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Amna Iftikhar Fall ' 2019 1

Today’s Agenda

• Course Contents

• Grading Policy

• Projects

• Overview of the Main Topics

• Introduction to Artificial Intelligence

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Course Outline
• Introduction
• Reasoning and Knowledge Representation
• Problem Solving by Searching
• Constraint Satisfaction Problems
• Adversarial Search
• Learning
• Uncertainty handling
• Recent trends in AI and applications of AI
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Text Book and Reference Books
Text Book
• S. Russell, Artificial Intelligence: A Modern
Approach, Prentice Hall, (3rd edition)

Reference books
• Ben Coppin, “Artificial Intelligence
Illuminated”, Jones and Bartlett illuminated
• Richard O. Duda, Hart, David Stork, “Pattern
Classification”, 2nd Edition
• Steven Rabin, AI Game Programming Wisdom

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Marks Distribution

Quizzes 10%
Assignments (Theoretical) 20%
Midterm Examination 20%
Final Examination 50%
Total 100%

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What is Artificial Intelligence?

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How would a pacman agent be

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Basic Questions
(Taken from http://www-formal.stanford.edu)
• What is artificial intelligence?
• It is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines,
especially intelligent computer programs. It is related to the similar task of
using computers to understand human intelligence.
• Yes, but what is intelligence?
• Intelligence is the computational part of the ability to achieve goals in the
world OR “Ability to make the right decisions given set of inputs and a
variety of possible actions.”
• Varying kinds and degrees of intelligence occur in people, many animals
and some machines.
• Isn't there a solid definition of intelligence that doesn't depend on relating
it to human intelligence?
• Not yet. The problem is that we cannot yet characterize in general what
kinds of computational procedures we want to call intelligent. We
understand some of the mechanisms of intelligence and not others.

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Basic Questions(contd)
• Isn't AI about simulating human intelligence?
• Sometimes but not always or even usually. On the one hand, we
can learn something about how to make machines solve problems
by observing other people or just by observing our own methods.
On the other hand, most work in AI involves studying the problems
the world presents to intelligence rather than studying people or
animals. AI researchers are free to use methods that are not
observed in people or that involve much more computing than
people can do.
• Does AI aim at human-level intelligence?
• Yes. The ultimate effort is to make computer programs that can
solve problems and achieve goals in the world as well as humans.
However, many people involved in particular research areas are
much less ambitious.

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What is Intelligence ?
• How to define intelligence is controversial.

• As stated by "Mainstream Science on

Intelligence" (1994), an editorial statement by
fifty-two researchers:
“A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the
ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend
complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. It is not merely
book learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smarts. Rather, it
reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our
surroundings—"catching on," "making sense" of things, or "figuring out"
what to do.”

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• Intelligent behavior exhibit some or all of the

following characteristics:
– Problem Solving
– Reasoning
– Planning
– Decision making
– Inference
– Learning

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Strong vs. Weak AI

• Strong AI refers to the field of research that is

interested in making computers think at a level
equal to humans

• Weak AI represents the wider domain of AI

technologies. Weak AI features can be added to
systems to give them intelligent qualities.

• The course focuses on weak AI.

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Strong vs. Weak AI

• The followers of strong AI believe that by giving a computer

program sufficient processing power, and by providing it
with enough intelligence, one can create a computer that
can literally think and is conscious in the same way that a
human is conscious.

• Many philosophers and Artificial Intelligence researchers

consider this view to be false, and even ludicrous.

• Weak AI, in contrast, is simply the view that intelligent

behavior can be modeled and used by computers to solve
complex problems.

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Philosophical vs. Practical AI

• Philosophical:
– Can machines think, in principle?
– Will machine thought be different from human
• Practical
– Collection of techniques to automatically solve
particular problems that require “intelligence”
(whatever that is)

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Philosophical vs. Practical AI

• Philosophical AI Questions
– Can we make something that is as intelligent as a human?
– Can we make something that is as intelligent as a bee?
– Can we get something that is really evolutionary and self-
improving and autonomous and flexible….?
• Practical AI Questions
– Can we save this plant $20 million a year by improved pattern
– Can we save this bank $50 million a year by auto fraud
– Can we start a new industry of handwriting recognition /
automated negotiation / helpdesks/ …..?

