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1.2.3 TURBINE 11

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Gas Turbine is a Modern Power generating equipment.

It takes the air from atmosphere compresses it to sufficiently high pressure ,
same pressurized air is then utilized for combustion , which takes place by in
combustion chamber by addition of fuel , there by hot combustion products are
generated which are expanded in the turbine where Heat energy of hot combustion
products is converted in to mechanical energy of shaft which in turn utilized for
generating power in Generator.

Compression is carried out by Axial Flow compressor , Heat addition is done

by Fuel in combustion chambers , Expansion of hot combustible gases is carried out
in Turbine and Burnt Gases are exhausted to atmosphere or utilized for steam
generation in GTs. All of these four processes are carried out in Only one Factory
assembled Unit which is called Gas Turbine. Drawing shows the Typical Brayton
cycle and also shows the components of Gas Turbine. Gas Turbine operates on
Brayton Cycle. Brayton cycle is having divided in four segments namely
Compression, Heat addition, Expansion and Exhaust.

Process is explained in following diagram on T-S curve.


Gas Turbine had a following advantages

• Capital cost is less .

• Fewer auxiliaries.
• Less erection time.
• Less area.
• Higher thermal efficiency when operated in combined cycle mode.
• Quick start.
• Fuel flexibility ( Liquid / Gas )
• Very compact system.
• Black start facility.
• Suitable for Base load / Peak load / Part load operation.

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• No/Less environmental Hazards.
• Control reliability.


Captive power plant has 6 Gas Turbines

each is having a capacity of 126 MW.
All Gas Turbines are Frame -9E machines of GE France make and Mark-VI
Frame-PG 9171 E
PG- Packaged Generator
9- Frame 9
17- 17 * 10,000 HP
1- Single shaft
E- Machine series

ISO conditions = 1.01325 Bar atm pressure( MSL)

= 15 oC
= 60 % RH

ISO rating of Frame - 9171 Gas Turbine

= 126 MW


Graph 1.1 ( c ) and will explain the suitability of Gas Turbine based combined cycle
power plants over conventional steam turbine based power plant , nuclear power
plants etc.

In modern days Gas Turbine Based power plants are becoming more and more
popular mainly because of it's higher efficiency, Reliability, Quick response.

In the modern Power Plants Gas Turbine Exhaust is connected to Heat Recovery
Steam Generator where the steam is generated from hot gases and Steam is utilized
for running the Steam Turbine such system is known as combined cycle power plants
and where steam is utilized for various processes such system is called as Co-
generation system

Normally combined cycle power plant efficiency is around 48-50 % and co-
generation system efficiency is around 80 % depending up on application.

Reliance Petroleum Limited at Jamnagar has combination of these both combined

cycle and co-generation system.

Reliance Petroleum Limited has 756 MW captive power plant , which we can call a
Combined Cycle Power Plant consists of

• 6 x 126 MW Frame-9E (GE France) supplied by GE Energy Products France

• 2 x 30 MW MAN TOURBO( Germany ) make back pressure, non condensing
steam Turbines.

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Gas Turbine operates on Brayton Cycle and Steam Turbine works on Rankine
cycle , In combined cycle both these cycles are combined hence such power plants are
called combined cycle power plant.
Typical combined cycle diagram is explained in drawing. (figure 1.C)

P u m p

Gas Turbine E cc o
C om b. C ham b.
4 E v a p C o n d e n s o r


E xhaust

e S .H . f
S H e
1 d
E v a p o ra to r 4 S te a m
C o m b T u r b in e

2 C h a m b3

b A x ia l G a s
C ondensor C o m p r e s s o r T u r b in e
a f
G e n e ra to r

E n tro p y


When the turbine starting system is actuated and the clutch is engaged,
ambient air is drawn through the inlet plenum assembly, filtered, then compressed in
the 17th stage,
axial flow compressor. For pulsation protection during start-up, the 11 th stage
valves are open and the variable inlet guide vanes are in the closed position.

When the speed relay corresponding to 95 per cent speed actuates, the 11th
stage extraction bleed valves close automatically and the variable inlet guide vane
actuator energizes to open the inlet guide vanes (I.G.V.) to the normal turbine
operating position.
Compressed air from the compressor flows into the annular space surrounding the
teen combustion chambers, from which it flows into the spaces between the outer
tion casings and the combustion liners. The fuel nozzles introduce the fuel into each
of the fourteen combustion chambers where it mixes with the combustion air and is
ignited by both (or one, which is sufficient) of the two spark plugs.

At the instant one or both of the two spark plugs equipped combustion
chambers is ignited, the remaining combustion chambers are also ignited by crossfire

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tubes that connect the reaction zones of the combustion chambers. After the turbine
rotor approximates operating speed, combustion chamber pressure causes the spark
plugs to retract to remove their electrodes from the hot flame zone. The hot gases
from the combustion chambers expand into the fourteen separate transition pieces
attached to the aft end of the combustion chamber liners and flow towards the three
stage turbine section of the machine. Each stage consists of a row of fixed nozzles
followed by a row of rotatable turbine buckets. In each nozzle row, the kinetic energy
of the jet is increased, with an associated pressure drop, and in each following row of
moving buckets, a portion of the kinetic energy of the jet is absorbed as useful work
on the turbine rotor. After passing through the 3rd stage buckets, the exhaust gases are
directed into the exhaust hood and diffuser which contains a series of turning vanes to
turn the gases from the axial direction to a radial direction, thereby minimizing
exhaust hood losses. Then, the gases pass into the exhaust plenum ...

The resultant shaft rotation is used to turn the generator rotor, and drive
certain accessories.


Gas Turbine mainly divided in Three sections…

• Compressor
• Combustion system
• Turbine


Introduction :

The axial flow compressor is consisting compressor rotor and the enclosing
casing. The compressor casing consisting of Inlet Guide Vanes , 17 stages of rotor
and stator balding , and 2 exit guide vanes.
In the compressor air is compressed in stages by series of alternate rotor and stator
airfoil-shaped blades. The rotor blade supply the force needed to compress the air in
each stage and stator blade guides the air so that it enters the following rotor stage at
proper angle. The compressed air exits through the compressor discharge casing to the
combustion chambers.
Air is extracted from the compressor for turbine cooling, bearing sealing and
during start-up pulsation control.

Minimum clearance between the rotor and stator blade gives the best
performance, all parts are to be assembled very carefully.

Compressor Rotor

The compressor rotor is an assembly of 15 individual wheels , 2 stub shaft ,

through bolts, and compressor rotor blades. The first stage blades are mounted on the
wheel portion of the forward stub-shaft.

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Each wheel and wheel portion of each stub-shaft has slots broached around its
periphery : rotor blades are inserted into these slots and they are in axial position by
stacking at each end of slot.

The seventeenth stage wheel has long extension as a flow passage for turbine
cooling air that is extracted from compressor between the sixteenth and seventeenth-
stage wheels. The air is used to cool:
1, 1st and 2nd stage buckets
2, 2nd stage Aft & 3rd stage forward rotor wheel space
3,Also maintains turbine rotor at Compressor Discharge
4, 1st stage wheel space is cooled by air passes through high pressure
pacing seal at aft end of compressor rotor

The forward stub shaft is machined to provide the active and inactive thrust
faces and journal for No.1 bearing , as well as the sealing surfaces for the No.1
bearing oil seals and the compressor low air pressure seal.

Stages 5,6.7 & 8 compressor rotor blades are coated with specialized
material to avoid corrosion due to moisture formation at this region
Extraction air for
rotor & wheel
space cooling

17th stage
compressor rotor

Aft stub shaft

17th stage Compressor rotor

Specially coated rotor


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Compressor stator
wheel tie bolts

Compressor Stator:

The stator of compressor is

mainly consists of Three
major sections

• Inlet Casing
• Forward Compressor Casing
• Aft compressor Casing
• Compressor discharge casing.

Inlet casing (8 struts) Location of Combustion

Chambers (14 nos)

Compressor discharge casing 11 to 17 th compressor

stages, exit guide vanes & support for no:02 bearing

Aft compressor casing (5-10 compressor stages)

Forward Compressor casing (4 compressor stages)

Fwd leg support

Turbine Aft Leg Support water cooled

These sections, in conjunction with the Turbine shell and exhaust frame form the
primary structure of Gas Turbine. They support the rotor at bearing points and
constitute the outer wall of gas path. The casing bore is maintained to close tolerances
with respect to rotor blade tips for maximum efficiency

The stator blade for stage 1 through 4 are mounted by similar dovetails into ring
segments.The ring segments are inserted into circumferential grooves in casing and
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are held in place with locking keys. In stages 5 through 17 , the stator blades and exit
guide vanes are inserted directly into circumferential grooves in casing. Locking are
used as with the blade ring design.


stator blades

Speed pick ups probe for turbine

speed measurement (total 6 nos)
3- used for normal speed measure
3- used for overspeed measurement

Bearing no:01
Eliptical Journal
Loaded thrust bearing
Unloaded thrust bearing


Introduction :

The combustion system is the reverse flow type which includes 14 combustion
chambers having the components like:

• Combustion Liners
• Flow sleeves
• Transition pieces
• Cross fire Tubes
• Flame detectors
• Fuel Nozzles
• Spark plugs

Hot gases generated from burning the fuel in combustion chambers , are used to
drive the Turbine. The photograph shows out side look of combustion system.

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In reverse flow system high pressure air from compressor discharge is directed
around the transition pieces and into the annular spaces that surrounds each of 14
combustion liners.

Compressor discharge air which surrounds the liner , flows radially inward
through small holes in liner wall and impinges against rings that brazed to liner wall.
This air then flows right toward the liner discharge end and forms a film of air that
shields the liner wall from the hot combustion gases.

Fuel is supplied to each combustion chamber through a nozzle that functions

to disperse and mix the fuel with proper amount of combustion air.

Combustion chambers

Discharge air from axial flow compressor enters the combustion chambers
from the cavity at the center of the unit. The air flows upstream along the outside of
combustion liner towards liner cap. This air enters the combustion chamber reaction
zone through the fuel nozzle swirl tip and through metering holes in both the cap and

The hot combustion gases from the reaction zone passes through a thermal
soaking zone and then in to dilution zone where additional air is mixed with the
combustion gases. Metering holes in dilution zone allow the correct amount of air to
enter and cool the gases to the desired temperature. Along the length of the
combustion liner and in the liner cap are openings whose function is to provide a film
of air for cooling the walls of the liner and cap. The transition pieces direct the hot
gases from the liners to the Turbine noz
Location of
spark plugs

Location of flame

Location of flame

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Combustion Liner

Transition Piece

Transition pieces attached

to first stage nozzle

Spark plugs

Combustion is initiated by means of the discharge from two high voltage ,

retractable electrode spark-plugs installed in adjacent combustion chambers. These
spring -injected and pressure retracted plugs receive their energy from ignition
transformers. At the time of firing , a spark at one or both of these plugs ignites the
combustion gases
in the chamber , the gases the remaining chambers are ignited by cross-fire through
the tubes that interconnect the reaction zones of remaining chambers. As rotor speed
increases, chambers pressure causes the spark plugs to retract and the electrodes are
removed from the combustion zones.(spark plug locations at CC: 13 & 14)

Ultraviolet flame detectors

During the starting sequence , it is essential that an indication of the absence

of flame to be transmitted to control system. For this reason , a flame monitoring

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system is used consisting of four sensors which are installed on tow
adjustment combustion chambers and an electronic amplifier which is mounted in the
Turbine control panel.

The ultraviolet flame sensor consists of flame sensor , containing a gas filled
detector. The Gas within this flame sensor detector is sensitive to the presence of
ultraviolet radiation which is emitted by a hydrocarbon flame. A DC voltage ,
supplied by amplifier, is impressed across the detector terminals. If flame is present ,
the ionization of gas in the detector allows conduction in the circuit which activates
the electronics to give an output defining flame. Conversely , the absence of flame
will generate an opposite output defining " No flame ".

The four flame detectors are located in the combustion chamber No 4 , 5 , 10 ,

11 out of total 14 combustion chambers.

Fuel nozzles

Each combustion chamber is equipped with a fuel nozzle that emits a metered
amount of fuel into the combustion liner. Gases fuel is admitted directly into each
chamber through metering holes located at the outer edge of the swirl plate. When
liquid fuel is used , it is atomized in the nozzle swirl chamber by means of high
pressure air. The atomized fuel/air mixture is then sprayed into the combustion zone.
Action of the swirl tip imparts a swirl to the combustion air with the result of more
complete combustion and essentially smoke free operation of the unit.

Crossfire tubes

The 14 combustion chambers are interconnected by means of cross fire tubes , these
crossfire tubes propagate the flame to other combustion chambers.

Crossfire tube


The three stage turbine section is the area in which energy in the form of high energy ,
pressurized gas produced by compressor and combustion section is converted in to
mechanical energy.

The turbine rotor assembly consists of two wheel shafts: the first, second, and
third-stage turbine wheels with buckets; and two turbine spacers. Concentricity

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control is achieved with mating rabbets on the turbine wheels, wheel shafts,
and spacers. The wheels are held together with through bolts, Selective positioning of
rotor members is performed to minimize balance corrections.
The forward wheel shaft extends from the first-stage turbine wheel to the aft
flange of the compressor rotor assembly. The journal for the no 02 bearing is a part of
the wheel shaft.
The aft wheel shaft connects from the third-stage turbine wheel to the load
coupling. It includes no 03-bearing journal.
Spacers between the first and second, and between the second and third-stage
turbine wheels determine the axial position of the individual wheels. These spacers
carry the diaphragm sealing bands. The spacer forward face includes radial slots for
cooling air passages. The 1-2 spacer also has radial slots for cooling air passages on
the aft face.

Turbine rotor must be cooled to maintain reasonable operating temperatures

and, therefore, assure a longer turbine service life.
Cooling is accomplished by means of a positive flow of cool air radially outward
through a space between the turbine wheel with buckets and the stator, into the main
gas stream. This area is called the wheel space.

The turbine rotor is cooled by means of a positive flow of relatively

cool( relative to hot gas path air) air extracted from the compressor. Air extracted
through the rotor, ahead of the compressor 17th stage, is used for cooling the 1st and 2nd
stage buckets and the 2nd stage aft and 3rd stage forward rotor wheel spaces. This air
also maintains the turbine wheels, turbine spacers, and wheel shaft at approximately
compressor discharge temperature to assure low steady state thermal gradients thus
ensuring long wheel life.

The first stage forward wheel space is cooled by air that passes through the
high pressure packing seal at the aft end compressor rotor. The 1st stage aft and 2nd
stage forward wheel spaces are cooled by compressor discharge air that passes
through the stage-1 shrouds and then radially inward through the stage-2 nozzle
vanes. The 3rd aft wheel space cooled by cooling air that exits from the exhaust frame-
cooling unit

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Turbine first stage

rotating buckets

Turbine Rotor

Turbine second stage

rotating blades

Turbine third stage

rotating blades


The turbine buckets increase in size from the first stage to the third stage.
Because of the pressure reduction resulting from energy conversion in each stage , an
increased annulus area is required to accommodate the gas flow . The first stage
buckets are the first rotating surfaces encountered by extremely hot gases leaving the
first stage nozzle. Each first stage bucket contains a series of longitudinal air passages
for bucket cooling. The holes are shaped and sized to obtain optimum cooling of
airfoil with the minimum of compressor extraction.

Like the first-stage buckets, the second-stage buckets are cooled by span wise
air passages the length for the air-foil. Since the lower temperatures surrounding the
bucket shanks do not require shank cooling, the second-stage cooling holes are fed by
a plenum cast into the bucket shank. Span wise holes provide cooling air to the airfoil
at a higher pressure than a design with shank holes. This increases the cooling
effectiveness in the airfoil so airfoil cooling is accomplished with minimum penalty to
the thermodynamic cycle

The third stage buckets are not internally air cooled; the tips of these buckets,
like the second-stage buckets, are enclosed by a shroud which is a part of the tip seal.
The shrouds interlock from bucket to bucket to provide vibration damping.

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Turbine 1st stage rotating

buckets with cooling holes

Bucket leading edge

Bucket trailing edge


Turbine shell :
The turbine shell controls the axial and radial positions of the shrouds and
nozzles. It deter-mines turbine clearances and the relative positions of the nozzles to
the turbine buckets.This positioning is critical to gas turbine performance.

Hot gases contained by the turbine shell are a source of heat flow into the
shell. To control the shell diameter, it is important that the shell design reduces the
heat flow into the shelland limits its temperature. Heat flow limitations incorporate
insulation, cooling, and multi-layered structures. The external surface of the shell
incorporates cooling air passages.Flow through these passages is generated by an off
base cooling fan.

Structurally, the shell forward flange is bolted to flanges at the aft end of the
compressor discharge casing and combustion wrapper. The shell aft flange is bolted to
the forward flange of the exhaust frame. Trunnions cast onto the sides of the shell are
used with similar trunnions on the forward compressor casing to lift the gas turbine
when it is separated fromits base.

