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INTRODUCTION speculative international physical traders processors or to the traders which
This is one of a series of briefing papers have greatly reduced in numbers as services the consumer markets. The
to help USAID missions and their access to information has eroded their majority of trade in Africa is turnover
implementing partners in sub-Saharan advantages. At the same time, trade —very low margins per unit, but
Africa use information and speculation by outsiders (e.g., hedge many units. With some exceptions, it is
communications technology (ICT) more funds) in commodity markets through characterized by poor storage, inexact
successfully —via sustainable and scalable commodity exchanges has increased standards, no contracts, and no finance.
approaches—to improve the impact of significantly. For every metric ton that is Post harvest loss due to spoilage is
their agriculture related development delivered onto the exchange in SAFEX, generally high.
projects including Feed the Future 25 times more contracts are bought and
projects. 1 This paper provides a brief sold speculatively. The staple food WRS AND CEX IN AFRICA
overview of the fundamentals of spikes in 2008 were driven to a large Understanding the fundamentals of
warehouse receipt systems (WRSs) and extent by outside speculators and did WRSs and CEXs is important when
commodity exchanges (CEXs), describes not reflect the physical reality of stocks. deciding if one or both are critical for
several ways in which ICT tools are being the development of a specific agriculture
mobilized, and captures key lessons ICT has facilitated these changes both sector and whether they require any ICT
learned with a focus on sustainability positively and negatively. However, these support.
without donor support. It is not focused markets were already trading on stable
on assessing the general impact of WRSs building blocks. It is therefore critical for CEXs and WRSs are built on a number
and CEXs for smallholder farmers, but donors and development practitioners in of building blocks essential for either
rather, the use of ICT for such systems. sub-Saharan Africa to consider whether system to function sustainably:
and, if so, how to intelligently support the standardized grading and weights,
In the last 50 years, the landscape for integration and utilization of ICT in standardized storage facilities,
trading commodities globally has radically warehouse receipt systems and professional storage management,
changed. Before revolutions in mobile commodity exchanges. suitable insurance products, enforceable
communication and ICT, markets were contacts and market intelligence. Both
only loosely integrated. Trading was In general in Africa, smallholder farmers systems can function without ICT—or
based on proprietary information farming very small parcels of land use minimal ICT—as long as volumes are
acquired through trips to distant basic agricultural techniques to produce low. A WRS is usually a building block
countries and building relationships with staple crops. Each farmer has a very small for a CEX.
key informants. Today, screens around surplus. Generally farmers sell in a local
the world reflect trading transactions market or from their farm gate when a Warehouse receipts are paper or
almost instantaneously whether physical small trader passes by. These small electronic documents of title which
commodity, stocks, shares or currency volumes are collected by traders using stipulate the commodity, quality grade,
rates. The daily price of traded maize bicycles, ox carts or pick-up trucks. These location and ownership of the
futures on South Africa’s SAFEX volumes are brought to the nearest small commodity deposited in the warehouse.
(commodity exchange) is fully integrated storage point and kept generally in poor The receipts can be transferable or non-
with the traded price of maize futures on conditions before being collected by the transferable. Transferable warehouse
the Chicago Board of Trade. The global next trader up the supply chain. For some receipts allow whoever has access to the
nature of trading has also changed; crops, the next level of trader provides title to transfer its ownership to
some conditioning – generally limited to someone else. A non-transferable title
1ICT includes cell phone and Internet reducing moisture content. The must go through a particular process
services, radio, and a wide range of digital commodity is stored in fairly poor often controlled by a regulator to
devices and related tools including cameras, conditions before being sold onward to transfer ownership. Warehouse receipts
geographic information systems, and a wide wholesale traders, who then sell either to are generally issued by regulator-
range of hand-held computing devices.