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Big Milestones
• On May 11, 1997, an IBM
computer called IBM ®Deep
Blue® beat the world chess
champion after a six-game
match: two wins for IBM, one
for the champion and three
draws. The match lasted
several days and received
massive media coverage
around the world. It was the
classic plot line of man vs.
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Big Milestones

• DARPA Urban Challenge

• The DARPA Grand Challenge is a prize
competition for driverless cars.
• The 2007 Challenge was held in California.
– 96 KM course
– 6 hours time duration
– Rules included obeying all traffic
regulations while negotiating with other
traffic and obstacles and merging into
– The $2 million winner was Tartan Racing, a
collaborative effort by CMU and GM.

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AI Competitions
• The official goal of the project:
"By the middle of the 21st century, a team of
fully autonomous humanoid robot
soccer players shall win a soccer game,
complying with the official rules of FIFA, against
the winner of the most recent World Cup.“

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TeamNUST – RoboCup SPL 2015 –

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• SAVIOUR, Ghulam Ishaq Khan
Institute of Engineering
Sciences and Technology
• Karachi Koalas - Institute of
Business Administration,
• NUST SMME - National
University of Sciences and

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DARPA Challenge
• DARPA Challenges
• The DARPA Robotics Challenge Held from
2012 to 2015
• aimed to develop semi-autonomous ground
robots that could do “complex tasks in
dangerous, degraded, human-engineered

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Angry Birds Challenge
• The long term goal is to build AI agents that
can play new levels better than the best
human players
• http://aibirds.org/ (IJCAI 2018)

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GOOGLE AI Challenge
• Google.org issued an open call to
organizations around the world to submit
their ideas for how they could use AI to help
address societal challenges.

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AI Competitions
• PAKDD Datamining competition (Pacific Asia
– “Auto ML”
• In this challenge you are asked to provide code for
solving real world classification problems without any
human intervention.
• And many more

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History of AI
• 1950s –The Birth of AI
– 1950: Alan Turing publishes "Computing Machinery and Intelligence."
– 1956: John McCarthy coins the term, "Artificial Intelligence" at a
Dartmouth computer conference.
– 1958: John McCarthy invents the Lisp language, an AI programming
language, at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).
• 1960s –The Rise of AI
– 1965: Joseph Weizenbaum builds ELIZA, an interactive program that
carries on a dialogue in English on any topic (MIT).
– Arthur’s Clark book titled “2001: A Space Odyssey” –HAL, an
intelligent computer onboard a Jupiter-bound spacecraft, murdered
most of the crew out of paranoia over its own survival.
– Knowledge representation was a strong theme during the 1960s, as
strong AI continued to be a primary theme in AI research.

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History of AI
• Overwhelming Optimism
– I believe that in about fifty years’ time it will be possible to program computers…to
make them play the imitation game so well that an average interrogator will not
have more than 70 percent chance of making the right identification after five
minutes of questioning.
Alan Turing, Computing machinery and intelligence, 1950.

– Machines will be capable, within twenty years, of doing

any work a man can do
Herbert Simon, 1956

– In from three to eight years, we'll have a machine with the

general intelligence of an average human being.
Marvin Minsky to Life magazine, 1970

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History of AI
• 1970s – The Fall of AI – AI Winter
– 1969: Excitement of neural networks came to an
end in 1969 with the publication of the mongraph
titled “Perceptrons.”
– The 1970s represented the fall of AI after an
inability to meet irrational expectations.
– End of fundings
– The First AI winter 1974-1980

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History of AI
• 1980 - 1987 – AI Rises Again
– Advancement in probabilistic reasoning, machine
learning, intelligence agents, and computational
intelligence systems.
– Expert Systems
– Knowledge Representation
– Return of Funding

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History of AI
• 1988 - 1993 – Second AI Winters
– The first indication of a change in weather was the
sudden collapse of the market for specialized AI hardware
in 1987. Desktop computers from Apple and IBM had been
steadily gaining speed and power and in 1987 they
became more powerful than the more expensive Lisp
machines made by Symbolics and others. There was no
longer a good reason to buy them. An entire industry
worth half a billion dollars was demolished overnight.
– Unreal Expectations

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History of AI
• 1993 to date
– 1997: IBM computer Deep Blue beats world
champion Garry Kasparov in chess match.
– Deep Learning
– Big Data
– AI behind the scenes

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Turing Test
• Alan Turing, in his famous paper “Computing Machinery and
Intelligence” (1950), suggested that instead of asking whether
machines can think, we should ask whether machines can pass a
behavioral intelligence test, which has come to be called the Turing
– The test is for a program to have a conversation (via online typed
messages) with an interrogator for five minutes.
– The interrogator then has to guess if the conversation is with a
program or a person
– The program passes the test if it fools the interrogator 30% of the
• Turing conjectured that, by the year 2000, a computer with a
storage of 10^9 units could be programmed well enough to pass
the test. He was wrong—programs have yet to fool a sophisticated

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Loebner Prize

The Loebner Prize is an annual competition in artificial
intelligence that awards prizes to the computer
programs considered by the judges to be the most human-like.