Turbine 2nd stg nozzle

Turbine 3rd stage

Turbine casing

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Turbine nozzles :

In the turbine section, there are three stages of stationary nozzles which direct
the high velocity flow of the expanded hot combustion gas against the turbine
buckets, causing the rotor to rotate. Because of the high pressure drop across these
nozzles, there are seals at both the inside diameters and the outside diameters to
prevent loss of system energy by leakage. Since these nozzles operate in the hot
combustion gas flow, they are subjected to thermal stresses in addition to gas pressure

First stage nozzle :

The first stage nozzle receives the hot combustion gases from the combustion
system via the transition pieces. The transition pieces are sealed to both the outer and
inner sidewalls on the entrance side of the nozzle, so minimizing leakage of
compressor discharge air into the nozzles. The 18 cast nozzle segments, each with two
partitions (or airfoils) are contained by a horizontally split retaining ring which is
center-line supported to the turbine shell on lugs at the sides and guided by pins at the
top and bottom vertical center-lines. This permits radial growth of the retaining ring,
resulting from changes in temperature while the ring remains centered in the shell.

The aft outer diameter of the retaining ring is loaded against the forward face
of the first stage turbine shroud and acts as the air seal to prevent leakage of
compressor discharge air between the nozzle and shell. On the inner sidewall, the
nozzle is sealed by direct bearing of the nozzle inner load rail against the first-stage
nozzle support ring bolted to the compressor discharge casing. The nozzle is
prevented from moving forward by four lugs welded to the aft outside diameter of the
retaining ring at 45 degrees from vertical and horizontal centerlines. These lugs fit in
a groove machined in the turbine shell just forward of the first stage shroud T-hook.
By moving the horizontal joint support block and the bottom centerline guide pine,
the lower half of the nozzle can be rolled out with the turbine rotor in place.

Turbine first stage nozzle

18 cast nozzles (18*2)= 36

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Second stage nozzle :
Combustion gas exiting from the first stage buckets is again expanded and
redirected against the second stage turbine buckets by the second stage nozzle.
The second stage nozzle is made of 16 cast segments, each with three
partitions (or air-foils). The male hooks on the entrance and exit sides of the sidewall
fit into female grooves on the aft side of the first stage shrouds and on the forward
side of the second stage shrouds to maintain the nozzle concentric with the turbine
shell and rotor. This close fitting tongue-and-groove fit between nozzle and shrouds
acts as an outside diameter air seal.The nozzle segments are held in a circumferential
position by radial pins from the shell into axial slots in the nozzle outer sidewall. The
second stage nozzle partitions are cooled with compressor discharge air.

Third stage nozzle :

The third stage nozzle receives the hot gas as it leaves the second stage
buckets, increases its velocity by pressure drop and directs this flow against the third
stage buckets.
The nozzle consists of 16 cast segments, each with four partitions (or airfoils). It is
held at the outer sidewall forward and aft sides in grooves in the turbine shrouds in a
manner identical to that used on the second stage nozzle. The third stage nozzle is
circumferentially positioned by radial pins from the shell.

The turbine shell and the exhaust frame complete the major portion of the Gas
Turbine stator structure. The turbine nozzles , shrouds , No-3 bearing and turbine
exhaust diffuser are internally supported from these components.

The turbine shell controls the axial and radial positions of the shrouds and
nozzles. Resultantly, it controls turbine clearances and relative positions of the
nozzles to the turbine buckets. This positioning is critical to the gas turbine

Hot gases contained by turbine shell are the source of heat flow into the shell.
To control the shell diameter , it is important to reduce the heat flow into shell by
design and to cool it to limit it's temperature. Heat flow limitations incorporate
insulation , cooling, and multi-layered structures. The cylindrical portion of shell is
cooled by fifth stage air flowing axially through the shell and out through holes in the
aft vertical flange into the exhaust frame. The air is then used for further cooling of
exhaust frame and third stage aft wheel space

Structurally , the shell forward flange is bolted to the bulk head at the aft end
of compressor discharge casing. The shell aft flange is bolted to the exhaust frame
cast onto sides of shell are used to aid in lifting the gas turbine when it is separated
from its base , should this ever by necessary.

Diaphragms :
Attached to the inside diameters of both the second and third stage nozzle
segments are the nozzle diaphragms These diaphragms prevent air leakage past the
inner sidewall of the nozzles and the turbine rotor. The high/low, labyrinth-type seal
teeth are machined into the inside diameter of the diaphragm. They mate with
opposing sealing lands on the turbine rotor. Minimal radial clearance between

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stationary parts (diaphragm and nozzles) and the moving rotor are essential
for maintaining low interstage leakage ; this results in higher turbine efficiency.

Shrouds :
Unlike the compressor balding, the turbine bucket tips do not run directly
against an integral machined surface of the casing but against annular curved
segments called turbine
shrouds .
The primary function of the shrouds is to provide a cylindrical surface for
minimizing tip clearance leakage.

The secondary function is to provide a high thermal resistance between the hot
gases and the comparatively cool shell. By accomplishing this function, the shell
cooling load is drastically reduced, the shell diameter is controlled, the shell
roundness is maintained, and important turbine clearances are assured. The shroud
segments are maintained in the circumferential position by radial pins from the shell.
Joints between shroud segments are sealed by interconnecting tongues and grooves.

3rd stg nozzle

1st stage

2nd stage shroud

2nd stage Diaphragm

1st stage bucket
3rd stage diaphragm
1st stg aft outer wheelspace

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The exhaust frame assembly (figure here after) consists of the exhaust frame
and the exhaust diffuser. The exhaust frame is bolted to the aft flange of the turbine

Structurally, the frame consists of an outer cylinder and inner cylinder

interconnected by ten radial struts. On the inner gas path surfaces of the two cylinders
are attached the inner and outer diffusers. The no.3 bearing is supported from the
inner cylinder.

The exhaust diffuser, located at the extreme aft end of the gas turbine, bolts to,
and is supported by, the exhaust frame. The exhaust frame is a fabricated assembly
consisting of an inner cylinder and an outer divergent cylinder that flairs at the exit
end at a right angle to the turbine centerline. At the exit end of the diffuser between
the two cylinders are five turning vanes mounted at the bend. Gases exhausted from
the third turbine stage enter the diffuser where velocity is reduced by diffusion and
pressure is recovered. At the exit of the diffuser, turning vanes direct the gases into
the exhaust plenum. Exhaust frame radial struts cross the exhaust gas stream. These
struts position the inner cylinder and n0.3 bearing in relation to the outer casing of
the gas turbine. The struts must be maintained at a uniform temperature in order to
control the center position of the rotor in relation to the stator. This temperature
stabilization is accomplished by protecting the struts from exhaust gases with a metal
fairing fabricated into the diffuser and then forcing cooling air into this space around
the struts.

Turbine shell cooling air enters the space between the exhaust frame and the
diffuser and flows in two directions. The air flows in one direction into the turbine
shell cooling annulus and also down through the space between the struts and the
airfoil fairings surrounding the struts and subsequently into the load shaft tunnel and
turbine third-stage aft wheelspace.

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Exhaust Frame

Outer cylinder

Inner cylinder

Exhaust Frame Air Foil strut

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Cycle description Combined Cycle with Cogeneration
I. Combustion Turbine
a. Nominal Output Rating, MW 116
b. Type of Combustion Turbine: PG9171E
Compression Ratio 12.65 Gas/12.61 Liquid
1) heavy frame / aeroderivative Heavy frame
c. Type of inlet air filter Self-cleaning, pulse type
e. Material of Individual Inlet Air Filter Elements Synthetic
f. CTG location (indoors/outdoors) Outdoors
h. Diluent Injection (for NOx control) Water
i. Diluent filter rating (microns)
j. Injection for power augmentation N/A
k. Inlet cooling type N/A
Effectiveness N/A
l. Stack (diameter / height) 30 M Height
m. Fuel Gas Conditioning Equipment
n. Liquid fuel filter rating (microns) To be specified by Seller
o. Number of water wash skid(s) 2
p. Type of water wash skid (fixed or portable) Fixed
q. Starting system type Motor (1.1 MW)
s. Required purge flow (percentage of ISO base ≥ 8 percent per NFPA 85
load flow)
t. Lubrication oil system filter rating (microns) 10
u. Lift oil system filter rating (microns)
v. Hydraulic oil system filter rating (microns)

II. Generator
a. Type of gen. cooling (TEWAC/hydrogen/open- TEWAC

b. Generator Design Standard (ANSI / IEC) IEC

c. Type of Excitation System (static / brush less) Brush less, feed from generator
d. Generator frequency (50/60 Hz) 50 Hz
e. Required operating range, Hz
47.5 Hz to 52.5 Hz
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(at rated voltage)
f. Generator power factor range 0.8 Lag to 0.95 Lead
g. Generator rated terminal voltage 14.5 KV
h. Generator surge capacitor rating (if applicable)
i. Generator lightning arrestor MCOV
j. Generator minimum short circuit ratio 0.56
k. Generator Phase Sequence
Transformer with resistor
l. Neutral bus grounding resistor assembly rating
m. Generator line side connection
1) Bus duct (isophase/ non-segregated phase) Iso-phase
2) Mounting location (top, side, bottom)

3) Current transformer accuracy (class)

n. Generator neutral side
1) Mounting location (top, side, bottom)

2) Current transformer accuracy (class)

Exciter response to be of the High
o. Generator excitation system response time
Initial Type, at rated full load
Less than 0.1 seconds
p. Governor regulation adjustable range 4% - 10%

q. System fault contribution

(for power system stabilizer)
2.0 static
r. Generator excitation minimum response ratio

s. Generator shaft voltage monitoring

b. Bently-Nevada Vibration System (3300/3500) 3500

c. Gauges and indicators – system of units
(English, SI, or both) SI
d. Gas Fuel Meter
1) Type (orifice, turbine, ultrasonic)
2) Accuracy
3) Calibration
e. Liquid Fuel Flow Meter
1) Type Coriolis meter
2) Accuracy
3) Calibration
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IV. Auxiliaries
a. Common lube oil/control oil system acceptable
(yes/no) Common lube oil system
V. Miscellaneous
c. Thermal insulation design criteria
1) Maximum surface temperature 60°C
2) Ambient Temperature
3) Wind Velocity
VII. Noise Guarantee

Guaranteed Noise Level (sound pressure level),

dBA referenced to 20μPa, measured at a
distance of 1 m at a height of 2 m 85dBA



CUSTOMER : Reliance Petroleum Limited
SITE : Jamnagar Export Refinery Project
TYPE : PG 9171 E
ALTITUDE : Sea level

Number of compressor stages : Seventeen (17)
Compressor type : Axial Flow, Heavy duty
Casing split : Horizontal, Flange
Inlet guide vanes type : Modulated

Number of turbine stages : Three(3) single shaft
Casing splits : Horizontal
Nozzles : Fixed Area
Type : Fourteen (14) multiple combustors, reverse

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Fuel nozzles : One ( I ) per combustion chamber

Spark plugs : Two (2), electrode type. Spring-injected self-

Flame detectors : Four (4) Ultra Violet Type

Quantity : Three
Lubrication : Pressure lubricated
No I bearing assembly (located in
inlet casing assembly) : Active and inactive thrust and journal, all
in one assembly

Journal : Elliptical
Active thrust : Tilting pad, self-equalizing

Inactive thrust : Tapered land

No 2 bearing assembly (located in the

compressor discharge casing) : Elliptical journal

No 3 bearing assembly (located in the

exhaust frame) : Journal, Tilting pad


Starting device : Electrical starting motor

Torque converter : Hydraulic with adjustor drive

Operating type : Natural gas + distillate fuel

Fuel control signal : SPEEDTRONIC MARK-VI control


Fuel pump : Accessory gear-driven. Continuous output screw type


Flow divider (starting motor) : Circular, free wheeling, 14 elements

Fuel oil stop valve : Electro-hydraulic servo-control

Fuel oil filter(s) (H.P.) : Two (2), full flow, HP strainer

Gas stop/ratio and control : Electro-hydraulic servo-control

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Lubricant : Petroleum base
Total capacity : 12,491 liters (approx.)

Main lube pump : Shaft-driven, integral with accessory


Auxiliary lube pump : A.C. motor-driven, vertical,

submerged, centrifugal type

Emergency lube pump : D.C. motor-driven, vertical,

submerged, centrifugal type

Heat exchanger(s)

Type :Oil heat to fresh water

Quantity : Two (2) in parallel

Type : Full flow with transfer valve
Quantity : Two (2)
Cartridge type : Five micron filtration pleated paper


Main hydraulic supply pump : Accessory gear-driven, variable positive

displacement, axial piston
Auxiliary hydraulic supply pump : Driven by electric motor 88 HQ.

COOLING WATER SYSTEM (in closed loop)

Pumps : Two (2) water pumps located on the water skid
outside of the G.T. building


Main compressor : Accessory geardriven centrifugal
Starting (booster) compressor : Axial flow, positive displacement, belt driven
by an
electric motor

Air precooler : Air-to-water heat exchanger

PROTECTION : over temperature, vibration, flame detection

Nox control system : DM water injection method

Page 26 of 98

Expected Operating Parameters: (on Natural Gas fuel)


% % % mm NM3/hr barag
Firing 12 19.8 ---- 8.8 1649 -----
Warm up 16 9.5 ---- 4.2 809.16 -----
FSNL 100 15.7 100 7 9399.4 9.7841
Base Load 100 63.2 103.6 28.1 36400. 17.3977
6 5

Expected Operating Parameters: (on Liquid fuel)

TNH FSR TNR Flow divider speed FLOW Fuel Injection pr
% % % Hz L/min Barg
Firing 15 19.8 ---- 33 17.2 -----
No Load 100 14.5 100 240 126.2 17.2
Base Load 100 69.3 104 2277 603.3 37

No:03 bearing

No: 02 bearing

Crossfire tube

Combustion chamber
Total# 14 nos.



The Gas Turbine has a number of control and protection system designed for reliable
and safe operation of Gas Turbine.

Control of Turbine is done mainly by start-up , speed , acceleration , synchronization

and temperature control.

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The figure explains the means of fuel control in relation to fuel command signal
sensors monitor the turbine speed , temperature and compressor discharge pressure to

determine the operating condition of Gas turbine. When it is necessary for turbine
control to alter the turbine operating conditions because of changes in load or ambient
conditions , it is performed by modulating the fuel flow

to turbine. e.g. if exhaust temperature starts exceeding it's permissible value for given
operating conditions temperature control circuit will cause a reduction in fuel supply
and limit the exhaust temperature.

Gas Turbine control system is designed to monitor the critical parameters which are :
Temperature , Vibrations , speed , Flame , Fuel flow etc.


The SPEEDTRONIC system is microcomputer based system which provides analog

as well as digital signals require to control and protect the turbine.

Operating conditions are sensed and utilized as feedback signal to SPEEDTRONIC

control system. There are three major control loops --Start-up , Speed and
Temperature which may be in control during turbine operation. The output of this
control loops is connected to minimum select circuit.

The minimum value select circuit connects the speed , temperature and start-up
control output signals to the FSR controller. The lowest voltage output of control
loops is allowed to pass the gate to fuel control system as controlling FSR ( Fuel
Stroke Reference ) voltage. FSR is the command signal for fuel. Switching between
the control modes of speed , temperature and start-up control takes place without any




• 14 HR - Zero Speed
• 14 HM - Minimum firing speed
• 14 HC - Self sustaining speed
• 14 HA - Accelerating Speed
• 14 HS - Full Speed ( 95 % )


The speed control system is designed to control the speed and load of turbine
operating in response to actual speed signal and speed reference. While on speed
control the control mode will be " Droop Speed "

Page 28 of 98

The speed control software will change FSR in proportion to the difference
between the actual turbine speed and speed reference ( TNR ). Once the generator
breakers are closed on power grid , speed is held relatively constant at synchronous
speed , the fuel flow in excess of that necessary to maintain full speed no load , will
result not in increased speed but , in increased power produced by generator. The
speed control loop is acting as a load control loop and the speed reference is a
convenient control of desired load on turbine generator unit.

The speed control is proportional and it changes FSR in proportion to the difference
between the actual turbine speed and speed reference. Thus any change in frequency
will also cause proportional change in load. This proportionality is adjustable to
desired regulation which is called DROOP.

When entire grid system will overload the grid frequency will reduce and FSR will
increase in proportion to droop

settings. If all units have the same droop setting all units will share a load increase
equally. Load sharing is the main advantage of this method of droop control.

If 4 % droop is selected , only 1 % change in speed will produce a change in fuel

flow equivalent to 25 % of rated load.

Normally 4 % droop is selected and set point is calibrated such that 104 % set point
will generate a speed reference which will produce FSR resulting in Base Load at
design ambient temperature.

See Droop v/s FSR graph

Constant Settable Droop :

This method of load control is applied where FSR is not predictable as a function of
the gas turbine power output.

This means , When the gas turbine fuel heating value is varying due to changes in fuel
composition or fuel is switched between different combustion system this type of load
control method is normally adopted.

