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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ТРАНСПОРТА РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ


ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

УЛЬЯНОВСКОЕ ВЫСШЕЕ АВИАЦИОННОЕ УЧИЛИЩЕ


ГРАЖДАНСКОЙ АВИАЦИИ (ИНСТИТУТ)

АВИАЦИОННЫЙ АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

Учебная тема

The Process of Obtaining an Air Certificate and Licence

УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ

Ульяновск 2010
ББК Ш143.21–9 я7
А 20

Авиационный английский язык. Учебная тема 'The Process of Obtaining


an Air Certificate and Licence' : учеб.-метод. пособие / сост. А. A. Шлямова,
Е. С. Синабдеева, Г. С. Громова. – Ульяновск : УВАУ ГА(И), 2010. – 28 с.

Содержит аутентичные тексты и серию упражнений для развития и закре-


пления лексических навыков по теме 'The Process of Obtaining an Air Certificate
and Licence' («Сертификация и лицензирование на воздушном транспорте»).
Разработано в соответствии с государственным общеобразовательным
стандартом высшего профессионального образования Российской Федерации
и программой обучения студентов высших и средних учебных заведений
гражданской авиации.
Предназначено для проведения практических занятий с курсантами спе-
циализаций 160503.65.01 – Летная эксплуатация гражданских воздушных
судов, 160505.65.01 – Управление воздушным движением, а также для само-
стоятельной работы студентов заочной формы обучения и авиаспециалистов
в процессе профессионального образования.
Печатается по решению Редсовета училища.

ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ
CONTENTS
Общие сведения.......................................................................................................3
1. Certification...........................................................................................................4
2. Airmen’s Certificates............................................................................................6
3. Flight Proficiency................................................................................................10
4. Aircraft and Airport Certification........................................................................12
5. Certification in the Field of Civil Aviation in the Russian Federation...............15
Bibliography............................................................................................................25
Appendix.................................................................................................................26

 Ульяновское высшее авиационное училище


гражданской авиации (институт), 2010
Шлямова А. A., Авиационный английский язык. Учебная тема:
Синабдеева Е. С. , 'The Process of Obtaining an Air Certificate and Licence'.
Громова Г. С. Учебно-методическое пособие.

ОБЩИЕ СВЕДЕНИЯ

Владение английским языком является обязательным компонентом профессио-


нальной подготовки современного авиаспециалиста. Изучение дисциплины «Авиа-
ционный английский язык» ведется в соответствии с Государственным общеобра-
зовательным стандартом высшего профессионального образования в области
Аэронавигации и международными стандартами ICAO (Doc. 9835/ Руководство по
внедрению требований ИКАО к владению английским языком).
В процессе изучения данной дисциплины курсанты приобретают коммуника-
тивную компетенцию, уровень которой на отдельных этапах языковой подготовки
позволяет использовать английский язык как в профессиональной деятельности,
так и в целях самообразования.
Развитие у курсантов лингвистической компетенции в профессиональной
области в рамках авиационного регистра английского языка является основной
задачей преподавания авиационного английского языка.
Учебно-методическое пособие составлено в соответствии с программой
дисциплины «Авиационный английский язык». Изучение данного пособия
предусмотрено в 6 семестре.
Целью учебно-методического пособия «Сертификация и лицензирование на
воздушном транспорте» является введение и закрепление навыков владения
лексическим материалом по данной теме на базе уже изученной грамматики
английского языка, что необходимо будущим пилотам и авиадиспетчерам для
выполнения своих профессиональных обязанностей в стандартных и нестандартных
ситуациях.
Пособие содержит аутентичные тексты с технической терминологией
авиационного характера.
Каждая часть включает упражнения на развитие и совершенствование навыков:
– перевода профессионально-окрашенных текстов;
– реферирования и аннотирования аутентичного материала;
– чтения различных видов оригинальной специальной литературы
профессионального характера и технической документации;
– употребления грамматических форм и конструкций, характерных для
авиационного языка.
Пособие характеризуется большой вариативностью заданий.
Одна из целей данного пособия – максимально облегчить задачу усвоения
обширного языкового материала так, чтобы курсанты могли уверенно использовать
его в своей речи с минимальным количеством погрешностей.

© НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2012 г 3


1. CERTIFICATION

Ex. 1. Read and translate international words.


Agency, airliner, airport, automatically, certificate, certification, commercial,
competent, component, demonstrate, examination, extensive, function, inspection,
instructor, international, licence, manufacture, medical, mechanics, mission,
national, organization, periodic, pilot, practice, privilege, specific, standards,
transportation, type.
Ex. 2. Study the new words.
airworthy, adj ['eə¸wз:ði] годный к летной эксплуатации
airworthiness, n ['eə¸wз:ðines] годность к летной эксплуатации
assure, v [ə'ʃυə] убеждать, гарантировать
comply (with), v [kəm'plai] соответствовать, подчиняться
(правилам)
compliance, n [kəm'plaiəns] соблюдение, подчинение (правилам)
ensure, v [in'ʃυə] обеспечивать, гарантировать
habitually, adv [hə'bitʃυəli] по привычке, обыкновенно, обычно
hold, v [həυld] держать, владеть
holder, n ['həυldə] владелец, предъявитель
conformity, n [kən'fo:miti] соответствие, согласие
in conformity with в соответствии с
validate, v ['vælideit] утверждать, признавать
действительным
oversight, n ['əυvəsait] контроль, наблюдение

Ex. 3. Read the text.


