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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ТРАНСПОРТА РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ


ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

УЛЬЯНОВСКОЕ ВЫСШЕЕ АВИАЦИОННОЕ УЧИЛИЩЕ


ГРАЖДАНСКОЙ АВИАЦИИ (ИНСТИТУТ)

АВИАЦИОННЫЙ АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

Учебная тема
«БЕЗОПАСНОСТЬ НА ВОЗДУШНОМ ТРАНСПОРТЕ»

Учебно-методическое пособие

Ульяновск 2011
ББК Ш143.21–9я7
А 20

Авиационный английский язык. Учебная тема «Безопасность на воздушном


транспорте» : учеб.-метод. пособие / сост. Е. Л. Воронянская, А. Е. Чеснакова. –
Ульяновск : УВАУ ГА(И), 2011. – 40 с.

Содержит упражнения и аутентичные тексты, направленные на развитие и за-


крепление фонетических, лексических и грамматических навыков для осуществле-
ния речевой деятельности в сфере профессиональной коммуникациии.
Разработано в соответствии с государственным общеобразовательным стандар-
том высшего профессионального образования Российской Федерации и рабочей
программой по дисциплине «Авиационный английский язык».
Предназначено для проведения практических занятий с курсантами и студен-
тами заочной формы обучения специализаций 160503.65.01 – Летная эксплуатация
гражданских воздушных судов, 160505.65.01 – Управление воздушным движением,
а также самостоятельной работы студентов и авиаспециалистов в процессе профес-
сионального образования.
Печататется по решению Редсовета училища.

ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ
CONTENTS
Part I. Air Safety.................................................................................................................. 3
Part II. Safety-Related Topics............................................................................................14
Topic 1. ICAO Safety-Related Activities....................................................................14
Topic 2. Aviation Security...........................................................................................17
Topic 3. Unlawful Interference....................................................................................18
Topic 4. Runway Safety...............................................................................................21
Topic 5. Ground Damage.............................................................................................22
Topic 6. Engine Failure...............................................................................................24
Topic 7. Volcanic Eruption..........................................................................................25
Topic 8. Ice and Snow.................................................................................................26
Topic 9. Infection.........................................................................................................28
Topic 10. Fire..............................................................................................................29
Topic 11. Bird Strike...................................................................................................31
Topic 12. Controlled Flight Into Terrain......................................................................33
Библиографический список............................................................................................39
© Ульяновское высшее авиационное училище
гражданской авиации (институт), 2011
Воронянская Е. Л. Авиационный английский язык. Учебная тема ««Безопасность
Чеснакова А. Е. на воздушном транспорте». Учебно-методическое пособие.

PART I. AIR SAFETY

BEFORE READING

Ex. 1. Practise reading international words. Match the notions and their
definitions.
aviation [,eivi’eiЅ(ə)n], n the study and utilization of manufacturing and
industrial methods;
systematic application of knowledge to
practical tasks in industry
concept [‘kOnsept], n the creation or production of anything
factor [fæktə], n the base on which something stands
technology [tek’nOləGi], n a series of coordinated activities, such as public
speaking and demonstrating, designed to
achieve a social, political or commercial goal
topography [tə’pOgrəfi], n one of the things that influences a decision,
situation, etc.
foundation [faun’dei∫ən] satisfactory development, growth or advance
progress [‘prəugres] an idea, a basic principle
campaign [kæm‘pein] description of the features, e.g. rivers, roads of
a place or district
manufacture [,mænju’fækt∫ə] flying or building of aircraft
Ex. 2. Check your reading.
Foundation, element, result, typical, combination, machine, meteorologist,
construction, design, occasion, component, manufacture, personnel, physical,
procedure, reaction, progress, navigation, management, integration, standard,
national.
Ex. 3. Study the following foreign plurals.
-is (Greek and Latin) becomes -es [i:z] -on (Greek) becomes -a:
analysis – analyses criterion – criteria
basis – bases phenomenon – phenomena
crisis – crises parhelion – parhelia

© НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2012 г 3


-um (Latin) becomes -a: -us (latin) becomes -i:
bacterium – bacteria bacillus – bacilli
curriculum – curricula nucleus – nuclei
maximum – maxima bronchus – bronchi
-ex, -ix (Latin) becomes -ices: -a (latin and Greek) becomes -ae:
appendix – appendices lamina – laminae
matrix – matrices larva – larvae
cortex – cortices alga – algae
Ex. 4. Think of the plural of the following nouns.
Axis, calyx, candelabrum, criterion, radius, thesis, radix, narcissus, stratum,
phenomenon, ellipsis, spectrum, stimulus, oasis, cactus, formula, hypothesis,
quantum, fungus, metamorphosis, calculus, scholium, alumna, antithesis, lamina.
Ex. 5. Fill in the gaps using the words given below in a proper form.
stimulus criterion medium minimum spectrum
basis phenomenon analysis datum curriculum

1. There has never been a serious study of these …


2. World War Ι provided a … for the creation of large-scale aircraft industries.
3. Aviation became a national resource and military … for performance and
reliability were introduced.
4. The reporting, investigation and … is a highly effective means of providing
safety.
5. Lessons learned from incident reporting should have timely and wide
distribution through the various forms of … .
6. The selection of the optimum characteristics of the “man-machine” system
requires an evaluation of a large number of … .
7. Proper separation … between aircraft in flight should be provided in order to
enhance safety.
8. If the potentially hazardous activities are planned to take place on a regular or
continuing …, a coordinating group should be given the task of ensuring that the
operational needs of all parties concerned are adequately coordinated.
9. Manuals, procedures and specific training have become an important part of
the human factors … .
10. ICAO assists Contracting States to develop their own civil aviation facilities,
providing guidance on training … .

VOCABULARY

regulation, n предписание, правило; pl устав, инструкция,


обязательные постановления
occur, v случаться, происходить
prevent, v предотвращать, предупреждать, препятствовать
significant, adj важный, существенный, значительный
incident, n происшествие, инцидент
involve, v вовлекать, включать в себя
hazard, v, n рисковать, осмеливаться;
опасность, риск
redundancy, n избыток, чрезмерность, излишек
legislation, n законодательство
comprise, v включать; заключать в себе, содержать
encompassing, adj охватывающий, окружающий
beyond control выйти из-под контроля, находиться вне контроля

READING

Before reading the text discuss the following questions:


1. What do you understand by the term “air safety”?
2. Who is responsible for air safety?
Read the text below and check whether your answers are correct.