Constant settable droop is an inner speed control loop and outer megawatt control
loop. The inner speed control loop is a proportional plus integral control whose
mission is to make turbine speed TNH match the speed reference command TNRL.
The outer megawatt loop formulates the droop governor response by creating a speed
bias as function of unit power output. When turbine speed is held fixed by electrical
grid , the turbine fuel consumption ( FSR ) and megawatt output is modified
( Constantly set ) such that TNRL reference speed command is made equal the turbine
speed TNH.

Standar droop Std droop exersize

Page 29 of 98


Gas Turbine Firing temperature is determined by the measured parameters of exhaust

temperature and CPD or exhaust temperature and fuel consumption ( FSR ). The
temperature control reference program calculates the exhaust temperature control set
point based on CPD and other control constants. The algorithm also calculates another
set point based on FSR and its set of control constants.

CPD bais :

When ever CPD increases beyond pre-determined value , the compressor discharge
temperature will also increases hence firing temperature will also increase , Now due
to metallurgical limitations , firing temperature will not be permitted to increase
beyond certain limits hence to control firing temperature CPD bias will reduce the
exhaust temperature control set point and thereby reducing firing temperature.

FSR bias:

Fuel flow to combustion chamber will not be allowed to increase more than
predetermined value , hence depending up the quality of fuel ( HSD , Kerosene ,
Naphtha , Gas ) and calorific value fuel , Fuel flow to the combustion chamber is
limited to certain value ( FSR ) , In case fuel flow ( FSR ) increases beyond this limit ,
the firing temperature is going rise,hence to limit the firing temperature , temperature
control set point is reduced to keep acceptable firing temperature.

• Normally this will come in line when CPD signal fails or drastic change in fuel
The CPD bias TTK()_C corner and CPD bias TTK()_S slop with the CPD data
determines the CPD bias exhaust temperature set point

The FSR bias TTK()_K corner and FSR bias TTK()_M slop with the FSR data
determines the FSR bias exhaust temperature set point.

The temperature-control-bias program also selects the TTK()_I Isothermal set point.

The program selects the minimum of the three set points CPD bias , FSR bias and
Isothermal set point for the final exhaust temperature control reference.

During the normal operation of Gas Turbine with Gas or light fuel , this selection
results in CPD bias control with an Isothermal limit.

The CPD bias set point is compared with FSR bias set point and alarm occurs when
CPD bias set point is higher than the FSR bias set point.

During the normal operation of Gas Turbine with heavy fuel , this selection results in
FSR bias control with an Isothermal limit.

The FSR bias set point is compared with CPD bias set point and alarm occurs when
FSR bias set point is higher than the CPD bias set point.

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• Temperature reference is reduced if compressor discharge pressure signal is less

than a calculated operating speed minimum. This failure is alarmed " CPD signal
low ". This failure reduces the FSR bias , to permit the operation at rated firing
• Temperature control reference is increased or decreased manually , but this will
not affect over temperature trip and alarm set point.
The temperature control fuel stroke reference algorithm compares the exhaust
temperature control set point with the measured gas turbine exhaust temperature as
obtained from T.C. mounted in the exhaust plenum. These signals are accessed by
RST as well as by C.
• TTXC is the average temperature
• TTXM is the median temperature.

temp cont temp control1


During the normal start-up , the inlet guide vanes are held in the full closed position
until the proper temperature corrected speed is reached , at which time IGV begin to
open. During the Full Speed No Load or Less than 20 % load operation the IGV will
remain minimum Full open position. The compressor bleed valves , which must
operate in conjunction with the guide vanes to maintain compressor surge margin ,
will close when generator breaker is closed.

When the IGV temperature control is not activated and IGV is in a simple cycle mode
, the guide vanes are held at the minimum full speed angle until the simple cycle IGV
exhaust temperature set point is reached. This temperature control set point is
programmed in the software at approximately ( 371 deg C )
Wherever GT is installed at the exhaust of Gas Turbine which require exhaust
temperature control by inlet guide vanes , the guide vanes are held at the minimum
full speed angle until combined cycle IGV exhaust temperature set point is reached.
The IGV temperature control set point is programmed at a value slightly lower than
the BASE temperature control set point , with the CPD bias. The dark line traces a
typical exhaust temperature pattern as the gas turbine output changes.

Point "A" is the operating point at the end of the start-up with IGV positioned at the
minimum full speed angle. As output increases , the IGV is held at this minimum
angle until IGV temperature control set point is reached Point "B". Now between
point "B" and point "C" IGV is opened to maintain setpoint temperature as output is
further increased. At point "C" IGV is at it's full open position and upon further
increase in output the turbine will reach to its Base temperature set point limit "D".

The trace of exhaust temperature for IGV in simple cycle mode , from point A* to B'
to C' to D for full speed no load to full load.


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Lube oil Schematic:

1.5.1 Lube Oil system:

The lubrication system produces cooled, filtered oil for the bearing of the GT and the
Generator. The lubricating provisions for the turbine, generator, torque converter and
accessory gear box are incorporated in a common lubrication system which includes a
main lubrication oil pump, full size auxiliary lube oil pump driven by AC motor, an
emergency lube oil pump driven by a DC motor and oil tank with an oil-to-water heat
exchanger, filters, a bearing header pressure regulator and a pressure relief valve

The lube oil is supplied by the main lubrication oil pump (shaft driven from accessory
gear) during normal stage operation of the unit or by the auxiliary AC motor driven
pump during startup, turning, slowing-down and cooling periods, or by the DC motor
driven pump which backs up the AC pump in some cases. These pumps are located
inside the oil tank with motors on top. Temperature and pressure switches and

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pressure gauges are supplied by control, indication and protection of the lube oil


Lubrication to the bearing header is supplied by three lube pumps :

1. The main lube supply pump is a positive displacement type pump mounted in and
driven by the accessory gear
2. The auxiliary lube supply pump is a submerged centrifugal pump driven by an A.C
3. The emergency lube supply pump is a submerged centrifugal pump driven by a
D.C motor

Main lube pump:

The main lube pump is built into the inboard wall of the lower half casing of the
gear. A splined quill shaft drives it from the lower drive gear. The output pressure
to the lubrication system is limited by a back-pressure valve to maintain system

Auxiliary Lube oil pump:

The auxiliary lube pump is a submerged centrifugal type pump driven by an A.C.
It provides lubricant pressure during start-up and shut-down of the gas turbine when
main pump cannot supply sufficient pressure for safe operation. Operation of this
is as follows :

A low lube oil pressure alarm transmitter (96 controls the auxiliary lube pump
QA-1). This low pressure level alarm causes the auxiliary pump to run under low lube
oil pressure conditions as is the case during start-up or shut down of the gas turbine
when the main pump, driven by the accessory drive device, does not supply sufficient
pressure. At turbine start-up, the A.C. pump starts automatically when the master
control switch on the turbine control panel is turned to the START position.
The auxiliary pump continues to operate until the turbine reaches approximately 95
cent of operational speed.
At this point, the auxiliary (cool down) lube pump shuts down and system pressure is
supplied by the shaftdriven, main lube pump. During the turbine starting sequence,
the pump starts when the start signal is given. The control circuit is through the
pressure level of pressure transmitter 96 QA-I. The pump will run until the turbine
operating speed is reached (operating speed relay 14 HS picks up), even though the
lube oil header is at rated pressure and the discharge pressure level (96 QA-1) is
above alarm level setting.
When the turbine is on the shut-down sequence, this pressure transmitter will signal
the auxiliary pump to start running when the lube oil header pressure falls to the point
at which pressure level alarm setting is reached.

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Emergency Lube Oil Pump:

The emergency lube pump is a D.C., motor-driven pump, of the submerged

type. This pump supplies lube oil to the main bearing header during an emergency
down in the event the auxiliary pump has been forced out of service because of loss
of A.C. power, or for other reasons. It operates as follows :

This pump is started automatically by the action of pressure transmitter 96 QA-2

whenever the lube pressure in the main bearing header falls below the pressure switch
setting. If the auxiliary lube oil pump should resume operation, the emergency pump
will be stopped by a pressure transmitter (96 QA-2) when the header pressure exceeds
alarm setting in speedtronic.
If the auxiliary pump fail during the shut-down sequence, because of an A.C.
power failure or any other cause, the emergency lube pump will be started
by the action of low lube oil pressure transmitter 96 QA-2 and continue to run until
turbine shaft comes to rest.

Pressure regulation:
Two regulating valves are used to control lubrication system pressure. A backpressure
Relief valve, VR-1, limits the positive displacement main pump discharge header
sure and relieves excess fluid to the lube reservoir. The lube pressure in the bearing
Header is maintained at approximately 25 psig (i.e. 1.75 bar) by the diaphragm
Regulating valve, VPR-2. This valve has an orifice which permits 80 per cent flow.
Diaphragm valve is operated by sensing fluid pressure in the bearing header.

Pressure and temperature protective devices:

The condition of low lubricating fluid pressure is detected by a pressure switch and
transmitters that open after a decrease of line pressure to a specified value and trips
the unit. Pressure switch 63 QT-2A and transmitter 96 QH-1 which are installed in the
lubricant feed piping on the generator side signal an alarm if the lubricant pressure
drops to an unacceptable level. Likewise, thermocouples LT-TH-lA,-I B,
LT-TH-ZA,-2B and LT_TH3A,3B are installed in the lubricating fluid header piping
cause an alarm to sound and the unit to trip should the temperature of the lubricant to
the bearings exceed a preset limit. The settings in speedtronic for the thermocouples
are such that an alarm is actuated if any one of the thermocouples detects low
ture and the turbine is tripped if any two of the thermocouples detect low temperature.
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This unit has a SPEEDTRONIC control system. Before the unit is tripped by either

temperature (LT-TH-lA,-l B, LTPTH-2A,-2B and LTpTH3A,-3B), or low pressure

QA-1, 63 QT-2A and 96 QH-I), the cause for the trip has to be sensed by two of the
three measuring devices. This ”voting logic” is to prevent a trip due to a
Provisions are made for checking lube flow to the main turbine and generator
by means of oil sights and thermocouples.

Other temperature measuring and/or protective devices:

There are thermocouples that can be checked by means of the T.C. selector on the gas
turbine control panel : LT-TH-IA,-l B, LTPTH-2A,-2B and LT_TH3A,3B for the
turbine header, LT-BI D for bearing no 1 L.O. drain, LT-B2D for bearing no 2 L.O.
and LT-B3D for bearing no 3 L.O. drain. LT-G1D for the L.O. system bearing no 4
(generator), LT-G2D for the L.O. system bearing no 5 (generator). LT-BT1 D for the
1 thrust bearing drain.

Lube fluid heat exchanger :

The heat exchanger system is required to dissipate the heat absorbed by the
fluid and to maintain the fluid at the proper bearing header temperature. This is
accomplished by circulating cooling water through the cooling tubes of the heat
Exchanger as the lubricant flows over the tubes. Cooling water flow through the heat
Exchanger is controlled by temperature sensitive flow regulator valve VTR 1, that
maintains the correct bearing temperature.
The lube fluid heat exchanger system uses a fluid-to-water cooler of the shell
and tube bundle design. There is two heat exchangers, flange mounted in the lube
reservoir in
a horizontal position. A U-tube bundle extends into the center of the shell through
which the cooling water is passed. The lube fluid flows in and out of the shell; passing
over the cooling tubes of the tube bundle. Cooling water connections are made at the
external steel bonnet that bolts to the shell-mounting flange through the tube sheet
that supports the tubes of the tube bundle.

Main lube filtering system:

Filtration of all lube oil is accomplished by a 5 micron, pleated paper filter installed in
the lube system just after the lube oil heat exchanger.

Two (duplex) filters are used with a transfer valve installed between the filters
to direct oil flow through either filter and into the lube oil header.The duplex filters
arranged side by side, are installed on the tank and connected into the pump discharge
header through a manual transfer valve. Only one filter will be in service at a time,
Page 35 of 98
thus cleaning, inspection, and maintenance of the second one can be performed
without interrupting oil flow or shutting the gas turbine down. By means of the
manually operated, worm-driven transfer valve, one filter can be put into service as
the second is taken out, without interrupting the oil flow to the main tube oil header.

Filters should be changed when the differential pressure transmitter 96 QQ-1

indicates a differential pressure of 15 psig (i.e. about 1.03 bar)


The gears are lubricated by the lube oil from the lube oil header only.

These gear box contains various gears which reduces / raises speed as per the
requirement of various shaft driven drives. Prominent among them were Main oil
pump ( MOP ), Main Hydraulic oil pump ( MHOP ), Main atomizing air compressor.

Speed of shaft#01 in RPM # 3000 RPM (Driving shaft)

Speed of shaft#02 in RPM # 3424.2 RPM (Pinion Shaft)
Speed of shaft#03A in RPM # 1554.2 RPM (Warren fuel oil
Speed of shaft#03B in RPM # 6607.2 RPM ( Main Atomizing air
Speed of shaft#04 in RPM # 1421.9 RPM (Main Lube oil

Main Lube pump

Main shaft

pump Accessory Gear Box internal view
Main fuel pump


The main function of mist eliminator is to remove the oil vapor and to
maintain the negative pressure at the tank to avoid the pressurization of tank and
preventing the lube oil leakage from tank.
The lube comes along with the vapor is filtered and diverted back to tank and
oil vapor is thrown out to the atmosphere. Normally tank pressure is to be maintained
around 50 mmwc below the atmospheric pressure.

Page 36 of 98


CW system Schematic:

3.5.1. GENERAL
The cooling water system is a pressurized, closed system, designed to
accommodate the heat dissipation requirements of the turbine, the lubrication system,
the atomizing air system, the turbine support legs and the flame detectors.

The cooling water system circulates water as a cooling medium to maintain

the lubricating oil at acceptable lubrication system temperature levels and to cool
several turbine components.

The system normally operates at a slightly positive pressure, which results

when the liquid in the system expands with the increase in temperature during
During operation the coolant is supplied by the owner’s cooling system and
circulates through the chosen lube oil, atomizing air heat exchangers and the turbine
support legs (in parallel with the other two systems of heat exchangers). After
absorbing the heat rejected by these items, the coolant flows through the owner’s
water cooling system where it is cooled.
Page 37 of 98

Flow regulating valves:

The coolant circuit for the lube oil and atomizing air heat exchangers each
have a tempera-ture actuated 3-way valve (VTR 1 and VTR 2-1, respectively)
installed in the coolant inlet line to the heat exchangers.

These type valves, which control coolant flow to the heat exchanger, have a
manually operated device which can override the thermal element. The manual
override device should be used only when the valve’s thermal element is inoperative
but machine operation is required. Atomizing air compressor inlet and lube oil feed
header temperatures are sensed by the bulb associated with each valve which controls
the flow of coolant through the heat exchanger and maintains the air and lube oil
temperatures at predetermined values. The valves automatically control flow of the
medium passing through them (coolant) to the heat exchanger by responding to
temperature changes affecting the bulb. The bulb contains a thermal-sensitive liquid
which vaporizes when heated. Pressure thus generated in the bulb is transmitted
through the capillary tube to the bellows, which positions the valve disc to control the
flow of coolant through the heat exchanger. The valve is closed during turbine startup,
and will start to open as the sensed fluid temperature approaches the control setting.

Valve VTR 2-1 in the coolant line to the atomizing air heat exchanger has a
small bypass orifice drilled into the valve body to assure that the cooler is ”flooded”
at all times.
At the inlet of each cooling water circuit (lube oil heat exchanger circuit, atomizing
air heat exchanger circuit and turbine support legs circuit), an orifice allows water
flow rate calibration to the circuit concerned.

The flame detector mounts are cooled to extend the life of the flame detectors.
The coolant jackets on the flame detector mounts provide a thermal break in heat
conduction from the combustion can housing to the flame detector instrument.

Temperature regulating

Temperature, pressure measuring and/or protective devices:

Thermocouples, WT-TL-1,-2 at turbine support legs outlet and WT-TD,
located at GT cooling system outlet, give a GT cooling water temperature indication.

Page 38 of 98
Thermocouple, WT-OCD at outlet of GT lube oil heat exchanger, give a GT
water temperature indication.


Liquid fuel Schematic:

The liquid fuel (distillate oil) system pumps and distributes fuel as supplied
from the fuel forwarding system, to the fourteen fuel nozzles of the combustion
system. The fuel system filters the fuel and divides the fuel flow into 14 equal parts
for distribution to the combustion chambers at the required pressure and flow rates.
Controlling the position of the fuel pump bypass valve VC3 regulates the
amount of fuel input to the turbine combustion system by varying the amount of
bypassed fuel.

o Fuel oil strainer.

o Fuel oil stop valve VSI .
o Liquid fuel pump PFI.
o Fuel pump discharge relief valve VR4.
o Fuel bypass valve VC3.
Page 39 of 98
o Flow divider or fuel distributor FDI
o High-pressure fuel filters FF2-1,-2.
o Fuel line check valves.
o Fuel nozzle assemblies.
o False start drain valves.

Control devices also associated with the fuel system include :

the liquid fuel pressure transmitter 96 FL-2, servo valve 65 FP that controls the fuel
bypass valve, fuel pump clutch solenoid 20 CF-1, and permissive limit switches 33
FL-1 and -2 and trip relay valve VH 4 in the fuel oil stop valve trip control circuits.

