You are on page 1of 7

CODES OF ETHICS WSM-090428

The Hippocratic Oath

I swear by Apollo Physician and Asclepius and Hygieia and


Panaceia and all the goddesses, making them my witness, that
I will fulfill according to my ability and judgment this oath
and this covenant. To hold him who has taught me this art as
equal to my parents and to live my life in partnership with
him, and if he is in need of money to give him a share of
mine, and to regard his offspring as equal to my brothers in
male lineage and to teach them this art-if they desire to learn
it-without fee and covenant; to give a share of precepts and
oral instruction and all other learning to my sons and to the
sons of him who has instructed me and to pupils who have signed
the covenant and have taken an oath according to the medical
law, but to no one else.
1. I will apply dietetic measures for the benefit of the sick
according to my ability and judgment; I will keep them from
harm and injustice. 2. I will neither give a deadly drug to
anybody if asked for it, nor will I make a suggestion to
this effect. Similarly I will not give to woman an abortive
remedy. In purity and holiness I will guard my life and my
art. 3. I will not use the knife, not even on sufferers from
stone, but will withdraw in favor of such men as are engaged
in this work. 4. Whatever houses I may visit, I will come for
the benefits of the sick, remaining free of all intentional
injustice, of all mischief and in particular of sexual
relations with both female and male persons, be the free or
slaves. 5. What I may see or hear in the course of the
treatment or even outside of the treatment in regard to the
life of men, which on no account one must spread abroad, I will
keep to myself holding such things shameful to be spoken about.
6. If I fulfill this oath and do not violate it, may it be
granted to me to enjoy life and art, being honored with fame
among all men for all time to come; if I transgress It and
swear falsely, may the opposite of all this be my lot.

Patient's Bill of Rights

The American Hosp.Association presents a pt's Bill of Rights


with the expectation that observance of these rights will
contribute to more effective pt care and greater satisfaction
for the pt, his ph, and the hosp. organization. Further, the
Association presents these rights in the expectation that they
will be supported by the hosp. on behalf of its pts, as an
integralpart of the healing process. It is recognized that a
personal relationship between the ph and the pt is essential for
the provision of proper med.care. The traditional ph-pt
relationship takes on a new dimension when care is rendered
within an organizational structure. Legal precedent has
established that the institution itself also has a esponsibility
to the pt. It is in recognition of these factors that these
factors that these rights are affirmed.

1. The pt has the right to considerate and respectful care.


2. The pt has the right to obtain from his ph complete
current information concerning his diagnosis, treatment,
and prognosis in
terms the pt can be reasonably expected to understand. When it
is not medically advisable to give such information to the
pt, the information should be made available to an appropriate
person in his behalf. He has the right to know by name, the ph
responsible for coordinating his care. 3. The pt has the
right to receive from his ph information necessary to give
informed consent prior to the start of any procedure
and/or treatment. Except in emergencies, such information
for informed consent, should include but not necessarily be
limited to the specific procedure and/or treatment, the
medically significant risks involved, and the probable
duration of incapacitation. Where medically significant
alternatives for care or treatment exist, or when the pt
requests information concerning medical alternatives, the pt
has the right to such information. The pt also has
the right to know the name of the person responsible for
the
procedures and/or treatment. 4. The pt has the right to
refuse treatment to the extent permitted by law, and to be
informed of the medical consequences of his action. 5. The pt
has the right to every consideration of his privacy concerning
his own medical are program. Case discussion, consultation,
examination, and treatment are confidential and should be
conducted discreetly. Those not directly involved in his care
must have the permission of the pt to be present. 6. The pt
has the right to expect that all communication and records
pertaining to his care should be treated as confidential. 7.
The pt has the right to expect that within its capacity a
hospital must make reasonable response to the request of a pt
for services. The hosp. must provide evaluation, services
and/or referral as indicated by the urgency of the case. When
medically permissible a patient may be transferred to
another facility only after he has received complete
information and explanation concerning the needs for an
alternatives to such a transfer. The institution to which the
pt is be transferred must first have accepted the pt for
transfer. 8. The pt has the right to obtain information as to
any relationship of his hosp. to other health care and
educational institutions insofar as his care is concerned. The
pt has the right to obtain information as to the existence of
any professional relationships among individuals, by name, who
are treating him. 9. The pt has the right to b advised if d
hosp.proposes to engage in or perform human experimentation
affecting his care or treatment. The pt has the right to
refuse to participate in such research projects. 10. The pt
has the right to expect reasonable continuity of care. He has
the right to know in advance what appointment times and phs
are available and where. The pt has the right to expect
that the hosp. will provide a mechanism whereby he is
informed by his ph or a delegate of d ph of d pts continuing
health care requirements following discharge 11. The pts has
the right to examine n receive an examination of his bill
regardless of source of payment. 12. The pt has the right
to know what hosp. rules and regulations apply to his conduct
as a pt.

INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF NURSES CODE FOR NURSES:


ETHICAL CONCEPTS APPLIED TO NURSING

The fundamental responsibility of d nurse is fourfold: to


promote health, to prevent illness, to restore health and
alleviate suffering.

The need for nursing is universal. Inherit in nursing is by


considerations of nationality, race, creed, color, age,
sex, politics or social status.

Nrs render health services to the individual, the family and


the community and coordinate their services with those of
related groups.

Nurses and People: 1. The nr's primary responsibility is to


those people who require nursing care. 2. The nr, in providing
care, promotes an environment in which d values, customs and
spiritual beliefs of d individual r respected. 3. D nr holds
in confidence personal information n uses judgment in sharing
this information.
Nurses and Practice: 1. The nr carries personal responsibility
for nursing practice and for maintaining competence by continual
learning. 2. The nr maintains the highest standards of nursing
accepting and delegating responsibilities. 4. The nr when acting
in a professional capacity should at all times maintain
standards of

Nurses and Society: The nr shares with other citizens the re-
sponsibility for initiating and supporting action to meet the
health andsocial needs of the public.

Nurses and Co-Workers: 1. The nr sustains a cooperative


relation
ship with co-workers in nursing and other fields. 2. d nr takes
appropriate action to safeguard the individual when his care is
endangered by a co-worker or any other person.

Nurses and the Profession: 1. D nr plays d major role in


deter
mining n implementing desirable standards of nursing practice n
nursing education. 2. The nr is active in developing a core of
professional knowledge. 3. The nr, acting through the
professional organization, participates in establishing and
maintaining equitable social and economic working conditions in
nursing.

AMERICAN NURSES'ASSOCIATION CODE FOR NURSES

Preamble

The Code for Nurses is based on belief about the nature of


indi
viduals, nursing, health, and society. Recipients n providers
of
nursing services r viewed as individuals n groups who
possess
basic rights n responsibilities, n whose values n
circumstances
command respect at all times. Nursing encompasses d promotion n
restoration of health, d prevention of illness, n d alleviation
of suffering. D statements of the Code n their interpretation
provide guidance for conduct n relationships in carrying out
of d profession n quality in nursing care.

Code for Nurses


1. The nr provides services with respect for human dignity n
d uniqueness of d client unrestricted by considerations of
social or economic status, personal attributes, or d nature
of health
problems. 2. The nr safeguards the client's right to privacy
by
judiciously protecting information of a confidential nature.
3.
The nr acts to safeguard the client and the public when
health
care and safety are affected by the incompetent, unethical,
or
illegal practice of any person. 4. D nr assumes
responsibility
and accountability for individual nursing judgments and
actions.
5. D nurse maintains competence in nursing. 6. The nr
exercises
informed judgment n uses individual competence n
qualifications
as criteria in seeking consultation, accepting
responsibilities,
n delegating nursing activities to others. 7. D nr
participates
in activities that contribute to the ongoing development of
the
profession's body of knowledge. 8. The nr participates in
the
profession's efforts to implement n improve standards of
nursing.
9. The nr participates in the profession's efforts to
establish
and maintain conditions of employment conducive to high
quality
nursing care. 10. The nurse participates in the
profession's
effort to protect the public from misinformation and
misrepresen
tation and to maintain the integrity of nursing. 11. The
nr
collaborates with members of the health professions and
other
citizens in promoting community and national efforts to meet
the
health needs of the public.
CONSTITUTION OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION

The States Parties to this Constitution declare, in conformity


with the Charter of the United Nations, that the following
principles are basic to the happiness, harmonious relations and
security of all peoples:

Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-


being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

The enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is


one
of the fundamental rights of every human being without
distinc
tion of race, religion, political belief, economic or
social
condition.

The health of all peoples is fundamental to the attainment


of
peace and security and is dependent upon the fullest co-
operation
of individuals and States.

The achievement of any State in the promotion and protection


of
health is of value to all.

Unequal development in different countries in the promotion


of
health and control of disease, especially communicable
disease,
is a common danger.

Healthy development of the child is of basic importance;


the
ability to live harmoniously in a changing total environment
is
essential to such development.

The extension to all peoples of the benefits of medical,


psycho
logical and related knowledge is essential to the fullest
attain
ment of health.

Informed opinion and active co-operation on the part of


the
public are of the utmost importance in the improvement of
the
health of the people.

Governments have a responsibility for the health of their


peoples
which can be fulfilled only by the provision of adequate
health
and social measures.

Accepting these principles, and for the purpose of co-


operation
among themselves and with others to promote and protect
the
health of all peoples, the Contracting Parties agree to
the
present Constitution and hereby establish the World Health
Organ
ization as a specialized agency within the terms of Article 57
of
the Charter of the United Nations.

Legend: pt=Patient, ph=Physician


nr=Nurse, med=Medical