Air Safety
Air safety is a term encompassing the theory, investigation and categorization of
flight failures, and the prevention of such failures through regulation, education and
training. It can also be applied to some campaigns that inform the public about the
safety of air travel.
Safety improvements have resulted from improved aircraft design, engineering
and maintenance, the evolution of navigation aids, and safety protocols and
procedures.
Another aspect of safety is protection from attack currently known as security.
Aviation security is safeguarding civil aviation against acts of unlawful interference.
This objective is achieved by a combination of measures and human and material
resources.
Aviation is based on a foundation of laws and regulations, most of which are
aimed at maintaining or improving safety. Safety means freedom from risk.
Scheduled airline operations have achieved high level of safety, but most of the
accidents that occurred could have been prevented.
Accidents are typically a combination of several different causes – factors or
cause factors. For simplicity, these factors have been categorized into three groups:
Man, Machine and Environment.
The pilot is not the only Man in the system, the concept should include all
people directly involved with the operation of aircraft – flight crew, ground crew,
ATC, meteorologists, and all human involvement in aviation, such as design,
construction, maintenance, operation and management.
Many aviation hazards are caused by problems at the interface between Man,
Machine and Environment. As man is involved in all three, it is vital to consider the
human role in aviation. Nowadays “human factors” usually refer to any factor
which could affect an individual’s performance. Human factors is about people: it is
about people in their working and living environments, their relationship with other
people, with machines, equipment and procedures.
Although aviation technology has made great progress, there are still occasions
when hazards are found in the design, manufacture or maintenance of aircraft.
Modern aircraft design therefore attempts to minimize the effect of any hazard.
Good design should not only prevent system failure, but also ensure that a single
failure will not result in an accident. This is usually achieved by so-called fail-safe
features and redundancy in critical components or systems. Modern design includes
systems which make man’s task easier and which aim to prevent mistakes and
errors. The Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS) is an example of such a
system. It has significantly reduced the number of accidents in which airworthy
controlled aircraft collide with the ground or water. The level of safety of an aircraft
and its equipment is set by the airworthiness standards to which it is designed and
built. Then maintenance is performed to ensure that an acceptable level of safety is
achieved throughout the life of an aircraft.
The environment in which aircraft operations take place, equipment is used
and personnel work directly affects aviation safety. The environment comprises
two parts: the natural environment and the man-made environment. Weather,
topography and other natural phenomena are elements of the natural environment.
Their manifestations, such as temperature, wind, rain, ice, lightning, mountains and
volcanic eruptions are all beyond the control of man and must be avoided. The man-
made environment can be further divided into physical and non-physical parts. The
physical portion includes those man-made objects that form part of the aviation
environment: air traffic control, airports, navigation aids, landing aids and airfield
lighting. The man-made non-physical environment includes national and
international legislation, orders and regulations, standard operating procedures,
training syllabi, etc.
In spite of the use of Man, Machine and Environment as main categories of
hazards, most accidents or incidents can be traced to a human failure somewhere.
For example, a machine is designed, built and operated by man. Thus a failure of
the machine is infact a failure of man. Only 10 to 15 % is caused by Machine and
Environment, whereas 60 to 70 % are due to Man. Fortunately man is adaptable and
is able to compensate for many inadequacies in the design or construction of the
machine. Safe aviation therefore involves the integration of the three basic elements
of Man, Machine and Environment. Each element can influence the others and they
are often interdependent. A hazard in one can initiate a chain reaction leading to an
accident in which all are involved.

AFTER READING

Ex. 6. Divide the text into the parts and name them.

Ex. 7. Think up about the key questions to each part of the text.

Ex. 8. Ask for some detailed information on each part of the text.

Ex. 9. Make up a summary of the text using your plan.


VOCABULARY PRACTICE

Ex. 10. Match the antonyms in columns A and B.


A B
natural finally
physical adequacy
inadequacy unfortunately
fortunately non-physical
Ex. 11. Cross out the odd word.

1. Incident, crash, redundancy, accident.


2. Law, refinement, regulation, bill.
3. Error, cause, mistake, blunder.
4. Obstruction, hazard, threat, danger.
5. Temperature, lighting, lightning, wind.
6. Legislation, disasters, ATC, navigation aids.
Ex. 12. Find in the text synonyms to the following words.
Danger, mistake, malfunction, to minimize, to include, to influence, to try,
really, despite, to happen, because of.
Ex. 13. Match words from each column to make a compound noun or
expression.
A B
flight awareness
human guard
accident safety
key factor
civil point
aviation traffic
system prevention
turning states
situation reaction
air requirement
safe aviation
contracting error
chain industry
human malfunction
Ex. 14. Find a word which has a similar meaning to each of the following.
redundancy obstruction airworthy to maintain regulation
interdependent to reduce hazard syllabus to prevent
1. An official rule or order.
2. To make or become smaller in size, number, extent, degree, intensity, etc.
3. Something that blocks a way, prevents progress.
4. An outline or summary of a course of studies.
5. To keep from happening, especially by taking precautionary action.
6. Related to one another in such a close way that each one needs the others in
order to exist.
7. Something that could be dangerous or cause damage or accidents.
8. To keep in proper or good condition.
9. A situation in which something is not needed, especially because the same
thing or a similar thing already exists.
10. In good condition and safe to fly.
Ex. 15. Say what these words and expressions from the text mean.
Foundation, law, to ensure, hazard, to occur, vital, scheduled airplane
operations, GPWS, airworthiness standards, chain reaction.
Ex. 16. Think up all the possible word combinations.
to advance
to enhance safety
to assure
to ensure
error
to make
to improve
to guarantee mistake
to threaten
to promote
to affect operation
to secure
to manage
technology
to increase
to achieve
to management
anticipate
to prevent obstacles
to mitigate
to detect
accident
to monitor
to avoid
to commit hazard
to eliminate

Ex. 17. Fill in the gaps using the following prepositions.


at of in into with on under in spite of due to
1. … fact, the slogan “Safety is everybody’s business” means that everybody
should be aware of the consequences of their mistakes and try to avoid them.
2. Aircraft accidents result … losses of vital resources, namely people and
equipment.
3. Accident prevention aims … avoiding errors at all levels.
4. Accidents continue to occur … … … the existence and enforcement of
numerous rules and regulations.
5. … essence the objective of accident prevention is to prevent aircraft
accidents.
6. A common phenomenon of human behaviour is that the risk perception and
acceptance vary … accordance … the situation.
7. It is not possible to identify those accidents which did not occur as a result …
accident prevention.
8. With the future development and improvement of airplanes, it becomes
necessary to take human factors … account, to reduce errors on the part of the crew.
9. The various parties involved … a major accident are interested in the
investigation of the true cause of the accident.
10. Aviation has traditionally rested … selection, training, licensing and detailed
written procedures to assure safety.
11. ICAO is working … developing a Global Aviation Safety Plan (GASP).
12. Aircraft manufactures help all involved … the aviation industry succeed …
dramatically reducing the accident rate worldwide.
13. Number … accidents have been caused … … lack of synchronization of
man and machine.
14. Each pilot should be trained to manage risk … order to keep all situations …
control.
Ex. 18. Use the following expressions to make up the sentences of your own.
А. to aim at … B. a result of …
to rest on … a cause of …
to refer to … a number of …
to result in … an effect of …
to work at … a redundancy in …
to involve in … on the part of …
C. to take into account D. for example
to be under the control of for instance
to be beyond the control of in fact
to make allowances for in essence
to have an effect on in accordance with
Ex. 19. Fill in the gaps using the words given below.
performance circadian disrythmia ultra long-haul human
demands equipment hostile environment jet-lag extreme
understanding economically feasible obstacle
Aviation is the safest means of transport today. The safety of civil aviation is
especialy important when we consider the extraordinarily … … in which flight
operations take place. On the one hand, the physical environment, with …
temperatures and pressures, makes unsupported human life impossible.
In addition, speeds allowing … … trans-meridian operations in short period of
time, require careful consideration of basic human … characteristics such as … and
… … . On the other hand, the socio-economic environment, with market … that
require aviation organizations to attempt to produce “more with less” to remain …,
generates some problems to those who operate, maintain and control the system.
One major … remains to copensate … error. Not just in the cockpit, but in every
process surrounding flight operations, from designing and manufacturing aircraft
and navigation ..., to radiocommunications, to the commercial decisions that affect
daily operations. The full … of human error is the key to continue providing
humans everywhere on the planet with the safest means of transportation ever
created.

