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is not only concerned with women but also is concerned with the
social construction of gender and their assignments. Gender and
Development focuses on social, economic, political and cultural • Gender Schema Theory -  is a mental blueprint for organizing improve women’s access to education, skills training and
forces that determine how differently men and women participate information, and children develop and formulate an appropriate healthcare – while taking women’s role in the care economy
in, benefit from, and control the resourses and activities. Also gender. helps a child to develop gender identity & formulate an adequately into account. Examples of these include implementing
focuses on the socially determined relations between men and appropriate gender role. measures to help workers balance work and family
women. responsibilities, and providing workplace incentives for the
provision of childcare and parental leave.

 CEDAW –Convention on the Elimination off all Forms of

Discriminations Against Women - Adapted by United In the context of the world of work, equality between women and
Nations general Assembly in 1979 –came into force in  Not a war of the sexes men includes the following elements:
1981 and 180 out of 191 countries worldwide signed the
 Not anti-Male
treaty in March 2005.
1. Equality of opportunity and treatment in employment
 Both women and men are victims although women more
 RA 7192 – An act promoting the integration of women as than men. 2. Equal remuneration for work of equal value
full equal partners of men in development and nation
building.  Both have a stake in the struggle for gender equality 3. Equal access to safe and healthy working environments
and to social security
 RA 7811- Anti-sexual Harassment Law signed in 1995
4. Equality in association and collective bargaining
 ODA(Official Development Assistance)- That supports The tasks of the GAD Committee Members are to catalyze and
facilitate the Institutionalization of gender mainstreaming and 5. Equality in obtaining meaningful career development
programs and activities for women
women's empowerment within the agency. While the agency is
6. A balance between work and home life that is fair to both
Theories of Gender Development clearly responsible for implementing programs, activities and
women and men
projects addressing gender issues, it is the GAD Focal Point who
 Social Learning Theory - advocates for, coordinates, guides and monitors the development 7. Equal participation in decision-making at all levels
Proponents of this theory and implementation of the agency's GAD plan and GAD-related
believe that parents, as programs, activities and projects.
distributors of
reinforcement, reinforce They must likewise ensure the implementation, monitoring, Given that women are usually in a disadvantaged position in the
appropriate gender role review and updating of the Annual GAD Plans and Budget (using workplace compared to men, promotion of gender equality
behavior. the Department of Budget and Management - DBM Form No. implies explicit attention to women’s needs and perspectives. At
710). the same time, there are also significant negative effects of
• Cognitive- Developmental unequal power relations and expectations on men and boys due to
Theory - This is derived from Kohlberg's speculations about The Agency's GAD Plan is a systematic set of programs, stereotyping about what it means to be a male. Instead, both
gender development. • Children begin the process of acquiring activities and projects with clear objectives for addressing gender women and men, and boys and girls, should be free to develop
gender-appropriate behavior. issues and appropriate strategies and activities with monitoring their abilities and make choices – without limitations set by rigid
and evaluation indicators. It is an instrument to make all aspects gender roles and prejudices – based on personal interests and
of the agency and its work gender-responsive. It provides the capacities.
basis for the GAD budget.

The ILO has adopted an integrated approach to gender equality

and decent work. This means working to enhance equal
employment opportunities through measures that also aim to