовали содержанию текстов. Заполнит е пропуски
полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному
заданию из группы 19—25.

The Fox and the Leopard


A Fox and a Leopard, resting lazily after a
19 generous dinner, amused_______________ by THEY
disputing about their good looks. The Leopard
was very proud of his spotted coat and made
remarks about the Fox, whose appearance
he declared was ordinary. The Fox prided
himself on his fine bushy tail, but he was wise
^20 enough to see that h e _______________ rival NOT CAN
the Leopard in looks. Still he kept up a flow
of talk, just to have the fun of disputing. The
Leopard was about to lose his temper when the
21 Fox got up, _________________lazily. "You YAWN
may have a very smart coat," he said, "but you
22 _______________ a great deal better off if you BE
had a little more smartness inside your head.
That’s what I call real beauty." A fine coat is not
always an indication of an attractive mind.
Письменная часть. Вариант 14 | 217

The oldest animal painting


23 The ___________ known painting of an EARLY
animal has been identified in a cave on the island
24 of Borneo. The artwork ________________ BELIEVE
to be at least 40,000 years old. The painting is
known as a figurative painting. This means real
objects are depicted rather than abstract shapes.
The researchers aren’t certain what animal
25 i t ________________ , but they believe it’s a REPRESENT
banteng, a type of wild cow that lives in the area
today. The painting was found in a system of
caves in East Kalimantan.

Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Образуйте от слов, напе­


чатанных заглавны ми буквами в конце строк, обозначенных
номерами 26—31, однокоренные слова так, чтобы они грамматически
и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните
пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует
отдельному заданию из группы 26—31.

Sleep is а condition of the body


and mind when each night the nervous
26 system is relatively_______________ . ACTIVE
The eyes are closed, muscles relaxed, and
27 ______________ mostly suspended for CONSCIOUS
several hours. During sleep, the brain
maintains proper blood sugar levels,
regulates hormones that control appetite
and metabolism, and reduces high blood
pressure. A good night's sleep leads to better
28 physical, mental, a n d ______________ EMOTION
health. A person may often feel cranky
and tired, have a short temper, and are
29 ______________to think clearly without ABLE
enough sleep. In addition, the lack of sleep
can affect growth and the immune system.
т
218 I Тренировочные варианты

А person could more easily become


30 sick, and it takes longer to heal from a cold,
flu, injuries, and o th e r______________. ILL
The amount of sleep a person needs usually
depends on their age. Most kids between
age 5 and 12 need from 9.5 to 11 hours of
31 sleep each night, but as people age, 7 to 8
hours is usually_____________ . EFFECT

Прочитайте текст с пропусками, обозначенными номерами


32—38. Эти номера соответствуют заданиям 32—38, в которых
представлены возможные варианты ответов. Запишите в поле
ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному вами
варианту ответа.

If your school is like most, your gym teacher probably starts out class
having you 32_______ _______ some warm-up exercises, like jumping
jacks. You might also do some light stretching. Gym teachers have you
warm up and stretch before exercising for the same reason that professional
athletes 33_____________ time to warm up and stretch before practice
or a game. Stretching helps prepare your body for the exercise it’s about to
get. Before you stretch, it's important to warm up first. Warming up helps
raise the temperature of your body and your muscles so they'll be ready
for exercise and 34______________injuries. Warming up also increases
your heart 35_____________ , gets more blood and oxygen flowing to your
muscles, and prepares your body to burn more energy. Usually five to ten
minutes of warming up is 36_____________ . You can warm up doing the
same thing you'll be doing for exercise, just at a slower 37_____________ .
So if you’re getting ready to run, walk for 5—10 minutes first to warm
up. After your body is warmed up, it's time to stretch. It's important to
remember to warm up first, because stretching "cold" muscles can lead
to injury. If your muscles are warm, though, stretching properly can
38_____________ injuries and give you better flexibility, range of motion,
posture, and coordination. When you stretch, make sure you're doing it
properly. Stretching should never hurt, so be sure to stop if you start to feel
pain as a result of stretching. Holding your stretches for 10—30 seconds
Письменная часть. Вариант 14 | 219

helps your muscles lengthen. Try not to bounce when you stretch, as this
can damage your muscles.
https://www.wonderopolis.org/wonder/why-do-athletes-stretch-before-they-
work-out/dummy

I 32 I 1) make 2) do 3) have 4) bring

Ответ:

33 l)last 2) save 3)turn 4) take

Ответ: [ [

34 1) avoid 2) prevent 3) warn 4) anticipate

Ответ:

[ 35 [ 1) block 2) attack 3) rate 4)preasure

Ответ:

36 1) tolerable 2) agreeable 3) sufficient 4) common

Ответ:

И 1) time 2) pace 3) progress 4) measure

Ответ: [ [

38 1) weaken 2) shorten 3) cut 4) reduce

Ответ: [ [
220 I Тренировочные варианты

По окончании выполнения заданий 19—38 не забудьте перенести


свои ответы в БЛ АН К ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Зааииште ответ справа от
номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки. При
переносе ответов в заданиях 19—31 буквы записываются без пробелов,
запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую букву или цифру
пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в
бланке образцами.

Раздел 4. Письмо

Д ля ответов на задания 39 и 40 используйте бланк ответов № 2.


Черновые пометки могут делаться прямо на листе с заданиями, или
можно использовать отдельный черновик. При выполнении заданий
39 и 40 особое внимание обратите на то, что ваши ответы будут
оцениваться только по записям, сделанным в БЛ АН КЕ ОТВЕТОВ
№ 2. Никакие записи черновика не будут учитываться экспертом.
Обратите внимание также на необходимость соблюдения указанного
объёма текста. Тексты недостаточного объёма, а такж е часть
текста, превышающая требуемый объём, не оцениваются. Запишите
сначала номер задания (39, 40), а затем ответ на него.

39 You have received а letter from your English-speaking pen-friend


Oliver who writes:
... It’s very strange but my sister wants to be a vegetarian! Yesterday
she bought only vegetables andfruit. She told us that she wants to keep
fit and lose weight. Do you think that diets are infashion now? Why or
why not? What is important in a balanced diet? What would you do if
your sister decided to be a vegetarian ?
I am thinking about a gap year afterfinishing school...
Write a letter to Oliver.
In your letter
—answer his questions
—ask 3 questions about his plans.
Write 100-140 words.
Remember the rules of letter writing.
Письменная часть. Вариант 15 |221

Выберите только ОДНО из двух предложенных высказываний (40.1


или 40.2), укажите его номер в БЛАНКЕ ОТВЕТОВ Ns 2 и выразите
своё мнение по предложенной проблеме согласно данному плану.

Comment on the following statements.


40.1 Money is a stressful part o f m odem life.

40.2 Gestures make communication easier.

What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?


Write 200—250 words.
Use the following plan:
— make an introduction (state the problem paraphrasing the given
statement)
— express your personal opinion and give 2—3 reasons for your
opinion
— express an opposing opinion and give 1—2 reasons for this
opposing opinion
— explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion
— make a conclusion restating your position

ВАРИАНТ 15

Раздел 1. Аудирование

Вы услышите 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие


между высказываниями каждого говорящего A —F и ут вер­
ждениями, данными в списке 1—7. Используйте каждое утвер­
ждение, обозначенное соответствующей цифрой, только один
раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите
запись дважды. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. У вас есть 20
секунд, чтобы ознакомиться с заданием.
1. The details should be documented.
2. It is better to avoid taking medicines.
3. You should rest if you are ill.
T
222 I Тренировочные варианты____________

4. Using relaxation methods is helpful.


5. The best strategy is to range tasks.
6. Communication reduces stress.
7. Many ways to solve problems can be found.
Говорящий A В С D E F
Утверждение

Вы услышите диалог. Определите, какие из приведённых


утверждений A—G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 —
True), какие не соответствуют (2 — False) и о чём в тексте
не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни
положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 — N ot Stated).
Занесите номер выбранного вами варианта ответа в таблицу.
Вы услышите запись дважды.

The Headteacher explains how to behave in stressful situations.


В Preparedness can give more control and help to manage stress.
"с" There is no difference in types of stress.
D It is very easy to get involved in a stress cycle.
Е We are always susceptible to stress.
F Stress can be defined by some signs.
~G The Head teacher give valuable advice to Miss Giles.

Утверждение A В С D Е F G
Соответствие
диалогу

Вы услышите интервью. В заданиях 3 —9 запишите в поле ответа


цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному вами варианту
ответа. Вы услышите запись дважды.

I 3 I What is Simona doing in Valencia?


1) She is travelling.
2) She is studying.
Письменная часть. Вариант 15 |223

3) She is working.
Ответ:

Why did she choose Spain for doing her ERASMUS internship?
1) Because she wanted to improve her Spanish.
2) Because she had never been to Spain before.
3) Because she wanted to live a new life.
Ответ:

Who pays for her internship in Erasmus program?


1) Her parents gave her some money.
2) She worked in the University.
3) She got a grant.
Ответ: | |

Which of these things did she prepare to take part in the program?
1) A reference letter.
2) A letter of recommendation.
3) A motivational letter.
Ответ: | [

What has Simona mentioned as an important thing to prepare for


the exchange program?
1) List of subjects.
2) Insurance.
3) Documents for booking.
Ответ: | [

Why is her knowledge of Spanish poor?


1) Because her Spanish friends went away.
2) Because she studied it at school.
I 224 I Тренировочные варианты____________

3) Because she stopped learning it.


Ответ: | |

What are Spanish people like?


1) They are helpful.
2) They are brave.
3) They are annoying.
Ответ: | |

По окончании выполнения заданий 1—9 не забудьте перенести свои


ответы в БЛ АН К ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа от
номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки.
При переносе ответов в заданиях 1 и 2 цифры записываются без
пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру
пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в
бланке образцами.

Раздел 2. Чтение

10 У ст ановит е соот вет ст вие меж ду т екст ам и A —G и


заголовкам и 1—8. Занесит е свои ответы в таблицу.
Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один
заголовок лишний.

1. Meeting with discouragement 5. An accidental discovery


2. А way to monetize 6. A discovery for medicine
3. Cheaper and more effective 7. To provide safety
4. Useless at first 8. Discovered in the 19th century

A. It is tempting to think life in the 21st century is a world away from


the 1800s, but despite the communication revolution, we still owe
much of our daily life to the inventions of back then. More modem
amenities than you might think first showed up during the 19th
century. People in the 1800s were endlessly inquisitive and constantly
tried to expand their knowledge and improve their society. And
while it’s true that not all of their inventions were thought through
_________ Письменная часть. Вариант 15 |225 |

particularly well, there are some that were just so good that we’re still
using them today.
B. Though we may think of cement as a modern building material, it
has a long history dating back to the building of the pyramids, where
they mixed a rudimentary form of concrete to make mortar. But
the concrete industry really took off with the invention of Portland
Cement in 1824. Portland cement is the main ingredient of modern
concrete, which is then mixed with sand and rock to form a hard
mixture. Joseph Aspdin was an English bricklayer who made the
first Portland cement by burning powdered limestone and clay in
his kitchen stove.
C. In 1856, Louis Pasteur was commissioned by an alcohol
manufacturer to find out what caused their alcohol to turn sour. It
was thought, at that time, that fermentation was a purely chemical
process, but Pasteur discovered that yeast was a living organism.
This work led to his germ theory of fermentation. He was able to
determine the temperature and the length of time food needed to be
heated in order to kill off microbes. He called his patented process
pasteurization. It wasn’t until the late 1800s that the process was
used for milk.
D. Although the traditional postal system has been on the decline, it
is still a highly efficient system that transports millions of pieces of
mail around the world every day. Before the mail system we know
today, postage was calculated not by the weight of the letter but
by the number of miles it travelled and the cost was borne by the
recipient, meaning that many letters went undelivered. The Uniform
Penny Post was established in England in 1840, with the famous
Penny Black stamp being the first-ever adhesive postage stamp. In
1839, around 76 million letters were sent.
E. The sewing machine was the original home appliance and, as
such, was revolutionary, bringing the technology of the Industrial
Revolution into the home. The earliest sewing machine patent dates
back to 1755, and an 1830 patent by Barthelemy Thimonnier in
France caused a riot by tailors, who, fearful for their livelihoods,
destroyed the machines. Further attempts followed until Isaac
I 2 26 I Тренировочные варианты

Merritt Singer perfected the design and began producing his own
machines. In I860, he sold 110,000 machines in the United States
alone. The basic design has remained unchanged ever since.
F. The pneumatic tire was first patented by Robert Thomson in
1845, some four decades before it was reinvented by John Dunlop.
Thomson called his invention the “aerial wheel.” However, at this
time, there were few automobiles or bicycles, so the invention seemed
rather pointless and never went into production. By the time Dunlop
reinvented the wheel, and re-patented the pneumatic tire, the bicycle
was ubiquitous, and the tires would soon be seen everywhere on
streets around the world. The emergence of automobiles made the
pneumatic tire one of the most useful inventions in the world.
G. In 1895, Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovered the X-ray while
working with cathode ray tubes in his laboratory. He noticed that
crystals near the tube glowed, and he realized that the rays could pass
through some objects. After some experimentation, he discovered
that the rays could pass through human tissue but not through
bone. Many scientists became interested in cathode rays, and
experiments were soon being made combining the new technology
with photographic plates for use by doctors and surgeons. Within
six months of Roentgen’s discovery. X-rays were being used by
battlefield surgeons to find bullets inside wounded soldiers.
https://bmmr.news/2019/04/05/10-victorian-inventions-we-just-cant-do-
without/

A В C D E F G
Ответ:

И Прочитайте текст и заполнит е пропуски A —F частями


предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1—7. Одна из частей
в списке 1—7 лиш няя. Занесит е цифры, обозначающие
соответствующие части предложений, в таблицу.

With over 350 million cubes sold since it hit toy stores in 1974, the
Rubik’s Cube is probably one of the world’s most popular toys ever.
However, while the iconic cube has an avid fan base, A______________ ,
Письменная часть. Вариант 15 |227 |

the brain teaser is daunting for most. It is, therefore, not surprising to hear
В ______________ , less than 6 percent of the world’s population is able
to solve it. Now, Israel-based startup Particula is introducing GoCube, a
hi-tech version of the classic toy C________________ for both beginners
and experts.
Udi Dor, Particula’s founder, first thought of the idea in 2016
D ________________, one of whom was playing with a Rubik’s Cube.
The group talked about how much more fun the challenge would be E
_____________ _ . After an extensive search revealed no multiplayer
version of the iconic toy, the engineer decided to take on the challenge of
creating one himself. It was not an easy task. To connect the toy to an app,
each of the 54 small cubes required a sensor. However, the large number of
wires would become an entangled mess F __________________. Plus, the
cube’s tiny size made it almost impossible to lit the electronics in a way that
would allow the toy to run efficiently —and have enough battery life. Upon
further deliberation. Dor and his team realized that instead of tracking the
location of each tiny cube, it made more sense to track the changes made
to each cube.
https://www.dogonews.com/2018/9/26/the-iconic-ntbiks-cube-gpes-hi-
tech
1. if players could compete against each other online
2. when he was out with some friends
3. which regularly compete to be the fastest
4. as soon as the cube was moved around
5. to play without leaving the comfort of their homes
6. that promises to make the puzzle fun and interactive
7. that even though the toy has been on the market for over 44 years

A В c D E F
Ответ:
I 2 28 I Тренировочные варианты

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12—18. В каждом задании


запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую
выбранному вами варианту ответа.

Goats get emotional? Humans shouldn't be surprised —


all mammals are amazing
A goat in a small-town theme park climbed a tree in its enclosure. With
conlused astonishment people clearly had an idea of what a goat is and what
a goat does and were being met with a new reality where goats could also
happily climb trees, a behaviour goats regularly employ in the wild to find
the juiciest leaves. To the people of Kettering, who were not aware of tree­
climbing goats, it was as if they were looking at a flying monkey.
Once I was reminded of that incredible scene when hearing of
this week’s news that goats have been shown capable of distinguishing
emotions in one another’s bleating calls. If you haven’t yet heard, it’s a
neatly designed experiment. Researchers recorded goat calls when goats
were at their happiest feeding and being reunited with other goats and
recorded calls when goats were at their most fraught watching others eat
but having to go without food temporarily. They then played back these
calls to other goats, to see if happy or sad goat sounds caused physiological
responses in the listening goat, specifically by measuring the listener’s
heart-rates. And the results proved the link. When listening to happy calls,
for instance, a goat’s heart-rate increases with apparent excitement. Not
only can it climb trees, a goat can listen and learn about its surroundings by
tuning into the bleating of other goats.
The particularly delightful thing about this study is that it underlines
to us that goats, like all mammals, can show a degree of empathy with
one another. That they can alter one another’s states through their calls,
sharing feelings and emotions and potentially understanding one another in
a manner in which humans excel. Really, though? I’m left a little confused.
Mammals are masters of communicating complex information.
Every species alive today is tuned into the unseen language of others
that surround it. At this moment in time, literally billions of individual
mammals are listening in on something, watching something else wide-eyed
or furiously processing voluminous scents of passers-by, potential rivals or
potential mates. That the specifics of a goat’s bleat influences other goats
_________ Письменная часть. Вариант 15 |229 |

should surprise us no more than the fact that rats utter an ultrasonic giggle
when tickled; that a dog’s tail is a happy-flag that serves to reduce social
tensions; that the direction of a horse’s ears tells others about the horse’s
mental state at any given moment. Influential goat bleating should surprise
us no more than that chimpanzee gestures follow the same language laws
of the human species. That whales have accents and regional dialects.
That gorillas have parties. That groups of social bats can have call-signs.
That vervet monkeys have four distinct predator alarm calls, one for each
of the main predators. That African wild dogs run a primitive democracy
based upon sneezes. And ... well, you get the idea.
Mammals are amazing, communicative, sensitive, watchful, they are
problem-solvers, tinkerers, testers and try-hards, and empathic, if only
by degree. Mammals are all of these things and more. You and I are just
one highly virulent form, a slightly self-obsessed version that routinely
considers its best features unique. They are not. Just exaggerated.
If cinema is a machine for building empathy between humans, as some
have argued, scientific studies such as this one are an empathy machine that
builds empathy between ourselves and other representatives of the animal
kingdom, helping us to explore the highest branches of the evolutionary tree
of life and, looking across its boughs and branches, to see animals such as
goats in high-up branches where once we least expected them.
https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/jul/ll/goats-emotional-
humans-mammals-research-communicate-animal

12 The behavior of goats when they climb trees is ...


1) the reflection of their emotional state.
2) strange and unusual for mammals.
3) a natural way to get food.
4) a new reality of evolution.
Ответ:

13 Which of these facts does NOT refer to the experiment?


1) Goats’ emotions were classified.
2) The experiment was conducted carefully.
3) Goats’ bleating was recorded.
w
I 230 I Тренировочные варианты____________

4) Researchers measured goats’ vital signs.