IDEAS FOR DISCUSSION AND COMPOSITION

Ex. 20. Work in pairs to categorize the following cause factors into three
groups:
– man;
– machine;
– environment.
Volcanic eruption, engine failure, bird strike, thunderstorm, landing gear failure,
colliding with the mountain while under the control of the pilot, marginal weather,
malfunctioning navigation aid, violation of standard operation procedures, aircraft
overloading, loss of situation awareness, poor knowledge of aviation English.
Ex. 21. Categorize the Environment cause factors into:
– natural / man-made;
– physical / non-physical.
Airports, temperature, wind, landing aids, airfield lighting, rain, ice, aeronautical
charts, air traffic control, lightning, international legislation, regulations, mountains,
navigational aids, volcanic eruptions, airport equipment, fog, standard operating
procedures, high obstructions, training syllabi, national legislation, snow, hail.
Ex. 22. Discuss what sort of the mentioned above cause factors you think
are the most hazardous.
Ex. 23. Read the following incidents / accidents reports and think of the
cause factors.
А. An Airbus A-300 was approaching for a landing on RW15 at Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia. The accident occurred at dusk in bad weather. There were heavy rain
showers over the field. The flight condition at this stage was described as moderate
turbulence with occasional breaks in the clouds and the ground was occasionally
visible (a visibility of 400 metres was given). The RW was wet. The aircraft
descended and struck trees at a height of 174 feet above mean sea level
approximately 2 km from the end of the RW. The aircraft came to rest 1.2 km from
the end of the RW. The aircraft experienced post-impact fire: however, evacuation
was successfully accomplished with all passengers and crew evacuated. Minor
injuries were limited to one crew member and 5 passengers out of a total of 14 crew
and 233 passengers.
B. A ramp serviceman was accidently locked in the baggage compartment of a
DC-9 before taxiing. During taxiing he began doing everything he could to get the
crew’s attention: opened doors, removed the voice recorder, pulled out a relay for
emergency lights and made a lot of noise. Finally the air attendant heard the noise,
the aircraft stopped and the ramp man was let out by a crew member at the
runway’s edge. The crew asked for a vehicle to take the man and then took off. The
crew found the damage only at the next stop.
C. The aircraft made an emergency landing with main landing gear up and nose
gear only partially down due to landing gear system failure. Before landing the
aircraft made a low pass by the Tower to check if the landing gear was down or it
was just an indicator problem. The aircraft then made a second pass trying to put the
retracted gear into place. The aircraft landed on the RW and the pilot kept the nose
off ground until approximately the last 1,000 feet and stopped about 700 feet from
the runway end.
The aircraft was manufactured in 1990, had 2,952 hours flight time. The
incident was the result of the manufacturer’s mistake.
D. While we were waiting for take-off clearance we believed we heard the
landing aircraft (B-747) call he was “clear of the RW” but this was in poor broken
English. We were cleared for take-off by ATC and the take-off run was started
normally. At about 110 knots the ATC controller started speaking in rushed and
heavily accented English about TWs, RWs, not clear, but no clear STOP,
CANCEL TAKE-OFF, ABORT TAKE-OFF. As I was trying to understand what
he said and to whom, I saw in the snow and mist a B-747 at about 45 degrees to
the runway centerline still on the runway! We ignored ATC and took off. ATC
was then saying more clearly that the runway was not clear “DO NOT TAKE
OFF”. I replied “We are now airborne”. We cleared the B-747 by a vertical
distance of 500 feet.
Ex. 24. Tell the group about any incident or accident. Find out its cause
factor.

Ex. 25. Write an essay on air safety problem using the following questions
as a plan.
1. What is understood by the term safety?
2. What problem is considered to be vital?
3. Whose problem do you think it is?
4. What do you think might happen if this problem is not solved?
5. Can you think of any ways of improving air safety?

PART II. SAFETY-RELATED TOPICS

TOPIC 1. ICAO SAFETY-RELATED ACTIVITIES

A. Read the text.


ICAO Safety-Related Activities
Safety has always been a key requirement for civil aviation. Nowadays civil
aviation continues to achieve its main goal: the safe and efficient transportation of
passengers and goods. The critical aspect of aviation safety is Human Factors.
ICAO drew attention of the aviation industry to this new aspect of aviation safety
by Resolution A26-9, which was adopted by the 26-th Session of its Assembly in
1986. In 1990 the first ICAO Global Flight Safety and Human Factors Symposium
was held in St.Petersburg. This meeting was a turning point in aviation safety and it
set the stage for follow-up meetings. International aviation has made enormous
progress in safety but human error remains a significant safety concern.
The purpose of these worldwise symposia and regional seminars was to increase
the awareness of states about the importance of Human factors. The implementation
of ICAO’s communications, navigation, surveillance and air traffic management
(CNS / ATM) systems concept renews the opportunity to apply vast knowledge
about Human Factors to provide safety. There are two fundamental requisites to the
successful contribution of Human factors knowledge to CNS / ATM systems safety
and efficiency.
The first requisite deals with the concept: the aviation industry must ensure that
human-technology interaction remains human-centered. The second requisite deals
with integration. People have designed excellent technology that has contributed to
improvements in safety, but human capabilities and limitations must be taken into
account while defining the systems, before they become operational. ICAO has
developed Human Factors Standards that take into account human performance in
present and future operational environments.
The ICAO Flight Safety and Human Factors Programme is safety-oriented,
operationally relevant and practical. Through this Programme ICAO provides the
aviation community with means and tools to anticipate errors and contain its
negative consequences in operational environment. The activities of this
Programme must be considered as integrated within the context of two closely-
connected major systemic safety initiatives undertaken by ICAO.
The first of such initiatives is the ICAO Global Aviation Safety Plan (GASP),
developed by the Air Navigation Commission in 1997 to coordinate and to provide
a common direction to the efforts of Contracting States and the aviation industry. It
is a tool that allows ICAO to focus resources and to prioritize activities that
contribute the most to enhancing safety.
The other major systemic safety initiative – the ICAO Universal Safety
Oversight Audit Programme – concerns the global cooperation. This is a
Programme of regular, mandatory, systematic and harmonized safety audits carried
out by ICAO in all contracting States. The information obtained from these audits
will allow States to remedy deficiencies in safety oversight responsibilities.
ICAO continues to work for the prevention of Controlled Flight into Terrain
(CFIT). The latest safety campaign has been under way since 1991. The initial
objective of the programme is to reduce the annual occurrence of CFIT accidents.
A safety management system (SMS) is another ICAO safety-related activity. It
is a systematic approach to managing safety, including the necessary organisational
structures, accountabilities, policies and procedures.
Use of SMS can be generally interpreted as applying a quality management
approach to control safety risks. Similar to other management functions, safety
management requires planning, organising, communicating and providing direction.
Effective Safety Management Systems are using risk and quality management
methods to achieve the safety goals. The implementation of an SMS gives the
organisation’s management a structured set of tools to meet their responsibilities for
safety defined by the regulator.
Solution to safety problems lies in the cooperation among countries and the
industry. Safety is not a national issue, nor is it regional or continental. Safety is a
global issue. The objective remains as it was in the past – to further improve safety
in aviation.
В. Match the Russian equivalents with the following.
1. ICAO Global Flight Safety and Human Factors Symposium.
2. Communications, Navigation, Surveillance and Air Traffic Management
(CNS / ATM) Systems.
3. Human Factors Standards.
4. ICAO Flight Safety and Human Factors Programme.
5. ICAO Global Aviation Safety Plan (GASP).
6. Safety Management System.
7. Air Navigation Commission.
8. ICAO Universal Safety Oversight Audit Programme.
a) Аэронавигационная комиссия.
b) Системы связи, навигации, наблюдения и организации воздушного
движения.
c) Универсальная программа ICAO по проведению проверок организации
контроля за обеспечением безопасности полетов.
d) Всемирный симпозиум ICAO по проблемам безопасности полетов и
человеческого фактора.
e) Глобальный план обеспечения безопасности полетов.
f) Программа ICAO по безопасности полетов и человеческому фактору.
g) Стандарты в области человеческого фактора.
h) Система управления качеством.
С. Give a brief description of the following major ICAO initiatives.
– Communications, navigation, surveillance and air traffic management (CNS /
ATM) systems
– Human Factors Standards
– Flight Safety and Human Factors Programme
– Global Aviation Safety Plan
– Universal Safety Oversight Audit Programme
– CFIT prevention programme
– SMS
D. Imagine that you have occupied a senior level post at the International
Civil Aviation Organization. Answer the questions.
1. What do you think the shortcomings of the existing safety-related activities are?
2. Which safety initiatives would you like to participate in?
3. Which aspect of flight safety would you promote and why?
4. Which key initiatives would you implement first of all?
5. Which new activities would you include in your strategic action plan?

