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Chapatti making quality

Austin and Ram have suggested the following standards for different
characteristics of good chapatti making quality:

Grain colour: ceramic

Protein content: 10-13 percent

Sedimentation value: 30-37 cc

Pelshenke value 120-150- minutes

Water absorption not less than 68 percent

Alvegraphic characterstics

Stability: 100-130 mm

Extensibility 20-27 mm

Strength 10-23 cm2

Total sugar less than 25 percent

Diastatic activity less than 150 mg 10-1 g atta.

In addition to this variety should have low contents of crude fiber and phytic acid
as higher crude fiber content affects carbohydrate and protein digestibility while higher
phytic acid interferes with calcium, iron and magnesium absorption.

 Protein content

Protein content of tall traditional varieties ranges from9 to 15 percent. On an

average it’s about 10 percent however in dwarf varieties it averages 12 percent.
 Sedimentation value

It is used to measure the quality of flour. The flour should have high quality
protein with strong gluetin properties.

Sedimentation value wheat group

Less than 20 ml weak flour

Between 20-39 ml all purpose flour

Between 40-50 ml bread flour

More than 60 ml very strong flour

 Pelshenke value

It indicates the quality of protein. Its value ranges between 56-235 minutes.

Flour group PELSHENKE value

Weak <75 minutes

Medium strong 75-149 minutes

Strong 150-200 minutes

Very strong >200 minutes

Most of the dwarf wheats belong to medium strong group. Medium strong flour
absorb comparatively greater amount of water and forms dough of moderately stick

 Water absorption

Water absorption capacity of flour depends primarily on protein and damaged

starch content of the flour. Flour should have high water absorption for bread making. It
also determines the softness of chapattis. Flour with low water absorption tends to cook
into stiff chapattis. High water absorption of Indian flour is due to high damaged starch

 Alveographic characters

Alveograph uses air pressure to blow bubble from a disc of dough. The height of
alveograph measures initial resistance of dough to extension and is known as stability [P].
Length of curve is an index of dough extensibility [L] and gas retention. The area under
curve is measure of baking strength of the dough. The ratio of extensibility (L) and
stability (P) should be about 1:2 for dough of well balanced gluetin characteristics.

Neither too strong nor too weak flour is suitable for baking purpose because in
former case the flour offers too much resistance to extension, which reduces the dough
rise during baking. Weak flour on the other hand retains the gas produced during
fermentation and collapses resulting into poor loaf volume.

 Total sugars and Diastatic activity

It adds to the sweetness of flour and chapattis. Diastatic enzymes also produce
maltose from flour during the relaxation period, which improves the sweetness of
chapattis. A range of 145 to 385 mg 10-1 g flour for sugars and 114 to 188 mg maltose mg
10-1 g flour diastatic activity appears to be ideal.

 Bread Making Quality

Bread making quality depends upon milling characters’ flour and dough characters
and baking quality. A variety which gives a flour recovery of 70 percent or more is
considered to be most suitable from milling point of view.

Mixograph is useful in characterizing certain important properties of wheat flour.

The mixing time is highly correlated with the baking time.
 Milling quality

Cleaned grains are dried to hasten the milling process. Grains are first cracked or
crushed gradually through a series of chilled iron break rolls. Flour yields are
approximately 70-74 percent. Milling quality of wheat is assessed by yield of flour
separated from germ and bran; free milling resulting in high yield of flour, low ash
content which is a measure of bran content and high test weight and plumpness of grain.

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