Ответ: | [

14 The phrase ‘goats can show a degree of empathy with one another’
in paragraph 3 characterizes the goats’ ability to ...
1) express their sadness.
2) show compassion.
3) exchange information.
4) share feehngs of another.
Ответ: | [

15 Mammals are masters of communicating complex information be­


cause ...
1) they use special body language.
2) they use their receptivity.
3) they use subtle language.
4) they have good listening skills.
Ответ:
■О
н Which of the following statements, according to the author, is TRUE
about mammals’ communicative abiUties?
1) Wagging its tail the dog tries to show its fear.
2) Moving its ears the horse expresses tiredness.
3) Vervet monkeys’ cries depend on the kind of danger.
4) The gestures, chimpanzees use, are taught hy people.

О
Ответ:

17 The word ‘virulent’ in ‘You and I are just one highly virulent form’
(in paragraph 5) is closest in meaning to ...
1) severe.
2) harmful.
3) violent.
Письменная часть. Вариант 15 | 231

4) selfish.
Ответ:

18 The author of the article states th a t...


1) goats in high-up branches should be examined more.
2) studies help people to build the evolutionary tree.
3) developing empathy between people and animals is realized by
research.
4) mammals have different levels of empathy in the animal kingdom.
Ответ:

По окончании выполнения заданий 10—18 не забудьте перенести


свои ответы в БЛ АН К ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа
от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки.
При переносе ответов в заданиях 10 и 11 цифры записываются без
пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру
пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в
бланке образцами.

Раздел 3. Грамматика и лексика

Прочитайте приведённый ниже тексты. Преобразуйте, если


необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк,
обозначенных номерами 19—25, так, чтобы они грамматически
соответствовали содержанию текстов. Заполните пропуски
полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному
заданию из группы 19—25.
pi
Письменная часть. Вариант 15 | 233
I 232 I Тренировочные варианты
The Silk Road was the name for a
The travellers and the sea network of routes from the countries of
Once upon a time two travellers the Far East, like Japan and China, back
19 along the seashore when far to the eastern Mediterranean countries.
WALK Merchants traded goods back and forth.
out they saw something riding on the waves.
"Look," said one, "a great ship rides in from 26 ________ traditions were spread CULTURE
distant lands!" The object they saw came from one area to the other. In the mid
even_____________ the shore. "No," said NEAR 27 1800's a German ______ , Baron GEOLOGY
20
the other, "that is not a treasure ship. That Ferdinand von Richthofen, gave this name
is some fisherman's skiff." A tittle later the to the huge network of trade routes which
waves washed the object up on shore. "It 28 had been in _____________ for hundreds EXIST
21 is a chest of g o ld ___________ from LOSE of years. Travellers on these routes brought
some wreck," they cried. Both travellers about an exchange of scientific, literary
22 29 ideas, religious beliefs, and_____________ TECHNOLOGY
______________ to the beach, but there RUSH
they found nothing but a water-soaked log. advances. Large cities grew up along the
Do not let your hopes carry you away from routes. In the 1st century B. C., silk was
reality. brought west into the Roman Empire. The
Chinese tried to keep information about
France bans smartphones from schools the manufacture of silk cloth secret, but
France has introduced a new law 30 g radually______________ brought the TRADE
banning smartphones and personal tablets secrets to other countries. Around 550
from schools. France stopped students from A. D., it is said that monks from India
using smartphones and personal tablets told the Roman Emperor Justinian in
during instruction hours. But the new ban Byzantium about the process of making
prohibits students aged 3 to 15 from even 31 silk._____________ , these monks brought EVENT
23 BRING eggs back to the emperor and demonstrated
______________their devices to school.
24 For students 15 years and OLD how the silkworms produced the silk from
it is up to their school to decide whether they the fibers spun for their cocoon after eating
may bring or use their devices at school. The mulberry leaves.
new law is part of a campaign to get students
25 _____ addicted to electronics. LITTLE П рочит айт е т екст с пропускам и, об означенны м и ном ерам и
3 2 —3 8 . Э т и н о м е р а с о о т в е т с т в у ю т з а д а н и я м 3 2 —3 8 , в к о т о р ы х
П рочит айт е приведённы й ниж е т екст . О б р азуйт е от слов, п р ед ст а влен ы во зм о ж ны е ва р и а н т ы о т вет о в. З а п и ш и т е в п о ле
н а п е ч а т а н н ы х за гл а вн ы м и б ук ва м и в ко н ц е ст р о к, о б о зна ченны х о т в е т а ц и ф р у 1, 2 , 3 и л и 4, с о о т в е т с т в у ю ь ц у ю в ы б р а н н о м у в а м и
н о м е р а м и 2 6 —3 1 , о д н о к о р ен н ы е с л о в а т а к , чт о б ы о н и гр а м м а т и ч е с к и ва р и а нт у от вет а. ___________
и лек си чески со о т вет ст вовали содерж анию т екст а. З а п о лн и т е
пропуски полученны м и словам и. К аж ды й пропуск соот вет ст вует
о т д е л ь н о м у з а д а н и ю и з г р у п п ы 2 6 —3 1 .
Письменная часть Вариант 15 |235 |
I 234 I Тренировочные варианты__________
35~1 1) In accordance

32
There are certain “facts” that people think they know about animals.
For example, everyone knows that a rabbit’s favorite food is carrots. Dogs
___ ____ on bones, obviously! And mice love cheese. But do
mice really love cheese? The “mice love cheese” belief has been around
Ответ:

36^ 1) usable 2) free 3) handy 4) available
a long time. You may have seen an old Tom and Jerry cartoon that shows
Tom trying to lure Jerry out of his hole with a piece of cheese. You might
also remember Cinderella’s friend, Gus, munching on a chunk of cheese.
33 ______ _____, most mice aren’t cute cartoon characters. Instead,
Ответ:

they’re cute real-life animals. Specifically, mice are rodents. Like most 1) Furthermore
rodents, mice usually eat a diet of fruits, vegetables and grains. Where mice
34 __ ____ to live, these are the foods that are usually easiest to find.
However, like other rodents, mice can and will eat just about anything.
Ответ:

That includes insects, other animals and even cheese! But do mice LOVE 38^ 1) rush 2) drive 3) run 4) go
cheese? 3 5 ___________ to some scientists, the answer is probably “no.”
First, cheese isn’t the type of food readily 36____________ in areas
where mice usually live. Thus, they wouldn’t be exposed to cheese all
that often — at least not often enough to develop a special love for cheese.
Ответ:

flo окончании выполнения заданий 19—3 8 не забудьте перенести
ill

3 7 _______ ____ ., mice have very sensitive noses. The sharp, pungent свои ответы в БЛ АН К ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа
smells of most cheeses would likely 3 8 ___________ mice away rather от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки.
than draw them near. Finally, scientific studies have shown that mice prefer При переносе ответов в заданиях 19—31 буквы записываются без
foods with lots of sugar. Cheese consists of proteins that aren’t usually пробелов, запят ы х и других дополнительных символов. Каждую
sweet. букву или цифру пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с
https://www.wonderopolis.org/wonder/why-do-rnice-love-cheese приведёнными в бланке образцами.

32 1)chew 2) stew 3) flow 4) brew


Раздел 4. Письмо
Ответ: | |
Д ля ответов на задания 39 и 40 используйте бланк ответов М 2.
33 1) Moreover Черновые пометки могут делаться прямо на листе с заданиями, или
можно использовать отдельный черновик. При выполнении заданий
Ответ: | 39 и 40 особое внимание обратите на то, что ваши ответы будут
оцениваться только по записям, сделанным в БЛ А Н К Е ОТВЕТОВ
№ 2. Никакие записи черновика не будут учитываться экспертом.
34 1) lend 2) tend 3) send 4) mend
Обратите внимание также на необходимость соблюдения указанного
объёма текста. Тексты недостаточного объёма, а такж е часть
Ответ: [ |
текста, превышающая требуемый объём, не оцениваются. Запишите
сначала номер задания (39, 40), а затем ответ на него.______________
I 236 I Тренировочные варианты
т
39 You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend
Amelia who writes:

I t’s interesting that most people fa ll into the category o f a night owl
or an early bird. What about you ? Are you anight owl or an early
bird? How important is your morning routine fo r you to start your
day o ff right? Why do you think some teenagers are sick in the
morning and what is the best remedy to reduce morning sickness ?
You know I ’m going on a school trip.

Write a letter to Amelia.


In your letter
— answer her questions
— ask 3 questions about her school trip.
Write 100-140 words.
Remember the rules of letter writing.
В ы б е р и т е т о л ь к о О Д Н О и з д в у х п р е д л о ж е н н ы х в ы с к а з ы в а н и й (4 0 .1
и л и 4 0 .2 ), у к а ж и т е его н о м е р в Б Л А Н К Е О Т В Е Т О В № 2 и в ы р а зи т е
с в о ё м н е н и е п о п р е д л о ж е н н о й п р о б л е м е с о гл а сн о д а н н о м у п ла н у .

Comment on the following statements.


40.1 C a ts m a k e th e b e s t p e ts .

40.2 S tu d y in g a t p r im a r y s c h o o l is m o r e in te r e s tin g th a n
s tu d y in g a t h ig h sc h o o l.

What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?


Write 200—250 words.
Use the following plan:
— make an introduction (state the problem paraphrasing the given
statement)
— express your personal opinion and give 2—3 reasons for your
opinion
— express an opposing opinion and give 1—2 reasons for this
opposing opinion
— explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion
— make a conclusion restating your position
Письменная чааь. Вариант 16 | 237 |

ВАРИАНТ 16

Раздел 1. Аудирование

Вы услышите 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие


между высказываниями каждого говорящего A —F и ут вер­
ждениями, данными в списке I —7. Используйте каждое утвер­
ждение, обозначенное соответствующей цифрой, только одш
раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите
запись дважды. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. У вас есть 20
секунд, чтобы ознакомиться с заданием.

1. Using а backpack correctly can be helpful.


2. Carrying heavy backpacks influences kids 'bodies negatively.
3. E-books may solve the problem in future.
4. They are not allowed in some schools.
5. Schools offer some solutions of the problem.
6. Carrying heavy backpacks concerns not only pupils.
7. Limiting things in the backpack is the unique solution.

Говорящий A В С D E F
Утверждение

Вы услышите диалог. Определите, какие из приведённых


утверж дений A—G соответствуют содержанию текста
(1 — True), какие не соответствуют (2 — False) и о чём в
тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни
положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 — Not Stated).
Занесите номер выбранного вами варианта ответа в таблицу.
Вы услышите запись дважды.

Yesterday Jane was reading a cooking magazine to find a cake


recipe.

В Sharp Cheddar has a strong flavor.

C The key ingredient of a big beefburger is neither salty nor spicy.


I 238 I Тренировочные варианты

The bun of a big beefburger is too small.


The idea of using a donut as a hamburger bun is not a surprise for
Mike.
Mike likes combining unusual tastes.
The story in the magazine and people on the Internet contradicted
one another.

Утверждение A В С D Е F G
Соответствие
диалогу

Вы услышите интервью. В заданиях 3 —9 запишите в поле ответа


цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному вами варианту
ответа. Вы услышите запись дважды.

н What is Colin’s attitude towards his work as a director of The


Morgan Library?
1) He is very annoyed.
2) He finds it complicated.
3) He is happy.
Ответ:

The Morgan is not only the library and museum but also ...
1) a research centre.
2) a centre of recreation.
3) a psychological centre.
Ответ:

What exhibition can visitors see at the moment?


1) Modem drawings.
2) Alice in Wonderland.
3) Gutenberg Books.
Ответ: | |
_________ Письменная часть. Вариант 16 |239 |

How many visitors does The Morgan have every year?


1) About 100000.
2) About 200000.
3) About 300000.
Ответ: | |

How is the Internet used at the library?


1) The collections can be accessed by people.
2) The collections can be conserved for centuries.
3) The collections can be improved because of new trends.
Ответ: | |

What country is the library collaborating with?


1) France.
2) Great Britain.
3) Italy.
Ответ: | |

What does the library want to organize?


1) Exhibitions of new books.
2) Exhibitions of ancient objects.
3) Exhibitions to relate old and modem art.
Ответ: | |

По окончании выполнения заданий 1—9 не забудьте перенести свои


ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа от
номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки.
При переносе ответов в заданиях 1 и 2 цифры записываются без
пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру
пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в
бланке образцами.
I 240 I Тренировочные варианты

Раздел 2. Чтение

10 У ст ановит е соот вет ст вие м еж ду т екст ам и A —G и


за го ло вка м и 1 —8. Занесит е свои от вет ы в т аблицу.
И с п о л ь з у й т е к а ж д у ю ц и ф р у т о л ь к о о д и н р а з . В за д а н и и о д и н
заголовок лиш ний.

1. They are empathetic 5. Rememhering your face


2. They are tricksters 6. Rememhering human voices
3. Pirates in secret 7. Under protection
4. They can talk 8. Bright and clever

A. People have always known that ravens are smart. That’s nothing
new. But we are just beginning to discover exactly how smart
these common scavengers really are. A 2002 study showed that a
crow could bend a piece of wire into the shape of a hook so that it
could retrieve food from a narrow space. A study conducted by
researchers in Moscow university proved that crows are capable
of analogical reasoning after testing the birds with a series of flash
cards in a matching game.
B. Though ravens may seem like they’re making a series of random
“kraas,” their varied sounds are believed to contain meaning. In the
wild, ravens communicate with each other through a wide range
of vocalizations. They can express emotions such as tenderness,
happiness, anger, and surprise. They can also alert each other to
danger by clucking like hens and make trill sounds when ready for
battle. Within their own social groups, they have been shown to have
their own dialects. In captivity, ravens can learn to talk better than a
lot of parrots can.
C. A study published in 2010 found that ravens console the victim of an
act of aggression. For two years, scientists observed the behavior of
13 hand-reared ravens. During that time, they observed 152 fights.
They categorized the ravens as aggressors, victims, and bystanders.
Ravens that spent the most time with the victims showed the greatest
likelihood of engaging in consoling behavior, which includes beak-
to-body touching, sitting close to the victim, and preening.
_________ Письменная часть. Вариант 16 | 241 |

D. Maybe they aren’t out pillaging and plundering across the seven
seas, but they have a couple of skills that are important for any
proper pirate. One of those skills is bargaining and the ability to
think ahead. An experiment conducted by scientists in Sweden
proved that ravens possess the cognitive ability to preplan and
bargain for what they want. Another ability possessed by ravens that
make them a much better choice than parrots to sit on a pirate’s
shoulder is their intolerance for cheaters.
E. Although no one knows how the rumor started, it is said that the
presence of ravens in the Tower of London ward off bad fortune.
Should the ravens ever leave, the tower and the monarchy would fall.
One theory gives credit to author Geoffrey of Monmouth who wrote
about Юng Bran Hen of Bryneich. Bran, which means “raven” in
Welsh, requested that his head be buried at the tower to act as a
talisman against invasion. Ravens have been there ever since.
F. Many Native American tribes believed the raven to be a trickster
and even a shape-shifter. The raven’s non-secretive ways made it
easy for the casual observer. Since scientists have been paying more
attention to ravens, they have noticed some rather tricksterlike
behavior. A study by the University of Vermont showed that juvenile
ravens will make a big fuss when feeding on a carcass to attract other
juvenile ravens to join them. This helps to ensure their safety against
adult crows and other scavengers. Ravens have also been observed
pretending to hide food in one place before quietly hiding it in
another to throw off other ravens.
G. Next time you contemplate chasing ravens from your yard, you
may want to stop and rethink your strategy. Ravens are not keen
on forgiving or forgetting. Researchers believe that the ability to
recognize humans is related to the crows' ability to recognize each
other, which helps them to warn one other about potential danger.
So you better be nice to ravens — or they’ll remember you treated
them badly next time they see you.
https://listverse.eom/2017/ll/12/IO-incredible-facts-about-ravens/

A В c D E F G
Ответ:
I 242 I Тренировочные варианты

11 П рочит айт е т екст и з а п о л н и т е п р о п у с к и A —F ч а с т я м и


п р е д л о ж е н и й , о б о з н а ч е н н ы м и ц и ф р а м и 1 — 7. О д н а и з ч а с т е й
в списке 1—7 лиш н яя. Занесит е циф ры , об означаю щ ие
соот вет ст вую щ ие част и предлож ений, в т аблицу.