TOPIC 2. AVIATION SECURITY

A. Work with a partner to give as many reasons as possible why special


attention must be paid to aviation security.
B. Read the text.

Aviation Security
The goal of aviation security is to prevent harm to aircraft, passengers and crew,
as well as support national security and counter-terrorism policy.
Airport security refers to the techniques and methods used in protecting airports
and aircraft from crime.
Large number of people pass through airports. This presents potential targets for
terrorism and other forms of crime due to the number of people located in a small
area. Similarly, the high concentration of people on large airliners, the potential
high death rate with attacks on aircraft and the ability to use a hijacked airplane as a
lethal weapon may provide an attractive target for terrorism.
Airport security attempts to prevent would-be attackers from bringing weapons
or bombs into the airport. If they can succeed in this, then the chances of these
devices getting on to aircraft are greatly reduced. As such, airport security serves
several purposes: to protect the airport from attacks and crime and to protect the
aircraft from attack, and to reassure the travelling public that they are safe.
C. With a partner or small group discuss the questions.
1. Why is security important in aviation?
2. How has security changed in the last 50 years?
3. How could security be improved?
4. What do you think will change in the future?
5. Have you or someone you know ever experienced a security problem?
6. What problems are associated with the growth of aviation in your country?
7. What happened in the United States on the 11th of September, 2001?
8. What changes in aviation security have taken place since then?

TOPIC 3. UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE

А. Look at the picture. What is depicted there? Have you heard about
similar incidents on other aircraft?

B. Which acts of unlawful interference can you think of? Compare your
ideas with a partner.
C. Read the text and tick your ideas that are mentioned in the text. Make
sure you know the following words.
hijack, n, v угон воздушного судна;
угонять ВС
hostage, n заложник
negotiations, n переговоры
air marshal сотрудник службы безопасности на борту ВС
take suicidal actions предпринимать попытки самоубийства
deliberatel, adv умышленно, сознательно
dive, v пикировать
black box «черный ящик»
cockpit voice recorder речевой регистратор переговоров
в кабине экипажа
unlawful interference незаконное вмешательство
law-abiding, adj законопослушный
unruly passenger недисциплинированный пассажир,
нарушающий порядок пассажир
cabin attendant бортпроводник
cabin crew бортпроводники
claim, v требовать, предъявлять претензию
constrain, v сдерживать, заключать в тюрьму
keep as a hostage держать в заложниках
overpower, v побеждать
present a danger to the представлять опасность для безопасности
safety of other passengers других пассажиров
raise fighters поднять в воздух истребители
restrain, v усмирять, задерживать
repel, v оказывать сопротивление
subdue, v усмирять, подавлять
take hostage взять в заложники
take into custody взять под стражу
jeopardize, v подвергать опасности, рисковать
seizure, n захват, взятие силой
intrusion, n внедрение, насильственное проникновение,
вторжение
premises, n участок земли с прилегающими постройками и
помещениями

Unlawful Interference
Acts of unlawful interference are acts or attempted acts such as to jeopardize the
safety of civil aviation and air transport, i.e.:
– unlawful seizure of aircraft in flight;
– unlawful seizure of aircraft on the ground;
– hostage-taking on board aircraft or on aerodromes;
– forcible intrusion on board an aircraft, at an airport or on the premises of an
aeronautical facility;
– introduction on board an aircraft or at an airport of a weapon or hazardous
device or material intended for criminal purposes;
– communication of false information such as to jeopardize the safety of an
aircraft in flight or on the ground, of passengers, crew, ground personnel or the
general public, at an airport or on the premises of a civil aviation facility.
Terrorism can also be considered a human factor. Crews are normally trained to
handle hijack situations. Prior to the September 11, 2001 attacks, hijackings
involved hostage negotiations. After the September 11, 2001 attacks, stricter airport
security measures are in place to prevent terrorism using a Computer Assisted
Passenger Prescreening System, Air Marshals, and precautionary policies. In
addition, counter-terrorist organizations monitor potential terrorist activity.
Although most air crews are screened for psychological fitness, some may take
suicidal actions. In the case of EgyptAir Flight 990, it appears that the first officer
deliberately dived his aircraft into the Atlantic Ocean while the captain was away
from his station, in 1999 off Nantucket, Massachusetts. Motivations are unclear, but
recorded inputs from the black boxes showed no mechanical problem, no other
aircraft in the area, and was proved out by the cockpit voice recorder.
D. With a partner or small group discuss the questions.
1. What is a hijack?
2. Do hijacks frequently happen nowadays?
3. What are hijackers’ demands in most cases and what are their aims?
4. How can hijackers be identified and prevented from boarding?
5. What technologies currently exist at airports to identify a suspicious passenger?
6. Are all security checking procedures 100 % effective?
7. What weapons can be used by hijackers?
8. What measures do airlines take to prevent passengers from getting into the
cockpit?
9. How can pilots be prepared for a real hijack situation?
10. What is it advisable for pilots to do in case of hijack?
11. Do you think pilots should carry handguns in the cockpit in order to be able
to repel hijackers? Give your reasons.
12. Does a pilot need special firearms and self-defense training?
13. Is it necessary to have highly trained and skilled armed air marshals aboard
each aircraft?
14. Can hijacks be always concluded by the use of armed force?
15. Do you believe it is possible to start negotiating with hijackers? Why?
16. What is the best way to protect an aircraft, its passengers and crew?
17. Sometimes a person who is normally polite and law-abiding may go crazy
during a flight and cause a security incident. What factors cause this change in
behaviour?
18. What are the possible pilot’s actions in case of a disturbance on board the
airplane?
19. How can violent passengers be restrained?
20. How should passengers be penalized for such incidents?