Functional description of the fuel oil system:

Low fuel oil strainer

Fuel oil at low pressure from the fuel forwarding system, flows through a low
pressure oil filter and fuel stop valve prior to entering the fuel pump. The type strainer
housing contains a filter screen to remove any extraneous particulate residue left in
the fuelnlines after installation. The strainer screen is to be removed after the initial
600 hours
of operation and the strainer housing must be cleaned and flushed upon removal of
the screen prior to placing the turbine into service. Clean fuel is normally supplied to
the turbine system ; however, during this initial period the low-pressure fuel strainer
prevents contaminants from entering the fuel oil stop valve and the fuel pump,
thereby preventing possible damage or improper functioning of these components.

Fuel Oil Stop Valve:

The fuel oil stop valve VSI is an emergency valve operated from the protection sys-
tem used to shut off the supply of fuel to the turbine during normal or emergency shut
downs. This stop valve is a special-purpose, hydraulically operated, two-position
(open and closed) valve with a venturi disc and valve seat. When the turbine is shut
down in the normal sequence, or by emergency trip operation, the fuel oil stop valve
will fully close within a 0.5-second total elapsed time.

During normal operation of the turbine the stop valve is held open by high
hydraulic oil (OH) that passes through a hydraulic trip relay (dump) valve VH4. This
dump valve located between the hydraulic supply and the stop valve hydraulic
cylinder, is hydraulically operated by trip oil (OLT) from the trip oil system. When
the trip oil pressure is low (as in the case of normal or emergency shut-down), the
dump valve spring shifts the valve spool to a position which dumps high pressure
hydraulic oil (OH) in the stop valve actuating cylinder to the lube oil reservoir. The
closing spring in the stop valve assembly then overcomes the oil pressure and closes
the valve.

Fuel Oil Pump:

The fuel pump PFI is a positive displacement continuous output screw type
with two sets of opposed screws. The integral shaft screws are end mounted in roller
bearings that are oil lubricated. The bearings and timing gears are supplied with lube

Page 40 of 98
oil from the main lube oil header and are sealed off from the fuel oil pumping
by internal mechanical seals.

The pump is driven directly from the turbine driven accessory gear ; therefore,
pump speed is directly proportional to turbine speed. The fuel pump discharge flow at
any given turbine speed is greater than the turbine combustion requirements at that

Liquid fuel pressure transmitter 96 FL-2 indicates that inlet fuel pressure is
established. It is used as a permissive to energize the fuel pump clutch solenoid 20
CF-I. In case of loss of pressure while the turbine is running, 96 FL-2 will trip the
turbine. An alarm 71 FP-1 or a trip 71 FP-2 are activated when appears a seal leakage
on the main fuel pump.

Fuel pump discharge relief valve VR4

The fuel pump discharge relief valve, VR4, is located in a loop between the
discharge and inlet of the pump. The valve prevents the fuel oil pressure from getting
enough to rupture any lines in the event of a flow divider malfunction or freeze up.
This valve is set to operate in the range of 1200 to 1300 psi and relieves back into the
inlet pipe.

Fuel bypass valve

High pressure flow from the pump is modulated by the servocontrolled bypass
valve assembly (VC3). Components of this assembly include the bypass valve body,
trohydraulic servovalve 65 FP, and the hydraulic cylinder. This bypass valve is
connected between the inlet and discharge sides of the fuel oil pump and meters the
flow of fuel to the turbine by subtracting excess fuel delivered by the pump and
bypassing it back to the pump inlet.

Servovalve 65 FP controls the bypass valve position according to the

Requirement and the sensed fuel flow. If the fuel requirement exceeds the actual oil
flow, the bypass valve closes to increase the net oil flow to the turbine. The servo
valve uses high pressure hydraulic oil (OH) (cleansed of contaminants by a metal
filter FH3) to actuate the hydraulic cylinder and thus position the bypass valve.

High pressure fuel filters:

Fuel oil pump discharge pressure passes through the secondary (high pressure)
filter FF 2-1 as it flows from the fuel pump to the flow divider. This full flow, high
pressure filter helps to assure that contaminants and pipe scale are retained and
prevented from entering the flow divider, thereby preventing possible damage or
Page 41 of 98
operation of this component.
There are two filters FF 2-1 and FF 2-2, with a Manuel transfer valve,
equipped with isolating valves. A panel mounted differential manometer is connected
to indicate
directly the pressure drop through the filter.

There are two filters equipped with isolating valves. Filter differential pressure
controlled by 63 LF-3 pressure switch. Should the pressure increases above a preset
value indicating fouling of the filter, pressure switch 63 LF-3 will cause an alarm to
be annunciated.

Flow Divider:

The flow divider FDI-1 equally distributes input fuel flow to the 14
combustion nozzles. The continuous flow, freewheeling flow divider consists of 14
gear pump ele-
ments in a circular arrangement having a common inlet with a single timing gear. This
timing gear serves to maintain true synchronous speed of each pumping element with
all other elements. As the fuel enters the flow divider, each pair of gear elements
distributes one fourteenth of the fuel flow into each of the lines going to the fuel

The speed of the flow divider pumping elements is directly proportional to the
fuelflow through the flow divider. Three magnetic pickup assemblies 77 FD-1, 77
FD-2 and 77 FD-3, fitted to the flow divider, produce a flow feedback signal at a
frequency proportional to fuel flow delivered to the combustion chambers. This signal
is fed to the SPEEDTRONIC control panel where it is used in the fuel control system.

Discharg Flow divider Suction FD gear element (14 pairs)

Selector valve indicator:

A 16-position selector valve and pressure gauge assembly is located at the flow divi-
der to allow monitoring of selected fuel oil pressure in the nozzle inlet line. Positions
1 through 14 select the fuel nozzles, position 15 selects the fuel pump inlet pressure,
and position 16 selects the fuel pump outlet pressure.

Check valves:

Page 42 of 98
There is a check valve (VCKI -1 to 14) in each line between the flow divider
and the fuel nozzles. The check valve is mounted in each discharge line from the flow
divider near the input connection to each nozzle.

These valves prevent fuel oil from continuing to flow when a stop signal is
given resulting in a clean cut-off of fuel to the nozzle. These check valves are set at a
which is sufficient to prevent the fuel from the forwarding system from breaking
through, should the stop valve not close.

False start drain valves VA 17-1, -2, -5:

In the event of an unsuccessful start, the accumulation of combustible fuel oil

is drained through false start drain valves provided at appropriate low points in the
combus-tion/turbine area. The false start drain valve, normally open, closes as the
turbine accelerates during start-up. Air pressure from the discharge of the unit’s axial-
flow compressor shutdown sequence, the valve opens as compressor speed drops
(compressor discharge pressure is reduced).


Atomizing Air Schematic:

Page 43 of 98
The atomizing air system provides sufficient pressure in the air atomizing
chamber of the fuel nozzle body to maintain the proper ratio of atomizing air pressure
to compressor discharge pressure at approximately 1.2 or greater over the full

operating range of the turbine. Since the output of the main atomizing air
compressor, driven by the accessory gear, is low at turbine firing speed, a starting
atomizing air compressor provides a similar pressure ratio during the firing and
warm-up period of the starting cycle, and during a portion of the accelerating cycle.
Continuous blowdown to atmosphere is also provided to clear the main gas turbine
compressor of accumulated dirt.

Major system components includes :

the main atomizing air compressor, starting atomizing air compressor motor
driven(88AB), atomizing air heat exchanger(s) and an air filter.

When liquid fuel oil is sprayed into the turbine combustion chambers it forms
large droplets as it leaves the fuel nozzles. The droplets will not burn completely in
the chambers and many could go out of the exhaust stack in this state. A low pressure
atomizing air system is used to provide atomizing air through supplementary orifices
in the fuel nozzle which directs the air to impinge upon the fuel jet discharging from
each nozzle. This stream of atomizing air breaks the fuel jet up into a fine mist,
permitting ignition and combustion with significantly increased efficiency and a
decrease of combustion particles discharging through the exhaust into the atmosphere.
It is necessary, therefore, that the air atomizing system be operative from the time of
ignition firing through acceleration, and through operation of the turbine.
Air taken from the atomizing air extraction manifold of the compressor
discharge casing passes through the air-to-water heat exchanger (pre-cooler) HXI to
reduce the temperature of the air sufficiently to maintain a uniform air inlet
temperature to the atomizing air compressor.

The atomizing air pre-cooler (heat exchanger), located in the turbine base
under the turbine compartment, uses water from the turbine cooling water system as
the cooling
medium to dissipate the heat.

Thermocouple AAT-IA,-2A is sensitive to the temperature, thermoswitch

provided to sound an alarm when the temperature of the air from the atomizing air
precooler entering the main atomizing air compressor is excessive. When the
atomizing air reaches this temperature setting of this switch, the alarm is activated.
Improper control of the temperature may be due to failure of the sensor, the pre-cooler
or insufficient cooling water flow. Continued operation above 275°F (i.e. 135" C)
should not be permitted for any significant length of time since it may result in failure
of the main atomizing air compressor or in insufficient atomizing air to provide
proper combustion.

Compressor discharge air, now cleaned and cooled reaches the main atomizing
air compressor. This is a single stage, flange mounted, centrifugal type compressor
driven by an inboard shaft of the turbine accessory gear. It contains a single impeller
mounted on the
pinion shaft of the integral input speed increasing gear box driven directly by the
accessory gear. Output of the main compressor provides sufficient air for atomizing
and combustion when the turbine is at approximately 60% speed.
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Differential pressure switches 63 AD-lA,-l B and pressure transmitter 96 AD-

1 located ina bypass around the compressor, monitor the air pressure and indicate an

alarm if the pressure rise across the compressor should drop to a level
inadequate for proper atomization of the fuel. A quick connection with check valve
allows reading of the pressure with a differential pressure gauge.

Air, now identified as atomizing air, leaves the compressor and is piped to the
atomizing air manifold with "pigtail" piping providing equal pressure distribution of
atomizing air to the 14 individual fuel nozzles.

When the turbine is first fired, the accessory gear is not rotating at full speed
and the main atomizing air compressor is not outputting sufficient air for proper fuel
atomization. During this period, the starting (booster) atomizing air compressor,
driven by the starting motor 88 AB-I is in operation supplying the necessary
atomizing air.

The starting atomizing air compressor at this time has a high pressure ratio and
is discharging through the main atomizing air compressor which has a low pressure
ratio. The main atomizing air compressor pressure ratio increases within increasing
turbine speed and at approximately 60 % speed the flow demand of the main
atomizing air compressor approximates the maximum flow capability of the starting
atomizing air compressor. The check valve in the air input line to the main
compressor begins to open allowing air to be supplied to the main compressor
simultaneously from both the main air line and the starting atomizing air compressor.
The pressure ratio of the starting atomizing air compressor decreases to one and it is
shut down at approximately 95 % speed (14 HS pickup). Now all of the air being
supplied for atomizing purpose is directed to the main atomizing air main compressor,
bypassing the starting air compressor completely. At this time, the 20 AB-1 solenoid
is energized and the isolation valve VA 22-1 is closed preventing any air from getting
to the booster compressor.

This valve VA 22, actuated by regulated air with the pressure regulating valve VPR
68, will be actuated only if the solenoid valve 20 AB-1 is energized.

Recirculation cooling system:

On dual fuel (gas and distillate oil) machines, the discharge of the accessory
gear driven atomizing air compressor is re-circulated through the atomizing air system
when the gas turbine is operating 100 percent on gas fuel ; except for a small amount
of air flow that is bled off to purge the oil passages in the oil fuel nozzle. The
recirculation air is passed through the atomizing air pre-cooler where it is cooled
before it reenters the compressor, thus protecting the compressor against over
temperature operation. Piping for the recirculation system includes a normally closed,
air-operated-bypass valve (VAI 8), which is controlled by the operation of solenoid
valve 20 AA. When the fuel system is set for 100 percent gas fuel operation, solenoid
valve 20 AA is energized and operating air from the turbine compressor discharge is
passed through filter FA4 and then admitted to the piston of bypass valve VA18. This
causes the valve to open allowing the atomizing air to be re circulated back to the
piping ahead of the pre-cooler HXI.

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Air is the purge medium, supplied by the atomizing air compressor discharge
for the liquid side and by compressor discharge air for the gas side.

Liquid fuel purge:

For the liquid side, liquid fuel nozzle purge valve VA 19-1 let the purge air
flow to each fuel nozzle. This valve is actuated by SOV 20 PL-1. Check valves VCK
2 restrict liquid fuel from filling the purge lines when the purge system is shutdown
during liquid fuel operation.

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Gas fuel purge:

Gas fuel purge valves VA 13-1 & VA 13-2 are actuated respective SOV’S
hence, air flows through to the gas manifold and fuel nozzles on the turbine when the
unit is on liquid fuel. Gas backflow to compressor discharge must be prevented. The
gas fuel system purge valves air actuated VA13 must be closed tightly. If it does not
happen, protective measures are to be taken:

• The 20 VG-2 valve vents the line to atmosphere between the purge valves
VA13-1 & 2
• Pressure transmitter 96 PG will alarm if excessive pressure builds up between
the valves, indicating the presence of too much gas.
• 33 PG limit switches are used to indicate the position of the VA 13 valve :
open or closed.
Purge air pressure monitoring

Each liquid and water injection purge air line, downstream of purge valve is checked
purge air pressure with respect to compressor outlet air pressure (pcD) by means of
Redundant differential pressure transmitter (I) and switches

Page 47 of 98


The gas fuel system is designed to deliver gas fuel to the turbine combustion
chambers at the proper pressure and flow rates to meet all of the starting, acceleration
and loading requirements of gas turbine operation.

The major components of a gas fuel system are the gas stop/ratio and gas
control valves located in the gas fuel module. Associated with the two gas valves are
the necessary inlet piping and filter, fuel vent valve, control servo valves, pressure
gauges the final gas filters and the distribution piping to the 14 combustion fuel

The fuel gas stop ratio valve and the gas control valve, two independent
valves, are located side by side in the gas fuel piping of the module. The gas fuel
flows through the gas stop/ratio valve and then into the gas control valve on its way to
the gas manifold
and individual combustion chambers. The position of each valve is servo controlled
electrical signals from the gas turbine SPEEDTRONIC control system. Both the gas
stop ratio valve and the gas control valve are actuated by single-acting, hydraulic
Page 48 of 98

Functional description of the gas fuel system:


The gas control valve (GCV) and the gas stop ratio valve(SRV), although
similar, each perform separate functions. The GCV meters fuel for use by the
combustion chambers. It is activated by a SPEEDTRONIC control signal to admit the
proper amount of fuel required by the turbine for a given load or speed. The fuel gas
SRV is a dual function valve. It serves as a stop valve to shut off fuel flow to the
turbine whenever required during either normal operation or in an emergency
shutdown situation.

The SRV also serves as a pressure-regulating valve to hold a known fuel gas
pressure ahead of the GCV and enable the GCV to control fuel flow over the wide
range required under turbine starting and operating conditions. Because of these dual
functions the valve is sometimes called a stop/speed ratio valve.

Gas Control Valve(GCV)

The gas control valve VGC-1 regulates the required control valve area and utilizes an
hydraulic cylinder controlled by an electro hydraulic servo-valve.

The gas control valve provides a fuel gas metering function to the turbine in
with its speed and load requirements. The position of the gas control valve (hence fuel
gas flow to the turbine) is a linear function of a Fuel stroke reference voltage (FSR)
generated by the SPEEDTRONIC control. The control voltage generated acts to shift
the electro hydraulic servo valve to admit oil to, or release it from, the hydraulic
to position the gas control valve so that the fuel gas flow is that which is required for
given turbine speed and load situation.

The gas control valve also provides a shut-off of the fuel gas flow when required by
either normal operation or emergency conditions. A hydraulic trip relay (dump valve)
VH12-1 is located between the electro hydraulic servo valve 65 GC-I and the
cylinders. The operation of this dump valve is the same as the trip relay (dump valve)
VH 5.

Gas Control Stop/Speed Ratio Valve(SRV):

The gas stop/ratio valve VSR-1 is similar to the gas control valve VGC-1. The ratio
tion of the stop ratio/valve provides a regulated inlet pressure for the control valve as
a function of turbine speed. The SPEEDTRONIC pressure control loop generates a
position signal to position the stop ratio valve by means of a servo valve controlled
hydraulic cylinder to provide required inter valve pressure.

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The VGC-I control valve regulates the gas flow to the primary gas manifold.
Its downstream pressure is measured by the 96 FG4P pressure transmitters. In case of
low pressure, a gas system trip order will be given by the speedtronic Mark VI

The gas stop ratio valve VSR-1 functions as a stop valve in the fuel gas system
to provide a positive fuel shut off when required by either normal or emergency
Any emergency trip or normal shutdown will trip the valve to its closed position. This
is done either by dumping hydraulic oil from the valve’s hydraulic cylinder or driving
the position control closed electrically. Trip oil acting operates a dump valve VH 5-1
on the piston end of a spool. An hydraulic trip solenoid valve, 20 FGS-1 & 20FGC
are located in the trip oil line to the dump valve. When the trip oil pressure is normal
and the 20 FG-1 solenoid valve is energized to reset, the spool of the dump valve is
held in a position that allows hydraulic oil to flow between the control servo valve
and the hydraulic cylinder. In this position, normal control of the stop ratio valve is

In event of a drop in trip oil below a predetermined limit, a spring in the dump
valve shifts the spool to interrupt the flow path of oil between the control servo valve
and the hydraulic cylinder. Hydraulic oil is dumped and the ratio valve closes,
shutting off gas fuel flow to the turbine.