Certification
Certification is the first step to ensure that competent pilots fly airworthy
aircraft into and out of safe airports. Any person involved in operating or
maintaining aircraft must hold a certificate. Pilot and maintenance schools, and
their instructors, must also meet certification standards. Aircraft manufacturers, air
carriers and airports must have a certificate allowing their operation.
ICAO does not issue any licences or certificates. Licences issued by ICAO
Contracting States on the basis of Standards and Recommended Practices of
Annex 1 – Personnel Licencing, are habitually called ICAO licences. This has led
many to believe that there is a specific ICAO or international licence. The fact is
that States issue their own licences based on national regulations in conformity
with Annex 1 specifications and validate licences issued by other Contracting
States on the basis of bilateral or multilateral agreements.
The major aviation authorities worldwide are the US Federal Aviation
Administration (FAA) and the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). FAA
and EASA are, in particular, primarily responsible for the certification of the
airliners from two major manufacturers, Boeing and Airbus. Both agencies have a
standardization and oversight function for all aviation safety certification activities
of Member States. In addition to operating the national airspace system, the
agencies set standards for aircraft and people working in the aviation field, and
also monitor the performance of air carriers and other operators.
Ex. 4. Answer the following questions.
1. What is the insurance of pilot competence and airworthy aircraft?
2. What organizations are responsible for the certification of the airliners from
Boeing and Airbus?
3. Can the pilot receive the ICAO licence?
4. What authority issues licences to airmen?
5. How can States validate licences issued by other Contracting States?
6. What are the functions of the US Federal Aviation Administration and the
European Aviation Safety Agency?
Ex. 5. Translate the following word combinations.
– Airworthy aircraft
– Competent pilot
– Primarily responsible
– In conformity with Annex 1 specifications
– Двустороннее соглашение
– В частности
– Определять международные стандарты
– Оценивая возможность компании, работать в качестве авиаперевозчика
Ex. 6. Translate the following into English.
1. Сертифицирование – гарантия того, что квалифицированные летчики
управляют годным к летной эксплуатации самолетом от одного безопасного
аэропорта к другому.
2. Сертифицирование – оценка соответствия воздушного судна требованиям
федеральных авиационных правил.
3. ИКАО не выдает ни лицензий, ни сертификатов.
4. Авиаперевозчики должны иметь лицензию на право осуществления
пассажирских перевозок.
5. ИКАО издает нормы и правила выдачи свидетельств, которыми
пользуются страны-члены ИКАО.

2. AIRMEN’S CERTIFICATES Ex. 7.

Study the new words.