No single person or culture invented the alphabet as it has evolved over


centuries. A _________________, we must take a trip back through time.
Archaeologists have discovered cave paintings thousands of years old that
document the first forms of alphabets. In fact, some of the oldest alphabetic
symbols have been found in Central America (2,500 years ago), China
(more than 3,000 years ago), and the Middle East (more than 5,000 years
ago).
One of the earliest forms of the alphabet was hieroglyphics.
Hieroglyphics were single symbols В ___________________. Thousands
of characters and symbols were used to represent the words, needs, and lives
of early civilizations.
Memorizing thousands of unique hieroglyphic symbols was a difficult
task, C _____ __________ . Imagine trying to remember a unique
symbol for each breed of dog, flower, or tree!
As civilizations and communication advanced, people began
discovering that it was possible to use combinations of a much smaller set of
symbols D ___________________. Historians point to the Proto-Sinaitic
script as the first alphabetic writing system, E ___________________.
This set was developed by Semitic-speaking people in the Middle East
around 1700 B. C., and was refined and spread to other civilizations by the
Phoenicians. This is the foundation of our modern alphabet.
We call each of symbol a letter F _______ . By combining
these letters, it's possible to represent an unlimited number of words. Many
different alphabets have been used around the world throughout history.
Often, new alphabets are created by modifying the alphabet of another
language.
The Latin alphabet (also called the "Roman alphabet") is the most
widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. This is the system
on which the English alphabet is based.
https://www.wonderopolis.org/wonder/who-invented-the-alphabet
Письменная чааь^ Вариант 16 |243 |

1. how alphabets have changed over time


2. that stood for entire words
3. which represents one sound in our language
4. in order to understand modem alphabets
5. which consisted of 22 symbols adapted from Egyptian hieroglyphics
6. to represent all the words in a spoken language
7. so only the most highly educated priests and scholars were experts

A В C D E F
Ответ:

П р о ч и т а й т е т е к с т и в ы п о л н и т е з а д а н и я 1 2 — 18. В к а ж д о м з а д а н и и
за п и ш и т е в п о л е о т в е т а ц и ф р у 1, 2 , 3 и л и 4 , с о о т в е т с т в у ю щ у ю
вы бранном у ва м и ва р и а н т у от вет а.

I have read two books more than a 100 times, for different motives and
with different consequences. Hamlet I read a 100 times for my dissertation,
The Inimitable Jeeves by P. G. Wodehouse a 100 times for comfort.
The experience is distinct from all other kinds of reading. I ’m calling it
centireading.
I read Hamlet a 100 times because of Anthony Hopkins. He once
mentioned, in an interview with Backstage magazine, that he typically reads
his scripts over a 100 times, which gives him “a tremendous sense of ease
•md the power of confidence” over the material. I was writing a good chunk
of my doctoral dissertation on Hamlet and I needed all the sense of ease
and power of confidence I could muster.
My supervisor, during my doctorate, which was at the University of
Toronto, was a man named Sandy Leggatt, one of those rare scholars —
I met very few in my sojourn among them — for whom exposure to the
texts under investigation was a virtue in itself. He actually liked to read even
(hough it was his job. He was one of the best-read people I ever met, but
he was certainly the best-reread person. He would regularly do things like
reread all the Greek comedies, for instance, just so he knew them. When we
collectively decided that I was going to work on early modern tragedy, he
brightened and informed me that there were only about 200 of them, so I
would be able to read them all.
That took me about a year. There were a lot of duds. There were a lot
of great surprises, too. But by the time I decided to read Hamlet a hundred
I 244 I Тренировочные варианты

times it seemed eomparatively easy. At least I knew I was going to be reading


one of the good ones for two or three months.
The main effeet of reading Hamlet a 100 times was, counter-intuitively,
that it lost its sense of cliche. “To be or not to be” is the Stairway to Heaven
of theatre; it settles over the crowd like a slightly funky blanket knitted by a
favourite aunt. Eventually, if you read Hamlet often enough, every soliloquy
takes on that same familiarity. And so “To be or not to be” resumes its
natural place in the play, as just another speech. Which renders its power
and its beauty of a piece with the rest of the work.
My centireading of The Inimitable Jeeves was less intentional. At the
age of 40, my father picked up the whole family to start a PhD in semantics
at the London School of Economics. For that year, I attended a public
school in Cambridge, enduring all the alienation that a chubby
boy who had never called anyone “sir” and possessed an “American
accent” (1 am Canadian) could reasonably expect.
Every Sunday, my family would load ourselves into a car — my father,
my mother, my kid brother and I — and drive out more or less randomly
to see what England had to offer. During these trips, in the tiny English
car, we would listen to cassettes of The Inimitable Jeeves, read by Jonathan
Cecil. The psychology of my love for The Inimitable Jeeves isn’t exactly
hard to understand. As we rolled through that strange country, laughing at
the English with the English, the family was both inside and outside.
My associations with The Inimitable Jeeves are as powerful as they
could possibly be, a fused sense of family unity and childhood adventure.
The book is so much more than just a happy childhood memory. In such
ways, books pick us, rather than the other way around.
https;//www.theguardian.com/books/2015/feb/09/centireading-force-reading-
book-100-times-great-idea

12 At the beginning of the article the author says that centireading of


2 books...
1) was explained by his studies.
2) had different purposes.
3) was caused by his misunderstanding.
4) helped him to improve his knowledge.
Ответ:
О
Письменная часть. Вариант 16 |245 |

13 Which of the following does NOT refer to his reasons for reading
Hamlet a hundred times?
1) He takes into account the advice of Anthony Hopkins.
2) He wanted to get the power of confidence over the book.
3) It was necessary for his doctoral thesis.
4) He looked for special words and phrases.

Ответ:
■О
14 Why did Legatt brighten and inform the author that there were only
about 200 of modern tragedies?
1) Because it was easier to analyze tragedies than to study poems.
2) Because it was a rather small number for the author to read them
all.
3) Because they all can be bought at once in the nearest bookshop.
4) Because such a small number of books were kept in the university
library.

Ответ:
О
15 The pronoun it in paragraph 4 “But by the time I decided to read
Hamlet a hundred times it seemed comparatively easy” refers to ...
1) reading Hamlet a hundred times.
2) beginning to read Hamlet.
3) reading 200 modern tragedies.
4) 2-or 3-month period.

Ответ:

16 What was the main effect of reading Hamplet a hundred times?


1) He understood the meaning of “To be or not to be” in the plot
of the play.
2) He understood better the plot and its development.
f 246 I Тренировочные варианты

3) He memorized a lot of expressions and even fragments.


4) He didn’t consider the tragedy as a trite play.
Ответ; I
I_ _ I
И When did he first hear The Inimitable Jeeves?
1) When he went on trips around England with his family.
2) When he studied in a public school in Cambridge.
3) When his father gave this book as a present.
4) When his parents made him read it.
Ответ:
О
18 What idea is expressed in the last paragraph?
1) The Inimitable Jeeves has the influence on the author because of
his childhood memories.
2) Books choose their readers, rather than the other way around.
3) The Inimitable Jeeves landed into the author’s hands by chance.
4) The Inimitable Jeeves has the influence on the author because
of its psychological content.
Ответ:

По окончании выполнения заданий 10—18 не забудьт е перенести
свои ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа
от номера соответствуюицего задания, начиная с первой клеточки.
При переносе ответов в заданиях 10 и 11 цифры записываются без
пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую ицфру
пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в
бланке образцами.
Письменная часть. Вариант 16 | 247 |

Раздел 3. Грамматика и лексика

П рочит айт е приведённы е ниж е т екст ы . П реобразуйт е, если


н ео б хо д и м о , с л о в а , н а п е ч а т а н н ы е з а г л а в н ы м и б у к в а м и в к о н ц е с т р о к ,
о б о з н а ч е н н ы х н о м е р а м и 1 9 —2 5 , т а к , ч т о б ы о н и г р а м м а т и ч е с к и
соот вет ст вовали содерж анию т екст ов. Заполнит е пропуски
полученны м и словам и. К аж ды й про п уск соот вет ст вует от дельном у
з а д а н и ю и з гр у п п ы 1 9 —2 5 .

Floating ice
The fact that ice floats in water is a
bit strange, because most substances are
19 _________ when they're solids than when DENSE
they're liquid. As water cools and freezes, it
becomes less dense due to the unique nature
of hydrogen bonds. Each molecule of water
consists of one oxygen atom strongly bonded
20 to two hydrogen atoms. This fact_________ REFLECT
in the chemical formula for water: H 2 O.
If you have a gallon of ice and a gallon of
21 water, the gallon of ice less than WEIGH
the gallon of water. This unique property of
water is especially beneficial for fish that live
in bodies of water that freeze in the winter.
The Canterbury tales
The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey
Chaucer is a collection of 24 stories within
a frame story. The frame story involves the
22 pilgrimage of 30 people__________ from TRAVEL
London to Canterbury Cathedral. Chaucer
created a vivid cast of characters. His
23 descriptions o f_________ occupations and THEY
clothing provided historians with valuable
insight into how people lived at that time.
The Canterbury Tales was also important
I 248 I Тренировочные варианты
because of Chaucer's decision to write in
English, specifically Middle English. In the
24 late________ century, French was still the FOURTEEN
primary literary language of those in power.
The Canterbury Tales became one of the first
25 major works of literature___________ in WRITE
English.

Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Образуйте от слов,


напечатанных заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных
номерами 26—31, однокоренные слова так, чтобы они грамматически
и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните
пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует
отдельному заданию из группы 26—31.

As humans, we develop habits that we


follow throughout life. While many of the
typical person’s habits are fit, most of us also
26 develop a number o f __________ _ habits HEALTH
over time. Conscious effort is necessary to
adopt a new habit or change a bad habit to a
27 more___________ one. BENEFIT
One of the most important healthy
habits is to follow a nutritious diet each day.
Avoid eating large portions, and eat only when
28 you are___________ , never because you are HUNGER
bored or stressed.
Many doctors recommend maintaining
the same sleep schedule seven days a week.
29 Sleep in a dark room without___________ DISTRACT
such as music or other noise.
30 If you_________ have difficulty falling REGULAR
asleep, ask your physician about other ways to
relax before bedtime.
w

Письменная чааь. Вариант 16 |249 |

When life gets hectic, many individuals


___ fail to develop special habits of healthy stress
I 31 I ______ ___________ . Talking and laughing MANAGE
with friends, watching a movie, taking a nature
walk, reading a book or playing a game can all
help reduce stress levels.

Прочитайте текст с пропусками, обозначенными номерами


32—38. Эти номера соответствуют заданиям 32—38, в которых
представлены возможные варианты ответов. Запишите в поле
ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному вами
варианту ответа.

Jim Henson was born James Maury Henson in Greenville, Mississippi,


in 1936. As an adult, he 3 2 ___________ 6 feet, three inches tall and
loved to work with puppets. Before he had even turned 20 years old, he
had 3 3 _______ success with a popular late-night puppet show called
Sam and Friends. Henson became known for his signature humor, and
his puppets became popular fixtures in television commercials. Henson
also pioneered the technique of using cameras to focus on the puppets
while keeping the puppeteers out of the 3 4 ___________ . This allowed
puppeteers more freedom, since they didn't have to be stuck behind
a screen. It also made the puppets seem much more 3 5 ___________ .
Henson's big 36 __ __________ came in 1969, when his puppets became
an integral part of popular educational show Sesame Street. Since that
time, Henson's beloved characters have become closely 3 7 ___________
with public television. In 1976, Henson developed his own comedy
show based upon his puppets. The Muppet Show struggled at first, but
3 8 ___________ became a smash hit that was one of the most widely
watched television shows in history. Always up for a challenge, Henson
branched out into major movies, proving that his puppets could be
as popular on the big screen as they were on television. Over the years,
Henson's characters have charmed countless children with their unique
brand of humor. Henson died in 1990 of bacterial pneumonia. Today, his
work lives on through the various companies and organizations he founded,
including The Jim Henson Company, the Jim Henson Foundation and Jim
Henson's Creature Shop.
https;//www. wonderopolis.org/wonder/who-was-jim-henson
250 I Тренировочные варианты

32 1) rose 2) located 3) stood 4) set

Ответ:

33 1) complete 2) achieved 3) manage 4) earn

Ответ: | |

34 1) frame 2) rhyme 3) blame 4) flame

Ответ:

35 1) screenlike 2) dreamlike 3) lifelike 4) shadowlike

Ответ: | |

36 1) advantage 2) break 3) fortune 4) chance

Ответ: | |

37 1) combined 2) identified 3) blended 4) associated

Ответ:

38 1) eventually 2) gradually 3) mutually 4) casually

Ответ:
Письменная часть. Вариант 16 | 251

По окончании выполнения заданий 19—38 не забудьте перенести


свои ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа
от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки.
При переносе ответов в заданиях 19—31 буквы записываются йез
пробелов, запят ы х и других дополнительных символов. Каждую
букву или цифру пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с
приведёнными в бланке образцами.

Раздел 4. Письмо

Д ля ответов на задания 39 и 40 используйте бланк ответов № 2.


Черновые пометки могут делаться прямо на листе с заданиями, или
можно использовать отдельный черновик. При выполнении заданий
39 и 40 особое внимание обратите на то, что ваши ответы будут
оцениваться только по записям, сделанным в БЛ АН К Е ОТВЕТОВ
№ 2. Никакие записи черновика не будут учитываться экспертом.
Обратите внимание также на необходимость соблюдения указанного
объёма текста. Тексты недостаточного объёма, а такж е часть
текста, превышающая требуемый объём, не оцениваются. Запишите
сначала номер задания (39, 40), а затем ответ на него.

39 You have received а letter from your English-speaking pen-friend


Jim who writes;

Yesterday my friends and 1 went to the local zoo. I hadn ’/ been


there fo r ages. We saw funny animals there. Why do people visit
zoos ? What are some good and bad things about zoos ? Do you like
zoos ? Why or why not ?
Yesterday {finished reading a detective story by Agatha Christie.
Write a letter to Jim.
In your letter
—answer his questions
—ask 3 questions about the detective story.
Write 100—140 words.
Remember the rules of letter writing.
252 I Тренировочные варианты
Выберите только ОДНО из двух предложенных высказываний (40.1
или 40.2), укажите его номер в БЛАНКЕ ОТВЕТОВ № 2 и выразите
своё мнение по предложенной проблеме согласно данному плану.

Comment on the following statements.


40.1 E lu e n c y in a la n g u a g e is m o r e im p o r ta n t th a n a c c u ra c y .

40.2 T echnologies iso la te p e o p le f r o m so c ie ty .

What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?


Write 200-250 words.
Use the following plan:
— make an introduction (state the problem paraphrasing the given
statement)
— express your personal opinion and give 2—3 reasons for your
opinion
— express an opposing opinion and give 1—2 reasons for this
opposing opinion
— explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion
— make a conclusion restating your position

ВАРИАНТ 17

Раздел 1. Аудирование

Вы услышите 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие


между высказываниями каждого говоряш,его A —F и ут вер­
ждениями, данньши в списке 1—7. Используйте каждое ут вер­
ждение, обозначенное соответствуюи^ей буквой, только один
раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите
запись дважды. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. У вас есть 20
секунд, чтобы ознакомиться с заданием.

1. Sport is important for children.


2. A player can choose the best personal style.
3. The sport is very dangerous for a player.
Письменная часть. Вариант 17 |253

4. The best way of practice is an individual sport.


5. Water-skiing features various types.
6. Sports require hard work.
7. Some sportsmen are superstitious.
Говорящий A В С D E F
Утверждение

Вы услыш ите диалог. Определите, какие из приведённых


утверждений A —G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 —
True), какие не соответствуют (2 — Fake) и о чём в тексте
не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни
положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 — N ot Stated).
Занесите номер выбранного вами варианта ответа в таблицу.
Вы услышите запись дважды.

Monika’s pet is not usual.


В According to Kate, Sphinx cats are not cute because they are ugly.
Sphinx cats are usually of dark gray colour.
Kate was allergic to cats.
Jim is allergic to cats.
Apart from Canadian hairless and Sphinx cats there are more breeds
of naked cats.
Kate thinks that Sphinx cats have awesome character.

Утверждение A В С D Е F G
Соответствие
диалогу

Вы услышите интервью. В заданиях 3 —9 запишите в поле ответа


цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному вами варианту
ответа. Вы услышите запись дважды.

3_I When was the bookstore opened?


l ) l n 1901.
I 254 I Тренировочные варианты

2) In 1801.
3) In 1701.
Ответ:

The bookstore was popular with English people because


1) it helped English authors.
2) supported foreigners.
3) it published a newspaper.
Ответ: | [

What changes did William and John Antony make?


1) The bookstore began to publish books.
2) The bookstore only sold books.
3) The bookstore became a reading room.
Ответ:

Why did Galignani begin to sell French books?