Hydraulic Oil Schematic:

Hydraulic oil system is mainly required for Inlet guide vane actuation, controlling
liquid fuel by-pass valve and gas control valve.

The major components of hydraulic oil systems are

• AC motor driven hydraulic oil pump ( AHOP )
• Accessory gear driven hydraulic oil pump ( MHOP )
• Hydraulic oil filters
• Relief valve VR21-1 and VR22-1

AC motor driven pump will start during the start-up of the gas turbine or due to drop
in hydraulic oil pressure due to some hydraulic oil leakage in running condition. This
pump will supply hydraulic oil to the IGV and fuel by-pass valve. During the normal
running condition MHOP will supply the required hydraulic oil to the IGV and liquid
fuel by-pass valve.

Both these hydraulic oil pump takes the oil from lube header and delivers the
hydraulic oil to the destination through hydraulic oil filters.

Relief valve VA21-1 and VA22-1 will maintain the required hydraulic oil pressure by
continuously relieving some oil to maintain the required set pressure to the oil sump.

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The tripping devices which cause shut down through this system do so by
dumping lowpressure oil (OLT). This is done either directly or indirectly through
electro hydraulic dump valves 20 FL-I, 20 FG-1 or 20 TV-I.

When oil in the trip oil line is dumped, fuel stop valves close by spring return
action. At the proper point in the starting sequence, dump valves 20 FL-1,20 FG-I and
20 W-1 are energized permitting oil pressure to open the fuel stop valves and inlet
guide vanes. The fuel stop valves remain open until some trip action occurs or until
the unit is shut down.

In the gas fuel circuit, dump valve VH 5 ports the gas stop/ratio valve
hydraulic actuation cylinder to drain to close stop/ratio valve VSR and to servo-valve
90 SR hydraulic oil discharge port to permit stop/ratio valve control of gas fuel. VH5
is pilot operated by trip oil.

Likewise, dump valve VH 12 ports the gas control valve hydraulic actuation
cylinder todrain to close gas control valve VGC and to servo valve 65 GC hydraulic
oil discharge port to permit gas control valve control of gas fuel. VH 12 is pilot
operated by trip oil.

In the liquid fuel circuit trip valve VH 4 ports the liquid fuel stop valve
actuation cylinder to drain to close the stop valve and to high pressure oil to open it.
Valve VH 4 is pilot operated by trip oil.

The tripping devices which cause selective fuel system shut-down, do so by

dumping low pressure oil (OLT). Each individual fuel stop valve may be selectively
closed by dumping the flow pressure oil going to it. Dumping valve 20 FL-1 causes
the trip relay on the liquid fuel valve to go to the trip state to permit closure of the
liquid fuel stop valve by its spring return mechanism. Dumping valve 20 FG-1 causes
the trip relays on the gas fuel stop/ratio valve and the gas control valve to go to the
trip state, which permits their spring returned closure

The orifice network permits independent dumping of each branch of the trip
oil system by its dump valve. Tripping all devices other than the individual dump
valves, will result in dumping the total trip oil system which shut the unit down.
During start-up or fuel transfer, the SPEEDTRONIC panel will close the
appropriate dump valve to activate the desired fuel system(s). Both dump valves will
be closed only during fuel transfer or mixed fuel operation.

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1.5.9 Cooling & Sealing air system:

Cooling & Sealing air schematic:

The cooling and sealing air system provides the necessary air flow from the
gas turbine compressor to other parts of the gas turbine rotor and stator to prevent
excessive temperature buildup in these parts during normal operation and for sealing
of the turbine bearings.

Air from three centrifugal type blowers(88TK-1 & 88TK-2) is used to cool the
turbine exhaust frame. These two motor fans are part of a cooling system located on a
base, near the lower part of the gas turbine exhaust system duct.

Cooling and sealing functions provided by the system are as follows:

• Sealing of the turbine bearings.

• Cooling of internal turbine parts subjected to high temperature.
• Cooling of the turbine outer shell and exhaust frame.
• Providing an operating air supply for air operated valves.

The cooling and sealing air system consists of specially designed air passages in the
bine casing, turbine nozzles and rotating wheels, piping for the compressor extraction
and associated components. Associated components used in the system include :

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• Turbine exhaust frame cooling blowers (88TK-1 & 2)

• Air filter (with poro-stone element).
• Pressure gauge.
• Dirt separator.



Air from the axial flow compressor, extracted from several points, is used for
sealing the bearings, cooling turbine internal parts and to provide a clean air supply
for air operated control valves. Compressor extraction air is also used for pulsation
protection of the compressor during turbine start-up and shutdown.
Bearing sealing air is extracted from the fifth stage of the compressor. Internal
cooling air is extracted from the discharge of the compressor including the internal
flow of cooling air through the turbine rotating and stationary parts. Air used in
cooling the turbine external casing is ambient air supplied by motor driven blowers.
The schematic flow diagram shows both the internal and external flow of cooling and
sealing air.

Bearing cooling and sealing:

Cooling and sealing air is provided from two connections on the compressor
casing at the fifth stage and is piped externally to each of the three turbine bearings.
Orifices in the air lines to the turbine bearings limit the flow of air and the pressure to
the proper value. The centrifugal dirt separator located in the fifth-stage piping
removes any particles of dirt or foreign matter that might be injurious to the bearings.

This pressurized air cools and seals the bearings by containing any lubricating
fluid within the bearing housing that otherwise might seep past the mechanical seals.
Air is directed to both ends of each bearing housing providing a pressure barrier to the
lubricating fluid. After performing this function, the air is vented via the oil drain
passage from the No 1 and No 3 bearings while air from the No 2 bearing is vented to
Exhaust frame and turbine shell cooling:

Cooling of the exhaust frame and turbine shell is accomplished by three

electric motor-driven, centrifugal blowers, 88 TK-1 & 88TK-2 which are mounted
external to the turbine. An inlet screen is provided with each blower and the discharge
of each passes through a backdraft damper (check valve), VCK7-1, VCK7-2 before
entering openings in the exhaust frame outer sidewall cavity. The cooling air flow
splits, with part of the air passing along and cooling the turbine shell and the
other portion flowing through the exhaust frame strut passages. The air flow
through the struts divides, with a portion directed through passages to cool the
third-stage turbine aft wheelspace and the remainder flowing into the load shaft
tunnel where it discharges through a duct to atmosphere.

Air for cooling the exhaust frame and turbine shell is normally provided by the
three blowers operating simultaneously in parallel. Each blower has a pressure
Page 53 of 98

switches, 63TK-1 & 63 TK-2 to sense blower discharge pressure. If one of

the blowers
should fail, the loss of blower discharge pressure will cause contacts of the respective
63 TK-1 pressure switch to close and an alarm will be annunciated. The turbine will
continue to run with the automatic change over starting the blower. If all blowers
should fail the turbine will be shutdown in a normal shutdown sequence.

Pulsation protection:

The pressure, speed and flow characteristics of the gas turbine compressor are
that air must be extracted from the 11th-stage and vented to atmosphere to prevent
sation of the compressor during the acceleration period of the turbine starting
and during deceleration of the turbine at shut-down.

Pneumatically operated 1 1 th stage air extraction valves, controlled by a

three-way solenoid valve, are used to accomplish the pulsation protection function.
Eleventh stage air is extracted from the compressor at four flanged
connections on the compressor casing. Each of these connections is piped through a
normally open, piston operated, butterfly or vee-ball type valve, VA 2-1, -2, -3, and
-4, to the turbine exhaust plenum. Limit switches 33 CB-I ,-2,-3 & 4 are mounted on
the valves to give an indication of valve position.

Compressor discharge air controlled by solenoid valve 20 CB-1 is used to

close the
compressor bleed valves. Air from 11th-stage compressor discharge is piped to a
porous air filter which removes dirt and water from the compressor discharge air, by
means of a continuous blow down orifice, before the air enters solenoid valve 20 CB-
1. From the solenoid valve, the air is piped to the piston housings of the four
extraction valves.

During turbine start-up, 20 CB-I is de energized and the I I th-stage extraction

valves are open allowing 1 Ith-stage air to be discharged into the exhaust plenum
thereby eliminating the possibility of compressor pulsation. Limit switches, 33 CB-1
through –4 on the valves provide permissive logic in the starting sequence and ensure
that the extraction valves are fully opened before the turbine is fired. The turbine
accelerates to full speed and when the generator circuit breaker closes, the 20 CB-I
solenoid valve is energized to close the extraction valves and allow normal running
operation of the turbine. When a turbine shut-down signal is initiated and the
generator circuit breaker is opened, 20 CB-1 is de energized and 11th stage air is again
discharged into the exhaust plenum to prevent compressor pulsation during the
turbine deceleration period.

Pressurized air supply:

Compressor discharge air is also used as a source of air for operating various air-

Page 54 of 98

ted valves in other systems. Air for this purpose is taken at the discharge of the
compressor and is then piped to the various air operated valves. In addition,
compressor discharge pressure is monitored by redundant pressure transducers 96
CD-lA,-I B,-1 C for use in control of the gas turbine. Compressor discharge air is also
the source of air used as Atomizing air if the unit has a liquid fuel system.



Before the gas turbine can be fired and started it must be rotated or cranked by
the accessory equipment. This is accomplished by an induction motor, operating
through a torque converter to provide the cranking torque and speed required by the
turbine for start-up.
The starting system consists of an induction motor(1100 KW) and torque
converter coupled to the Accessory gear.
Page 55 of 98

A motor driven torque adjustor drive, which is an integral part of the torque
converter system, provides the means for adjusting torque output within specified
ranges. Also control of the torque converter is achieved via an integrally mounted
unloading solenoid valve 20 TU-I and a hydraulically operated dump valve.

After a shut down order, when the decreasing speed reaches about 50 R.P.M,
the torque converter motor sets it to the minimum torque and a motor specially
provided to rotate the turbine for coo down purpose starts. It is the motor provided for
Turning speed value is about 120 R.P.M.

Start-up function description:

In the normal starting sequence, fluid is admitted into the torque converter
hydraulic circuit from the lubrication system by the integral 20 TU-1 valve at the
same time the starting motor 88 CR-I is energized. Breakaway is achieved and the
turbine starts to rotate. The turbine begins to increase in speed and continues to
accelerate until firing speed is attained and relay 14 HM picks up. When the turbine
has reached this speed (14 HM setpoint), the internal geometry of the torque converter
is adjusted by the torque adjustor drive 88 TM-1 to hold firing speed constant through
the firing and warm-up cycle.

Readjustment of the converter geometry (torque adjustment) at the end of

warm-up allows the torque converter to assist in accelerating the unit up to self-
sustaining speed. At this speed, (about 60 % normal speed), the torque converter
hydraulic circuit is drained, by de-energizing solenoid valve 20 TU-I, at the same time
cranking motor 88 CR-1 is de-energized, which effects disconnect. A crank and
restart can be initiated at any time below 14 HM speed.

Various switches provide, torque adjustment range limits, There are:

33 TM-5 & 6 to limit the torque in case of malfunction of the system.


The shutdown order is given and the turbine speed slows down. When relay
14 HM drops out (at about 99 R.P.M), the turning motor88 TG-1 starts. Solenoid
valve 20 TU-1 is energized and the torque is adjusted to a value allowing to turn the
turbine at a speed of about 120 R.P.M for cool down purposes after shut down. This
cool down sequence lasts at least 20 hours. It must be manually stopped.


The turbine is at standstill and all circuits are ready for turning. The operator
turns the operation selector switch 43 of the turbine control panel to position
TURNING, then gives a START order. The starting motor 88 CR-1 starts and 20 TU-
1 is energized. When the speed reaches about 120 R.P.M., motor 88 CR-I is stopped.
The speed decreases a little and at about 90 R.P.M., turning motor 88 TG-1 starts.
Readjustment of the converter geometry (torque adjustment) will allow a turning
speed of about 120 R.P.M. Turning will last at least 20 hours. It must be manually

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88 TM-1 is the motor that operates the buckets.

The position transmitter 96 TM-1 indicates the position of the buckets on the wheels
of the torque converter.


The starting motor drives the torque converter input through a flexible coupling. The
torque converter output is coupled to the accessory gear and provides the required
torque multiplication for the starting motor to drive the turbine. The main parts of the
torque converter are the impeller driven by the input shaft, the turbine wheel which
drives the output shaft, and the stator which directs fluid from the impeller to the
turbine at the correct angle to produce the required output torque.


Fire protection system schematic:

The carbon dioxide (CO2) fire protection system supplied is designed to

extinguish fires by reducing the oxygen content of the air in a compartment from an
atmosphere normal of 21 % to less than 15 % ; an insufficient concentration to
support the combustion of turbine fuel or lubricating oil. System design is in accord
with the requirements contained in the Fire Protection recommendations and
recognizing the reflash potential of combustibles exposed to high temperature metal it
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provides an extended discharge to maintain an extinguishing concentration for

a prolonged period to minimize the likelihood of a reflash condition.

Major system components include :

CO2 tank 6000 Kg. Capacity (off-base station), discharge pipes and nozzles,
pilot val-ves, fire detectors, and pressure switches. Refer to the schematic diagram

CO2 is supplied from an off-base skid where high pressure CO2 from the tank
connected to a distribution system which conducts the carbon dioxide through pipes
to discharge nozzles located among others in the various compartments of the gas
turbine unit.

For the gas turbine itself, there four distinctive zones:

Initial Discharge Extended Discharge


Zone 1 : Accessory compartment and turbine compartment ;

Zone 2 : tunnel of bearing number 3 and load shaft compartment.
Zone 3 : Generator compartment ( bearing no:01 & Bearing no:02)
Zone 4: Gas module compartment

Two sorts of discharge are used : initial discharge and extended discharge.

Within a few seconds after actuation, sufficient CO2 flows from the initial discharge
system into the compartment of the machine to rapidly build up an extinguishing
concentration. This concentration is maintained for a prolonged period of time by the
gradual addition of more CO2 from the extended discharge system.

Functional Description:

Should a fire occur in one of the protected compartments of the unit, the pilot
valves in the off-base skid will be energized by one of the heat-sensitive fire
detectors, more exactly : 45 FA-IA, -1B, 45 FA-2A, - 2B in the accessory
compartment, 45 FA-BA,-BB in the gas module compartment, 45 FT-IA, - l B ; 45
FT-2A, -2B ; 45 FT3A, -3B in the turbine compartment and 45 FT8A, -8B, -9A, -9B
in the tunnel of bearing no 3.

The CO2 flow rate is controlled by the size of the orifices to the discharge
nozzles in each compartment for the initial and extended discharge system. The
orifices for the initial discharge must permit a rapid discharge of CO2 to quickly build
up an extinguishing concentration. The orifices for the extended discharge are smaller
and permit a relatively slow discharge rate in order to maintain the extinguishing
concentration over a prolonged period of time. By maintaining the extinguishing
concentration, the likelihood of a fire reigniting is minimized.

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In the bearing no 3 zone, there is one nozzle for the initial discharge and the
other is for the extended discharge. When fire is detected and CO 2 is emitted, CO2
operated latches close the shutter provided for the load shaft compartment.

Note that the CO2 latches located in the ventilation path must be opened
manually after a fire. the latches are provided with a limit switch preventing a gas
turbine restart after a fire.


Turbine compartment

• Four Hazardous Gas detector are located below the combustion chambers to sense
any Hazardous gas or naphtha vapor.

These detectors will give alarm in the control panel but it is not connected to CO2
extinguishing system.


Gravity operated dampers are used in the system to automatically provide a

tight enclosure when the fire protection system is activated. The gravity closing
dampers are normally held open by the pressure-operated latches, which must be
manually reset after damper release. When the extinguishing agent is discharged,

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pressure on the latch forces a piston against a spring moving a locking lever,
which releases the latch allowing the damper to close. In the text that follows, the
location of the latches is defined, as is the component on which they are mounted.

Turbine compartment:

Protection for the turbine compartment area is provided by a high temperature

thermocouple alarm AT-TC-I. This device signals an alarm when the area
exceeds a preset temperature limit.

Load coupling compartment:

The load coupling is contained in its own enclosure and situated between the
exhaust plenum and the generator. This separate compartment has its own roof
section, side panels, and an access door. Thermocouple AT-LC-1 is a high
temperature alarm which indicates fan failure.

Heated air, after circulating through the compartment, vents upward and is
exhausted through a ventilation opening with gravity operated damper closing when
the extinguishing system for the turbine is activated.