add-on rating квалификационная отметка
applicant, n ['æplikənt] соискатель, кандидат
application, n [,æpli'kəiʃ(ə)n] заявление
approval, n [ə'pru:v(ə)l] одобрение, поддержка, согласие
curriculum, n [kə'rikjυləm] курс обучения, учебная программа
(pl – curricula)
expire, v [ik'spaiə] истекать (o сроке), потерять силу
guidance, n ['gaid(ə)ns] руководство, указания
hire, v ['haiə] нанимать
increase, v [iŋ'kri:s] увеличивать
ant. decrease уменьшать, сокращать
manual, n ['mænjυəl] руководство (инструкция), справочник
revoke, v [ri'vəυk] аннулировать
restrict, v [ri'strikt] ограничивать
restriction, n [ri'strikʃ(ə)n] ограничение
surrender, v [sə'rendə] отдавать, передавать
suspend, v [sə'spend] приостановить действие (временно)
Ex. 8. Read the text.
Airmen’s Certificates
Standards and Recommended Practices for the licencing of flight crew
members (pilots, flight engineers and flight navigators, air traffic controllers,
aeronautical station operators, maintenance technicians and flight dispatchers), are
provided by Annex 1 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation. Proper
manuals provide guidance to States for training curricula of other aviation
personnel such as aerodrome emergency crews, flight operations officers, radio
operators and individuals involved in other related disciplines.
Pilots are certificated for particular types of flying activities. A system of
certificates, together with a set of add-on ratings is used to specify not only what
types of aircraft pilots may fly, but also whether they may carry passengers, fly for
hire, or fly in certain weather conditions. To earn a pilot’s certificate, an applicant
must demonstrate the aeronautical knowledge, skills, and experience prescribed for
the type of certificate and rating desired. Applicants must also meet certain
physical standards, and pilots must continue to pass periodic medical examinations
in order to maintain a valid certificate. Pilot certificates do not expire; they are
valid until surrendered, suspended, or revoked.
There are five main types of pilot certificates:
 Student pilot’ s flying privileges are very limited. When student pilots
first start learning to fly, they complete all of their flights with a certificated flight
instructor (CFI) on board. Once they've reached the age of 16, have a valid Class
III medical, and have mastered the basic skills and educational topics of flight,
they can solo (fly alone without an instructor or other certificated pilot at the
controls). They are not allowed to carry any passengers, or to fly for hire. They are
not allowed to operate in the busiest airspace around the largest cities (Class B
airspace) without special training and flight instructor approval.
 Recr eati onal pilots are primarily people who learn to fly for fun, with
little interest in becoming professional pilots or using airplanes as a practical
means of traveling from place to place. Recreational pilots must be at least 17
years old and have a minimum of 30 hours of flight time (the real-world average is
more than 40 hours), including a minimum of 15 hours of flight instruction.
Recreational pilots cannot carry more than one passenger and must remain within
50 nautical miles of the home airport.
 To become a private pilot, one must be at least 17 years old and have a
minimum of 40 hours of flight time (the actual average is about 70 hours),
including 20 hours of instruction and 10 hours of solo. Private pilots may use any
airport in the national airspace system and carry more than one passenger, but not
for hire.
 Com mercial pilots may carry passengers or cargo for hire. Commercial
pilots must be at least 18 years old and have a minimum of 250 hours of flight
time, including 100 hours in powered aircraft, 50 hours in airplanes, and 100 hours
as pilot in command (of which 50 hours must be cross-country flight time). They
must hold an instrument rating, or be restricted to flying for hire only in daylight,
under visual flight rules (VFR), within 50 miles of the originating airport.
 Only airline t ransport pilots can serve as pilot or copilot on air carrier
flights. Airline transport pilots (ATPs) must be at least 23 years old and have a
minimum of 1,500 hours of flight time, including 500 hours of cross-country flight
time, 100 hours of night flying, and 75 hours in actual or simulated instrument
flight conditions. ATPs must have a current and much more stringent Class I
medical, which they are required to renew every six months.
The increase in traffic, together with new technology, has led to more complex
ATC procedures which in turn require controllers to become more specialized and
to use more advanced controlling techniques.
The ATC licence:
– identifies its holder as a person who is qualified to provide ATC services;
– contains details of the types of ATC service that the licence holder may provide;
– contains the ATC unit where the holder may provide these services.
Depending on the type of service provided there can be the following ATC
Ratings – Aerodrome Control Visual, Aerodrome Control Instrument, Approach
Control Procedural, Approach Control Surveillance, Area Control Procedural,
Area Control Surveillance, and On-the-job Training.
Ex. 9. Answer the following questions.
1. What must an aviator hold, if he flies?
2. How are Aviators (Aviation Pilots) certified?
3. What must a pilot demonstrate to earn the appropriate certificate?
4. Do pilot’s certificates expire?
5. What types of certificates or pilot licences do you know?
6. What requirements must ATP meet to get the certificate?
7. How often should the aviators have medical check-ups?
8. Why are ATC required to become more specialized and to use more
advanced controlling techniques?
9. What does the ATC licence identify?
10. How are the ATC rated?
Ex. 10. Fill in the blanks with the missed prepositions.
1. … addition … operating the national airspace system, the agency sets …
standards … aircraft and people working … the aviation field.
2. Pilots must continue to pass periodic medical examinations … order …
maintain a valid certificate.
3. Pilots are rated … the category and class … aircraft they fly.
4. Student pilots are not allowed to operate … the busiest airspace … the
largest cities (Class B airspace) … special training and flight instructor approval.
5. Recreational pilots are primarily people who learn to fly … fun, … little
interest … becoming professional pilots.
6. Private pilots must revalidate their pilot certificates every 24 months …
undertaking a flight review … a certificated flight instructor (CFI).
7. Commercial pilots must be restricted … flying … hire only in daylight, …
visual flight rules (VFR), … 50 miles … the originating airport.
8. ATPs may instruct … other pilots … air transportation service … aircraft in
which the ATP is rated.
Ex. 11. Give the opposites to the following word combinations.
a) safety mission
b) periodic inspection
c) private physicians
d) be in operation
e) to increase the capacity
f) high-level quality system
g) unique procedure
Ex. 12. Fill in the table with the information provided in the text.
Airline
Student Recreational Private Commercial
Transport
Pilot Pilot Pilot Pilot
Pilots
Minimum
age required
Flight time
Allowed
to do
Forbidden
to do

Ex. 13. Translate the following into English.


1. Выделяют пять основных категорий пилотов: летчик-курсант, пилот
сверхлегких летательных аппаратов, пилот-любитель, пилот коммерческой
авиации, линейный пилот.
2. Линейные пилоты должны быть не младше 23 лет и иметь более 1 500
часов налета.
3. Пилоты-любители могут перевозить одного или более пассажиров, но
не по найму.
4. Когда летчики-курсанты впервые начинают учиться управлять самоле-
том, они выполняют полеты с летным инструктором.
5. Чтобы получить свидетельство пилота, кандидат должен продемонст-
рировать знания аэродинамики.