TOPIC 4. RUNWAY SAFETY

A. Work with a partner. Before reading the text, explain what the term
“runway safety” means.

B. Read the text. Make sure you know these words.


runway excursion несанкционированный выезд с ВПП
overrun выкатывание с ВПП
runway incursion несанкционированный выезд на ВПП
runway confusion непреднамеренное использование не той ВПП
или РД, на которые было дано разрешение
slide off the RWY / skid off соскальзывание с ВПП
the RWY / veer off the RWY

Runway Safety
Several terms fall under the flight safety topic of runway safety, including
incursion, excursion and confusion.
Runway excursion is an incident involving only a single aircraft, where it makes
an inappropriate exit from the runway. This can happen because of pilot error, poor
weather, or a fault with the aircraft. Overrun is a type of excursion where the
aircraft is unable to stop before the end of the runway.
Runway event is another term for a runway accident.
Runway incursion involves a first aircraft, as well as a second aircraft, vehicle,
or person. It is defined by the U.S. FAA as: “Any occurrence at an aerodrome
involving the incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle or person on the protected
area of a surface designated for the landing and take off of aircraft.”
Runway confusion involves a single aircraft, and is used to describe the error
when the aircraft makes “the unintentional use of the wrong runway, or a taxiway,
for landing or take-off”.
Runway excursion is the most frequent type of landing accident, slightly ahead
of runway incursion. For runway accidents recorded between 1995 and 2007, 96 %
were of the “excursion” type.
C. Do you know any stories of runway accidents? What happened? Name
the cause factor.

TOPIC 5. GROUND DAMAGE

A. Look at the title of the text. Do you think a minor ground damage can
lead to a serious accident? Share your ideas with your groupmates. New words
might help you.
bump, v ударять(ся)
scratch, n царапина
dent, n вмятина, след, выбоина
within safe tolerances в пределах безопасных допусков
depressurization, n разгерметизация
tug, n тягач
tow, v буксировать
baggage cart, n багажная тележка
bang, n внезапный шум, взрыв, хлопок, удар
breathable air пригодный для дыхания воздух
catering truck машина для обслуживания кухни
cargo “beltloader” ленточный погрузчик
skin, n обшивка (ВС)
detach, v отсоединиться, отстыковаться
B. Read the text. Were you right?

Ground Damage
Aircraft are occasionally bumped or even damaged by ground equipment at the
airport, because in the act of servicing the aircraft between flights a great deal of
ground equipment must operate in close proximity to the fuselage and wings.
Damage may be in the form of simple scratches in the paint or small dents in the
skin. However, because aircraft structures (including the outer skin) play such a
critical role in the safe operation of a flight, all damage is inspected, measured and
possibly tested to ensure that any damage is within safe tolerances. A dent that may
look no worse than common “parking lot damage” to an automobile can be serious
enough to ground an airplane until a repair can be made.
An example of the seriousness of this problem was the December 26, 2005
depressurization incident on Alaska Airlines flight 536. During ground services a
baggage handler hit the side of the aircraft with a tug towing a train of baggage
carts. This damaged the metal skin of the aircraft. This damage was not reported
and the plane departed. Climbing through 26,000 feet (7,900 metres) the damaged
section of the skin detached due to the growing difference in pressure between the
inside of the aircraft and the outside air. The cabin depressurized with a bang,
frightening all aboard and caused a rapid descent back to denser (breathable) air and
an emergency landing. Post landing examination of the fuselage revealed a 30 cm
hole between the middle and forward cargo doors on the right side of the airplane.
The three pieces of ground equipment that most frequently damage aircraft are
the passenger boarding bridge, catering trucks, and cargo “beltloaders”. However,
any other equipment found on an airport ramp can damage an aircraft through
careless use, high winds, mechanical failure and so on.
The generic industry colloquial term for this damage is “ramp rash”, or “hangar
rash”.
C. Name some other safety features which could prevent a minor incident
becoming a disaster. Be creative! Share your ideas with the group.

TOPIC 6. ENGINE FAILURE

A. Look at the picture. What is depicted there? Is this phenomenon


dangerous for an aircraft? Why?

B. Compare your ideas with a partner. Try to use these words and
expressions.
fuel contamination загрязнение топлива
lose power терять мощность
emergency landing аварийная посадка
site, n участок, площадка, место
ultimate, adj окончательный, максимальный, предельный
engine failure отказ двигателя
engine separation / отрыв двигателя
engine tearway
cause damage to вызывать повреждения чего-либо
loss of control потеря управления
metal fatigue усталость металла
nondestructive testing испытание без разрушения образца
C. Read the text and check your ideas.

Engine Failure
Although aircraft are now designed to fly even after the failure of one or more
aircraft engines, the failure of the second engine on one side for example is
obviously serious. Losing all engine power is even more serious, as illustrated by
the 1970 Dominicana DC-9 air disaster, when fuel contamination caused the failure
of both engines. To have an emergency landing site is then very important.
The ultimate form of engine failure, physical separation, occurred in 1979 when
a complete engine detached from American Airlines Flight 191, causing damage to
the aircraft and loss of control.
Metal fatigue has caused failure either of the engine or of the aircraft body.
Now that the subject is better understood, strict inspection and nondestructive
testing procedures are in place.
D. Have you heard of similar incidents on other aircraft?

TOPIC 7. VOLCANIC ERUPTION

A. Work with a partner. Before reading the text, note down what particular
problems this phenomena could cause to aviation. Make sure you know these
words.
plumes, n видимый контур (выхлопных газов /
вулканического пепла)
volcanic ash вулканический пепел
abrasive, adj абразивный, обдирающий
cause wear вызывать износ
jam, v клинить
flameout, n срыв пламени, самопроизвольный останов
двигателя воздушного судна

B. Read the text and check if all of your points are mentioned.

Volcanic Ash
Plumes of volcanic ash near active volcanoes present a risk especially for night
flights. The ash is hard and abrasive and can quickly cause significant wear on the
propellers and turbocompressor blades, and scratch the cockpit windows, reducing
visibility. It contaminates fuel and water systems, can jam gears, and can cause a
flameout of the engines. Its particles have low melting point, so they melt in the
combustion chamber and the ceramic mass then sticks on the turbine blades, fuel
nozzles, and the combustors, which can lead to a total engine failure. It can get
inside the cabin and contaminate everything there, and can damage the airplane
electronics.
There are many instances of damage to jet aircraft from ash encounters. In one
of them in 1982, British Airways Flight 9 flew through an ash cloud, lost all four
engines, and descended from 36,000 ft (11,000 m) to only 12,000 ft (3,700 m)
before the flight crew managed to restart the engines.
In 1991 the aviation industry decided to set up Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers
(VAACs), one for each of 9 regions of the world, acting as a link between
meteorologists, volcanologists, and the aviation industry.
C. Have you heard about similar incidents? Share your story with your
partners.

