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Master of Arts in Education
Curriculum Development

1. What is curriculum? How does philosophy or beliefs influence curriculum? Why revision of
curriculum necessary? For what reason?

A curriculum can be defined as a plan for action or a written document that includes strategies
for achieving desired goals or ends. (Tyler, 1949). 2) A curriculum usually contains a statement of aims
and specific objectives. It indicates some selection and organization of content; it either implies or
manifests certain patterns of learning and teaching… finally it includes a programme of evaluation of the
outcomes. (Taba, 1962, p. 10). 3) …a plan for providing sets of learning opportunities for persons to be
educated. (Saylor, 1981). 4) Curriculum is an organized set of formal education and/or training
intentions. (Pratt, 1980). 5) …a plan for learning whereby objectives determine what learning is
important. (Wiles & Bondi). 6) Curriculum is the planned experiences offered to the learners under the
guidance of the school. (Wheeler, 1983). 7) The curriculum consists of the ongoing experiences of
children under the guidance of the school. It represents a special environment for helping children
achieve self-realization through active participation within the school. (Shepherd & Ragan). 8) …a
programme the school offers to its students … a preplanned series of educational hurdles … an entire
range of experiences a child has within school. (Eisner, 1975). 9) The planned and guided learning
experiences and intended outcomes, formulated through the systematic reconstruction of knowledge
and experience, under the auspices of the school, for the learner’s continuous and willful growth in
personal-social competence. (Tanner & Tanner).

The theories of learning as propounded by different educational psychologists influence

curriculum specialists during the development stages of the curriculum in a variety of ways starting from
the planning and design of the curriculum where they essentially consider ingredients in the curriculum
development process based on the perceptions of learners and how they learn. Before the detailed
construction of a curriculum document occurs, curriculum developers are involved in planning and
designing their proposed curriculum. Curriculum planning is a process whereby curriculum developers
conceptualize and organize the features of the curriculum they wish to construct. This involves a broad
analysis of the curriculum intent and context (what you wish to achieve), conceptualizing the
curriculum's design (what it will look like), organizing the sequencing of developmental tasks (how to
construct the curriculum) and arranging for the process of implementation and evaluation.

A strong belief or philosophy is needed in order for a curriculum to exist. An educational

institution cannot exist with curriculum as it is the heart of education.

2. What is implication of an ever changing curriculum? Why revision of curriculum necessary? For
what reason?

The primary implication of a changing curriculum for teachers is that they must learn the new
curriculum. It also means in many cases that they will need to gain knowledge in the new parts of the
curriculum. That means they will need to attend professional development sessions or return to school.
Often this comes on the teacher's dime. Depending on how the curriculum is changed teachers may
have to change the way they teach. Most of the time a change in curriculum is a good thing. Most often
the curriculum is changed to address the changing needs and abilities of the students.
The implication of an ever changing curriculum to teachers is that it serves as an another
opportunity for the teacher to develop her strategies and method of teaching.

Curriculum revision is being considered or is in process at most nursing programs across the
country in response to the dynamic changes occurring in the health care industry. Any curriculum
revision process necessarily causes a variety of faculty responses ranging from uneasiness to active
resistance. Nursing curricula can be viewed as an extension of the faculty's psychological self,
collectively and individually. Focusing on curriculum revision as a process of transition, rather than
change, may assist faculty to more readily engage in the thinking necessary to develop a new curriculum
for the 21st century. The outcomes of curriculum revision with planned strategies based on the process
of transition include new curricula, redefined individual and faculty collective self, a renewed sense of
psychological effectiveness, and role and environmental mastery and well-being.

3. Institutions that hold on to the subject-centered approach make robots of the children, those that
embrace the child – centered, discipline are weak.

Schools that adhere to the subject-centered approach make robots out of children. I agree to
that statement, because based on what I've read about the subject-centered approach is a kind of
strategy that most of the thoughts of the teachers came from the book, this design corresponds mostly
to the textbook. Most of the school using this kind of structure aims for excellence in the subject matter
content. But come to think of it, children are also human beings, they have feelings & emotions too. Yes,
they are right in some ways, that they want the children to learn but not in that kind of way. You must
teach them with love for them to be motivated to learn on themselves. Learners are not passive
individuals but one who engages with his/her environment. :) In a subject-centered approach to
curriculum, each content area contains its own set of skills and concepts for mastering that content. For
example, in science, students learn about the scientific method and science-related vocabulary. This
knowledge is then used when students conduct experiments and investigations. In English, students are
taught grammatical rules which they will need to produce appropriate written products. Teachers in
these subject areas are specialists in their content.

In schools which embrace the child-centered approach, discipline is weak. The students become
dependent and they will just wait/contented of what the teacher can give to them. The learners turn to
a lazy one...''spoonfeeding'' is the best term for this.

4. Why do we involve key players , stakeholders in crafting the curriculum? How do these support for
the formulation?

Parents  the best supporters of the school, especially because they are the ones spending for their
child’s education  the power of parents to influence curricula to include instructional materials and
school activities is great, such that the success of the curricula would depend on their support. How do
parents shape the curriculum and why they are considered as stakeholders? Effective parental
involvement in school affairs maybe linked to parent educational programs which is central to high
quality educational experiences of the children. The parents involvement extends from the confine of
the school to the homes. In most schools the Parent Association is organized.

Community Members  success in the implementation of the curriculum requires resources 

the community members and materials in the existing local community can very well substitute for what
is needed to implement the curriculum  respected community members maybe included in school
boards  some can become resource speakers  they can provide local and indigenous knowledge in
school curriculum
5. How would you describe the BEC, RBEC and K-12 curricula? If you are to choose among the three (3)
curricula which do you favor most & why?