3. FLIGHT PROFICIENCY

Ex. 14. Read the text.


Flight Proficiency
For the practical test a pilot will be required to demonstrate to the examiner that
he can control an aircraft. What constitutes the ability to fly varies with different
levels of certificates and the ratings you want to add to them. The fact is that
ratings apply to the kinds of aircraft that you seek to fly and in what kind of
weather you want to fly in.
As for private pilots – they are not required to do the same things that
commercial or airline transport pilots, but private pilots have very broad
operational privileges. During the flight check a candidate for a private pilot must
demonstrate the following:
– Preflight preparation
– Preflight procedures
– Airport operations
– Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds
– Performance maneuvers
– Navigation
– Slow flight and stalls
– Emergency operations
– Night operations
– Postflight procedures.
All of these procedures and standards for them are given in an FAA publication
called The Practical Test Standards (PTS). There is a PTS put out for each level of
certificate from private pilot through airline transport pilot, which is the highest
one.
Ex. 15. Discuss in pairs the following questions.
1. What do we mean by the term «proficiency»?
2. What does a level of pilot certificate basically determine?
3. Why is it necessary for a private pilot to exercise a wide range of operational
privileges?

Ex. 16. Tell a few words about your test flight experience (80–100 words). Ex.

17. Study the new words and word combinations.


airworthiness certificate сертификат летной годности экземпляра
воздушного судна
fulfill requirements соответствовать требованиям
manufacturing plant завод-производитель
production certificate лицензия на производство
type certificate типовое свидетельство, свидетельство типа
workmanship мастерство, квалификация
4. AIRCRAFT AND AIRPORT CERTIFICATION

Ex. 18. Read the text.


Aircraft and Airport Certification
Aircraft have to meet high standards of airworthiness. The aircraft certification
process starts at the manufacturing plant, where the State Aviation Agency’s
engineers and specialists work with factory engineers to assure quality
workmanship and design conformity. When an aircraft prototype is finished, it
must pass an extensive series of ground and flight tests conducted by engineers,
inspectors, and test pilots. If all goes well, the aircraft receives a type certificate
showing that it meets standards of construction and performance. When the
manufacturer demonstrates the ability to maintain a high-level quality control
system, the Agency issues a production certificate authorizing the building of
aircraft that meet the provisions of the type certificate. Individual airplanes
conforming to that standard then receive an airworthiness certificate. The
Agency also issues type certificates for engines, propellers, and other aircraft
components. The manufacturer can make changes in the aircraft construction upon
the customer’s request. Such special purpose modifications go through a process
that leads to an amended type certificate.
Air carriers and airports are also subject to Agency standards and must have an
operating certificate. An airline seeking such a certificate must produce manuals
that give the Agency certain pertinent information. The manuals must make clear
how the company intends to operate and maintain its aircraft, train its crew
members and maintenance people, and comply with the Federal Aviation
Regulations. In evaluating a company’s ability to function as an air carrier,
certification teams observe the performance of cockpit and cabin crews as they fly
over routes that the airline intends to serve.
In order to get operating certificate airports issue Airport Certification Manuals
(ACM) which describe operating procedures, facilities, and equipment used to
fulfill the certification requirements.
Ex. 19. Answer the following questions.
1. Where does aircraft certification process start?
2. What certificates are issued to an aircraft?
3. What is the purpose of the amended type certificate of an aircraft?
4. Must air carriers and airports have a certificate? If yes, what kind of
certificate?
5. How does State Aviation Agency evaluate a company’s ability to function as
an air carrier?
Ex. 20. Paraphrase the following sentences.
1. FAA and EASA monitor the performance of air carriers.
2. Pilot and maintenance schools must meet FAA (or EASA) certification
standards.
3. Airliners are checked and repaired in accordance with a prescribed schedule.
4. Air carriers and airports also are subject to agency standards.
5. Special purpose modifications may be added to an aircraft at the request of a
customer.
6. The manuals must make clear how the company intends to operate and
maintain its aircraft.
7. An aircraft type may be in operation only a short time before a manufacturer
decides to make changes.
8. An airline seeking an operating certificate must produce manuals that give
the Agency certain pertinent information.
Ex. 21. Remember.
PARTICIPLES
Present and Past participles can be used as adjectives.
Participle I describes what somebody or something are ('What kind'?).
Participle II has a passive meaning.
Participle I
Do you know the woman talking to Tom?
-ing clause
Ты знаешь женщину, разговариваЮЩую с Томом?
Том
the woman talking to Tom

женщина, говорЯЩая с Tомом


Participle II
The boy injured in the accident was taken to hospital.
-ed clause
ПострадаВШий в аварии мальчик был доставлен в больницу.