1) Because English books were prohibited.
2) Because English books were expensive.
3) Because English books were boring.
Ответ:

When Danielle began running the store ,


1) he didn’t have any experience.
2) he specialized in book sales.
3) he wanted to change the bookstore.
Ответ: | |

How often do they organize events?


1) Once a year.
2) 2 or 3 a month.
3) 2 or 3 a year.
г
Письменная часть. Вариант 17 |255 |

Ответ:

How do they use the Internet?


1) People can express their opinion online.
2) People can buy books online.
3) People can reserve books on the site.
Ответ:

По окончании выполнения заданий 1—9 не забудьте перенести свои


ответы в БЛ АН К ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа от
номера соответствуюш,его задания, начиная с первой клеточки.
При переносе ответов в заданиях 1 и 2 цифры записываются без
пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру
пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в
бланке образцами.

Раздел 2. Чтение

Н У ст ановит е соот вет ст вие меж ду т екст ам и A —G и


заголовкам и 1—8. Занесит е свои ответы в т аблицу.
Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один
заголовок лишнии.

1. Natural ways to adapt 5. Impressive forms of communication


2. Stronger than humans 6. Impressive hearing abilities
3. Our intelligent neighbors 7. A remarkable sight
4. Extraordinary productivity 8. Incredible speed

A. As humans, we see ourselves as the strongest race. Although our


strength is notable, tiny creatures such as beetles and ants put us to
shame. The dung beetle, for instance, pulls 1,141 times its own body
weight! While it may not seem remarkable due to its small stature,
keep in mind that the human equivalent of such strength would
require the ability to lift almost 73,000 kilograms. In the way of sheer
weight, African elephants take the cake. These enormous, lovable
creatures can carry over 9,000 kilograms.
I 256 I Тренировочные варианты____________

B. One of the fastest men alive, Usain Bolt, was noted for having
reached the speed of 44.72 kilometers per hour in a 100-meter
dash. A cheetah, however, easily doubles Bolt’s speed in only three
seconds. A bird noted as one of the fastest living creatures, the
peregrine falcon, can reach an earth-shattering 355 kilometers per
hour. The reason for this is simply necessity. To intercept its prey in
the sky, the peregrine falcon must dive at remarkable speeds.
C. We can all admit that humans are not the most productive creatures
at times. But we have also heard the saying “as busy as a bee.” Some
bees will work only several hours, while some will work over 12.
Worker bees are busy day and night. Due to the lack of restrictions
based on environmental and time factors, these bees can continue
their tasks, such as cooling the nest with their wings, tending
to various honeycombs, and, of course, taking lunch breaks.
D. As humans, we’ve made some incredible adaptations. However, these
have relied heavily on machinery. Animals lack the ability to craft
such things. As such, over thousands upon millions of years, they
have been forced to adapt. For example, suppose an animal living in
Southern Africa was not able to adequately feed itself because it could
not reach its food. Over a very long time, that creature’s neck would
grow, eventually becoming what it is now — a giraffe.
E. Animals take this one by a landslide. Don’t get us wrong, humans
have some incredible optical equipment. Beyond contacts and
glasses, we’ve designed telescopes capable of seeing great distances
across our universe. In practice, however, this equipment doesn’t
compensate for our shortcomings in real-world practice. This is
likely because humans no longer need to roam wide, open areas
to survive. Creatures without access to agriculture, like birds, need
strong eyesight. They must be able to see their prey long before the
prey sees them.
F. A bat’s hearing is so powerful that it almost single-handedly
compensates for the creature’s terrible vision. As a bat travels through
a cave, it emits squeaking sounds that bounce around the nearby
walls. The animal uses this information to know where not to fly. A
phenomenon common in many species is the idea that a lack of one
sense strengthens another. In the bat’s case, a lack of sight means less
brain power devoted to seeing.
Письменная часть. Вариант 17 | 257

G. You’re probably on а cell phone or computer right now. They


are amazing forms of communication, but they can’t compete
with good, old-fashioned nature. Ants communicate using
scented chemicals. Using their antennae, other ants can detect
these various chemicals, with each acting as a sort of message or
word. For instance, an ant coming under attack may emit a chemical
detectable by thousands of members of its colony. As a result, what
seems like a lone ant might change very quickly.
https://listverse.eom/20r7/06/23/10-arnazing-ways-animals-are-siiperior-to-
man/

A В C D E F G
Ответ:

11 Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A—F частями


предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1—7. Одна из частей
в списке 1—7 лиш няя. Занесите цифры, обозначающие
соответствующие части предложений, в таблицу.

Meteorologists use а process called numerical weather prediction


to create forecasts by inputting current conditions — which they call the
“nowcast” — into computer models. The more current and accurate
information available to these models, A ___________________. Ground
radar, weather balloons, aircraft, satellites, ocean buoys and more can
provide three-dimensional observations that a model can use. This allows
meteorologists to simulate В ________________ and predict what will
happen in the next few days or, for some models, hours.
Weather models divide a region, say a single state or even the whole
globe, into a set of boxes, or cells. The size of these cells affects its
forecasting accuracy. Large boxes mean poor resolution, or the inability
to tell what’s happening over small areas, but a broad picture of large-scale
weather trends over long timelines. This big-picture forecast is helpful
C ______________ how a big storm will move across the region over the
course of a week.
Smaller boxes mean higher resolution, which can forecast smaller
storms. These models are more expensive in terms of computing power,
and only run to the one- or two-day mark to tell people D ___________ .
258 I Тренировочные варианты

Although all models are based on the same physics, each translates
those physics into computer code differently. Some models might prioritize
certain kinds of data — such as wind speed, temperature and humidity —
over others to generate predictions, or simulate physical processes slightly
differently than another model. That’s why two models might spit oul
slightly different results, E ___________________.
According to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,
today’s five-day forecast is accurate about 90 percent of the time. The
seven-day forecast is correct 80 percent of the time, and a 10-day forecast
reflects the weather F ___________________.
http://discovermagazine.com/2019/septemberoctober/weathering-the-storm

1. the better the forecast will be


2. whether it might storm in their local area
3. even with exactly the same starting observations
4. that actually occurs about 50 percent of the time
5. what the atmosphere is currently doing
6. when you want to know
7. which an accurate forecast can be made
A В C D E F
Ответ:

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12—18. В каждом задании


запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую
выбранному вами варианту ответа.

Consider two famous facts about cats. One; on the night of 30 April
1915, the ship’s cat of the RMS Lusitania went awol in New York. The next
day, the ship sailed for Liverpool without him; a week later it was torpedoed
by U-boats and sunk. Two: in the ruins of Pompeii, there have been found
no cat remains, although mosaics and statues indicate that cats were
favoured pets. Countless people perished in the destruction of Pompeii, as
did hapless dogs. But when they died, they did it catless. I mention these
feline feats of scarpering in times of crisis because the reader needs to be
warned: Hiro Arikawa’s bestselling Japanese novel features a cat with a
heart, who feels loyalty and gratitude and would never abandon his loving
human master — not at the first rumble of an erupting volcano; not even
on hearing rumours of enemy submarines lurking in the Irish Sea. So we
Письменная часть. Вариант 17 |259 |

must start with а question. Is this a book for cat lovers who can’t handle
the truth?
Nana is the protagonist. A stray cat in Tokyo with a strong
I ' I
survival instinct, he is taken in by a young man named Satoru after being
hit by a car. Nana finds he has fallen on his feet. Satoru is a cat lover from
youth; gentle and intuitive, he still mourns his first cat Hachi, from whom
he was traumatically separated as a child. The name “Nana” derives from
na, the Japanese word for seven —the shape of Nana’s tail. Nana is scornful
of Satoru’s literal-mindedness when it comes to naming cats, hut he has the
usual feline instinct for knowing which side his crispy chicken is battered,
and decides to stick around.
Five happy years of cohabitation pass in a single sentence, and then
Satoru tells the cat that they must make a journey. They will visit Satoru’s
childhood friend Kosuke, with the purpose of rehoming Nana. Satoru is
not forthcoming about the reason. “We just can’t live together any more,”
he says. Satoru’s motives are officially unclear. But does Nana stay with
Kosuke?
The structure of The Travelling Cat Chronicles is deceptively simple.
With alternating sections of third-person and Nana-the-cat narration,
it consists of three journeys to friends, followed by a pilgrimage across a
beautifully evoked landscape. There is then a heart-breaking last journey
that left me in bits.
People who love animals are often made to feel bonkers. To be fair, we
ask for it. But the desire to consider the happiness of a four-legged friend is
not ignoble; it is humane. And we do get something back. In The Travelling
Cat Chronicles, Nana is at one point left with other caged animals on a
ferry, and Satoru keeps checking up on him. Other animals mock Nana
for being pampered, but a cat speaks up. “Don’t you understand? It’s his
master who’s the lonely one?”
What Nana observes and experiences through their journeys is
Satoru’s huge, lifelong capacity for quiet consideration, which is moving
enough in itself. But when the cat responds to his love — well, you ought
to laugh, but I couldn’t. “Cats are not so heartless,” declares Nana. “How
could I ever leave him?” I know, I know. What a sap I am. But anyone who
has ever unashamedly loved an animal will read this book with gratitude,
for its understanding of an emotion that ennobles us as human beings,
whether we value it or not.
https://www.theguardian.com/books/2017/nov/17/travelling-cat-chronicles-
hiro-arikawa-review
w
260 I Тренировочные варианты

What relates two facts about cats mentioned in the text?


1) Cats abandoned people as if they felt danger.
2) Cats helped people to avoid danger.
3) Cats were independent and people let them go away.
4) Cats were favourite pets in both situations.
Ответ: | |

13 What is the difference between the mentioned facts of cats and Hiro
Arikawa’s bestselling Japanese novel?
1) The cat can warn and save people in Arikawa’s book.
2) The eat is featured as a loyal companion of people in Arikawa’s
book.
3) The cat will never leave his owner in Arikawa’s book.
4) The cat is described as a mysterious animal in Arikawa’s book.
Ответ: | [

14 What is the main hero of Arikawa’s novel like?


1) It is a young man who loves cats.
2) It is a homeless cat whose name is chosen because of the shape
of its tail.
3) It is wary after spending time outside away from people.
4) It is a cat which lived with Satoru when he was little.
Ответ:

15 The phrase “... he has the usual feline instinct for knowing which
side his crispy chicken is battered” in paragraph 3 means th a t...
1) the eat is watching his new owner and his house.
2) the eat likes the house and wants to live there.
3) the cat likes eating chicken the new owner gives to it.
4) the eat has never eaten such a crispy chicken.
Ответ:
Письменная часть. Вариант 17 | 261 |

16 How does Satoru explain his decision to give Nana to his childhood
friend?
1) The cat annoys him.
2) The cat helps his friend to survive a difficult situation.
3) He cannot live with the cat because of allergy.
4) The explanation is absent.
Ответ:
■О
17 What does the narrator say about the structure of the book?
1) The main part of the book describes a pilgrimage across
picturesque scenery.
2) The books is written on behalf of the cat.
3) It is based on the description of three journeys to friends.
4) The last journey is not related to the style of the whole novel.
Ответ: | [

jH What idea is expressed in the last paragraph?


1) The author managed to convey his feelings about cats.
2) Only people who love cats should read this book.
3) Cats understand people's attitudes towards them.
4) The book makes people think about stray cats.
Ответ:
■a
По окончании выполнения заданий 10—18 не забудьте перенести
свои ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа
от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки.
При переносе ответов в заданиях 10 и 11 цифры записываются без
пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру
пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в
бланке образцами.
262 I Тренировочные варианты
т
Раздел 3. Грамматика и лексика

Прочитайте приведённые ниже тексты. Преобразуйте, если


необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк,
обозначенных номерами 19—25, т ак, чтобы они грамматически
соот вет ствовали содержанию текстов. Заполнит е пропуски
полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному
заданию из группы 19—25.

Cleaning the painting


How do you clean a huge 400-year-old
painting that is a national treasure? If you said,
19 “Very carefully,” y o u ___________ right. The BE
Night Watch is t h e ___________ painting in IMPORTANT
the history of the Netherlands. It was painted
20 between 1639 and 1642 by Rembrandt. For
Dutch people, this painting is one of their
greatest treasures. The country___________ SHOCK
in 1975 when someone cut the painting with a
knife. The painting was repaired. Since then,
21
the painting___________ dirtier. It is hard to BECOME
see the painting’s true colours. That’s why the
museum is going to “restore” it - to clean it
22 and try and make it look like it did back when
Rembrandt first painted it.
The discovery of a treasure
In January, a 13-year-old boy called Luca
and his teacher___________ metal detectors USE
in a field on Riigen Island in Germany when the
23 boy found something that he thought was a piece
of aluminum trash. Later the two cleaned the
metal piece. They saw that it was actually a silver
24 coin. That’s when they knew they__________ FIND
something important. “Over the weekend,
25 archeologists began to dig. The boy and his
teacher___________ to help. The dig turned up ALLOW
hundreds of silver coins, rings, pearls and other
items. The items are over 1,000 years old.
Письменная часть. Вариант 17 |263 |

Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Образуйте от слов, напе­


чатанных заглавны ми буквами в конце строк, обозначенных
номерами 26—31, однокоренные слова так, чтобы они грамматически
и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните
пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует
отдельному заданию из группы 26—31.

Not only is the Bald Eagle a prominent


symbol of the United States, it is also the national
bird. It can be found throughout North America,
including most of Canada and Alaska, all of
26 th e ___________ United States, and northern CONTINENT
Mexico.
Its name is Haliaeetus SCIENCE
leucocephalus. This name comes from the
following four Greek root words: hali (salt),
aeetus (eagle), leuco (white), and cephalis
(head). Put all that together and the Bald Eagle is
a whiteheaded sea eagle!
Bald Eagles are mainly brown with a white
head and tail. You may be wondering why they're
called "bald" when th e y ______have OBVIOUS
white feathers on their heads. The name actually
comes from an old English word — piebald —
which meant “white-headed” rather than
HAIR
Once an endangered species,___________ CONSERVE
efforts in the past 25 years have led to
significant increases in Bald Eagle populations.
On June 28, 2007, the Bald Eagle was officially
removed from the List of Endangered and
Threatened Wildlife. Since it’s the national bird,
however, it still receives______ under the PROTECT
Migratory Bird Treaty Act.
264 I Тренировочные варианты

Прочитайте текст с пропусками, обозначенными номерами


32—38. Эти номера соответствуют заданиям 32—38, в которых
представлены возможные варианты ответов. Запишите в поле
ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствуюи^ую выбранному вами
варианту ответа.

You probably check the weather outside, so you’ll need to know what
to wear that day. Of course, if you have a certain set of clothes you always
have to wear, then you don't have to 3 2 ________ _ about what to wear.
Uniforms are sets of clothing worn by all the members of a particular
organization. Uniforms come in all sorts of different sizes, shapes, designs
and types. Certain jobs require uniforms. Police personnel and firefighters
wear special uniforms that help 3 3 __________ them with their profession.
Their uniforms can also help them do their jobs better. Firemen, for
example, wear suits that help protect them from the 3 4 __________ of
fires. Doctors and nurses also often wear uniforms. Their uniforms can
help them 3 5 __________ clean in an environment where they frequently
encounter germs. Uniforms can also help people feel more comfortable.
Uniforms are also an important part of military service. Soldiers wear
uniforms to increase identification with their fellow soldiers and their
mission. Their uniforms also provide important protection and, sometimes,
camouflage helps them 3 6 __________ their jobs. Some companies
require all of their workers to wear uniforms to help 37__________
identify workers. For example, you may have noticed that package delivery
personnel all wear similar brown uniforms. Students in many schools are
also required to wear uniforms. Many parents like school uniforms, because
they prevent repeated hassles with trying to 3 8 __________ out what to
wear for school. Required uniforms can also cut down on clothing expenses,
since they're usually less expensive than other popular styles.
https://www.wonderopolis.org/wonder/why-do-some-people-wear-uniforms

32 1) bother 2) disturb 3) worry 4) trouble

Ответ: [ [
Письменная чааь. Вариант 17 |265 |

33 1) establish 2) identify 3) find 4) determine

Ответ: [~ [

34 1) heat 2) wheat 3) feat 4 )treat

Ответ:

35 1) stay 2) keep 3) wipe 4) maintain

Ответ:

36 1) do 2) make 3) take 4) eomplete

Ответ; | [

37 1) costumers 2) consumers 3) customers 4) neweomers

Ответ;

38 1) figure ) carry 3) bring 4) close

Ответ:

По окончании выполнения заданий 19—38 не забудьте перенести


свои ответы в БЛ АН К ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа
от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки.
При переносе ответов в заданиях 19—31 буквы записываются без
пробелов, запят ы х и других дополпительных символов. Каждую
букву или цифру пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с
приведёнными в бланке образцами. ____________________________
266 I Тренировочные варианты

Раздел 4. Письмо

Д ля ответов на задания 3 9 и 40 используйте бланк ответов № 2.


Черновые пометки могут делаться прямо на листе с заданиями, или
можно использовать отдельный черновик. При выполнении заданий
39 и 40 особое внимание обратите на то, что ваши ответы будут
оцениваться только по записям, сделанным в БЛ АН КЕ ОТВЕТОВ
№ 2. Никакие записи черновика не будут учитываться экспертом.
Обратите внимание также на необходимость соблюдения указанного
объёма текста. Тексты недостаточного объёма, а такж е часть
текста, превышаюш,ая требуемый объём, не оцениваются. Запишите
сначала номер задания (39, 40), а затем ответ на него.