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Critiques on Turing Test

• It is widely believed today that even if a computer could

pass the Turing test, it would still not truly be conscious or
intelligent in the way that humans are.
• It is more important to study the underlying principle of
intelligence than to duplicate an exemplar.
• Aeronautical engineering tests do not define the goal of
their field as making “machines that fly so exactly like
pigeons that they can fool even other pigeons”.
• The quest for ‘artificial flight’ succeeded when the Wright
brothers and others stopped imitating birds and started
using wind tunnels and learning about aerodynamics.

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Intelligence in machines vs. humans
What has happened over the last 40-50 years -
to the disappointment of all those who made
breathless predictions about where AI would
go - is that things such as playing chess have
turned out to be incredibly easy for
computers, whereas learning to walk and
learning to get around in the world without
falling over has proved to be unbelievably
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Applications of AI
• Although many of these fields are intermingled, but
applications of AI can be broadly classified among the
– Industry/ Robotics
– Medical and Health
– Online and Telephone customer service
– Transportation
– Telecommunication
– Toys and games
– News, publishing, and writing
– Natural Language Processing (NLP)
– Marketing , Finance, Fraud detection, Money Laundering
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Industry/ Robotics
• Assembly line automation
– Baxter
• Warehouse automation
– Amazon using 45,000 Kiva robots in their warehouses.
– Alibaba using Quicktrons instead
• Resource optimization
• Robotics
– Firefighting
– Search and rescue
– Disaster management
– Robotic surgery

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Medical and Health
• BioMind:
– Chinese AI beats 15
doctors in tumor
competition (July

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Online/ Customer service
• Recommendation systems
– Netflix
– Facebook
– Twitter
– Linkedin
– MySpace
• Customer service representatives:
– Telephone
– Email
– Chat
– Social media
• A lot of customer support inquiries can simply be prevented by knowing
what customers need before customers turn to support – a win-win for
• Companies are combining both AI with a human touch to help customer
service reps prioritize responses and respond both faster and better.

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Transportation/ Aviation
• Transportation:
– Fleet management
– Logistic Planning
– Route Planning
• Technological Improvement
– Fuzzy logic controllers for:
• Gear box
• Fuel consumption
• Break assist/ collision avoidance, ABS
– Self driving cars

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Toys and Games
• AI pets
• Board Games
– Chess, Go, Checkers, Poker, Bridge
• Modern Video Games:
– Path finding, strategy design, navigation
• Combat AI:
– Action, first person shooter, adventure
• Cheating AI:
– Common variations include giving AIs higher speeds in racing games to
catch up to the player or spawning them in advantageous positions in
first person shooters.
– The use of cheating in AI shows the limitations of the "intelligence"
achievable artificially; generally speaking, in games where strategic
creativity is important, humans could easily beat the AI after a
minimum of trial and error if it were not for this advantage.

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News, publishing and writing
• AP, Fox, and Yahoo! all use AI to write simple stories like
financial summaries, sports recaps, and fantasy sports
• AI isn’t writing in-depth investigative articles, but it has no
problem with very simple articles that don’t require a lot of
• “Dante” Pakistan introduces first business robot journalist
(20th January 2019)
– “TheRoboJournalist writes the report after taking into account
the related fundamental analytics, technical information (like
graphs and charts) and gauging prevailing sentiments. It also
takes into account the development taking place on social
media, irrespective of whether the development is true or not
to gauge the sentiment,”

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Fraud Detection
• Loan Defaulter
• Intrusion Detection
• Stock Prediction
• Money Laundering

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Natural language processing
• Spam filtering
• Information retrieval: rank web pages based
on relevance to query
• Machine translation: Google Translate handles
more than 100 languages (37 via photo, 32 via
• Speech recognition: personal assistants (Siri,
Google Now)

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Chinese Social Credit System
• In 2020, China will fully roll out its controversial social
credit score. Under the system, both financial
behaviors like “frivolous spending” and bad behaviors
like lighting up in smoke-free zones can result in stiff
• Penalties include loss of employment and educational
opportunities, as well as transportation restrictions.
• Those with high scores get perks, like discounts on
utility bills and faster application processes to travel

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