TOPIC 8. ICE AND SNOW

A. Look at the picture. What is depicted there? Is this phenomenon


dangerous for an aircraft? Why?
B. Compare your ideas with a partner. Try to use these words and expressions.
contributory factor сопутствующий фактор
ice buildup образование льда
steering, n управление (носовым колесом)
hoar frost иней
de-icing, n противообледенительные процедуры
inlet, n входное устройство, воздухозаборник
inflatable rubber “boots” противообледенительные профили
expand, v расширять(ся)
C. Read the text and check your ideas.

Ice and Snow


Snowy and icy conditions are frequent contributory factors to airline accidents.
Just as on a road, ice and snow buildup can make braking and steering difficult or
impossible.
The icing of wings is another problem and measures have been developed to
combat it. Even a small amount of ice or hoar frost can greatly decrease the ability
of a wing to develop lift. This could prevent an aircraft from taking off. If ice builds
up during flight the result can be catastrophic.
Airlines and airports ensure that aircraft are properly de-iced before takeoff
whenever the weather threatens to create icing conditions. Modern airliners are
designed to prevent ice buildup on wings, engines, and tails (empennage) by either
routing heated air from jet engines through the leading edges of the wing, tail, and
inlets, or on slower aircraft, by use of inflatable rubber “boots” that expand and
break off any accumulated ice.
Finally, airline dispatch offices keep watch on weather along the routes of their
flights, helping the pilots avoid the worst of inflight icing conditions. Pilots can also
be equipped with an ice detector in order to leave icy areas they have flown into.
D. Think about ways of minimizing the effects of ice and snow.

TOPIC 9. INFECTION

A. Work with a partner. Before reading the text, note down in which
particular way infection could influence airlines’ operation. Make sure you
know the words below.
transmission of airborne infection распространение переносимой по
воздуху инфекции
contagious diseases заразные болезни
acquisition of infection инфекционное заражение
acute respiratory desease острое респираторное заболевание
Severe Acute Respiratory атипичная пневмония
Syndrome (SARS)
respiratory pathogens микробы-возбудители
респираторных заболеваний
flight ban запрет на полеты
spread of infection распространение инфекции
B. Read the text and check your answers.

Infection
On an airplane, people sit in a limited space for extended periods of time, which
increases the risk of transmission of airborne infections. For this reason, airlines
place restrictions on the travel of passengers with known airborne contagious
diseases (e.g. tuberculosis). During the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
epidemic of 2003, awareness of the possibility of acquisition of infection on a
commercial aircraft reached its zenith when on one flight from Hong Kong to Beijing,
16 of 120 people on the flight developed proven SARS from a single index case.
The two most common respiratory pathogens to which air passengers are
exposed are parainfluenza and influenza. In one study, the flight ban imposed
following the attacks of September 11, 2001 was found to have restricted the global
spread of seasonal influenza, resulting in a much milder influenza season that year,
and the ability of influenza to spread on aircraft has been well documented. But still
there is no data on the relative contributions of large droplets, small particles, close
contact, surface contamination, and no data on the relative importance of any of
these methods of transmission of specific diseases, and therefore very little
information on how to control the risk of infection.
C. Work in pairs. Think of some inexpensive measures to prevent the
transmission of airborne infections.

TOPIC 10. FIRE

A. Look at the picture. What particular problems and hazards could it


present to pilots / ATC / passengers? The words might help you.
automated fire detection автоматизированная система обнаружения
system и сигнализации пожара
combat a fire тушить пожар
electrical fire пожар в системе электроснабжения
flammability, n воспламеняемость
galley, n бортовая кухня ВС
generate lethal toxic smoke вырабатывать смертельно опасный дым
impair, v ухудшать, ослаблять
incapacitate, v делать нетрудоспособным
incursion of the fire распространение пожара в фюзеляж
into the fuselage
B. Compare your ideas with a partner.

C. Read the text and see if you have mentioned all the hazards.

Fire
Fire represents one of the most feared hazards for aviation. Smoke and fumes
can lead to crew incapacitation. Fire in the air can ultimately lead to loss of control,
either as a result of structural or control system failure, or again as a result of crew
incapacitation. Fire on the ground can take hold rapidly and lead to significant
casualties if evacuation and emergency response is not quick enough; and although
not necessarily a cause, a Post Crash Fire was a consequence of accidents which
accounted for approximately half of all fatalities in in the period 1999–2007.
Safety regulations control aircraft materials and the requirements for automated
fire detection systems. Usually these requirements take the form of required tests.
The tests measure flammability and the toxicity of smoke.
Fire on board the aircraft, and more especially the toxic smoke generated, have
been the cause of accidents. An electrical fire on Air Canada Flight 797 in 1983
caused the deaths of 23 of the 46 passengers, resulting in the introduction of floor
level lighting to assist people to evacuate a smoke-filled aircraft. Two years later a
fire on the runway caused the loss of 55 lives, 48 from the effects of incapacitating
and subsequently lethal toxic gas and smoke, in the 1985 British Airtours Flight
28M. That accident raised serious concerns relating to survivability, something that
prior to 1985 had not been studied in such detail. The fast incursion of the fire into
the fuselage and the layout of the aircraft impaired passengers’ ability to evacuate,
with areas such as the forward galley area becoming a bottle-neck for escaping
passengers, with some dying very close to the exits. A large amount of research into
evacuation and cabin and seating layouts was carried to try to measure what makes
a good evacuation route.
The cargo holds of most airliners are equipped with “fire bottles” (remote-
controlled fire extinguishers) to combat a fire that might occur in the baggage holds,
below the passenger cabin.
D. Think about ways of minimizing the effects of fire. Share your ideas with
the group. Vote on the most original ones.

TOPIC 11. BIRD STRIKE

A. Look at the picture. What is depicted there? Is this phenomenon


dangerous for an aircraft? Why?