The Department of Education is implementing this school opening the 2002 Basic Education
Curriculum (BEC). 2. It is the product of 16 years of study conducted under the various DepEd
secretaries (Lourdes Quisumbing, Isidro Cariño, and Bro. Andrew Gonzalez).Jun 17, 2002. The 2002 Basic
Education Curriculum is a restructuring and not a sweeping change of the elementary and secondary
curricula (NESC and NSEC). This document presents the goals of the curriculum, the rationale for its
restructuring and its philosophy, basic features and conceptual framework. Legal Bases for Philippines
Basic Education. The goal, objectives, structures and content of the 2002 Curriculum are in compliance
with the 1987 Constitution of the republic of the Philippines, the 2001 Governance of Basic Education
Act, and the 1982 Education Act.

The Revised Basic Education Curriculum (RBEC) is on its 7th year of implementation this school
year 2005-2006 with slight modifications, with emphasis to rubrics/student performance as basis of
grading system. Teachers are required to prepare their syllabus based on the objectives of the revised
Basic Education Curriculum. Lesson plans were also patterned and organized to meet the objectives
of the implemented curriculum. All test items; tables of specifications were prepared and/or
updated. Demonstration teachings were conducted for staff development during school level workshop.
Department heads make periodic observation of classes to monitor the implementation of the
RBEC. Integration method, collaborative teaching, peer teaching, team teaching, motor activities, visual
as well as oral activities in classes were noted and observed. Mentoring is also being practiced. This is
the reason why among the three curricula I favored most to RBEC.

` The K to 12 Program covers Kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary
education, four years of Junior High School, and two years of Senior High School [SHS]) to provide
sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for
tertiary education, 

6. What is curriculum evaluation? What are its criteria? Who are involved in the evaluation?

The multiple educational evaluation models and definitions developed by evaluation theorists
reflect the diversity of ideas and approaches towards educational evaluation. The diverse meanings and
definitions of the evaluation concept includes viewing evaluation as an assessment of the worth or merit
of some educational objects (Stufflebeam, 2000a, 2000b; Trochim, 2006); assessment of the
achievement of objectives which is also known as the Tylerian view of evaluation (Madaus &
Stufflebeam, 2000); and proving the success or failure of a programme. Curriculum evaluation is seen as
a sub model and the final component in the curriculum process in Razali Arof’s (1991) and Oliva’s (1992)
curriculum development model. Oliva’s (1992) curriculum model conceptualized four main components
– curriculum goals, curriculum objectives, organization and implementation of the curriculum, and
evaluation of the curriculum.

the objectives of the curriculum or teaching plan are the most important curriculum criteria, but
aside from that it must be addressed and attaining the following questions: 1. Does the curriculum or
teaching plan include alternative activities for learning? 2. Have the different learning theories have
been considered in planning alternative learning approaches and activities? and lastly but not the least,
has the significance rewarded responses, transfer, generalization, advance organizers, self concept,
meaningfulness of the whole, personal meaning, imitation, identification and socialization been
considered in the planning?
7. Give your operational definition of monitoring, assessment strategies and recording tools used by
teachers? Why are these important?

is a process that helps improving performance and achieving results. Its goal is to improve
current and future management of outputs, outcomes and impact. Teachers need to assess students’
understanding of what they are learning and then use that information to adjust instruction. Remember,
assessment does not mean a “test”— there are many different ways to learn about student strengths
and weaknesses, identify specific learning needs, and collect feedback on the effectiveness of
instruction. Providing formative classroom assessment is important for meeting student achievement
goals. The more a teacher knows about what the students know and don’t know, the better the teacher
can change instruction to address student learning needs. Recording is the process of documenting the
observed activity or behavior. Although many teachers do this naturally a systematic approach helps
ensure that children are observed participating in many different activities over time. Teachers'
observations must be sensitive and detailed. Young children are often unable to express in words what
they express in action. A child might express frustration by throwing the paper on the floor when he
cannot cut with scissors. A big smile might be the only indication we have that a child has climbed to the
top of the slide for the first time.

We need to monitor and record the progress of students within the classroom. appreciate the need
to develop a personalized and structured approach to each learner’s learning and development .
Understand how, on the basis of the needs of their learners, to be able to set challenging learning
objectives. Demonstrate the ability to set challenging learning targets that aid their personalized
approach to supporting learning.

8. The present classroom teacher should be innovative in applying the new curriculum directions.
Today’s & future teachers should embrace these innovations.

Innovation is the spark of insight that leads a scientist or inventor to investigate an issue or
phenomenon. That insight is usually shaped by an observation of what appears to be true or the creative
jolt of a new idea. Innovation is driven by a commitment to excellence and continuous improvement.
Innovation is based on curiosity, the willingness to take risks, and experimenting to test assumptions.
Innovation is based on questioning and challenging the status quo. It is also based on recognizing
opportunity and taking advantage of it.

In the world of education, innovation comes in many forms. There are innovations in the way education
systems are organized and managed, exemplified by charter schools or school accountability systems.
There are innovations in instructional techniques or delivery systems, such as the use of new
technologies in the classroom. There are innovations in the way teachers are recruited, and prepared,
and compensated. The list goes on and on.

In the Office of Innovation and Improvement, part of our mission is to identify, support and
promote innovative practices in education. This presents some challenges. By their very nature,
innovations are new and untested. Therefore, it is unreasonable to expect that innovations be evidence-
based. At the same time, the education field has a long history of promoting fads and nostrums that
turned out to be, at the least, ineffectual, and at the worst, harmful to children; we don't want to
contribute to that disease either.

So how can we responsibly promote untested, unproven, but innovative practices? And how can we
encourage the inventors of innovations to start developing an evidence base so that over time these
interventions can be held up to scrutiny and hopefully demonstrate their effectiveness?