39 You have received а letter from your English-speaking pen-friend


Jane who writes:

...We celebrated Halloween yesterday. All my friends came to the


party in fancy dresses. By the way, the most popular one was a
Witch’s outfit. We played a lot o f games and laughed a lot. Do most
young people like or dislike this holiday in your country? Why?
What food is associated with Halloween in your country? Why do
you think people are fo n d o f such holidays?
...By the way, I want to learn Japanese...
Write a letter to Jane.
In your letter
—answer her questions
—ask 3 questions about her plans for learning a new language.
Write 100—140 words.
Remember the rules of letter writing.

Выберите только ОДНО из двух предложенных высказываний (40.1


или 40.2), укаж ите его номер в БЛАНКЕ ОТВЕТОВ № 2 и выразите
своё мнение по предложенной проблеме согласно данному плану.

Comment on the following statements.


40.1 A computer illiterate person cannot build a successful career.

40.2 Recording your expenses helps to save money.


т Письменная часть. Вариант 18 |267 |
1

What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?


Write 200—250 words.
Use the following plan:
— make an introduction (state the problem paraphrasing the given
statement)
— express your personal opinion and give 2—3 reasons for your
opinion
— express an opposing opinion and give 1—2 reasons for this
opposing opinion
— explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion
— make a conclusion restating your position.

ВАРИАНТ 18

Раздел 1. Аудирование

Вы услышите 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие


между высказываниями каждого говорящего A —F и ут вер­
ждениями, данными в списке 1—7. Используйте каждое утвер­
ждение, обозначенное соответствующей цифрой, только один
раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите
запись дважды. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. У вас есть 20
секунд, чтобы ознакомиться с заданием.

1. Juice isn’t а useful drink for the health.


2. Small changes lead to healthy habits.
3. It is better to take your mind off your to-do list.
4. The fitness activity should suit a person well.
5. You should stand in the place where you work.
6. Moderation is the best way while eating this fruit.
7. Things that truly motivate a person help to create new habits.
Говорящий A В С D E F
Утверждение
268 I Тренировочные варианты

Вы услышите диалог. Определите, какие из приведённых


утверждений A—G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 —
True), какие не соответствуют (2 — False) и о чём в тексте
не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни
положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 — N ot Stated).
Занесите номер выбранного вами варианта ответа в таблицу.
Вы услышите запись дважды.

Kathy would eagerly listen to something about the yesterday


programme.
All Kathy’s friends have TVs.
Some people use TVs as a source of background noise.
Greg thinks that people must watch only educational TV
programmes.
The BBC gets their money from TV license.
Both Greg and Kathy think that there is too much advertising on
TV.
Kathy doesn’t watch TV a lot. Neither does Greg.

Утверждение А В С D Е F G
Соответствие
диалогу

Вы услышите интервью. В заданиях 3—9 запишите в поле ответа


цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному вами варианту
ответа. Вы услышите запись дважды.

НI What
3 does Karen say about her teachers at school?
1) They developed her interest in music.
2) They enabled her to improve her artistic talent.
3) They followed old-fashioned methods of teaching.
Ответ:
_________ Письменная часть. Вариант 18 |269 |

How did Karen feel when she was asked to write a travel book?
1) She was concerned about other people seeing her pictures.
2) She was pleased to be able to demonstrate her individuality.
3) She was surprised that a publisher was interested in her.
Ответ
О
In her books, Karen’s main aim is ...
1) to encourage more people to travel.
2) to help people enjoy their own travel experiences.
3) to make people think more deeply about what they see.
Ответ: [ [

Karen says that what she finds fascinating about places i s ...
1) the mismatch between appearance and reality.
2) the different types of places she has to go to.
3) the people she meets on her travels.
Ответ: [ [

What did Karen enjoy most about her trip to Argentina?


1) Seeing unusual wildlife.
2) Giving successful concerts.
3) Being alone in the natural landscape.
Ответ: | |

What does Karen say she has learned from travelling?


1) It may be helpful to be a tourist in some places.
2) It’s sometimes necessary to accept places for what they are.
3) It improves the travel experience if you try to understand a place.
Ответ: | [
270 I Тренировочные варианты

What, according to Karen, has contributed most to her success?


1) Having a lot of luck in life.
2) Responding to a challenge.
3) Getting support from others.
Ответ: | |

По окончании выполнения заданий 1—9 не забудьте перенести свои


ответы в БЛ АН К ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа от
номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки.
При переносе ответов в заданиях 1 и 2 цифры записываются без
пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру
пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в
бланке образцами.

Раздел 2. Чтение

10 Уст ановит е соот вет ст вие меж ду т екст ам и A —G и


заголовкам и 1—8. Занесит е свои ответы в таблицу.
Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один
заголовок лишний.

\ . А magic survival 5. Adopting the missed dog


2. Taken without permission 6. Living in a factory
3. Inside the cardboard hox 1. A mystery journey
4. A new family member 8. Forgetting its special pronunciation

A. A British man named Darren Chick was living in California with


his parrot, Nigel. The bird was learning to talk and even adopted
Darren’s British accent when it spoke. In 2010, Nigel managed to
fly away, and Darren never found him. Four years later, someone
else found Nigel and brought him to a veterinarian. They scanned
his microchip and returned him to Darren, but the parrot no longer
spoke with a British accent.
B. Helen and Phillip Johns from Cornwall, England, were devastated
when they could not find their seven-year-old cat, Woosie, in 2011.
Woosie had wandered a full 50 kilometers away, stopping at the
Письменная чааь. Вариант 18 \ 271

Ginsters factory. Workers thought that Woosie was simply adorable


and decided to adopt him as a sort of mascot. One day they visited
the veterinarian and when the doctor scanned the cat for a micro­
chip, he discovered Woosie’s true identity and contacted Phillip and
Helen. They happily reunited with their cat.
C. In 2009, one-year-old Corky escaped from the backyard of his
home in Texas. Nearly seven years later, someone reported seeing
two stray dogs wandering together. Animal control workers scanned
them for microchips. They contacted the Montez family, who reu­
nited with Corky after all those years. During his time away. Corky
had become best friends with a younger, one-eyed dog, which was
named Captain by the Montez family. They refused to separate them
and welcomed Captain as a new addition to the family.
D. In 2002 in San Antonio, Texas, a woman named Michelle Pool had
surgery on her back. She asked her father to watch over her hor­
se, Opie while she was recovering. Opie stayed enclosed by a wire
fence in his pasture. Someone clipped the metal fence in the middle
of the night, and stole the horse. Michelle submitted the case to an
organization called Stolen Horse International. Ten long years later,
she received a phone call that they had found Opie. Michelle was
reunited with her long-lost pet.
E. On March 11, 2011, a tsunami hit the Iwate Prefecture. A black cat
named Suika was swept up in the waves and carried away. Owners
Takeo and Kazuko Yamagishi didn’t have time to find their cat. When
they returned home, Suika was nowhere to be found. Three years
later, a couple was hiking in a forest not too far from the Yamagishis’
home. They noticed the cat with a collar with the phone number of
the owners. The Yamagishis were reunited with little Suika.
F. In 2012, the devastating Hurricane Sandy destroyed many parts of
the East Coast of the United States. Chuck and Elicia James lived in
New Jersey during the storm. Their terrier-pitbull mix named Reck­
less was able to escape. Chuck and Elicia were heartbroken. After
a year and a half, the couple was finally ready to adopt a new dog.
They visited a local animal shelter ... only to see that Reckless was
there, waiting for them all this time. According to Chuck, Reckless
“jumped three feet in the air” when he saw the couple.
272 I Тренировочные варианты

G. In Boulder, Colorado, a calico cat named Willow escaped from her


home in 2006 when the door was open during renovations. For five
years, Jamie and Chris Squires assumed that Willow must have been
eaten by a coyote in the Rocky Mountains. One can only imagi­
ne their surprise when they received a phone call that Willow had
been found — in New York City. Over 1,600 kilometers (1,000 mi)
away from her home, the calico cat was found walking the streets of
Manhattan.
https://www.newspopcorn.com/10-incredible-pets-that-returned-home-after-
years-of-being-lost/

A В C D E F G
Ответ:

11 Прочитайте текст и заполнит е пропуски A—F частями


предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1—7. Одна из частей
в списке 1—7 лиш няя. Занесит е цифры, обозначающие
соответствующие части предложений, в таблицу.

As you look for planets, like Mercury and Venus, and try to identify
different constellations, some of the points of light appear to flicker. Are the
stars twinkling? Or are your eyes playing tricks on you?
Don't worry! It's not an optical illusion. When you're stargazing, stars
often do appear to be twinkling, and A ___________________. Scientists
call this twinkling phenomenon astronomical scintillation. Earth's
atmosphere can be quite turbulent at times. В ___________ , it varies in
both density and temperature. To reach your eyes, light from distant stars
must pass through Earth's ever-changing atmosphere.
C ___________________ , it gets refracted in different directions
constantly. Your eyes may latch onto a pinpoint of light from a particular
star and then, a fraction of a second later, it may appear to be in a different
place. Our eyes interpret this as twinkling.
However, it's usually only stars that really appear to twinkle. Planets,
for example, rarely appear to twinkle. This is because they are much closer
to Earth and thus appear larger. The greater amount of light reflected by
planets isn't affected by the atmosphere D ___________________.
E ___________________ , it's very frustrating for astronomers. To
overcome the effects of Earth's atmosphere, astronomers prefer to rely upon
space-based telescopes, such as the Hubble telescope, whenever possible.
w

Письменная часть. Вариант 18 |273 |

When they must use land-based telescopes for observations,


astronomers prefer telescopes F ___________________. These telescopes
use many tiny mirrors that can adjust rapidly to changing atmospheric
conditions to minimize astronomic scintillation.
https://www.wonderopolis.org/wonder/why-do-stars-twinkle
1. as it stretches high into the air
2. that feature advanced adaptive optics
3. while twinkling starlight may seem romantic to some
4. it is Earth's atmosphere that's to blame
5. as noticeably as the light from distant stars
6. as the light travels through the atmosphere
7. that vary in temperature and density
A В C D E F
Ответ:

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12—18. В каждом задании


запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую
выбранному вами варианту ответа.
World-schooling, adventuring, life-learning, whatever you call it, more
parents are doing it — if the proliferation of blogs by famiUes on round-the-
world trips is anything to go by. Driven by a desire to spend a greater amount
of time with their children, escape the pressures of work and discover new
cultures and lifestyles, a growing number of parents are Jacking it all in,
taking the kids out of school and setting off on an adventure.
Take Jo and Jamie Robins, who are two weeks into a four-month South ,I
America trip with their daughters, aged ten and seven. “We want to take
some time to step back from life, the treadmill of working hard to pay a
mortgage, not having enough time for family or to follow our interests,” says
Jo. The Robins have only just begun their adventure and are planning to
come back home later this year — maybe. However, many parents find that
once they are on the road, they can’t imagine going back to their old life.
David and Debs Hurst’s three-month mission to visit their Facebook
friends, with their sons, aged six and four, turned into an extended
campervan trip across 13 countries, which they dubbed “education by
astonishment”, visiting people and places with a “wow factor”.
“To our minds, they are learning in a more interesting way. We don’t
know if we’re right, but it’s our gut instinct. We don’t have a TV in the van
274 I Тренировочные варианты

and the boys only have one small box of toys each. We encourage them to
spend as much time as possible outside,” says David. They were so inspired
by their journey that they are setting off again, this time to Spain where they
hope to buy some land and set up a family campsite with a focus on learning
through outdoor play.
For many travelling families, homeschooling is not just a consequence
of travel, but part of the attraction. Overall, homeschooling is on the
rise. Local authority figures released at the end of last year show a 65 %
increase in children recorded as home educated in the UK over six
years. US website Vagabondfamily.org, which profiles over 100 nomadic
families, has a series of posts on the benefits of “roadschooling”, while
Daniel Prince, who has been travelling for nearly two years, talks about
the inspiration for homeschooling, as well as some of the resources he and
his wife use to educate their four children.
One thing these families have in common is that their children are very
young. Single parent Theodora Sutcliffe travelled the world for four years
with her son, but settled in Bali when he turned 13. Sutcliffe has no regrets
about their travels and says her son benefited “hugely”, but their journey
came to an end when he decided he wanted to go to a conventional school.
It’s no surprise that the government disapproves, driven as it is by
targets and goals — the precise thing many parents are trying to get away
from. But are there other reasons why long-term travel is a bad idea? The
people doing it — typically well-off liberals who can afford to fund a long­
term trip —justify the experience on the grounds that it will benefit their
children immensely. But would those kids be just as happy and leam as
much by doing activities each weekend? Are these parents just being selfish?
In a recent TV debate about taking term-time holidays, philosopher
Julian Baggini accused parents of being disingenuous about their true
motives. “The value of out-of-school learning is real, but often a convenient
alibi for selfishness,” he wrote. “I think that children gain more from
spending an extended time abroad than the equivalent in a school. Partly,
it’s because diversity of experience is generally good in itself.”
https://www.theguardian.com/travel/2016/jan/29/is-world-schooling-kids-
selfish-family-travel-edventures
12 Which of the following statements ISN'T the reasons to take the kids
out of school and set off on an adventure?

_________ Письменная часть. Вариант 18 | 275 |

1) The spread of online journals describing stories of families on


round-the-world trips.
2) The boredom of ordinary life and work.
3) The desire to meet new people from different countries and with
different lifestyles.
4) The necessity to dedicate their time and energy to children.
Ответ:

The author doubts th a t...
и
1) the Robins come back home this year.
2) the Robins go back to their old life.
3) the Robins make another round-the-world trip.
4) the Robins will enjoy such a long trip.
Ответ:
О
14 The phrase “education by astonishment” in paragraph 3 is opposi­
te in meaning to ...
1) informal education.
2) formal education.
3) homeschooling.
4) natural education.
Ответ: | [

15 What does David mean saying that taking the kids out of school is
their gut instinct?
1) They made the decision based on an instinctive feeling.
2) They made the decision analysing the advantages and
disadvantages.
3) They made the decision after they had spoken to the school
teachers.
4) They made the decision after they had discussed it with similar
families.
276 I Тренировочные варианты

16 Which of the following statements about homeschooling is NOT


true, according to paragraph 5?
1) Homeschooling is seen by many travelling families as a positive
feature of travel.
2) There has been an increase in the percentage of children who get
home education.
3) Homeschooling inspires parents to educate their children.
4) Parents cannot have another possibility if they decide to travel.
Ответ:

17 Why did Theodora Suteliffe’s travel come to end?


1) Because she was tired of travelling.
2) Because she wanted her son to get formal education.
3) Because her son wanted to get formal education.
4) Because her son didn’t get enough knowledge.
Ответ: [ [

18 What idea is expressed in the last paragraph?


1) Parents are concerned primarily with their own interests and
benefits.
2) Parents try to improve their children’s education.
3) Children get better education only because of new experiences.
4) Spending an extended time abroad may influence negatively.
Ответ: | |

По окончании выполнения заданий 10—18 не забудьте перенести


свои ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа
от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки.
При переносе ответов в заданиях 10 и 11 цифры записываются без
пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру
пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в
бланке образцами.
Письменная часть. Вариант 18 |277

Раздел 3. Грамматика и лексика

Прочит айт е приведённые ниж е тексты. Преобразуйте, если


необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк,
обозначенных номерами 19—25, т ак, чтобы они грамматически
соот вет ст вовали содержанию текстов. Заполнит е пропуски
полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному
заданию из группы 19—25.

А floating city
А floating city may sound crazy, but as the
effects of climate change become worse, people are
thinking seriously about even unusual ideas. A group
19 called Oceanix_____________up with a plan to COME
create the world’s first floating city. Last April their
20 p la n ________ _ at the United Nations. The DISCUSS
cities would be built with six-sided floating islands.
A six-island “village” could hold about 1,650
people. Oceanix believes these cities could support
21 ____________ . The company says the cities would THEY
be built m warm places. This will make growing food
22 ____________ than growing food in cold places. EASY
and allow people to live and work outside for much
of the year.
Why do zebras have stripes?
Zebras are famous for their strong pattern of
black and white stripes. Usually when an animal
has a special feature, that feature helps the animal
23 in some way. For years, scientists______________ PUZZLE
over how stripes might help zebras. More recently,
most scientists have begun to agree that the stripes
24 help zebras avoid______________ insects. Now a BITE
group of scientists working in the UK have used a
creative experiment to help explain how stripes help
zebras —by confusing the insects, making it hard
25 for _____________ to land on zebras in the first THEY
place.
278 I Тренировочные варианты

Прочитайте приведённый ниж е текст. Образуйте от слов,


напечатанных заглавными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных
номерами 26—31, однокоренные слова так, чтобы они грамматически
и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните
пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует
отдельному заданию из группы 26—31.

If you think about handwriting, you’ll


н quickly___________ that it's a complicated REAL
task that involves multiple parts of the body
и at once. Your brain must____________ VISUAL
the letters you want to write. Your nerves
must communicate those intentions to the
muscles in your hands and arms.
At the same time, your eyes watch
the letters as you write them, constantly
monitoring their shapes and alerting your
28 brain to ____________ that need to be CORRECT
made. As if all that wasn't enough, your
handwriting can also be affected by a variety
29 o f ____________ factors, such as the ENVIRONMENT
temperature of the room, your stress level,
time constraints, and your overall mood.
When you put all those factors
together, it's no surprise that each person's
30 handwriting i s ____________from others. DIFFER
In fact, an individual's handwriting isn't
31 ____________always the same, since it NECESSARY
can vary based upon any of the factors
mentioned previously. Even twins have
different handwriting!