B. Compare your ideas with a partner.

C. Read the text. Make sure you know the following words.
bird ingestion попадание птицы в двигатель
bird strike столкновение с птицей
ditch into the sea производить посадку в море
ditch onto the river производить посадку в реку
dump, n свалка (мусора)
frighten birds away отпугивать птиц
falcon, n сокол
predator, n хищник
in the vicinity of the airport в районе аэродрома
ingest a bird into an engine / засасывать птицу в двигатель
suck a bird into an engine
flocks of birds стаи птиц
emit high frequency sounds издавать звуки высокой частоты
carry out a runway inspection выполнять проверку ВПП
Bird Strike
Bird strike is an aviation term for a collision between a bird and an aircraft. It is
a common threat to aircraft safety and has caused a number of fatal accidents. In
1988 an Ethiopian Airlines Boeing 737 sucked pigeons into both engines during
take-off and then crashed in an attempt to return to the Bahir Dar airport; of the 104
people aboard, 35 died and 21 were injured. Canada Geese were ingested into the
engines of US Airways 1549 causing the engines to fail on the Airbus A320 that
ditched onto the Hudson River.
The highest risk of the bird strike is during the takeoff and landing, in low
altitudes, which is in the vicinity of the airports. Some airports use active
countermeasures, ranging from a person with a shotgun through recorded sounds of
predators to employing falconers. Poisonous grass can be planted that is not tasty to
birds, nor to insects that attract birds. Passive countermeasures involve sensible
land-use management, avoiding conditions attracting flocks of birds to the area (e.g.
dumps). Another tactic found effective is to let the grass at the airfield grow taller
(approximately 30 centimetres) as some species of birds won’t land if they cannot
see one another.
D. With a partner or small group discuss the questions.
1. Why do you think airports and runways attract birds and other animals?
2. What animals apart from birds can cause problems at the airport?
3. In what way airports attempt to make the environment less attractive to
animals and birds?
4. What problem may each particular animal cause?
5. What specific measures can you think of to tackle these problems where
aircarft are at risk?
6. Do you know of any incidents involving wildlife loose in aiports? What
happened?
7. What can be done to keep birds away from airports?
8. What is the most common problem involving wildlife at ground level at
Ulyanovsk airport?
9. How can bird activity jeopardize flight safety?
10. What is a bird strike?
11. At what stages of flight do such incidents normally occur?
12. Do bird strikes occur at high altitudes?
13. What species of birds are most often involved in such incidents?
14. What kind of damage can a bird strike cause?
15. Is it true that large aircraft are built to withstand (to be strong enough not to
be harmed or destroyed) all bird strikes and birds are not a serious hazard to them?
16. What is a bird ingestion?
17. Why is a bird ingestion dangerous? What can it lead to?
18. What are the possible pilot’s actions in case a bird is sucked into one of the
engines?
19. Are there many birds at Ulyanovsk airport?
20. Is the number of birds different depending on the season? Why?
21. What animals can be transported by air?
22. What animals may be transported in the passenger cabin?
23. What are the regulations on the introduction of animals in the cabin?
24. What animals may be transported in the cargo hold?
25. What are the rules governing the transportation of animals in the hold?
26. What problems can animals cause on cargo aircraft?

TOPIC 12. CONTROLLED FLIGHT INTO TERRAIN

A. Learn useful terms and expressions. Try to explain what CFIT means in
your own words.
Controlled Flight столкновение с землей исправного ВС
Into Terrain (CFIT)
Inertial Navigation инерциальная навигационная система
System (INS)
deploy speedbrakes выпускать тормозные щитки
aural terrain warning звуковая сигнализация близости земли
gain altitude набирать высоту
Crew Resource оптимизация работы экипажа
Management (CRM)
Aviation Safety Reporting система информации о состоянии
System (ASRS) безопасности полетов
maintain situational awareness сохранять ситуационную осведомленность
B. Read the text. Were you right?

Controlled Flight Into Terrain


Controlled flight into terrain is a class of accident in which an undamaged
aircraft is flown, under control, into terrain or man-made structures. CFIT accidents
typically are a result of pilot error or of navigational system error. Some pilots,
convinced that advanced electronic navigation systems such as GPS and inertial
guidance systems (inertial navigation system or INS) coupled with flight
management system computers, or over-reliance on them, are partially responsible
for these accidents, have called CFIT accidents “computerized flight into terrain”.
Failures of Instrument Landing System can also cause controlled flight into terrain.
One of the most notable CFIT accidents was in December 1995 in which American
Airlines flight 965 tracked off course while approaching Cali, Colombia and hit a
mountainside after the speedbrakes were left deployed despite an aural terrain
warning in the cockpit and an attempt to gain altitude in the nighttime contidions.
Crew awareness and monitoring of navigational systems can prevent or eliminate
CFIT accidents. Crew Resource Management is a modern method now widely used
to improve the human factors of air safety. The Aviation Safety Reporting System,
or ASRS is another.
Other technical aids can be used to help pilots maintain situational awareness. A
ground proximity warning system is an on-board system that will alert a pilot if the
aircraft is about to fly into the ground. Also, air traffic controllers constantly
monitor flights from the ground and at airports.
C. Think of some measures which can prevent or eliminate CFIT accidents.