Fan no.
Zone#01 Accessory & turbine 88 BT#01 & Induced draft
compartment 02
Zone#02 Load gear compartment 88 VG#01 &02 Forced draft
Zone#03 Generator compartment 88 GV#01 & Induced draft
Zone#04 Gas valve module compartment 88 GF#01 & Induced draft



In warren pump fuel side and L.O side DP should be around 15-20 psi i.e L.O.
pressure should be around 90 psi and fuel pressure should be around 70 psi , these
pressure should be maintained throughout the operation of warren pump.

There is a separate lube o skid is provided for lubricating warren pump bearings /
timing gears. The lube oil used in this skid is having the high viscosity. There is one
AC pump and one DC pump is provided to supply lube oil to the warren pump

AC lube oil pump supplies lube oil at 120 psi pressure which passes through lube oil
cooler & filter and then delivered to bearings of warren pump.

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Turbine inlet air system is consisting of 456 filter elements, which are of self cleaning
type and cleaned by compressor-pressurized air.

This inlet air filter's life is around 18-20 months depending up on the surrounding

Once the filter elements are choked they are to be replaced.

• Turbine inlet air filter DP becomes high more than 200 mmwc ,

In this case machine will start unloading and it will go for zero speed.

Operating Data:

Compressed air: 8 to 16 bar

Temperature: 80oC (maximum)
Flow: 2.9 M3/hr
Filtration: <1 µm



Gas turbines experience a degradation of performance during operation as the

result of deposits on internal components. Deposition occurs in both the compressor

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and turbine sections. Compressor deposition occurs with the ingested air ;
turbine section deposition occurs as a result of the type and treatment of the fuel being
burned. The fouling of either of these sections will reduce the thermal efficiency and
power output of the gas turbine. The mechanisms by which the fouling occurs are
separate and distinct.

The ingested air may contain dirt, dust, sand, hydrocarbon fumes, insects, and
salt. A large portion of these can be arrested by the various types of inlet filtration.
The dry contaminants that pass through the filters can be removed by compressor
(abrasive or nut shell cleaning). Wet contaminants, such as the hydrocarbon fumes,
cannot be effectively removed by "nut shelling" and, therefore, the compressor must
washed by two process manners with :

A water-detergent solution and rinsed with water in case of OFF-LINE washing


A water solution in case of ON-LINE washing procedure

Water wash graph


Functional description:

The wash water solution in the proper mix ratio is delivered to the turbine unit at the
proper pressure, temperature and flow rate to wash the gas turbine.

Wash solution from the skid ffows from the purchaser’s connection through
motorized valve 20 TW-1 to the compressor spray manifold. The valve is motor
and is manually opened from a local push-button switch (20 TW-1/PB). It is closed
automatically when the Wash selector switch is in the OFF position. During
compressor washing, valve 20 TW-I is opened allowing the wash solution from the
skid to flow into the compressor spray manifold and through the spray nozzles into
the compressor bellmouth to accomplish the washing.

System requirements:

Potable water is to be used for all washing. This water must have less than 100
PPM dissolved solids ; less than 25 PPM sodium plus potassium, and have a PH
6,5 and 73. If the available water does not meet these limits, it must be treated by
some means such as a water softener.

Page 62 of 98
The temperature difference between the wash water and the wheel-space
temperature must not exceed 120°F (67°C).

A water wash skid delivers water at the proper pressure, temperature and flow
rate to wash the gas turbine.

In the case of OFF-line and ON-line washing (option) with the same water
tank, the water must have less than 5 PPM dissolved and un-dissolved solids ; less
than 0,5 ppm sodium plus potassium and other metals which may promote hot
corrosion ;and have a ph between 6.5 and 7.3

Compressor washing frequency:

The frequency of compressor washing depends upon the severity and type of
atmospheric contamination which fouls the compressor and reduces performance. The
recommended method for establishing the frequency is to monitor the gas turbine
performance, comparing the routine performance with the base line performance to
observe the trends.

The unit is run at a steady BASE load while the power output, exhaust
temperature, inlet air temperature, barometric pressure, compressor discharge
temperature and pressure, and fuel consumption is measured and recorded.

An analysis of the compressor ratio and efficiency can be made when the
output and heat rate is corrected to a standard condition, utilizing the performance
curves. Current performance levels are then compared to baseline data.

The analysis and comparison will show performance trends. If the

performance has fallen significantly, and compressor fouling is suspected, it must be
verified by visual
inspection. This visual inspection should include inspection of the compressor inlet,
bellmouth, inlet guide vanes and the first and possibly the second stage of the
compressor blades. If the deposits are oily, the water detergent wash and water rinse
should be performed

Off-line compressor water wash is required if compressor performance

degrades 10 % due to fouling.


Functional description:

The wash water solution is delivered to the turbine unit at the proper pressure
temperature and flow rate to wash the gas turbine.

The valve 20 TW-3 is automatically regulated by the speedtronic control. During

compressor washing valve 20 TW-3 is opened allowing the wash solution from the
to flow into the compressor spray manifold and through the spray nozzles into the
compressor bellmouth to accomplish the washing.

System requirements:
Page 63 of 98

DM water is to be used for all washing. This water must have less than 5 PPM
dissolved solids ; less than 0.5 PPM sodium plus potassium, and have a PH between
6,5 and 7,5.

Turbine must be running at full speed and not in process of shutting down.
The inlet guide vanes must be in the full open position. Reduce load by 5% if
operating at base load.

Units operating with water or steam injection for Nox control or power
augmentation must reduce water or steam injection to 3% maximum of compressor
inlet flow.

The temperature wash water must be > 10 OC



There are various kind of fuels can be fired in the Gas Turbine , they are divided in
two types

1. Liquid Fuels

• High Speed Diesel ( HSD )

• Light Distillate Oil ( LDO )
• Light Cycle Oil ( LCO )
• Naphtha
• Kerosene

2. Gaseous Fuels

• Natural Gas
• Refinery Fuel Gas


Specific Gravity of Fuel:

The specific gravity indicates the chemical composition of hydrocarbons. A distillate

with low specific gravity will be largely a paraffinic where as high specific gravity
will be high aromatics. The high aromatics has a greater tendency to smoke.

Specific gravity has an economic significance , normally fuel is purchased by volume.

The total heat value decreases with the decreasing specific gravity.

Washing of fuel becomes difficult when specific gravity approaches to on higher side
i.e. near to the value of water.

Flash Point :

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It is the lowest temperature at which fuel produces enough vapors to produce a flash
in the presence of ignition source.

Flash point is the important from the fuel handling view point , other wise it is not
critical to the turbine operation , It affects the requirements of auxiliary equipment
like motor , relay , heaters etc i.e. they should be explosion proof.

Naphtha has low flash point , while HSD has comparatively high flash point.

Lower the flash point easier the burning of the fuel in Gas Turbine , hence fuels
having lower flash point is preferred.

Pour Point :

It is the temperature of liquid where it starts flowing freely.

Pour point should be in the as minimum as possible normally for HSD pour point is –
20 deg C which is desirable.

Wax Content :

Wax normally seen in heavy distillates. The wax is the desirable fuel component from
the stand point of high heat content and high hydrogen content.

It can create problems in the fuel systems, it can clog the filters , or it can clog the fuel
transfer valve which needs high load for change-over of filters , It can also clog the
fuel lines , flow dividers , warren pumps etc.

The fuel contains high wax contents is normally maintained at high temperatures to
prevent the crystals clogging.

Viscosity :

Viscosity of fuel is the measure of the fuel resistance to flow , It is important in the
fuel auxiliary equipment and it also determines the pumping temperature , atomizing
temperature and fuel pressure.

For the proper operation of the Gas Turbine maximum viscosity of the fuel must not
exceed 10 cst at 40 deg C , when this limit is exceeded the poor ignition , smoking ,
unsatisfactory combustion exit temperature , lower combustion efficiency or
formation of carbon etc kinds of problems can occur.

Naphtha has the lowest viscosity , hence special kinds of precautions are required.

For maintaining sufficient viscosity , heating of fuel is also one technique.

Sediments :

Sediments in the fuel causes fouling in the fuel handling system and also in Gas
Turbine fuel system , hence they should be kept as minimum as practicable.

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The sediments in the fuel can be gum , resins , asphaltic material , carbon , scale, sand
or mud .

Poor handling of the fuel can increase the level of sediments , i.e. poor washing of
fuels , washing with dirty water , improper blending etc can lead to high
concentration of sediments.

Normally gas turbine fuel systems are having with 5 microns filtration system which
catches all dirt sediments etc.

Trace Metals :

Trace metals are important to analyze from the view point of deposition of particles
on turbine internal parts.

Normally Sodium , Calcium , Potacium, Nickel and Vanadium and present in the
liquid fuels , these metals are causing Hot corrosion in the Gas Turbine components at
the operating temperatures. These salts can also form hard deposits on Gas Turbine
blades , which are very difficult to remove. Deposition of salt on turbine and nozzles
lead to reduced out put of Gas Turbine.

Sodium(Na) ,Potacium(K) , Calcium(Ca) are normally got separated by water

washing process and levels of these metals can be brought down to acceptable level.

But Nickel and Vanadium can not be removed by water wash as these metals are not
soluble in water. These metals are present in the complex oil soluble form. The
corrosive effect of vanadium can be prevented by suitable treatment of fuel by
magnesium additives. The magnesium compound inhibit the corrosive characteristics
of vanadium by forming high melting temperature ash , consists of magnesium
sulphate , magnesium oxide , and vanadium pentoxides. Which are finally emitted
along with exhaust gases.

Boiling Range :

Petroleum Products which consists of may components do not have any specific
boiling point , these products have boiling range. The lowest temperature in the
boiling range is called a Initial Boiling Point ( IBP ). The maximum temperature when
all liquid is evaporated is the Final Boiling Point ( FBP ).

Sulphur Content :

Sulphur is the highly corrosive substance in the fuel.

Suphur reacts with fuel bound hydrogen and forms H2S ( Hydrogen sulfide ) which is
poisonous gas which is harmful to living substance , hence fuels having high sulphur
contents are normally emitted at very high level.

Sulphur also reacts with moisture and forms H2SO4 Sulhuric Acid at low stack
temperatures which is very corrosive. The stack temperatures are maintained at
sufficiently high enough to avoid stack corrosion.

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I. Natural Gas:
Gas analysis ( by spices )
Component Performance Design Range

Mole % Min (Vol %) Max (Vol


Methane 98.43
Ethane 0.4400
Propane 0.1900
i-Butane 0.0275
n-Butane 0.0275
i-Pentane 0.0275
n-Pentane 0.0275
n-Hexane 0.0000
n-Heptane 0.0000
n-Octane 0.0000
Carbon dioxide 0.4150
Nitrogen 0.4150
Hydrogen 0.0000

Lower heating value 11728 kcal/kg

Gas supply pressure:35 Bar upstream of PCV, down stream of PCV- 25 Bar
Minimum gas temperature 15°C

NOTES: 1. Total butanes plus pentanes shall be within the range of 0.11%
2. Total inerts = 0.83%

Page 67 of 98
Backup liquid fuel may be any of the following:

1. Naphtha
2. Keroscene
3. Light Cycle Oil (LCO)
4. (2-D) diesel

Naphtha Fuel Analysis

Characteristic Test Method Value Limits
Lower Heating Value (LHV) ASTM D240 19,500 BTU/lb
Higher Heating Value (HHV) ASTM D4809
Kinematic Viscosity (cSt), 20°C ASTM D445
Kinematic Viscosity (cSt), 37.8°C ASTM D445 2.412
Kinematic Viscosity (cSt), 100°C ASTM D445
Specific Gravity, 15.6°C ASTM D1298 0.6738
Specific Gravity, 60°C ASTM D1298 0.67 – 0.71
Specific Gravity, 100°C ASTM D1298
Pour Point (°C) ASTM D97 -100
Flash Point (°C) ASTM D93
Distillation Range (Not on Residuals) ASTM D86
50% ASTM D86 95
90% ASTM D86 130
EP ASTM D86 165
Carbon Residue (Wt %) ASTM D524
Sulfur (ppm) ASTM D4045 181
Hydrogen (Wt %) ASTM D5291 15.989
Nitrogen (Wt ppm) ASTM D5291 <150
Total Ash (ppm) ASTM D482
Trace Metals (ppm)
Potassium <1.0
Vanadium <0.5
Lead <0.1
Other metals over 5 ppm
Aromatics (Vol %) UOP 880 or 727 9
Olefins (Vol %) UOP 880 1
Parafins (Vol%) 75

Page 68 of 98

LCO Analysis

Characteristic Test Method Value Limits

Lower Heating Value (LHV) ASTM D240 9700 kcal/kg
Higher Heating Value (HHV) ASTM D4809
Kinematic Viscosity (cSt), 20°C ASTM D445
Kinematic Viscosity (cSt), 40°C ASTM D445 2.5 – 5.0
Kinematic Viscosity (cSt), 100°C ASTM D445
Specific Gravity, 15°C ASTM D1298 0.94 – 0.975
Specific Gravity, 100°C ASTM D1298
Pour Point (°C) ASTM D97 0
Flash Point (°C) ASTM D93 75
Cold Filter Pour Point (°C) ASTM D6371
Distillation Range (Not on Residuals) ASTM D86
IBP ASTM D86 182
10% ASTM D86 228
30% ASTM D86 248
50% ASTM D86 274
70% ASTM D86 302
90% ASTM D86 333
95% ASTM D86 346
FBP ASTM D86 359
Carbon Residue (Wt %) ASTM D524 0.5
Sulfur (Wt %) IP 336 0.85
Hydrogen (Wt %) ASTM D5291 11.4
Nitrogen (ppm) ASTM D5291 725
Total Ash (ppm) ASTM D482 10
Trace Metals (ppm)
Sodium 0.5
Potassium 0.5
Vanadium 0.01
Calcium 1.0
Lead 0.5
Other metals over 5 ppm None
Sediment & Water (Vol %) ASTM D1796
Water (ppm) ASTM D1744/D95 1500
Filterable Dirt (mg/100 ml) ASTM D5452/D2276
Wax (Wt %)
Wax Melting Point (°C)
Cetane Index ASTM D976 20.93
Cetane Number ASTM D975 20
Aromatics (Wt %) UOP 880 or 727 77
Olefins (Wt %) UOP 880 2-7
Parafins (Wt%) 5 - 10

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Kerosene Fuel Analysis

Characteristic Test Method Value Limits

Lower Heating Value (LHV) ASTM D240 10,400 kcal/kg
Higher Heating Value (HHV) ASTM D4809 11,127 kcal/kg
Kinematic Viscosity (cSt), 20°C ASTM D445 1.6
Kinematic Viscosity (cSt), 30°C ASTM D445 1.4
Kinematic Viscosity (cSt), 40°C ASTM D445 1.2
Specific Gravity, 15.5°C ASTM D1298 0.804
Specific Gravity, 100°C ASTM D1298
Pour Point (°C) ASTM D97 -67
Flash Point (°C) ASTM D93 44
Cold Filter Pour Point (°C) ASTM D6371
Distillation Range (Not on Residuals) ASTM D86
IBP ASTM D86 144
10% ASTM D86 158
20% ASTM D86 165
40% ASTM D86 187
50% ASTM D86 195
60% ASTM D86 205
80% ASTM D86 229
90% ASTM D86 244
EP ASTM D86 267
Carbon Residue (Wt %) ASTM D524
Sulfur (Wt ppm) ASTM D4045 478
Hydrogen (Wt %) ASTM D5291 14
Nitrogen (Wt ppm ASTM D5291 4.0
Total Ash (ppm) ASTM D482 3.8
Trace Metals (ppm)
Sodium 0.4
Potassium 0.4
Vanadium <0.1
Calcium 0.4
Lead 0.02
Other metals over 5 ppm None
Sediment & Water (Vol %) ASTM D1796
Water (Wt ppm) ASTM D1744/D95 121
Filterable Dirt (mg/100 ml) ASTM D5452/D2276
Wax (Wt %)
Wax Melting Point (°C)
Cetane Index ASTM D976
Cetane Number ASTM D975
Aromatics (Vol %) UOP 880 or 727 27.5
Olefins as Bromine Index (mg / 100 g) 105

Page 70 of 98

Diesel Fuel Analysis:

Characteristic Test Method Value Limits

Lower Heating Value (LHV) ASTM D240
Higher Heating Value (HHV) ASTM D4809
Kinematic Viscosity (cSt), 20°C ASTM D445
Kinematic Viscosity (cSt), 40°C ASTM D445 2.0 – 4.5
Kinematic Viscosity (cSt), 100°C ASTM D445
Specific Gravity, 15°C ASTM D1298 0.845
Specific Gravity, 100°C ASTM D1298
Pour Point (°C) ASTM D97 3 / 15
Flash Point (°C) ASTM D93 66
Cold Filter Pour Point (°C) ASTM D6371 6 / 18
Distillation Range (Not on Residuals) ASTM D86
IBP ASTM D86 205
10% ASTM D86 275
30% ASTM D86 297
40% ASTM D86
50% ASTM D86 310
70% ASTM D86 323
90% ASTM D86 341
95% ASTM D86 360
EP ASTM D86 377
Carbon Residue (Wt %) ASTM D524 1.5
Sulfur (ppm) ASTM D4045 350
Hydrogen (Wt %) ASTM D5291 14.97
Nitrogen (ppm) ASTM D5291 <260
Total Ash (Wt%) ASTM D482 0.01
Trace Metals (ppm)
Potassium <1.0
Vanadium <0.5
Lead <1.0
Other metals over 5 ppm None
Sediments (Wt %) ASTM D1796 0.05
Water (Vol %) ASTM D1744/D95 0.05
Filterable Dirt (mg/100 ml) ASTM D5452/D2276
Wax (Wt %)
Wax Melting Point (°C)
Cetane Index ASTM D976 48
Cetane Number ASTM D975 51

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1.8 Start-up sequence on Liquid fuel:

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The Top block in the diagram is the interface data processor called < I > . It includes
monitor , key board and printer. Its main functions are driving the operator
displays , managing the alarm process and handling operator commands. < I >
also does the system configuration and down loaded , off-line diagnostics for
maintenance , and implements interface to remote operator stations and plant
distributed control systems.