П рочит айт е текст с пропусками, обозначенными номерами


32—38. Эти номера соответствуют заданиям 32—38, в которых
представлены возможные варианты ответов. Запишите в поле
ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному вами
варианту ответа.
т
_____ Письменная часть. Вариант 18 | 279 |

Voice assistants are programs on digital devices that listen and respond
to verbal commands. A user can say, “What’s the weather?” and the voice
assistant will answer with the weather report for that day and location. They
could say, “Tell me a story,” and the assistant will jump into a tale. The
user could even say, “Order my favorite pizza,” and dinner will be on its
32 ____________ ! Voice assistants are so easy to use that many people
forget how they work. It all starts with a signal word. Have you ever called
a friend’s name to 3 3 ___________ their attention? Users say the names
of their voice assistants for the same 3 4 ___________ . Whatever the signal
word is, it wakes up the device. It signals to the voice assistant that it should
begin paying attention. After the voice assistant hears its signal word, it
starts recording. The device 3 5 ___________ for a pause to know you’ve
finished your request. The voice assistant then sends your recorded request
over the Internet to its database. Once in the database, your request is
3 6 ___________ to other requests. It’s split into separate commands
your voice assistant can understand. The database then sends these
commands back to the voice assistant. Once it reeeives the commands,
the voice assistant knows what to do next. The device might ask a question
to make sure it understands what you want. If it thinks it understands,
the voice assistant will carry 3 7 _________ the task you asked for. Voice
assistants are improving all the time. They learn the same way people do.
Voice assistants can do just about anything you can think of They answer
questions, 3 8 ___________ calls, and can even control parts of your home
like the lights and thermostat!
https;//www.wonderopofis.org/wonder/how-cati-voice-assistants-understand-us

32 1) route 2) path 3 )road 4) way

Ответ:

33 1) get 2) give 3) receive 4) deserve

Ответ:

34 l)case 2) reason 3) excuse 4) proof

Ответ:
F
I 280 I Тренировочные варианты

35 1) demands 2) waits 3) praises 4) pays

Ответ: | |

36 1) correlated 2) compared 3) matched 4) contrasted

Ответ: [ |

37 1) over 2) off 3) out 4) through

Ответ: | |

38 l)p u t 2) have 3) do 4) make

Ответ:

По окончании выполнения заданий 19—3 8 не забудьте перенести


свои ответы в БЛ АН К ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа
от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки.
При переносе ответов в заданиях 19—31 буквы записываются без
пробелов, запят ы х и других дополнительных символов. Каждую
букву или цифру пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с
приведёнными в бланке образцами.

Раздел 4. Письмо

Д ля ответов на задания 3 9 и 40 используйте бланк ответов № 2.


Черновые пометки могут делаться прямо на листе с заданиями, или
можно использовать отдельный черновик. При выполнении заданий
39 и 40 особое внимание обратите на то, что ваши ответы будут
оцениваться только по записям, сделанным в БЛ АН КЕ ОТВЕТОВ
№ 2. Никакие записи черновика не будут учитываться экспертом.
Обратите внимание также на необходимость соблюдения указанного
объёма текста. Тексты недостаточного объёма, а такж е часть
текста, превышающая требуемый объём, не оцениваются. Запишите
сначала номер задания (39, 40), а затем ответ на него.
Письменная чааь. Вариант 18 | 281

39 You have received а letter from your English-speaking pen-friend


Barbara who writes:

...My parents can’t stand the music I listen to or my taste in clothes. I


believe it’s just the generation gap which causes this misunderstanding!
What age difference causes a generation gap? What influences the
values and interests o f your parents’ generation and your generation?
What is the best way fo r parents and children to understand each other
better?
... Yesterday we took part in our school scientific club.
Write a letter to Barbara.
In your letter
- answer her questions
—ask 3 questions about the school scientific club.
Write 100—140 words.
Remember the rules of letter writing.
Выберите только ОДНО из двух предложенных высказываний (40.1
или 40.2), укаж ите его номер в БЛАНКЕ ОТВЕТОВ № 2 и выразите
своё мнение по предложенной проблеме согласно данному плану.

Comment on the following statements.


40.1 The pedestrian’s rights are often ignored in big cities.

40.2 Working in the garden is the best way o f reducing stress.

What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?


Write 200—250 words.
Use the following plan:
— make an introduction (state the problem paraphrasing the given
statement)
— express your personal opinion and give 2—3 reasons for your
opinion
— express an opposing opinion and give 1—2 reasons for this
opposing opinion
— explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion
— make a conclusion restating your position
I 282 I Тренировочные варианты

ВАРИАНТ 19

Раздел 1. Аудирование

Ш Вы услышите 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие


между высказываниями каждого говорящего A —F и ут вер­
ждениями, данными в списке 1—7. Используйте каждое утвер­
ждение, обозначенное соответствующей цифрой, только один
раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите
запись дважды. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. У вас есть 20
секунд, чтобы ознакомиться с заданием.
1. It is necessary to stop such programmes.
2. It distracts viewers’ attention.
3. Reading a newspaper is my habit.
4. It is not a bad way to leam a language.
5. People can watch sports events and relax.
6. Parents should choose appropriate programmes.
7. Watching TV may improve students’ knowledge.
Говорящий A В С D E F
Утверждение

Вы услышите диалог. Определите, какие из приведённых


утверждений A—G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 —
Т^ие), какие не соответствуют (2 — False) и о чём в тексте
не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни
положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 — N ot Stated).
Занесите номер выбранного вами варианта ответа в таблицу.
Вы услышите запись дважды.

Kate is not going on holiday this year because she wants to save
money.
В Rick wants to teach Kate to save money before and while travelling.
Looking for extras is a good idea.
Письменная часть. Вариант 19 |283

А dinner at а restaurant doesn’t usually include a tip.


Rick advises to stay at hotels right outside the city centre.
Kate is going to use an on-line app to find a hotel.
Kate is a rewards member.

Утверждение A В С D Е F G
Соответствие
диалогу

В ы у с л ы ш и т е и н т е р в ь ю . В з а д а н и я х 3 —9 з а п и ш и т е в п о л е о т в е т а
ц и ф р у 1, 2 и л и 3 , с о о т в е т с т в у ю щ у ю в ы б р а н н о м у в а м и в а р и а н т у
о т в е т а . В ы у с л ы ш и т е за п и с ь д ва ж д ы .

Which of the following is TRUE about inventions in fashion?


1) Inventions took place in the last couple of decades.
2) Fashion changes but designers don’t invent anything.
3) Inventions are based on ancient clothes.
Ответ;

Why did John Wray sell his company in 2013?


1) Because he created everything he wanted.
2) Because he had crisis in the company.
3) Because he had another interesting offer.
Ответ: | [

According to John Wray, a creative director of a fashion house.


1) should be both a manager and a designer.
2) should give up designing.
3) should have a business degree.
Ответ: | |
I 284 I Тренировочные варианты

What is the main source for his creativity?


1) John’s childhood.
2) Music.
3) Films.
Ответ: [ [

How was his first collection perceived?


1) It was successful.
2) It was criticized.
3) It was sold.
Ответ: [ |

Which of the following is NOT TRUE about taste?


1) It takes time to discover your taste.
2) Taste depends on a personal opinion.
3) It is necessary to expand it.
Ответ: [ [

When does a designer become more thoughtful?


н
1) When he is not confident.
2) When he is older.
3) When he starts his new collection.
Ответ: | |

По окончании выполнения заданий 1—9 не забудьте перенести свои


ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа от
номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки.
При переносе ответов в заданиях 1 и 2 цифры записываются без
пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру
пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в
бланке образцами.
Письменная часть. Вариант 19 |285 |

Раздел 2. Чтение

10 У ст ановит е соот вет ст вие меж ду т екст ам и A —G и


заголовкам и 1—8. Занесит е свои ответы в таблицу.
Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один
заголовок лишний.

1. Based on delicious comparison 5. From fields and shops


2. Compared to an insect 6. Similar functioning systems
3. To express units of information 7. To name a huge mass
4. Storing a collection 8. The movable indicator

A. Cookies are used to save a user’s information and relay this


information between a website and a browser. This is used to
authenticate a user and provide easier access to password controlled
sites. The reason the word cookie is used seems to come from a
comparison to fortune cookies - the dessert common from Chinese
fast-food inside which there is a slip of paper with a fortune.
Early internet programmers must have been overwhelmed by the
similarities of a program that saves information within its code and
the treats that save fortunes within their cookie walls.
B. This may be the most well-known word because of its interesting
story. While Grace Hopper, a pioneer of computer programming,
was working on the Harvard Mark II, she traced the cause of a glitch
in the computer to an actual moth trapped in a relay. The moth she
found can still be seen on display in the Smithsonian Museum. As
some of you may be desperate to point out, this was not actually
the first use of the term “hug” to describe a malfunctioning system.
Thomas Edison, for example, used the word in his notebooks.
C. The explanation presented here is not necessarily etymological,
but, rather, it attempts to trace the words back to the first use in the
computing world. A bit is a basic building block of computing. When
developing the earliest computer languages, binary emerged as the
simplest and most effective language to operate computers. A bit is
simply a contraction of the words “binary digit.” This explanation
has also been given to the word “byte,” which refers to multiple units

1 286 I Тренировочные варианты
of information. However, since “byte”, itself, emerged from and is a
derivation of “bit,” so bit deserved the focus.
D. A computer virus is very similar to a biological virus. Both insert
their own code into normally functioning systems in order to disrupt
the system and reproduce themselves. Academically, the word
virus was used as a computer term in 1984, by Fred Cohen, in his
paper “Experiments with Computer Viruses.” However, before the
publication of this paper, the word had been used by science-fiction
writer David Gerrold in the 1970s, and also, the word appeared in
an X-Men comic published, in 1982.
E. Nowadays, storing data in the cloud and working in the cloud via
cloud computing are commonplace. The word cloud in reference
to the airy masses floating in the sky has become a metaphor for
the vast expansiveness of the Internet, and it is because of medieval
thinking that this figurative use of the word by tech companies exists
today. In the Middle Ages, cloud wasn't used as the name for the
white or gray masses in the sky; it designated hills or masses of earth
or clay.
F. A computer browser helps us search for information on a network.
In pre-Internet days, the work of a browser was done by ourselves.
We browsed libraries and brick-and-mortar stores in search of
information or a particular item, or we visited those places to idle
away the time thinking about what we might want, much like we do
now surfing the Internet. Centuries ago, the activity of browsing was
done in fields and forests. Last century browsing became ubiquitous
in the marketplace where the browser casually wanders without
serious intention of buying anything.
G. A computer file is defined as "a collection of data treated as a
single unit." The origin of that use of file goes back to the days
of handwritten documents when the word meant "a collection of
papers placed on a file." The phrase "on a file" is intentional: in
the past, file referred to a wire or cord on which documents were
strung for preservation and reference - a practice that goes back to
the early 16th century. The word is a borrowing from Latin filum,
meaning "thread".
https://listverse.corn/2011/08/06/10-origins-of-common-internet-terms/
Письменная часть. Вариант 19 |287

A В C D E F G
Ответ:

11 П рочит айт е т екст и з а п о л н и т е п р о п у с к и A —F ч а с т я м и


п р е д л о ж е н и й , о б о з н а ч е н н ы м и ц и ф р а м и 1 — 7. О д н а и з ч а с т е й
в сп и ске 1 — 7 ли ш н я я . За н еси т е циф ры , об означаю щ ие
с о о т в е т с т в у ю щ и е ч а с т и п р е д л о ж е н и й , в т а б ли ц у .

British scientists believe 30m “rogue” waves could be the reason


________________ Bermuda Triangle.The infamous body of water in
the western part of the North Atlantic Ocean stretches over an area of
approximately 700,000 square kilometres between Florida, Bermuda and
Puerto Rico.
В ___________________ , the area features multiple shipping lanes
and has claimed more than 1000 lives over the past 100 years.But experts
at the University of Southampton, in the United Kingdom, believe the
mystery can be explained C ___________________as “rogue waves”. The
Sun reports.Appearing on documentary The Bermuda Triangle Enigma,
the scientists used indoor simulators to re-create the monster water surges.
Rogue waves — which only last for a few minutes — were first observed
D____________________.Some have even measured 30m high.The
research team built a model of the USS Cyclops, a huge vessel which went
missing in the Bermuda Triangle in 1918, claiming 300 lives.
E ___________________ , it did not take long before the model ship
was overcome with water during the simulation. Dr Simon Boxall, an ocean
and earth scientist, said the infamous area in the Atlantic could see three
massive storms come together from different directions — creating the
perfect conditions for a rogue wave.He believed such a surge in water could
snap a boat, F ___________________.“There are storms to the south and
north, which come together,” Dr Boxall said. “And if there are additional
ones from Florida, it can be a potentially deadly formation of rogue waves.
One of the more famous examples was that of Flight 19, a training flight
of five torpedo bomber planes. All five of the aircraft vanished during a
training session in 1945. After this, many disappearances of planes or ships
were reported and the mystery continued.Ever since, researchers and
scientists have come up with an array of theories to explain the mystery
disappearances.
https://www.thechronicle.coin.au/news/scientists-clairn-to-have-solved-the-
mystery-of-the/3481973/
I 288 I Тренировочные варианты

1. also known as the Devil’s Triangle


2. by satellites in 1997 off the coast of South Africa
3. by a natural phenomenon known
4. why so many boats have been sunk in the mysterious
5. and because of its sheer size and flat base
6. after this, great amount of planes or ships were vanished
7. such as the Cyclops, in two
A В C D E F
Ответ;

П р о ч и т а й т е т е к с т и в ы п о л н и т е з а д а н и я 1 2 — 18. В к а ж д о м з а д а н и и
з а п и ш и т е в п о л е о т в е т а ц и ф р у 1, 2 , 3 и л и 4 , с о о т в е т с т в у ю щ у ю
вы бранном у ва м и ва р и а н т у от вет а.

When I get а sore throat, I always find a cup of tea with some honey
very soothing. 1 always assumed that the restorative power of honey was
mostly in my head. Sure, it tastes good and has a pleasant texture that
coats my irritated throat, but it’s practically pure sugar, after all. What good
could it possibly do me other than diminishing my perception of discomfort
for a few minutes? So I’ve been content in my belief that honey is little
more than a tasty treat. Now, ironically enough, my convictions are being
challenged, as researchers are turning up new evidence of honey’s medical
benefits left and right.
Historically, honey has been used as a folk remedy in cultures around
the world for millennia. It has been prescribed informally as a cure for
smallpox, baldness, eye diseases, and indigestion. As with most natural
“cures” unsupported by scientific studies, I sort of chuckle and sigh when
I read about things like this — honey’s properties make it a surprisingly
effective cure-all. Or, let’s say, cure-much.
Honey’s salutary effects stem primarily from its antimicrobial
properties. Most bacteria and other microorganisms cannot grow or
reproduce in honey. I found this quite surprising, because bacteria love
sugar. Honey contains around 40 % fructose and 30 % glucose — among
other sugars — making it seemingly a great treat for microbes. However,
honey is also somewhat acidic, and acids prevent the growth of some
bacteria.
г
_________ Письменная часть. Вариант 19 |289 |

So what happens when you dilute honey with water — the bacteria just
multiply like crazy, right? Well... yes and no. Amazingly enough, diluted
honey supports the growth of bacteria that are helpful to humans while
killing off dangerous bacteria. Some microorganisms do indeed flourish
111 a water solution of honey — such as the yeast added into honey. What

does all this mean in practical terms? For one thing, it means that honey
applied to p ic a lly to a wound can promote healing just as well as, or in many
cases better than, ointments and other cures. Its antibacterial properties
prevent infection. It also functions as an anti-inflammatory agent, reducing
both swelling and pain. As if that weren’t enough, it even reduces scarring.
1n studies around the world, honey has been shown to be extraordinarily
effective in the treatment of wounds, burns, and surgical incisions. Honey
has been shown to be effective in treating inflammation of the eyes. Honey
also functions as cream, making it a useful treatment for sunburn as well as
a skin softener. But wait, there’s more! Honey is truly a head-to-toe cure.
Now that you’ve worked yourself into a gleeful frenzy over the
miraculous properties of honey, I want to temper your enthusiasm a
bit. The bad news, if you can call it that, is that not all honey is created
equal. The chemical composition of honey depends on a huge number of
variables, the most important of which is the type or types of plant that
provided the source nectar. Honeys vary not only in color and flavor,
but in their medicinal properties, with some varieties being much more
potent than others. Because it’s impossible to regulate the comings and
goings of millions of bees, there’s also no way .to guarantee that honey
from any location will be chemically the same from year to year or free of
contamination from pollutants the bees may have found their way into.
Honey supplies must be tested thoroughly and regularly. As I was
reflecting on all the health benefits of honey, it suddenly occurred to me;
I don’t think I’ve ever seen a sick bee. Coincidence? Probably. But honey
may be one miracle cure that lives up to the buzz.
By Kissell J. Honey as M edicine. Режим доступа: https://itotd.corn/
articles/3987/honey-as-rnedicine/

12 Which of the following was NOT related to the author’s convictions?


1) Honey diminished his perception of soreness.
2) Honey had a little more healing properties than simply a sweet
thing.
290 I Тренировочные варианты

3) Honey coats a sore throat and soothes it for a few minutes.