The boy injured in


the accident

ПострадаВШий
в аварии мальчик

Ex. 22. Translate the following word combinations, underline the Participles
and write the verbs from which they are formed.
Person involved Based on national regulations
People working in the aviation field Manufacturing plant
Licenсes issued Prescribed schedule
Certificate allowing operation Certificate authorizing the building
Approved maintenance programs Flying privileges

Ex. 23. Underline the correct Participle I or Participle II.


1. With changes approving / approved, the next step was simple.
2. The four forces acting / acted on the aircraft during the flight are considered
to be basic.
3. Licences issuing / issued by ICAO Contracting States are based on Standards
and Recommended Practices.
4. Working / worked overtime the team managed to complete the first draft.
5. Airports must have the certificate allowing / allowed their operation.
6. All individuals involving / involved in aviation must hold the relating /
related certificate.
7. At the manufacturing plant aircraft pass an extensive series of ground and
flight tests conducting / conducted by engineers, inspectors, and test pilots.
8. Evaluating / evaluated a company’s ability to function as an air carrier,
certification teams observe the performance of cockpit and cabin crews in flight.
Ex. 24. Read and translate the following information paying attention to
active vocabulary.
A private pilot has few limitations on the exercise of his certificate. The basic
difference between what a private pilot can do compared to the higher commercial
and airline transport licences relates to operating an aircraft for compensation or
hire. A private pilot may get virtually any of the ratings set out in the regulations
for any category, class, or type of aircraft. Theoretically, a private pilot could be
rated to operate an airliner type of aircraft. The fact is that he can’t do it for hire in
any common carriage of persons or property.
Private pilots can also get instrument ratings. With an instrument rating, and in
an aircraft properly equipped, a private pilot may fly anywhere and do it in IFR
weather.
Although airline pilots get special authorization to fly in very low ceiling and
visibility conditions, actually, an instrument-rated private pilot is authorized to
operate in almost all flight environments.

5. CERTIFICATION IN THE FIELD OF CIVIL AVIATION


IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Ex. 25. Study the new words.