The common data processor < C > collects the data for display , maintains the alarm
buffers , generates and keeps diagnostic data , and implements common I/O for non
critical signals and control actions Turbine supervisory sensors such as wheel space
thermocouples come directly to < C > . The < I > processor communicates with < C >
using peer-to-peer communication link which permits one or more < I > processors. <
C > gathers data from control processors by participating on voting link.

At the core of SPEEDTRONIC Mark-V control are three identical processors called <
R > , < S > , < T > . All critical control algorithms , turbine sequencing and primary
protective functions are handled by these processors. They also gathers data and
generates most of the alarms.

An independent protective module < P > is internally triple redundant. It accepts

speed sensors , flame detectors and potential transformer inputs to perform emergency
electronic over speed , flame detection and synchronizing functions. The hardware
voting for < P > solenoid outputs is accomplished on a trip card associated with the
module. The trip card merges trip contact signals from the emergency over speed , the
main control processors , manual trip push buttons and other hard wired customer

Over speed and synchronization functions are independently performed

In both triple redundant control and triple-redundant protective hardware, which
reduces the probability of machine over speed or out of phase synchronization to the
lowest availability values.

Common Terminology used in Gas turbine logics:

12# overspeed mechanism 77# Speed Sensor

20 # solenoid valve 88# Electric Motor
23# heating device 90# Modulating Valve
26# temperature switch 96# Pressure Transmitter
33# limit switch
39# vibration detector
43 # manual switch
45 # fire detector
49 # overload protection
63 # pressure switch
65# servo-valve
71 # level detecting system

Page 80 of 98

Main Protection of Gas Turbines:

The GT is tripped always through the master protective trip coil, L4T. The master
protective trip includes the following trips:

Protective Status Trip (L4PST): L45FTX, L45HH2, L63ETH, L63QTX, L63TFH,

L12HFD_C, L12HFD_P, L12H_ACC; L3SFLT (for details please check Device

Pre-Ignition Trip: (L4PRET): L3ACS, L27QEL, L28FDX.

Post Ignition Trip : (L4POST): L28FDT, L30SPT, L86TXT, L86TFB,


Starting Means trip : (L3SMT)

IGV trouble Trip : (L4IGVT)


L86TXT: Exhaust Over Temperature Trip:


TTXM > TTKOT1 (637oC)

L86TFB: Exhaust Thermocouples Open Trip:

TTXM < TTKXM4 (121oC) & Turbine Speed > 14HA.

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L30SPT: High exhaust temperature spread trip

S=TTXSPL = (0.145 x TTXM -0.08 x CTD + 16.7) OC.

S1=TTXSP1: Highest – Lowest read t/c.
S2=TTXSP2: Highest – 2nd lowest read t/c.
S3=TTXSP3: Highest – 3rd lowest read t/c.

Trip condition…with TD 9 sec.

S1>S & S2>0.8S, S1 & S2 are adjacent.

S1>5S (Bad TC) & S2>0.8S, S2 & S3 are adjacent.
S1, S2, S3 > S

Allowable Spread Calculation:


L28FDT: Loss of Flame trip :

If any flame sensor fails to detect a flame, (i.e. the flame intensity goes below 80
counts) it would generate an alarm as ‘Flame Detector Trouble’. If totally 3 flames
fail to detect the flame it would immediately trip the machine.

L39VT: Vibration High Trip / Fired Shutdown:

Vibration High Alarm Set Point : 12.7 mm/sec.

Vibration High High Trip Set Point : 25.4 mm/sec.

Trip: 1 Sensor Exceeds Alarm Level & 1 Sensor Exceeds Trip Level in Same

L12H: Electrical Overspeed Trip - HP

TNH > 110 % (TNKHOS)

L12HBLT_ALM : Over Speed Bolt Trip - HP

TNH > 113 % (12HA-1)

L12HFD_C: Control Speed Signal Trouble


L12HFD_P: Protective Module Over Speed Trouble – Trip

(TNH – TNH_OS) > 5% (TNKDIF)

L63ETH: Exhaust Duct Pressure High Trip:

2 out of 3 Trip Logic, (63ETA & 63ET1H / 63ET2H).

L63 ETA : 406 mmWC () - Alarm

L63 ET1H : 508 mmWC () - Trip
L63 ET2H : 508 mmWC () – Trip
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L63QT: Lube Oil Pressure Low Low Trip:

2 out of 3 Trip Logic, (63QA1 & 63QT2A / 63QT2B)

L63 QAL: 0.84 Kg/cm2 (↓) - Alarm

L63 QT2A: 0.56 Kg/cm2 (↓) - Trip
L63 QT2B: 0.56 Kg/cm2 (↓) - Trip

L63 QAL: 0.84 Kg/cm2 (63QA2) – AOP Start.

L63 QL2: 0.42 Kg/cm2 (63QL1) – EOP Start.

L26QT: Lube Oil Header Temperature High Trip

2 out of 3 Trip Logic, (26QA & 26QT1A / 26QT1B).

L26QA : 73.88 OC () - Alarm

L26QT1A : 79.44 OC () - Trip
L26QT1B : 79.44 OC () – Trip

L30BTT_ALM : Bearing Metal Temperature High Trip.

Any one Bearing Metal Temperature ≥ 139 oC.

BTKTRP1 to 16

L63HLL / L63HGL: Trip Oil Pressure Low-Low:

2 out of 3 Trip Logic. Separate Liquid and Gas fuel trip oil pressure switches are
provided and the trip would be exclusive for each fuel selection

For Liquid fuel For Gas fuel

L63 HL1L: 1.4 kg/cm2 (↓) & L63 HG1L: 1.4 kg/cm2 (↓) &
L63 HL2L: 1.4 kg/cm2 (↓) OR L63 HG2L: 1.4 kg/cm2 (↓) OR
L63 HL3L: 1.4 kg/cm2 (↓) L63 HG3L: 1.4 kg/cm2 (↓)

L45FTX: Fire Detection Trip:

Zone – 1: (320 oC) Zone-4: Gas valve module

Accessory Compartment
Turbine Compartment

Zone – 2: ( )
Load Gear compartment

Zone – 3: (80 & 100 oC)

Generator Auxiliary Compartment

The tripping is based upon detection by any 2-heat detectors in a single compartment
or the actuation of anyone of the field push buttons.
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L90TKL: Exh. Frame Cooling Air Pr. Low – Unload

Under this protection the machine unloads from whatever load condition and the
Generator Circuit Breaker opens on reverse power and machine remains at FSNL.
(2 out of 2 Logic).

L63 TK1L : 300 mmwc (↓) &

L63 TK2L : 300 mmwc (↓).

L63TFH: Inlet Air Filter DP High – Shutdown

2 out of 3 Trip Logic, (63TF1 & 63TF2A / 63TF2B).

L63 TF1 : 110 mmwc () - Alarm

L63 TF2A : 220 mmwc () - Trip
L63 TF2B : 220 mmwc () – Trip

L86CBT: Compressor bleed valve trouble trip

During Start-Up (before L14HS), if any of the compressor bleed valves ‘CLOSE’
limit switch feedback comes until turbine complete sequence is achieved, GT will trip
on Bleed valve position trouble.

Conversely, after shutdown command is issued and the bleed valve ‘OPEN’ feedback
doesn’t appear within 11 seconds, turbine will trip with the same alarm.

L4IGVT : IGV Control Trouble Trip

CSRGV – CSGV > 7.5O (during start-up)

Or CSGV < 52O, LK4IGVTX (after 14HS is established).

L2SFT: Start-up Fuel Flow Excessive Trip.

L2SF2L: While on liquid fuel, during start-up, if the liquid fuel flow divider speed
exceeds 15% below warm-up timer gets complete, machine will trip.

L2SF2G: While on Gas fuel selection, during start-up, if the GRV position feedback
exceeds 10% before establishment of any flame, machine will trip

L3SMT: Starting Device Trip

This function monitors the speed of the turbine shaft during startup. If the turbine
speed has decreased by more than the allowable setting (LK60BOG1= 5%), a time
delayed trip of the starting device and turbine is initiated. This trip is not enabled
during periods of coasting down from full crank speed for purge before firing.

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L63FLZ_ALM : Liquid Fuel Pr. Low.

Liq. Fuel Pr. < 1 Bar (63FL2). TD 3s.

L94GEN: Gen. Ventilation Trouble Shutdown

2 out of 3 Trip Logic

Stator RTD:
DTGSA5 ≥ 135 OC
DTGSA6 ≥ 135 OC


General :
The two pole generator uses direct air cooling for rotor winding and indirect cooling
for stator winding. The losses in the remaining generator components such as iron
losses , friction , windage losses and stray losses also dissipated through air.

Generator consists of following components.

• Stator
• Stator Frame
• Stator core
• Stator winding
• Stator end covers
• Rotor
• Rotor windings
• Rotor retaining rings
• Field connections
• Bearings
• Foundation frame
• Air filters
• Enclosure
• Generator Auxiliary Compartment

Cooling System :

The heat losses arising in the generator interior are dissipated to the cooling air which
is circulated through open circuit ventilation system cooling of rotor essentially
eliminates hot spots and differential temperatures between adjacent components
which could result in mechanical stresses. , particularly to the copper conductors ,
insulation and rotor body. Indirect cooling is used for the stator windings.
Air Cooling System:

The cooling air circulated in the generator interior by two axial flow fans arranged on
rotor shaft. Cold air is drawn by fans from atmosphere through air filters. The cooling
air is divided in three paths.

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Flow Path –I:

Path –I is directed into rotor end winding space and cools the rotor winding. Part of
cooling air flows past the individual coils for cooling the rotor end winding and then
leaves the end winding space via bores in the rotor teeth at the end of the rotor body.
The other option of cooling air flow is directed from rotor end winding space into the
slot bottom ducts from where it is discharged into the air gap via a large number of
radial ventilating slots in the coils and bores in the rotor wedges ,along these paths the
heat if the rotor winding is directly transferred to cooling air.

Flow Path – II

Path – II is directed over stator end winding to the cold air ducts and into the cold air
compartments in the stator frame space between the generator housing and stator core.
The cooling air then flows into the air gap through ventilation slot in the stator core
where it absorbs the heat from stator core and stator winding.

Flow Path – III

Path – III is directed into the air gap via rotor retaining ring. The air then flows past
the clamping fingers and mixes with hot air flowing via ventilating slot in the stator
core into the outer hot air compartment in the stator compartment in the stator frame
being returned to the coolers. The flow path mainly cools the rotor retaining rings,
ends of rotor body and the end portion of stator core. The three flows mixes in the air
gap. The cooling air flow radially outward through ventilating ducts in the core within
range of the hot air components for cooling further portions of the stator core and

Stator Frame:

The stator frame is of welded construction and supports the laminated core and the
windings. Both the air duct pipes and welded radial ribs provide the rigidity of the
stator frame. Footings are provided to the stator frame to support the stator on
foundation. The stator is firmly fixed to the skid with bolts to through the footing.

Stator Core :

The stator core is stacked from insulated electrical sheet-steel laminations with a low
loss index and suspended in the stator frame from insulated dovetailed guide bars.
Axial compression of the stator core is obtained by clamping fingers , pressure plates ,
and non-magnetic clamping bolts , which are insulated from the core. The clamping
fingers ensure a uniform clamping pressure , especially within the range of the teeth
and provide for uniform , intensive cooling of the stator core ends.

Construction :

The stator winding is a short pitch two-layer type consisting of individual bars located
in slots of rectangular cross-section which are uniformly distributed on the
circumference of the stator core.

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In order to minimize the losses, the bars are composed of separately insulated strands
which are transposed by 360 degrees

Resin-Rich High Voltage Insulation:

The high voltage insulation is provided according to proven “ Resin-rich mica base of
thermosetting Epoxy ‘ system. Several half –overlapped continuous layers of resin
rich mica tape are applied over the bars and the insulation is cured under temperature
and pressure in a precisely manufactured mould. The number of layers of thick ness
of the insulation depends on the machine voltage. The high voltage insulation
obtained is void free and characterized by its excellent electrical , mechanical and
thermal properties. Its moisture absorption is extremely low and oil resistant. The
behavior of insulation is far superior to any other conventional mica insulation

To minimize the corona discharge between the insulation and slot wall , a final coat of
semi conducting varnish is applied to the surface of all bars within the slot range.

In addition , all bars are provided with an end corona protection to control the electric
field at transition from the slot to the end winding and to prevent the formation of
creepage spark concentrations.

Stator Winding Protection:

To protect the stator winding against the effects of magnetizing forces due to load and
to ensure permanent firm seating of the bars in the slot during operation , the bars are
inserted with very small lateral clearances , a curing slot bottom equalizing strip , and
top ripple spring located beneath the slot wedge. In the end windings , the stator
winding is firmly lashed to supporting brackets with neoprene rubber coated glass
sleeves. Spaces Blocks arranged between the bars ensure a short-circuit-proof support
structure. The stator winding is connected in the generator interior. The stator winding
connections are brought out to output leads located at exciter end.

Rotor Shaft :

The rotor shaft is a single piece solid forging manufactured from a vacuum cast steel
ingot. Slots for insertion of field winding are milled into rotor body. The longitudinal
slots are distributed over the circumference so that two solid poles are obtained.

To ensure that only high quality forging are used , strength tests , material analysis ,
and ultrasonic tests are performed during manufacture of the rotor.

After completion , the rotor is balanced in various planes at different speeds and then
subjected to an over speed test at 20 % of rated speed for two minutes.

Rotor Winding and Rotor Retaining Rings :

The rotor winding consists of several coils which are inserted into the slots and series-
connected such that two coil groups form one pole. Each coil consists of several series
connected turns which are connected by brazing in the end section.
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The rotor winding consists of silver-bearing copper ensuring an inserted thermal


The individual turns of the coils are insulated against each other by interlayer
insulation. L-shaped strips of laminated epoxy glass fiber fabric with Nomex filler are
used for slot insulation. The slot wedges are made of high electrical conductivity
material and thus act as damper winding. At their ends the slot wedges are short-
circuited through the rotor body. The centrifugal forces of the rotor end winding are
contained by single-piece rotor retaining rings. Retaining rings are made of non
magnetic high strength steel in order to reduce stray losses. Each retaining ring with
its shrink fitted hub is shrunk on to the rotor body in an overhung position. The
retaining ring is secured in the axial position by a snap ring.

Field Connections and Multi-Contacts:

The field current is supplied to the rotor through multi-contact system arranged at the
exciter side shaft end.

The generator rotor is supported in two sleeve bearings. To Eliminate shaft currents
the exciter end bearing is insulated from the foundation frame and oil piping. The
temperature of each bearing is monitored with two RTDs embedded in the lower
bearing sleeve so that the measuring point is located directly below the babbitt.
Measurement and any required recording of temperature are performed in conjunction
with the turbine supervision. All bearings , have provisions for fitting vibration pick-
ups to monitor shaft vibrations.

The oil supply to the bearing is obtained form turbine oil system.

Exciter :

The exciter consists of

• Rectifier Wheels
• Three-phase main exciter
• Three-phase pilot exciter
• Metering and supervisory equipment.
The three phase pilot exciter has revolving field with permanent magnet poles. The
three phase AC is fed to the field of revolving-armature main exciter via stationary
regulator and rectifier unit. The three phase AC induced in the rotor of main exciter is
rectified by rotating rectifier bridge and fed to the field winding of the generator rotor
through the DC lead in the rotor shaft.

A common shaft carries the rectifier wheels , the rotor of the main exciter and
permanent magnet rotor of the pilot exciter. The shaft is rigidly coupled to the
generator rotor and supported on end shield. The generator and exciter rotor are thus
supported on a total of three bearings. Mechanical coupling of the two shaft
assemblies results in simultaneous coupling of the DC leads in the central shaft bore
through the MULTICONTACT electrical contact system consisting of plug-in bolts
and sockets. This contact system is also designed to compensate for length variations
of the leads due to thermal and sockets. This contact systems is also designed to
compensate for length variations of the leads due to thermal expansion.
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Rectifier wheels :

The main components of the rectifier wheels are silicon diodes , which are arranged in
the rectifier wheels in a three phase bridge circuit. The contact pressure for the silicon
wafer is produced by a plate spring assembly. The arrangement of diode is such that
this contact pressure is increased by the centrifugal force during rotation.