D. Share your ideas with the group. Choose the most effective ones.

E. Study the information about the Australian accident. Fill in the gaps
using the words given below.
approach height post-crash accident destroyed injuries
cloud terrain crashed local
The fatal … is a controlled flight into … (CFIT) occurrence, a critical flight
safety problem that ICAO and others are attempting to solve. On Friday 11 June
1993, at about 19.18 hours … time, a commuter airliner Piper PA-31-350 Navajo
Chieftain aircraft VH-NDU, during landing … to RW 01 in conditions of low …
and darkness, struck trees at a … of 275 feet above an uncontrolled airport at
Young, New South Wales, and … . The aircraft, which was being operated as
Monarch Airlines Flight OB301, was … by impact forces and … fire. All seven
occupants, including the two pilots suffered fatal.
F. The history of the flight is mixed up. Put it in the correct order.
1. At about 15 hours local time on 11 June 1993 a flight plan was activated
indicating that a Piper PA-31 was to conduct a flight from Sydney to the regional
town of Cootamundra via the town of Young.
2. At 18.01 hours the pilot advised Flight Information Service (FIS) that he was
now proceeding direct to Young and would report at Riley.
3. Shortlyy after 18.45 witnesses at Young aerodrome saw the lights of an
aircraft, which they believed to be the PA-31, pass low overhead after approaching
from the east.
4. The flight plan indicated that the flight crewed by two pilots would depart at
17.20 hours and would be conducted in accordance with instrument flight rules
(IFR) procedures.
5. At 18.42 the pilot reported at Young conducting an NDB approach.
6. The flight departed Sydney at 17.38 hours local time carrying 5 passengers.
7. At 18.14 the pilot reported at Riley, estimating arriving at Young at 18.35.
8. The pilot of the PA-31 reported at 19.03 that he was about to commence
another approach at Young and would report again at 19.15.
9. By 18.20 the pilot reported on descent into Young in conditions of cloud and
heavy rain.
10. An ambulance reached the wreckage at 19.52 and took the only survivor, a
teenage girl.
11. At 19.16 the aircraft reported that he was going to land on RW 01.
12. At 19.20 the navigation lights were lost to sight. Almost immediately a
fireball was observed.
13. At 18.48 the same aircraft was seen to pass over the aerodrome from the
opposite direction and appeared to climb away towards the east.
14. Local emergency services were activated but had some difficulty gaining
access to the accident site, which was located some 2.2 km to the south-east of the
aerodrome.
G. Fill in the gaps using the proper units of measurement given below.
degrees kilometers feet meters oktas knots minutes
hectopascals (hPa)
The aerodrome forecast for the arrival time of the PA-31 was as follows: wind
320 … true at 10 …, 5 … of cumulus at 2,000 … above aerodrome elevation,
visibility 10 … or greater, with slight rain showers. Barometric pressure ranged
from 1,003 to 1,002 … . Conditions of 5 … stratus at 900 … with visibility reduced
to 5,000 … were forecast for temporary periods of up to 60 … between 18.00 and
midnight.
The Bureau of Meteorology estimated that the actual weather conditions at
Young aerodrome at 19.20 were as follows: surface wind 310 … at 11 … gusting to
19 … , 4 … stratus at 800 … , 6 … stratocumulus at 1,200 … , and 6 … cumulus at
1,500 … . Visibility was 10 … , reduced to 5,000 … in light rain.
H. Read the information about the crew involved into the Australian
accident. Open the brackets and put the verbs into the correct form.
The pilot-in-command was aged 42 years and (to log) a total of 1,822 hours of
which 121 hours to fly in the last 90 days, 187 at night and 377 on type. He (not to
fly) during the last 24 hours but (to fly) 47 hours on the actual aircraft in the last 90
days. He (to hold) a multiengine instrument rating, a commercial licence and a Class
One medical certificate. He (to be reported) to have a normal sleep period prior to
commencing duty and at the time of the accident his duty time (to be) 3 hours.
In the previous 90 days he (to conduct) 3 night landings and 15 daylight
landings at Young. During this period he (to make) 3 NDB approaches and 1 ILS
approach. Only the ILS approach (to fly) in the accident aircraft. He (to fly) with the
second pilot on only one other occasion.
Although the crew (to include) a second pilot, the airline’s normal operating
procedures called for only a single pilot. No training (to provide) by the airline for
two-pilot operations. The inclusion of a second on this flight (to require) to satisfy a
requirement for a second pilot in the event the autopilot (to be) not serviceable.
The second pilot was aged 24 and (to log) a total of 954 hours of which 30 (to
fly) in the last 90 days, 65 at night and 43 on type. He (to fly) 2.6 hours in the last 24
hours and 17 on the actual aircraft in the last 90 days. He (to hold) an ATPL
(Second Class) licence, a multi-engine instrument rating and a Class 1 medical
certificate.
I. Match the abbreviations in column A and their definitions in column B.
A B
CFIT Crew Resource Management
ICAO Instrument Landing System
ILS Instrument Flight Rules
NDB Air Transport Pilot Licence
PPL Controlled flight into terrain
IMC Non-directional beacon
VMC Private Pilot Licence
IFR International Civil Aviation Organization
VFR Instrument Meteorological Conditions
FIS Visual Flight Rules
CRM Flight Information service
ATPL Visual Meteorological Conditions
J. Match the English abbreviations and their Russian equivalents.
ILS NDB ATPL PPL MEIR FIS IMC VMC IFR VFR
CRM CFIT ICAO ATC OCA
1. Служба полетной информации.
2. Управление воздушным движением.
3. Свидетельство пилота транспортной авиации.
4. Правила полетов по приборам.
5. Система посадки по приборам.
6. Правила визуальных полетов.
7. Приборные метеорологические условия.
8. Всенаправленный радиомаяк.
9. Визуальные метеорологические условия.
10. Свидетельство пилота-любителя.
11. Минимальная (безопасная) высота пролета препятствий.
12. Столкновение с землей исправного ВС.
13. Международная организация гражданской авиации.
14. Оптимизация работы экипажа в кабине.
15. Категория, дающая право полета по приборам на многодвигательном ВС.
K. Read the results of the accident investigation and be ready to discuss in
groups and answer the following questions.
1. Which of the factors were caused by machine / man / environment?
2. Which factors do you consider to be fatal?
3. Which factor in the chain of events was the point of inevitability?
4. Do you think this accident could have been avoided?

The combination of several factors identified in the investigation is considered


to have had a great influence on the performance of the flight crew during the
conduct of the flight and have led to the fatal accident:
1. The aircraft was operated with an unserviceable autopilot and malfunctioning
both heading indicators on the left instrument panel.
2. The flight crew did not maintain adequate obstacle clearance altitude while
conducting a visual approach at night.
3. Adverse weather conditions.
4. A lack of detailed terrain information on the charts.
5. Inadequate terrain clearance.
6. The including of a second pilot while no formal company procedures had
been implemented for two-pilot operation.
7. High cockpit workload.
БИБЛИОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ СПИСОК

1. Руководство по организации контроля за обеспечением безопасности


полетов. Ч. B : Создание региональной системы контроля за обеспечением
безопасности полетов и управление этой системой : Doc. 9734-AN/959. –
Монреаль : ICAO, 2006.
2. Сборник материалов «Человеческий фактор» № 15. Человеческий фактор в
обеспечении безопасности в пассажирском салоне : Cir. 300 AN/173. – Монреаль
: ICAO, 2003.
3. Словарь по международной гражданской авиации : Doc. 9713. – 3-е изд. –
Монреаль : ICAO, 2007.
4. Тюльпанов, А. А. Авиационный английский язык и его применение при
полетах на воздушных трассах мира / А. А. Тюльпанов, Л. В. Подсонная,
Ю. И. Ключников. – СПб., 1992.
5. Airsafe.com : Critical Information for the Traveling Public. – Режим доступа:
www.airsafe.com. – Заглавие с экрана.
6. Church, N. How to survive in the U.S.A. English for travelers and newcomers /
N. Church, A. Moss. – Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1983.
7. Ellis, S. English for Aviation for Pilots and Air Traffic Controllers / S. Ellis,
T. Gerighty. – Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2008.
8. Emery, H. Aviation English. For ICAO Compliance / H. Emery, A. Roberts,
R. Goodman, L. Harrison. – Macmillan Publishers Ltd, 2008.
9. Manual on the Implementation of ICAO Language Proficiency Requirements =
Руководство по внедрению требований ИКАО к языковой подготовке : Doc. 9835
AN/453. – Montreal : ICAO, 2004.
10. Robertson, F. A. Airspeak. Radiotelephony Communication for Pilots /
F. A. Robertson ; Centre of Applied Linguistics ; University of Besancon and Air Inter
in association with Edward Johnson Wolfson College. – Cambridge : Prentice Hall, 1991.
11. SKYbrary Aviaion Safety. – Режим доступа: http://www.skybrary.aero. –
Заглавие с экрана.
12. The Aviation Herald. – Режим доступа: http://www.avherald.com. – Заглавие
с экрана.
13. The Oxford-Duden Pictorial English Dictionary. – Oxford : Oxford University
Press, 1985.
14. Thirty Thousand Feet – Aviation Directory. – Режим доступа:
http://www.thirtythousandfeet.com. – Заглавие с экрана.
Учебно-методическое пособие

АВИАЦИОННЫЙ АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

Учебная тема
«Безопасность на воздушном транспорте»

Составители: ВОРОНЯНСКАЯ
ЕЛЕНА ЛЬВОВНА
ЧЕСНАКОВА
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