acknowledge, v [ək`nɒlidʒ] признавать, допускать


allot, v [ə`lɒt] распределять, предназначать
approval, n [ə`pru:v(ə)l] оценка, утверждение, рассмотрение
deliver, v [di`livə] поставлять
initial, adj [i`ni(ə)ʃl] начальный, исходный
prerequisite, n [pri`rekwizit] предпосылка
relevant, adj [`reliv(ə)nt] уместный, соответственный
respect, n [ri`spekt] отношение, внимание, касательство
in respect of что касается
surveillance, n [sз:`veil(ə)ns] инспектирование, надзор
Ex. 26. Read the text.
Certification in the Field of Civil Aviation in the Russian Federation
In Russia the subjects of obligatory certification are:
– designers and manufacturers of aircraft and other aviation technology;
– aviation companies performing air transportation and aerial work;
– aviation personnel;
– legal entities charged with the technical maintenance and repair of aviation
technology;
– aerodromes and airports;
– educational institutions performing the function of training aviation specialists;
– aircraft, aviation engines, propellers, on-board and ground aviation equipment;
– other legal entities whose activities are directly linked with ensuring the
safety of flights of aircraft or aviation security.
Compulsory certification and testing are carried out by specially authorised
bodies to whom the organisation and performance of the funciton of certification
and testing have been allotted. Flight safety in civil aviation in the Russian
Federation is supervised by the following organizations:
1. The Aviation Register of the Interstate Aviation Committee (IAC AR) that is
responsible for Type Design approvals, initial airworthiness certification of
produced type aircraft, production certification and for all issues related to
production surveillance and continued airworthiness of aircraft type design.
2. The Federal Aviation Authority of Russia (FAAR) that is responsible for
issues related to continuing in-service airworthiness of aircraft operated in the
Russian Federation.
Certification of civil aircraft, aviation engines and propellers
The certification of civil aircraft, aviation engines and propellers of a new type
is made in accordance with the federal aviation regulations, which set out the
prerequisites and procedure for certification. The certification process is completed
by the issuing of the type certificate, if it has been established in the process of
certification that the civil aircraft, aviation engines and propellers of a new type
meet the airworthiness requirements and environmental protection and that the
design of civil aircraft, aviation engines and propellers have been acknowledged as
of a standard type.
In the process of serial production each civil aircraft, aviation engine and
propeller is subject to tests and check-ups, which are completed with the issuing of
the airworthiness certificate in respect of a civil aircraft; in respect of an aviation
engine or propeller a document equivalent to the airworthiness certificate.
Civil aircraft, aviation engines and propellers, manufactured in a foreign
country and delivered to the Russian Federation for operation are subject to
certification in accordance with the federal aviation regulations.
Certification of aerodromes and airports
The radiotechnical, illuminating engineering and meteorological equipment
installed at civil aerodromes, aerodromes of joint stationing of civil and state
aircraft and aerodromes of joint exploitation, as well as objects of the single system
of air traffic organisation must meet the requirements for fitness for exploitation,
which are confirmed by the relevant certificate.
Certification of aviation personnel
Aviation personnel consist of persons having a special education and holding a
certificate and performing activities for ensuring the safety of flights of aircraft or
aviation security as well as activities for the organisation, performance,
guaranteeing and servicing of air carriage and flights of aircraft, aerial work, the
organisation of the use of airspace, the organisation and the servicing of air traffic.
Pilots are certificated for particular types of flying activities. In Russia there are
3 main types of pilot certificates: private pilot licence, commercial pilot licence,
airline pilot licence.
Ex. 27. Answer the following questions.
1. What are the subjects of obligatory certification in Russia?
2. What organizations are responsible for certification in the Russian Federation?
3. What is the main function of the Aviation Register of the Interstate Aviation
Committee?
4. What is the Federal Aviation Authority of Russia responsible for?
5. Which 2 certificates permit civil aircraft to be operated?
6. Name the certificate that each aerodrome and airport must have.
7. What are the main types of pilot certificates?
Ex. 28. Find the English equivalents to the following.
a) Авиарегистр Межгосударственного
авиационного комитета
b) Федеральная авиационная
служба РФ (ФАС РФ)
c) федеральные авиационные правила
d) светотехническое оборудование
e) аэродром совместного базирования
f) аэродром совместного использования
g) годность к эксплуатации
h) свидетельство пилота свободного
аэростата
Ex. 29. a) Match the words in column A with those in column B.
b) Learn these word combinations and use them in the sentences of your
own.
A B
type certificate серийное производство
legal entity начальная летная годность
compulsory certification бортовое авиационное оборудование
authorised body соответственный сертификат
to meet requirements получить сертификат
initial airworthiness обязательная сертификация
relevant certificate отвечать требованиям
type design approval сертификат типа
on-board aviation equipment юридическое лицо
serial production уполномоченный орган
to hold a certificate оценка типового проекта
Ex. 30. Fill in the blanks with the missed prepositions.
1. The Civil Aviation Authority is responsible … adapting and implementing
international regulations. It is also charged … the responsibility … overseeing that
civil aviation organizations comply … applicable laws, rules and regulations. CAA
also issues certificates … personnel and organizations such as air carriers,
maintenance facilities, pilots and cabin crew.
2. This paper discusses a direction of simple and inexpensive manufacturing
processes linked … airframe specific design.
3. All the requirements are related … realization of technological process.
4. A person who provides aviation weather services shall provide them …
accordance … the standards specified in relevant documents.
5. Class G Airspace is uncontrolled airspace. Operations may be conducted …
IFR or VFR. ATC separation is not provided. Traffic Information may be given as
far as is practical … respect … other flights.
6. Two aircraft are … construction and first was delivered … the Russian Air
Force … April 2008.
Ex. 31. Define the terms.
a) certification
b) compulsory certification
c) authorised body
d) type certificate
e) airworthiness certificate
f) aviation personnel
g) to solo
h) to manufacture

Ex. 32. Fill in the chart to find the other parts of speech. Use dictionary
where necessary.

NOUN VERB ADJECTIVE


flight fly flying
……… accord ………
respect ……… ………
relation ……… ………
……… permit ………
……… ……… additional
Ex. 33. Think of the best translation.
1. В пилотское свидетельство могут быть внесены следующие дополни-
тельные квалификационные отметки: отметка о праве выполнения ночных
полетов, отметка о праве выполнения полетов по приборам, отметка о праве
работы только вторым пилотом, отметка о праве работы пилотом-
инструктором.
2. Обязательной сертификации подлежат разработчики и изготовители
воздушных судов и другой авиационной техники, авиационные предприятия,
осуществляющие воздушные перевозки, аэродромы, аэропорты, воздушные
суда, авиационные двигатели, воздушные винты, бортовое и наземное
авиационное оборудование, а также авиационный персонал.
3. Свидетельство частного или коммерческого пилота может быть выдано
пилоту самолета, вертолета или дирижабля.
4. Обязательная сертификация осуществляется специально уполномочен-
ными органами. Требования к проведению обязательной сертификации и по-
рядок ее проведения установлены федеральными авиационными правилами.
5. Для управления любым летательным аппаратом необходимо иметь
пилотскую лицензию – летные права. Летные права выдаются после прохож-
дения теоретического и практического обучения специализированными
учреждениями. Существует несколько типов летных лицензий.
6. Каждое гражданское воздушное судно в процессе серийного производ-
ства проходит испытания и проверки, завершающиеся выдачей сертификата
летной годности.
7. Гражданские воздушные суда, авиационные двигатели и воздушные
винты, произведенные в иностранном государстве и поступающие в
Российскую Федерацию для эксплуатации, проходят сертификацию в
соответствии с федеральными авиационными правилами.
Ex. 34. a) Study the use of the word 'subject'. Pay attention to the
pronunciation.