4) Restorative power of honey is realized only while drinking a cup
of tea.
Ответ:
■О
13 The author chuckles and sighs...
1) when he reads that honey heals almost all diseases.
2) reading that honey heals baldness and smallpox.
3) when he reads about folk stories about this remedy.
4) when he reads about the support of scientific studies.
Ответ: [ [

14 According to the author, one of the most surprising thing is that...


1) the exact kinds of sugar are determined in honey.
2) despite the love of sugar disease-producing bacteria don’t exist
in honey.
3) honey is a favourite delicacy for bacteria and microbes.
4) acidic properties keep good quality of honey.
Ответ: | |

15 According to the author, water solution of honey...


1) kills all types of microorganisms.
2) supports the increase of every type of bacteria.
3) makes helpful bacteria multiply.
4) is the best ingredient to add into the yeast.
Ответ: [ [

16 “Topically” in phrase “For one thing, it means that honey ap­


plied...” (the fourth paragraph) refers to ...
1) externally.
2) generally.
3) mostly.
4) specially.

i
Письменная чааь. Вариант 19 |291

Ответ:
О
17 What does effectiveness of honey mean in practical terms according
to the author?
1) Honey can be helpful for amost all illnesses.
2) Honey helps to improve people's mood.
3) Honey is used during surgery.
4) Honey prevents serious diseases.
Ответ:
■ О

18 Why does the author offer to temper our enthusiasm?


1) Honey differs in its properties.
2) Bees do not get ill.
3) People can buy bad honey.
4) Now all the honey is full of pollutants.
Ответ
О
По окончании выполнения заданий 10—18 не забудьте перенести
свои ответы в БЛ АН К ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа
от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки.
При переносе ответов в заданиях 10 и 11 цифры записываются без
пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру
пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в
бланке образцами.

Раздел 3. Грамматика и лексика


П рочит айт е приведённы е ниж е т екст ы . П реобразуйт е, если
н е о б хо д и м о , с л о в а , н а п е ч а т а н н ы е з а г л а в н ы м и б у к в а м и в к о н ц е с т р о к ,
о б о з н а ч е н н ы х н о м е р а м и 1 9 —2 5 , т а к , ч т о б ы о н и г р а м м а т и ч е с к и
соот вет ст вовали содерж анию т екст ов. Заполнит е пропуски
полученн ы м и словам и. К аж ды й пр о п уск соот вет ст вует от дельном у
з а д а н и ю и з гр у п п ы 1 9 —2 5 .
292 I Тренировочные варианты
Rainforests
We need rainforests because all those trees
and plants produce th e _________ part of the FIVE
oxygen that we need to breathe. The trees also
absorb carbon dioxide, which is a greenhouse gas
that the Earth has too much at the moment. It’s
making the planet temperatures g e t_________ , WARM
which is affecting many other habitats around the
world. Nowadays rainforest habitats are getting
smaller. This is because fo re s ts _________ DESTROY
because of mining, building roads and making
space for farmland. A ll_________ animals and THAT
insects who used to live in the rainforest that have
been destroyed have had to look for new homes.
Contact lenses
Contact lenses are small, round "lenses" that
_________ directly on the eyeball. Leonardo da WEAR
Vinci described and sketched the idea for contact
lenses in 1508. However, only in 1827, Sir John
Herschel_________ up with the idea of making COME
a model of a person's eyes so contact lenses could
be made. In 1887, German glassblower F.A.
Muller used Herschel's ideas to create the first
known glass contact lens. However, they were
not ideal because they covered the entire eye,
_________ up all oxygen. BLOCK
Письменная часть. Вариант 19 |293

Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Образуйте от слов, напе­


чатанных заглавны ми буквами в конце строк, обозначенных
номерами 26—31, однокоренные слова так, чтобы они грамматически
и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните
пропуски полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует
отдельному заданию из группы 26—31.

People have been collecting autographs for


longer than most people imagine. For example,
26 the ancient_____ ___________ Pliny the Elder HISTORY
recorded that Roman dictator Sulla's son-in-
law collected signet rings people used to sign
and seal official documents, an ancient form of
an autograph. Likewise, ancient people often
collected vases, mosaics, and other forms of
27 artwork_________________signed by the artists PERSON
who created them. So whose autograph is the
28 m o st_________________? Most experts would VALUE
say that honour belongs to William Shakespeare.
Not only is he one of the most famous authors in
history, but he also signed very few documents.
All copies of Shakespeare's signature are part
of m useum ________________ . With none in COLLECT
____ circulation, Shakespeare's signature is perhaps
I 30 I the rarest i n _________________ and therefore EXIST
worth millions of dollars. Perhaps the most
expensive autograph ever sold was that of George
Washington for $9.8 million. Washington's
signature doesn't_________________command NORMAL
that kind of money, but it did at an auction when
it was attached to his personal leather-bound copy
of the Constitution.
Письменная часть. Вариант 19 \ 295 |

Прочит айт е текст с пропусками, обозначенными номерами 34 1) proof 2) sign 3) logo 4) type 1

32—38. Эти номера соответствуют заданиям 32—38, в которых


представлены возможные варианты ответов. Запишите в поле Ответ: | [
ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному вами 1

варианту ответа. 1) use 2) give 3) take 4) apply


[
Do you ever feel drowsy in the afternoon? After a big lunch, it can be Ответ: [ |
hard to focus at school or work. That's why many people take afternoon
naps. Naps make people feel more 3 2 _________ and productive. Many
adults find a quick nap is as helpful as a cup of coffee! Afternoon naps iij 1) set 2) give 3) feel 4) cause
are traditional in some countries. In Spain, they call them siestas. Many
Spanish businesses close midday so people can nap. However, not all Ответ: | [
countries 3 3 _________ naps. Many in the United States see napping as 1
a 34_________ of laziness. With so many opinions floating around, it's ilJ l)far 2) hard 3) deeply 4) strongly
difficult to decide what to think! Are naps good for us? Sleep studies have
found both pros and cons of napping. NASA studied what happened to Ответ: | |
1
astronauts who took naps. They found that naps helped them get more
work done. After a nap, the astronauts also had better mood, memory, and 38 1) interdepend 2) interrupt 3) interact 4) interpret ]
creativity. There are a few steps you can 3 5 _________ to get the most
benefit from a nap. First, experts say the best naps last 20—30 minutes. That Ответ: | |
means you should 36 _ _ _ _ _ an alarm for your nap and get up when it
goes off. Long naps can cause sleepiness for the rest of the day. Second, take По окончании выполнения заданий 19—3 8 не забудьте перенести
your nap right after lunch. Naps later in the day will make you sleep less свои ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа от
3 7 _________ that night. Most experts say you should nap between noon номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки. При
and 4 p. m. Finally, find the right place for your nap. The ideal spot is quiet переносе ответов в заданиях 19—31 буквы записываются без пробелов,
and a little chilly. Nap in a dark room where others won't 3 8 _________ запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую букву или цифру
your sleep. Still, napping isn't for everyone. Some wake from their naps with пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными
more energy. Others don't seem to get any napping benefits. в бланке образцами.
https://www.wonderopolis.org/wonder/are-naps-good-for-the-human-body
32 1) alert 2) wise 3) sharp 4) ready

Ответ: | [

33 1) handle 2) approve 3) accept 4) respect

Ответ: [ [

1
I 296 I Тренировочные варианты
Раздел 4. П исьм о

Д л я о т вет о в на за д а н и я 3 9 и 4 0 и сп ользуй т е б л а н к о т вет о в № 2.


Ч ерновы е п о м ет к и м о гу т дел а т ься п рям о н а л и с т е с за д а н и я м и , или
м ож н о и сп ользоват ь от дельны й черновик. П ри вы полнении за дан и й
3 9 и 4 0 особое вни м ан и е обрат и т е на т о, чт о ваш и от вет ы будут
о ц ен и ват ься т олько по за п и сям , сделан н ы м в Б Л А Н К Е О Т В Е Т О В
№ 2. Н и к а к и е з а п и с и ч е р н о в и к а н е б у д у т у ч и т ы в а т ь с я э к с п е р т о м .
О б р а т и т е вн и м а н и е т а к ж е н а н еоб ходи м ост ь собл ю ден и я у к а за н н о го
об ъ ём а т ек ст а . Т екст ы н ед о ст а т о ч н о го об ъ ём а , а т а к ж е ча ст ь
т е к ст а , п ревы ш аю сц ая т р еб уем ы й объём , н е о ц ен и ваю т ся. З а п и ш и т е
с н а ч а л а н о м е р з а д а н и я ( 3 9 , 4 0 ) , а з а т е м о т в е т н а н е го .

39 You have received а letter from your English-speaking pen-friend


John who writes:

It's a lw a y s so in te r e s tin g f o r m e to ta k e p a r t in o u r s c h o o l th e a tr e
p e r fo r m a n c e s . D o y o u th in k i t is im p o r ta n t f o r s c h o o lc h ild r e n to
h a v e a th e a tr e c lu b in th e s c h o o l? W h y ? H o w a r e s c h o o l c o n c e r ts
o r p e r fo r m a n c e s o r g a n iz e d in y o u r s c h o o l? D o y o u lik e ta k in g p a r t
in th e m ? W h y o r w h y n o t?
B y th e w a y , w e h a v e j u s t r e t u r n e d f r o m o u r j o u r n e y to th e
c o u n tr y s id e .

Write a letter to John.


In your letter
— answer his questions
— ask 3 questions about the countryside.
Write 100—140 words.
Remember the rules of letter writing.
В ы б е р и т е т о л ь к о О Д Н О и з д в у х п р е д л о ж е н н ы х в ы с к а з ы в а н и й ( 4 0 .1
и л и 4 0 .2 ) , у к а ж и т е е г о н о м е р в Б Л А Н К Е О Т В Е Т О В № 2 и в ы р а з и т е
с в о ё м н ен и е п о п редл ож ен н ой п робл ем е со гл а сн о д а н н о м у п лану.

Comment on the following statements.


4 0 .1 Regular studies and punctuality make an ideal student.

4 0 .2 Technological development offers people more leisure time.


1

Письменная часть. Вариант 20 |297

What is your opinion? D o you agree with this statement?


Write 200—250 words.
Use the following plan;
— make an introduction (state the problem paraphrasing the given
statement)
— express your personal opinion and give 2—3 reasons for your
opinion
— express an opposing opinion and give 1—2 reasons for this
opposing opinion
— explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion
— make a conclusion restating your position

ВАРИАНТ 20

Р аздел 1. А удирование

Вы услы ш и т е 6 вы ск а зы ва н и й . У ст ан ови т е со о т вет ст ви е


м е ж д у в ы с к а з ы в а н и я м и к а ж д о г о г о в о р я щ е г о A —F и у т в е р ­
ж д е н и я м и , д а н н ы м и в с п и с к е I — 7. И с п о л ь з у й т е к а ж д о е у т в е р ­
ж д ен и е, обо зн а ч ен н о е со о т вет ст вую щ ей ц и ф рой , только один
раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услы ш и т е
за п и сь дваж ды . З а н ес и т е свои от вет ы в т абли цу. У в а с ест ь 2 0
се к у н д , чт обы о зн а к о м и т ь ся с за д а н и ем .

1. Dress code rules are compulsory.


2. Leaving early for school helped to prepare for classes.
3. There were lots of things to do to prepare for the first day at school.
4. Specific information about the school was in the reference book.
5. The best way to overcome worries was teachers’ and friends’
support.
6. The first day at school was in winter.
7. It was important to make the acquaintance of school staff.

Говорящий A В С D E F
Утверждение
1298 Тренировочные варианты

В ы ус л ы ш и т е д и ал ог. О пределит е, какие из приведённы х


ут верж ден и й A —G соот вет ст вую т содерж ани ю т екст а
(1 — T ru e), к а к и е н е с о о т в е т с т в у ю т ( 2 — F a ls e ) и о чём
в т е к с т е н е с к а за н о , т о е с т ь н а о с н о в а н и и т е к с т а н ельзя
д а т ь н и п о л о ж и т е л ь н о го , н и о т р и ц а т е л ь н о г о о т в е т а ( 3 — N o t
S ta te d ). З а н еси т е н ом ер в ы б р а н н о го в а м и ва р и а н т а о т в е т а в
т а б л и ц у. Вы услы ш и т е за п и сь два ж ды .

John’s daughters are going to become veterinarians.


В John is irritated with people’s manners in public places.
John drinks only pure hot chocolate.
Marble is satisfied with a great variety of children’s snacks.
Modern parents share confections to celebrate their children’s
birthdays.
f F I John wishes to be paid much respect to.
[ G ] John teaches his daughters to eat healthy food only.

Утверждение A В С D Е F G
Соответствие
диалогу

В ы у с л ы ш и т е и н т е р в ь ю . В з а д а н и я х 3 —9 з а п и ш и т е в п о л е о т в е т а
ц и ф р у 1, 2 и ли 3 , с о о т в е т с т в у ю щ у ю вы б р а н н о м у ва м и в а р и а н т у
о т вет а . Вы усл ы ш и т е за п и сь д ва ж д ы .

[~3~~| What do we learn about Anne at the beginning of the interview?


1) She won an award as the best chef.
2) She is from a royal dynasty.
3) She joined the young generation of chefs.

Ответ; | [
Письменная чааь. Вариант 20 |299

Which of the following is TRUE about Anne’s childhood?


1) Her father cooked beetroot salads and roast chickens.
2) Her grandfather cooked mushrooms.
3) She picked mushrooms and strawberries in the countryside.

Ответ:
О
5~] When was the moment when all Anne’s family spent together?
1) At breakfast.
2) At dinner.
3) At weekend.

Ответ
■o
Why did Anne have to learn cooking by herself?
1) Because her father died suddenly.
2) Because she didn’t want to get formal training in cooking.
3) Because her family wanted her to join their business.

Ответ
О
Which of the following is NOT given as a recommendation for
young female chefs?
1) Anne advises to believe in themselves.
2) Anne advises to follow their dreams.
3) Anna advises to memorize recipes.

Ответ:

What is the pansoti like?


1) It is pasta with unique flavour, colour and shape.
2) It is a dish Anne has created for vegetarians.
3) It is a restaurant Anne has opened in France.

Ответ:
■a
I 300 I Тренировочные варианты
т
What does Anne want to change in the nation’s food habits?
1) It is important to encourage people to eat in restaurants.
2) It is important to begin national food habits at school.
3) It is important to consume a lot of vegetables

Ответ:
О
По окончании выполнения заданий 1—9 не забудьте перенести свои
ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа от
номера соответствуюш^его задания, начиная с первой клеточки.
При переносе ответов в заданиях 1 и 2 цифры записываются без
пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру
пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в
бланке образцами.

Раздел 2, Чтение

10 I Установите соответствие между текстами А—С и заголовками


1—8. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую
цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.

1. Similarity of appearance 5. Several theories


2. The best solution 6. For safer driving
3. To reduce price 7. Unbleached product
4. Proved by research 8. Changes for TV

A. The traffic light was invented for trains. At the time, it had only two
colors: red for stop and white for go. A green light was later added
to mean caution. So it was red for stop, green for caution, and white
for go. However, the white light soon proved problematic as train
drivers often mistook it for a distant star or some other light. Train
companies noticed this and replaced the white light with green. So it
was red for stop and green forgo. Road traffic regulators adopted the
traffic lights when vehicles came along.
B. Yellow is considered the de facto color of taxis even though they
could appear in different hues depending on local regulations. While
some states like New York require taxis to be exclusively yellow.
I

Письменная часть. Вариант 20 | 301

others made some other color mandatory. Why? Well! That is


due to John Hertz, who eventually developed the Hertz rental car
company. Hertz funded research to determine the most visible color
for a motor vehicle. The study revealed that yellow is the one. So
the yellow taxi was bom. Other taxi companies soon caught on to
Hertz’s strategy and started to paint their taxis yellow.
C. The reason that fire engines used to be red is unclear, and the
explanations are even contradictory. Some sources say the first
fire trucks were red because it was the cheapest paint around.
Fire departments were staffed by unpaid volunteers at the time,
and they did not have much money to spare. So they just painted
their vehicles with the cheapest paint they could get. A second
and contradictory theory claims that the first red fire engine was
the result of a competition among firefighting departments. A
third theory claims that early fire trucks were painted red because
firefighters wanted their vehicles to be visible to other road users.
D. In the late 1940s, Britain was experiencing a surge in motor vehicle
ownership. This became a problem as drivers often mowed down
crossing pedestrians, who were not used to sharing the roads with
cars. The government created pedestrian crossings, but they did little
to help reduce the accidents. This was because the crossings were
marked with metal studs. The government determined that black
and white was the most visible pattern. Drivers could see it from
farther distances than other colors. The zebra crossing only got its
name after Jim Callaghan, who was a member of parliament at the
time, visited a black-and-white pedestrian crossing and remarked
that it resembled zebra markings.
E. Civilian airplanes are almost exclusively white. There are several
reasons for this. One is the cost. Paints are expensive. A regular
paint job runs between $50,000 and $200,000. This could be too
expensive for a budget airline that buys a used airplane from a larger
airline. White paint also saves money because it does not need as
much maintenance as other colors. White is also an airline favorite
because it reflects sunlight off the plane. A darker color would absorb
the heat, making the interior of the airplane hotter.
л

302 I Тренировочные варианты____________

F. The first leather soccer balls were reddish-brown because natural


leather is that color. So manufacturers often left the color
unchanged. The reddish-brown soccer ball was used for the World
Cup until 1970 when it was replaced by a black-and-white one.
FIFA had Adidas create the black-and-white ball because the World
Cup was increasingly televised at the time. And it would have been
difficult for viewers to spot a colored soccer ball on their black-and-
white televisions. Adidas used a mixture of black and white because
the black spots allowed viewers to determine the direction of the ball
on their black-and-white televisions.
G. Tires were once white because the natural color of rubber is white.
Unfortunately, these tires were not very durable. They wore quickly,
reduced handling, and cracked when hit by ultraviolet rays from the
Sun. Tire manufacturers solved this by adding carbon black to tires
around 1917. Carbon black instantly solved the myriad of problems
linked to white tires. This is why black tires last for tens of thousands
of miles, while white tires barely went 8,000 kilometers (5,000 mi)
before they were due for replacement. However, carbon black — as
the name should have already hinted — made tires black.
https://listverse.eom/2019/06/23/10-explanations-for-the-color-schemes-
used-on-everyday-things/

A В C D E F G
Ответ:

И Прочитайте текст и заполнит е пропуски A —F частями


предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1—7. Одна из частей
в списке 1—7 лиш няя. Занесит е цифры, обозначающие
соответствующие части предложений, в таблицу.