One diode each is mounted in each light metal heat sink and thus connected in parallel
, associated with each diode is a fuse which serves to switch off the diode if it falls
( Loss of reverse blocking capability ). The R-C ( Resistance –Capacitance ) net work
is also provided for suppression of momentary voltage peaks arising from
commutation , each wheel.

The insulated and shrink fitted wheels serve as a DC bus for negative and positive
side of rectifier bridge. This arrangement ensures good accessibility of all components
and minimum circuit connections.

The three phase alternating current is obtained via copper conductors arranged on the
shaft circumference between rectifier wheels and the three phase main exciter . The
conductors are attached by means of banding clips and equipped with screw –on lugs
for internal diode connection. One three phase conductor is provide for each diode.
The conductor originate at bus ring system of main exciter.

Three Phase Pilot Exciter :

The three phase pilot exciter is a six pole revolving-field unit. The frame
accommodates the laminated core with the three phase winding. The rotor consists of
a hub with mounted poles. Each pole consists of separate permanent magnets which
are housed in a non-magnetic metallic enclosure. The magnets are braced between the
hub and the external pole shoe with bolts. The rotor hub is shrunk onto the free shaft

Three Phase Main Exciter :

The three phase main exciter is a six pole revolving armature unit. Arranged in a
frame are poles with the field and damper winding. The filed winding is arranged on
laminated magnetic poles. At the pole shoe , bars are provided which are connected to
form a damper winding. Between two poles a quadrature-axis coil is fitted for
inductive measurement of the field current.

The rotor consists of stacked laminations which are compressed by through bolts over
compression rings. The three phase winding is inserted in the slots of laminated rotor.
The winding is inserted in the slots of laminated rotor. The winding conductors are
transposed within the core length , and the end turns of rotor winding are secured with
steel bands. The connections are made on the side facing the rectifier wheels , the
winding ends are run to a bus ring system to which three phase leads leading to the
rectifier wheels are also connected. After full impregnation with synthetic resin and
curing , the complete rotor is shrunk onto the shaft.

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Gas Turbine generator comprises following protections.

Following generator protections are handled by LGPG relay.

• Differential Protections
• Over current
• Reverse Power
• Over frequency
• Under frequency
• Negative phase sequence
• Neutral displacement
• Stand-by earth fault
• Low forward power
• PT failure
• Over voltage
• Field failure

Following Generator-Transformer protections are handled by KBCH relay.

• Over all differential

• Restricted earth fault
• Over fluxing
• Transformer alarm
• Transformer trip

Following Transformer protection is handled by KCGG relay.

• Transformer Stand-by Earth fault

Following Generator protection is handled by M2TU-34 relay.

• Back-up Impedance

Following Generator protection is handled by MYTU-34 relay.

• Pole slipping
Following Generator protection is handled by 64F MRSU04 relay.

• Rotor Earth fault

Differential Protection :

This protection protects the generator against winding faults i.e. phase to phase and
phase to ground fault.

This protections checks the current across the generator windings , summation of
current should always be zero theoretically for normal operation.
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External Faults :

This protection does not respond to external fault and overloads , as in case of
external fault current sent by Upstream and down-stream CT will be zero hence relay
will not operate.

Internal Faults :

On the contrary it will respond to internal fault ( One phase earthed ) , here current
sent by upstream and down stream CT will not be zero hence relay will operate.

Thus ,this protection provides complete protection against phase to phases faults and
internal faults.

This protection provides protection against ground faults to about 80 – 85 % age of

generator winding. It does not provide 100 % protection of windings because it is
influenced by magnitude of earth fault current which depends up on method of

Restricted Earth Faults :

When neutral is solidly grounded , it is possible to protect complete generator

windings against phase to ground faults , but generally neutral is earthed through and
impedance to limit the earth fault current.

This scheme provides generator windings only against ground faults. It does not
protects against phase faults.

For this reason this protection is also termed as restricted earth fault.

For protecting generator winding by 100 % Restricted earth fault relay is used.

Negative Phase Sequence :

The negative sequence currents in stator , resulting from unbalance loading , produces
a reaction field rotating at twice synchronous speed with respect to rotor and induce
double frequency currents in the rotor. This current is very large and result in severe
heating of rotor , therefore amount of negative sequence current existing for any
appreciable time must be strictly restricted.

The length of time that a generator is allowed to operate with unbalance stator current
without danger of permanent damage is obtained from equation I22 x T=K where
K is constant depending up on the machine. While I2 is the negative phase sequence
current over time T second.

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Pole Slipping :
In case of system disturbances after operation of circuit breaker or when any heavy
load throw off , the generator rotor may oscillate. Consequently variations in current ,

voltage and power factor may take place. Such oscillation may disappear in few
seconds , therefore in such situation tripping is not desirable. In some cases angular
displacement of rotor exceeds the stability limit and rotor slips a pole , If disturbance
is over , generator may regain it’s synchronism.

Alternative approach is to trip the field and allow the machine to run as asynchronous
machine , thereby removing the oscillations from the machine.

Loss of Excitation :

Failure of the field system results in a generator operating above synchronous speed
as an induction generator , drawing a magnetizing current from the system> provided
the system is capable of supplying additional reactive power for excitation , which
can be greater than full load rating of the machine there is no risk of system instability
, However over loading of stator and over heating of rotor result from continuous
operation , therefore machine should be disconnected and shut-down if the field can
not be restored.

Stator Earth fault :

When a generator is earthed through high impedance to limit fault current ,

differential protection does not protect 100 % of stator winding against the earth fault.
Hence a separate sensitive earth fault protection is required.

Following two methods are normally used for grounding a generator neutral.
• Neutral connected through resistor which limits the earth fault current
to much lower value than full load current.
• Neutral is grounded through voltage transformer. The earth fault
current is limited to magnetizing current of VT plus zero sequence current of
In resistance earthing two earth fault relays may be provided on secondary side of
neutral CT.

The first earth fault relay is set at 10 % and is of instantaneous type. The second earth
fault relay is set at 5 % i.e. relay will pick-up when earth fault current is 5 % of full
load current.

Depending up on the sensitivity , the first earth fault relay would protect about 90
% of stator winding and second earth fault relay will protect about 95 % of stator

When neutral is connected through voltage transformer , the rated primary voltage of
VT is generally equal to phase to neutral voltage of generator. The grounding resistor
is connected to secondary of grounding transformer and relay is connected across the

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resistor. During the ground fault , when a set voltage develops across the resistor , the
relay operates. The setting of relays is 10 % of rated secondary voltage of VT.

Rotor Earth Fault :

Single earth fault on the field winding or in the generator circuit of generator is not in
itself very danger to the machine. If second earth fault develops , part of field winding
will short circuited resulting in magnetic unbalance of field system with subsequent
mechanical damage to the machine bearings.

Three methods are available for rotor earth fault protection.

• Potentiometer Method
• A.C. Injection Method
• D.C. Injection Method

Potentiometer Method

This scheme comprises a central tapped resistor connection in parallel with the main
field winding. The center point of the resistor is connected to earth through over
voltage relay.

Thus , any earth fault on the field winding will produce a voltage across the relay
terminals , maximum voltage occurring for faults at extreme end of winding ,
reducing to aero for faults at the center of winding.

A.C. Injection Method

It comprises an auxiliary transformer , one side of the secondary being earthed , the
other end being connected via a relay and capacitor in series to either the start or
finish of main field winding

When an earth fault occurs the relay circuit is completed , the current through the
relay being independent of the exciter voltage and the function only of the fault

D.C. Injection Method

This method is similar to AC injection method , and comprises a transformer /

rectifier bridge , the positive DC node of the bridge being earthed , the other node
being connected via relay and limiting resistor to the positive end of main field



Safety is everyone's business. It is to be noted that GTs were operating safely for the
last few decades. By observing the following few simple precautions one can have
safe and happy operations of GT throughout its life period.

Page 93 of 98
Proper installation, operation and maintenance are essential for safe and reliable
operation. Precautions taken should consist of but not limited to, hearing protection,
eye protection, protective clothing as required for the task being performed.

When replacing instrumentation, always isolate the instrument with root valves and
release the pressure with the instrument vent or the blow off line.

CAUTION: do not try to repair an instrument when under pressure. Isolate the
instruments by closing the tandem valves and make sure that the valves are holding.
After this, drain the line if possible and then only try to remove the instrument.


Whenever outage of GT for major upgrades or maintenance require the a positive

isolation of fuel flow going to the fuel system .

CO2 extinguishing system should be isolated as it should not release due to any mal
operation as same can affect the people working around.

Gas Turbine should be sufficiently cooled down to appropriate temperatures so that

working manpower can comfortably work.

Gas Turbine Control system Mark-V power supply should be switched off after
stopping lube oil system.

Ensure all the required blinding , isolation before releasing Gas Turbines for
combustion inspection , Hot Gas Path Inspection or Overhauling.

Walk Down check Off:

One of the most important benefits of a "WALK DOWN CHECK OFF" of a Gas
Turbine is derived from the operator keeping his eyes and ears open for any unusual
conditions and reporting his findings to his supervisor. Potential damage to equipment
can be avoided if abnormal conditions are detected in time.

The following are some of the items that an operator should be looking for:


1. Look for unusual traces of fuel , oil water on the floor or leaking from fuel lines .

2. Ensure that entire fuel is drained out from the system..

3. Be on the look out for any unusual condition (discoloration, hot spots etc.) on Gas
Turbine parts.

4. Check for unusual noises overheating of bearings and adequate lubrication of all
driven motor and equipments.

Daily checks
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The following are some specific items that should be observed at least once a day:

• Look for leaks in fuel system.

• Check for rubbing noise.
• Look for lube oil level & leaks.
• Look for any air leak
• Look for any hot gas leak.

Gas Cylinders :

In the refinery complex chlorine, ammonia, CO2, Oxygen, acetylene and other inert
gases are supplied, transported and used in cylinders. They are basically two types of
containers used for the supply of these gases. The cylinders are small containers with
net carrying capacity of 30 kgs to 100 kgs. The bigger containers are having a
capacity of 900 kgs to 1000 kgs and are generally termed as tonners. For handling
compressed gas cylinders, one should be thoroughly conversant with properties and
characteristics of these gases. There are several precautions and safe practices, which
should be taken care of considering the nature of the gas and the pressure to which the
cylinders are subjected.

Handling, storage and transport of the cylinders are covered under gas cylinder rules
1981. Some of the precautions to be taken while handling and storing are given
1. Cylinder shall be stored in a cool, dry, well ventilated place under cover away
from Gas Turbines, open flames, steam pipes or any potential sources of heat and
such place of storage shall be easily accessible.

2. The storage room or shed shall be fire resistant construction.

3. Cylinder containing flammable gases and toxic gases shall be kept separated from
each other and from cylinders containing other type of gases by an adequate
distance or by suitable partition wall.

4. Cylinder shall not be stored under conditions, which cause them to corrode.

5. Empty cylinders shall be segregated from the filled ones and care shall be taken
that all the valves are tightly shut.

6. Cylinders shall not be stored along with any combustible materials.

7. Oxidizing gas cylinders should be stored away from the flammable gas cylinders.

8. Cylinders should be kept in vertical position with chains.

9. They should be transported only on the cylinder trolley.

10. It should not be allowed to collide and rolled on the ground.

11. Colour of the gas cylinders is standardized as per IS code. Hence it should nor
never be painted with any colour other than specified.

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12. Welding any gas cutting of any cylinders is prohibited.

13. Magnet should not be used for lifting cylinders.

14. Cylinders having corrosive, toxic gas must be stored in an open godown.

15. While unloading the cylinders from the tricks, it should not be dropped from the

16. The cylinders kept must be always fixed to avoid any damage to the cylinder

Fire Hydrant System

There is a four pumps three diesel engine driven and one is the motor driven pump
called a jockey pump which maintain the fire net-work hydrant pressure 10.5 Kg/cm2.
Jockey pump start stop automatically as per the hydrant pressure it will start at
8Kg/cm2 and stop at 10.5Kg/cm2 (g). If the hydrant valves open to extinguish the fire
water flow is not sufficient then the header pressure drop then Diesel engine driven
pump No. C, No. B, No. A will start at header pressure 7,6,5Kg/cm2(g) respectively.
Fire hydrant net work drawing is attached herewith

Fire water is not to be used for extinguishing fire in Gas Turbine.

Portable DCP fire extinguishers are provided around the Gas Turbine like for
extinguish the fire chance of firing near a fuel firing skid. Location of the DCP type
portable fire extinguisher shown in sketch here attached with.


Hazard operability (HAZOP) and hazard analysis (HAZAN) by definition are “ the
application of a formal systematic critical examination to the process and engineering
intentions in order to assess the hazard potential due to the malfunction of individual
equipment effect or facility as a whole”

HAZOP Study:

It is the application of guidewords in systematic and critical study of a process or

engineering intentions. This step enables us to discover the following

• conceivable and meaningful deviations

• their causes
• visualize their consequent hazard potential
• Methods to eliminate or mitigate hazards by suggesting suitable hardware or
software modifications.

The guide words are in the list below

• No Flow
• Less Flow

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• Reverse Flow
• Less Temperature
• High Temperature
• Low Pressure
• High Pressure
• As Well As
• Other Than Etc.

These guide words stimulate the persons to discover the deviations from design &
operating intentions of the plant. / System. Annalists use std HAZOP sheets to study ,
record the findings and suggesting solutions (recomm). A team consisting of
engineers from the disciplines of project, process, instrument and others with requisite
know how handle HAZOP studies.

Their start from the conceptualization and continue till plant commissioning. HAZOP
studies may be require even in running plants.

HAZOP analysis

Hazard analysis is the term that describe the application of numerical methods to
solve safety problems, which consists of three stages

1. estimating how often the incident will occur

2. Note the consequences of the incident on the employees plants and profit. Use
past experience as applicable

3. Comparing the results of (1) and (2) action taken to minims the probability of
occurrence or consequences of the hazard.

Accident Fire or explosion of various types as discussed below causes most of the
accidents in the HC industry. There are basic requirements for a fire or an explosion
to occur, namely fuel, air and source of ignition.

Fire and gas detection systems:

The system detects fire or gas release and initiates audible and visual alarm in the
main control room. This helps in immediate fire fighting and eliminating problems

Types of fire detectors:

Combined UV and IR detectors:

The wavelength of radiation from a flame in the UV-IR range. Light hydrocarbons
and coke forms the two extreme ends of the flame category. H to C ratio of the fuel is
the factor for the characteristics of a flame like colour and smoke depend on the ratio
of H to C. fuels of low hydrogen burn with a highly smoky flame. UV-IR detectors
installed in process areas detect all flames except those smoky. These devices are very
reliable and hence a single detector for each point is adequate.

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Smoke Detectors :
There are two kinds of smoke detectors. Ionization type and optical type> they are
placed in areas where the flame will be smoky. The smoke hides the flame and
renders the UV-IR detectors ineffective. Hence UV-IR are not suitable for such areas.

Heat Detectors :
These kind of detect are placed in areas like tank farms etc.

Flammable Gas Detectors :

These detect leaks of flammable gases. The detect initiate alarms if the flammable gas
vapors are present in a certain percentage toxic gas detector. These detect the
presence of toxic gases such as SO2 and CO2. They are semiconductor devices
immune to poisoning. The detectors are placed at a height of 1.5 meter, the breathing
zone of human beings.

Active Fire Protection system :

RPL has an extensive fire fighting system all ovens the plant and port facilities to
effectively fight fires should one occur. This way damage to equipments and injuries
are prevented. The following facilities are available.

Fire Hydrants:
These are useful to fight major fires. All plant units have these located 30 meter apart
at various points. The height of the hydrant is usually one meter from the ground the
most comfortable height for attaching a fire hose. The diameter of the hydrant outlet
is 63mm and pressure is 5,25kg/cm2 and the water flow is 600lit / min.

Fire Hose Reel:

This is a primary fire fighting equipment to fight primary fires. It is a wall mounted
drum with hose wound on it. One end of the hose connects to the water source and the
other end has a nozzle.

Fixed Type Water Monitor: fighting fire in tanks and vessels will take a long time.
Fixed type water monitors are handy to fight such long duration major fires. These are
located around the vessels and tanks. Their rotation capability of 360 deg in
horizontal direction 90 deg in vertical plane (+75 to –15) and jet of 7 kg/cm2
discharging 2400 lit/min reaching a height of 45 m is a boon to fire fighters.

DCP (Dry Chemical Powder)

It is a primary fire fighting equipment and placed in open field to fight small fires (a B
C type) these are not fit for office purposed as it affects the electronic devises.

CO2 Extinguisher
It is also a primary fire fighting equipment and used to small fire. It does not affect
electronic equipments. Thorough aeration is necessary after the fighting.

Deluge and sprinkler system:

These system id installed near

• Non insulated vessels containing more than 7.5 m3 of flammable liquids.

• manifold handling flammable liquids
• LPG spheres
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