1) subject [`sʌbdʒikt] – noun


– тема, предмет (разговора), сюжет;
e. g.: Can we change the subject?
– предмет, дисциплина;
e. g.: English is my favourite subject.
2) subject [`sʌbdʒikt] – adjective
– подверженный, подлежащий (to);
e. g.: Plane times are subject to change during bad weather.
3) subject [səb`dʒekt] – verb
– подвергать воздействию, влиянию и т. п. (to);
e. g.: They subjected the aircraft to tests and check-ups.
b) Practise reading.
1. The specialists subjected educational institutions training aviation personnel
to many days of check-ups.
2. All building firms are subject to tight control.
3. Somebody raised the subject of airport facilities.
4. The PM says that Italian airport infrastructure is subject to major investment.
c) Find in the text 'Certification in the Field of Civil Aviation in the
Russian Federation' all the examples of the use of the word 'subject'.
Ex. 35. Make up a short presentation on the topic 'The difference between
the certification in the USA, Europe and Russia'. Compare all the subjects of
certification and use aviation terms from Exercises 25, 28 and 29.
Ex. 36. Remember.
PASSIVE VOICE
The structure of the Passive Voice: to be + Participle II
The Passive Voice is used when the subject that carries out the action is
unknown, unimportant or obvious from the context.

To form the required tense, the verb to be is conjugated:


1. Certification is carried out by specially authorised bodies (Present Simple). –
Сертификация проводится специально уполномоченными органами.
2. London Heathrow Terminal 1 was opened in 1968 (Past Simple). –
Терминал 1 аэропорта Хитроу в г. Лондон был открыт в 1968 году.
3. 100 people will be employed by this aircompany (Future Simple). – 100
сотрудников будут наняты на работу этой авиакомпанией.
4. The aircraft has just been certified (Present Perfect). – Самолет только
что прошел сертификацию.

The passive verb can be followed by:


Word Example
by (the agent, the 'doer') moved by the servo
with (the substance) supplied with air
from (the origin) controlled from the flight deck
to (the objective) advanced to increase thrust
to (movement, connection) attached to the bulkhead

Ex. 37. Transform the active sentences into passive ones and the passive
sentences into active ones. The words in brackets ( ) are not necessary in the
passive.
E. g.: The fuel flow controls the acceleration of the turbine rotor. – The
acceleration of the turbine rotor is controlled by the fuel flow.
The elevator control quadrant is connected to the elevator power control by a
linkage. – A linkage connects the elevator control quadrant to the elevator power
control.
1. (A wire) connects the unit to the ground.
2. The panel is maintained in place with three screws.
3. (You) must set the master switch to OFF.
4. (A device) monitors voltage and frequency.
5. The light is illuminated by an overtemperature.
6. (You) can adjust the rudder pedals with a screw.
7. (The pilot) can rotate the trim wheel 3 turns in either direction.
8. Smoke is detected by an optical sensor.
9. Static electricity is transmitted by bonding jumpers.
Ex. 38. Find in the text 'Certification in the Field of Civil Aviation in the
Russian Federation' all the examples of the Passive Voice.
Ex. 39. Remember.
Word Order
The order of words in technical English is very important. Technical English
uses a lot of compound words or 'noun clusters', that is a chain of words.
E. g.: emergency landing – аварийная
посадка fuel consumption – расход
топлива thrust setting – режим тяги
aircraft movement – движение воздушного судна.
The basic principle in a compound word is that one word is the key word and
the other words are the qualifiers.
QUALIFIER KEY WORD MEANING
door lever lever of the door
fuel tanks tanks for fuel
upper deck deck on the top
discharge valve valve for discharging air, etc.

As a rule, the 'key word' is the last word in the chain and translation into
Russian should be started with this word.
E. g.: 1) nose wheel steering system
system – система
steering system – система управления
nose wheel – передняя стойка шасси
система управления передней стойкой шасси
2) gravity feed fuel system
system – система
fuel system – топливная система
gravity feed – подача самотеком
система подачи топлива
самотеком
3) approach flight path reference point
point – пункт, точка, ориентир
reference point – контрольная
точка flight path – траектория
полета
approach flight path – траектория захода на посадку
контрольная точка траектории захода на посадку.
Careful! The sense of an expression depends on the word order. Look at these
examples. The 'key word' is in bold type:
brake disc disc brake
a disc on the brake unit a type of brake
flight level level flight
aircraft standard altitude horizontal flight
tank center center tank
the center of the tank the tank in the wing center box

Ex. 40. Choose the compound expression which agrees with the definition.
DEFINITION A B
1 back of the seat seat back  back seat
2 air used to cool hot air air cooling cooling air
3 to transfer from one circuit to another switching circuit circuit switching
4 procedure to check lights light test test light
5 signal sent back by the system feedback system feedback
system
6 large groups (looms) of wires wires loom loom wires
7 non-return valve check valve valve check
8 motor to move a valve valve drive drive valve
9 activates a valve electrically solenoid valve valve solenoid
10 air from engine compressor bleed air air bleed
11 system that provides hot air air bleed bleed air