Tents have pioneered in the 1960s and gained popularity in the decades
that followed. The most unique example of this is definitely the backpacking
(hiking) tent. This type has all the needed features A___________________
because it is fully waterproof and easy to set up. Plus, it is very lightweight
and has aluminium poles that keep it firmly stable on the ground.
Speaking of aluminium poles, a lot of them can be found in geodesic
tents as well, crisscrossing the outer layer in a hexagonal or a triangular
Письменная часть. Вариант 20 |303 |

shape. This means that В , and are the best choice


out of ail one person hiking tents.
Before all the technological breakthroughs and advancements, tents
were much simpler C __________________ . Back then, people lived
mostly in them and had no stable construction for a permanent home. The
first tent was made out of mammoth skin and some wood to support its
structure. So, when it comes to the design and materials tents were made
of, there was little D _______________________________ .
Right around 450 B. C. portable yurts and teepees (tipi) came along
deviating from the original tent shape, E _____ they were
used in. In 300 B.C. Romans started implementing big tents made out of
goat skin so they could fit 8 soldiers F________________________ . From
1861 to 1865, soldiers in the civil war were using similar tents too, and they
used to call them pup tents because they could barely fit a fuU-grown dog.
http://www.interestingreality.com/the-interesting-reality-of-tents-the-first-vs-
the-modern-recreational-tent/
1. but they were harder to make and transport
2. when it comes to one person hiking tents
3. for the mobility of their army
4. to none advancements in the first 50,000 years of human existence
5. but the materials they are made of
6. they provide the most stability
7. because of the different surroundings

A В C D E F
Ответ:

П р о ч и т а й т е т е к с т и в ы п о л н и т е з а д а н и я 1 2 —1 8 . В к а ж д о м з а д а н и и
за п и ш и т е в п о л е о т в е т а ц и ф р у 1, 2 , 3 или 4 , со о т в ет с т в ую щ у ю
вы бранн ом у вам и вари ан т у от вет а.

When 1 travel, I usually make a conscious effort to avoid having very


specific expectations. I plan out an itinerary, but I try to maintain a sense
of equanimity about the experiences ahead. I like to be surprised — and I
like to be able to experience new things in my own way, on my own terms.
This sort of attitude has not only saved me some disappointment, it’s
helped me to approach fairly commonplace sights and events with a sense
of wonder and delight. As a result — and frankly, without much effort — I
I 304 I Тренировочные варианты________ _

found myself feeling neutral, perhaps even about the prospect of visiting
a glacier in Patagonia. I’ve seen ice; what could this be other than a great
quantity of it? I expected to be cold, so I packed appropriate clothing. I
expected scenic views, so I packed my camera. And that was about as far
as I thought about it.
The trip to the Perito Moreno glacier took us more than an hour by
bus from the town of El Calafate, Argentina. When we rounded a corner
on a mountain road and I got my first glimpse of the glacier, I thought,
“Wow. That’s really big.” Later, from a much different angle, I realized
what a tiny slice of one corner of one end of this glacier I’d seen earlier,
and I was overwhelmed at the scale of what I saw. As glaciers go, 1 am told,
this is not one of the larger ones. Even though I took dozens of pictures,
including some panoramic shots, there is simply no way to capture how big
this thing looks in person. No wide-angle lens could do it, because it’s not
only impossibly wide but tall and long as well. Shot of climbing a mountain
or flying high overhead, there is no way to take in the whole thing at once.
So, yes: a lot of ice... but that doesn’t begin to tell the story. We took
a boat across the lake into which the glacier drains, then hiked along the
shore to a point near the edge of the glacier. There, we were outfitted with
crampons for a 90-minute hike on the glacier itself. After about five minutes
of climbing on the steep ice, our guides mentioned that it would become
much more strenuous from here on, and two members of our group decided
to turn back. The rest of us got a good workout, some extraordinary views,
and a few surprises.
The Perito Moreno glacier also has several unique features. For one
thing, it is, at the moment (according to some experts, at least) the only
glacier in the world in a state of equilibrium — neither advancing nor
retreating. Retreating is the norm, due to global warming — numerous
glaciers have disappeared in recent decades, and many others are shrinking
rapidly. The Perito Moreno glacier, however, advances at the same rate ice
breaks off, and has done so for many years.
Another unusual characteristic is that this glacier empties into a lake
right at the point where two branches connect through a fairly narrow
channel. From time to time, the glacier’s face reaches all the way to the
outcropping of land on the other side of the channel — sealing it off to
create, in effect, two separate lakes. As the glacier continues to melt, the
water level in one of the lakes rises at a faster rate than the other, causing
significant flooding. Eventually, the warm water melts enough of the ice that
Письменная часть. Вариант 20 | 305

ап underwater tunnel forms between the lakes; as the tunnel expands, the
water levels equalize. Before long, the tunnel becomes more of an underpass
for a giant ice bridge; when this inevitably collapses, it’s a spectacular sight.
The last such collapse occurred in March 2004. The glacier then advanced
to block the channel again, and when we visited in December 2004, a small
tunnel had recently formed and the water from the higher lake was still
rushing into the lower one.
Just before we went around the last wall of ice on our way off the glacier,
the guide said there was a special treat waiting for us. They’d set up a little
table on the ice with complimentary cups of hot tea for everyone — on the
rocks, of course. Yes, those rocks. It was a delightful treat. We left tired,
sweaty, sunburned, and very satisfied.
By Kissell J. The Perito Moreno Glacier
Режим доступа: https://itotd.com/articles/467/the-perito-moreno-glacier-
classic/

12 Which is NOT true about the author’s attitude while travelling?


1) The author tries to keep calm about the experience ahead.
2) He chooses his own style to experience sights and events.
3) The author tries not to expect any specific things.
4) He makes a conscious effort to plan out a specific itinerary.

Ответ:
О
13 ‘This’ in‘... what could this be other than a great quantity of it?’ (The
second paragraph) refers to...
1) the glacier.
2) ice.
3) the prospect.
4) his feelings.
Ответ:

14 When the author saw the glacier from a much different angle, he
was...
1) disappointed at the scale of what he saw.
2) amazed to see the scope of the glacier.
306 I Тренировочные варианты

3) surprised to make panoramic shots.


4) upset as he didn’t have wide-angle lens.
Ответ:
О
I I
15 Why did two members of their group decide to turn back?
1) Because one of them got hurt during the hike.
2) Because they did not have enough crampons.
3) Because the climbing on the steep ice required great efforts.
4) Because they had extraordinary views from the foot of the glacier.
Ответ:
О
16 The glacier is in a state of equilibrium because
1) it has advanced more.
2) it is shrinking rapidly.
3) it is retreating in a high speed.
4) the rate of advancing and retreating has not changed.
Ответ:
О
17 Which of the following does NOT refer to the glacier?
1) Two branches connect through a fairly narrow channel.
2) The underwater tunnel forms between the lakes.
3) The warm water melts the ice.
4) Every year the glacier causes significant flooding.

18
Ответ
a
Which of these things is mentioned in the text as a spectacular view?
1) The glacier empties into a lake.
2) The glacier blocks the channel.
3) A giant ice bridge falls down.
4) The water level in the lakes rises at a fast rate.
Ответ
a
Письменная чааь. Вариант 20 | 307 |

По окончании выполнения заданий 10—18 не забудьте перенести


свои ответы в БЛ А Н К ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа
от номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки.
При переносе ответов в заданиях 10 и 11 цифры записываются без
пробелов, запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру
пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в
бланке образцами.

Раздел 3. Грам м атика и лексика

Прочитайте приведённые ниж е тексты. Преобразуйте, если


необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк,
обозначенных номерами 19—25, так, чтобы они грамматически
соот вет ствовали содержанию текстов. Заполнит е пропуски
полученными словами. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному
заданию из группы 19—25.

IVacking ап Arctic fox


In July, 2017, researchers from the Norwegian
Polar Institute placed a tracking collar on a young
19 Arctic fox. The collar allowed__________ to use THEY
a satellite to track the fox no matter where she
went. Until March, 2018, the fox stayed on the
island of Spitzenberg. Then, suddenly, on March
20 26, sh e __________ the island, travelling across LEAVE
the sea ice. On April 16, just 21 days and about
1,500 kilometers later, she arrived in Greenland.
21 The fox__________ to change her path from time FORCE
to time to avoid the open sea. From Greenland, she
22 carried on, finally __________ Ellesmere Island REACH
in Canada on July 1. The scientists were amazed at
how quickly the fox travelled.
New cars in Sweden
23 A company called E in r id e ___________ BEGIN
using driverless electric trucks on a public road in
24 Sweden. Now the project__________ ideas that TEST
can bring important changes in transportation.
I 308 I Тренировочные варианты
In fact, the truck doesn’t have any place for
people to sit inside it. What the T-Pod does have
are lots of cameras and sensors and a complicated
computer system, so that the truck can drive
25 ___________. The T-Pod can constantiy and IT
quickly exchange information with a control
center. That allows the truck to be controlled and
driven by someone far away from where the T-Pod
actually is.

П р о ч и т а й т е приведён ны й ниж е т екст . О б р а зуй т е от слов, н а п е ­


чат анны х за гл а вн ы м и буквам и в конце ст рок, о б о зн а ч ен н ы х
н о м е р а м и 2 6 —3 1 , о д н о к о р е н н ы е с л о в а т а к , ч т о б ы о н и г р а м м а т и ч е с к и
и лексически соот вет ст вовали содерж анию т екст а. Зап олн ит е
п роп уски п олученны м и сл овам и . К а ж ды й п р о п уск со о т вет ст вует
о т д е л ь н о м у з а д а н и ю и з г р у п п ы 2 6 —3 1 .

Science is а critical subject for students to leam


while they are in school because it plays such an
26 _________ role in everyday life and leads to many ESSENCE
possible career choices. For students to leam science
27 _______ , they must be engaged both mentally and PROPER
physically as much as possible in the tasks involved.
The basic idea is for students to break out
of their usual passive mode of learning that
primarily involves listening to a teacher, taking
28 notes and answering t h e _________ question. OCCASION
Instead, they are asked to in fact do something
during the learning process. Doing something also
means involving a student's brain in thinking about
what is going on around them as he or she tries to
29 learn science. All this active__________ makes for INVOLVE
a powerful combination that dramatically enhances
learning.
30 The use of la b _________ , science kits, and EQUIP
technology in the learning process is a great way to
enhance the experience and to significantly facilitate
31 student ENGAGE
Письменная часть. Вариант 20 |309 |

П рочит айт е т екст с пропускам и, обо зн а ч ен н ы м и н ом ерам и


3 2 —3 8 . Э т и н о м е р а с о о т в е т с т в у ю т з а д а н и я м 3 2 —3 8 , в к о т о р ы х
п р едст а вл ен ы во зм о ж н ы е ва р и а н т ы о т вет о в. З а п и ш и т е в п оле
о т в е т а ц и ф р у 1, 2 , 3 или 4, с о о т в е т с т в у ю щ у ю в ы б р а н н о м у ва м и
вари ан т у от вет а.

The capital of France goes by a famous nickname: the "City of


Lights." How did it get this nickname? If you visit Paris after dark,
you might think you have the answer figured out. When the Sun
3 2 ___________ _ , Paris doesn't sleep. Instead, it comes alive with the
3 3 __________ of millions of lights all throughout the city. For
example, there are nearly 300 illuminated sites around the city, including
statues, fountains, monuments, churches, and hotels. 3 4 _________________,
33 of Paris' 37 major bridges are illuminated each night. Perhaps the most
famous illuminated object, however, is the iconic Eilfel Tower, which shines
brightly each night 3 5 _______________more than 20,000 light bulbs.
All of these lights aren't 3 6 ________________for the city's nickname,
though. After all, many other cities around the world, such as New York
City and Hong Kong, shine just as brightly. Experts believe the nickname
actually stems from two possible. Some believe Paris became known as
"La Ville-Lumiere" ("City of Lights" in French), because the city was one
of the first major cities in Europe to 3 7 _______________widespread
street iighting. Most experts, however, believe the niekname came about
because Paris was the birthplace of the Age of Enlightenment, also known
as the Age of Reason. The Enlightenment was a philosophical movement
that began in Europe in the late 17th eentury. Philosophers and scientists
3 8 ______________great strides in education and inventions, leaving
behind the "dark" Middle Ages.
https://www.wonderopolis.org/wonder/where-is-the-city-of-lights

32 1) drops 2) sets 3) disappears 4) sinks

Ответ: | |

2) blossom 3) glow 4) warmth


f
310 I Тренировочные варианты

34 1) In addition 2) In favour 3) In particular4) In respect

Ответ: [ [

35 1) thanks to 2) prior to 3) because of 4) except for

Ответ:

36 1) responsible 2) dependent 3) helpful 4) rational

Ответ:

1) modify 2) adopt 3) change 4 )adapt

Ответ: [ |

38 l)did 2) created 3) took 4) made

Ответ
О
По окончании выполнения заданий 19—38 не забудьте перенести
свои ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ № 1! Запишите ответ справа от
номера соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки. При
переносе ответов в заданиях 19—31 буквы записываются без пробелов,
запятых и других дополнительных символов. Каждую букву или цифру
пишите в отдельной клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными
в бланке образцами.
г
Письменная часть. Вариант 20 | 311

Раздел 4. П исьм о

Д л я о т вет о в н а за д а н и я 3 9 и 4 0 и сп ользуй т е б л а н к о т вет о в № 2.


Ч е р н о в ы е п о м е т к и м о г у т д е л а т ь с я п р я м о н а л и с т е с з а д а н и я м и , и ли
м о ж н о и сп о л ьзо ва т ь от дельн ы й черн ови к. П ри вы п ол н ен и и за д а н и й
3 9 и 4 0 особое вн и м ан и е об р а т и т е на т о, чт о ваш и от вет ы будут
о ц ен и ват ься т олько по за п и сям , сделан н ы м в Б Л А Н К Е О Т В Е Т О В
М 2. Н и к а к и е з а п и с и ч е р н о в и к а н е б у д у т у ч и т ы в а т ь с я э к с п е р т о м .
О брат и т е вн и м ан и е т а к ж е н а н еобходи м ост ь соблю ден ия у к а за н н о го
об ъ ём а т ек ст а . Т екст ы н ед о ст а т о ч н о го объ ём а, а т а к ж е част ь
т е к ст а , п р евы ш а ю щ а я т р еб уем ы й объём , н е о ц ен и ваю т ся . З а п и ш и т е
с н а ч а л а н о м е р з а д а н и я ( 3 9 , 4 0 ) , а з а т е м о т в е т н а н е го .

39 You have received а letter from your English-speaking pen-friend


Agatha who writes:

... M o s t o f m y f r i e n d s e n jo y r e a d in g p a p e r b o o k s , th o u g h s o m e
p e o p l e n o w a d a y s m ig h t th i n k t h a t r e a d i n g e - b o o k s is m o r e
c o n v e n ie n t. W h a t a b o u t y o u a n d y o u r f r i e n d s — w h ic h t y p e o f
b o o k s d o y o u p r e f e r ? W h y ? W h a t b o o k a b o u t R u s s ia a n d R u s s ia n
p e o p le w o u ld y o u r e c o m m e n d m e ? H a v e y o u r r e a d in g p r e fe r e n c e s
e v e r c h a n g e d ? ..
B y th e w a y , m y c o u sin is g o in g to s tu d y a b r o a d f o r a y e a r . I ’l l m is s
h er...

Write a letter to Agatha.


In your letter
— answer her questions
— ask 3 questions about her cousin’s studies
Write 100—140 words.
Remember the rules of letter writing.
В ы б е р и т е т о л ь к о О Д Н О и з д в у х п р е д л о ж е н н ы х в ы с к а з ы в а н и й ( 4 0 .1
и л и 4 0 .2 ) , у к а ж и т е е г о н о м е р в Б Л А Н К Е О Т В Е Т О В № 2 и в ы р а з и т е
с в о ё м н ен и е п о п редл ож ен н ой п р о б л ем е согл асн о д а н н о м у плану.

Comment on the following statements.


4 0.1 D r o n e s w i l l r e p la c e c a r s in th e f u tu r e .