Ex. 41. Translate the following aviation terms from English into Russian.
a) aircraft type design
b) airworthiness requirements
c) air traffic organization
d) maintenance schools
e) certification standards
f) flight crew members
g) aerodrome emergency crews
h) aircraft certification process
BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Воздушный Кодекс Российской Федерации : Федеральный закон от


19.03.1997 № 60-ФЗ / принят Гос. Думой 19.02.1997. – Действ. редакция.
2. Марасанов, В. П. Англо-русский словарь по гражданской авиации:
около 24 000 терминов / В. П. Марасанов. – 2-е изд., испр. и доп. – М. :
Скорпион-Россия, 1996. – 560 с.
3. Air Code of Russian Federation // Avia.ru. – Режим доступа : www.avia.ru/
english/code/chapter 1.sht. – Заглавие с экрана.
4. Annexes to the Convention on International Civil Aviation // ICAO eSHOP
International Civil Aviation Organization. – Режим доступа : http://www.icao.int/
eshop/annexes_list.htm. – Заглавие с экрана.
5. Conversion Procedures and Processes for FAA Pilot Certificates and TCCA
Pilot Licences : Advisory Circular, AC № 61-135 : Initiated by AFS-810 12.5.06.
6. European Manual of Personnel Licencing – Air Traffic Controllers :
guidance on implementation : Edition date – 29.11.2001. – Режим доступа :
http://www.eurocontrol.int/humanfactors/gallery/content/public/docs. – Заглавие с
экрана.
7. Licences & Certificates // Federal Aviation Administration. – Режим доступа
: http://www.faa.gov/licences_certificates/. – Заглавие с экрана.
8. Shawcross, P. English for Aircraft 2 (System maintenance) / P. Shawcross. –
Belin. –247 p.
Appendix
Annex 1
to the Convention on International Civil Aviation
Personnel Licencing
As long as air travel cannot do without pilots and other air and ground
personnel, their competence, skills and training will remain the essential guarantee
for efficient and safe operations. Adequate personnel training and licencing also
instill confidence between States, leading to international recognition and
acceptance of personnel qualifications and licences and greater trust in aviation on
the part of the traveller.
Standards and Recommended Practices for the licencing of flight crew
members (pilots, flight engineers and flight navigators), air traffic controllers,
aeronautical station operators, maintenance technicians and flight dispatchers, are
provided by Annex 1 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation. Related
training manuals provide guidance to States for the scope and depth of training
curricula which will ensure that the confidence in safe air navigation, as intended
by the Convention and Annex 1, is maintained. These training manuals also
provide guidance for the training of other aviation personnel such as aerodrome
emergency crews, flight operations officers, radio operators and individuals
involved in other related disciplines.
Today's aircraft operations are so diverse and complex that protection must be
provided against the possibility, however remote, of total system breakdown due to
either human error or failure of a system component.
The human being is the vital link in the chain of aircraft operations but is also
by nature the most flexible and variable.
Proper training is necessary so as to minimize human error and provide able,
skilful, proficient and competent personnel.
Annex 1 and ICAO training manuals describe the skills necessary to build
proficiency at various jobs, thereby contributing to occupational competency. The
medical standards of the Annex, in requiring periodic health examinations, serve as
an early warning for possible incapacitating medical conditions and contribute to
the general health of flight crews and controllers.
The Human Factors programme addresses known human capabilities and
limitations, providing States with basic information on this vital subject as well as
the material necessary to design proper training programmes. ICAO's objective is
to improve safety in aviation by making States more aware of, and responsive to,
the importance of human factors in civil aviation operations.
Licencing is the act of authorizing defined activities which should otherwise be
prohibited due to the potentially serious results of such activities being performed
improperly. An applicant for a licence must meet certain stated requirements
proportional to the complexities of the task to be performed. The licencing
examination serves as a regular test of physical fitness and performance ensuring
independent control. As such, training and licencing together are critical for the
achievement of overall competency.
One of ICAO’s main tasks in the field of personnel licencing is to foster the
resolution of differences in licencing requirements and to ensure that international
licencing standards are kept in line with current practices and probable future
developments. This is ever more crucial as the flight crew will be exposed to
increasing traffic density and airspace congestion, highly complicated terminal
area patterns and more sophisticated equipment. To accomplish this task, Annex I
is regularly amended to reflect the rapidly changing environment.
Учебно-методическое пособие

АВИАЦИОННЫЙ АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

Учебная те ма

The Process of Obtaining an Air Certificate and Licence

Составители: ШЛЯМОВА
АНАСТАСИЯ АНАТОЛЬЕВНА
СИНАБДЕЕВА
ЕЛЕНА СЕРГЕЕВНА
ГРОМОВА
ГАЛИНА СТЕПАНОВНА

Редактор Е. А. Хаймурзина
Компьютерная верстка И. А.
Ерёмина

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