ICT to Enhance Warehouse Receipt Systems and Commodity Exchanges in Africa Last updated November 2010
certified warehouses, and their issuance, provide for immediate cash needs Uganda Commodity Exchange). 2 There
handling, liens, and cancellation are through financing the warehouse receipt. are variations, such as the Ethiopian
managed by systems overseen by the model, which is government-owned, but
regulator. The receipts can be used in a The term “commodity exchange” covers a sells membership seats on an annual basis
commodity exchange, enabling buyers range of structured market (the most recent price was an average of
and sellers to conduct transactions using configurations including physical market Birr 210,000 per seat). 3
the receipts to represent the physical places; however in modern parlance the
goods, which can remain in warehouses concept has come to mean an electronic Current systems in Africa:
and are moved only after the transaction platform where buyers and sellers Warehouse receipt systems and
is completed. interface through registered brokers to commodity exchanges are more
trade multiple lots of different prevalent in east and southern Africa
ICT is a recent tool for WRS, being commodities. The standardized contracts than in west or central. There are
primarily employed to improve traded specify quality, quantity, and currently operational warehouse receipt
transaction speed and allow for 24 hour sometimes location. Depending on the systems or inventory finance systems in
trading. As transaction volumes sophistication of the market or Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, Tanzania, South
increase, ICT becomes more valuable. exchange, the contracts will include spot Africa, and Madagascar. Several West
price, forward, futures, and options African countries utilize
In Africa, almost all of the storage contracts. Brokers are used as exchange warrantage/inventory credit (Ghana,
between harvest and when the staple licensed intermediates who guarantee Burkina Faso, Niger, Senegal) and
crops are consumed is financed by the performance of the buyer and/or the contrats de tierces detention (Mali). 4
farmers and the myriad traders and seller of a contract. Generally buyers Initiatives to launch warehouse receipt
processors holding stock. This involves and sellers will have provided the broker systems are in process in Ghana and
vast amounts of capital; in Kenya alone with financial guarantees that underpin Nigeria. Commodity exchanges—or at
the harvest value of the main staple their performance. Most exchanges have least entities labeled as commodity
crops is over $750 million; Kenya, a specified lot size (e.g., 100 metric exchanges—include ACE in Malawi,
Uganda, and Tanzania’s average maize tons). At the end of any particular ASCE in Nigeria, ECX in Ethiopia,
harvest has a value of over $1 billion. trading period (e.g., three months), the SAFEX in South Africa, UCE in Uganda,
This capital cost is tied up month after sales and purchases are reconciled; most and ZAMACE in Zambia. There are also
month until it is sold to the consumer. cancel out and the remainder is efforts underway to launch a national
Without finance, the companies that buy concluded through delivery of commodity exchange in Khartoum, a
or own stocks of commodities are warehouse receipts (paper or electronic) West Africa Commodity Exchange based
constrained by tying up their capital in from acceptable registered warehouses. in Accra, and a Pan-African exchange
these stocks. Properly managed The owner of the receipt then arranges based in Gaborone. As of November
warehouse receipt programs provide a for collection from the stated 2010, there is also an effort under way
regulated instrument that allows financial warehouse, or sells it back onto the to establish a regional commodity
institutions to advance loans against the exchange to another buyer. exchange in east Africa facilitated by
receipts with the commodity as Kenya’s National Cereal and Produce
collateral, freeing up the capital held in Most exchanges carry out significantly Board.
the system. This is a key benefit of more transactions than there is real
warehouse receipt systems. commodity in the market. Some
exchanges, such as ACE in Malawi, have
Even though the WRS may not directly no underlying guarantee of commodity 2 Approximately $18,000
help smallholder farmers, there are a and therefore no official confirmation of 3 Approximately $16,300
number of important indirect benefits. quality and volume. Offers and bids are 4 Warrantage in its simplest form is
With a WRS, financing becomes more based on trust that the commodity is depositors (farmers) storing their commodity
available so there is more money to buy really there and of the quality stated, alongside other depositors (farmers of the
the commodity from the farmers, which with the broker taking the risk that both same group) in a small general store. These
increases the number of times the buyer and seller are legitimate. systems have extended to include inventory
traders can go back into the market to Generally this type of exchange has failed credit, which is the financing of a proportion
of the commodity’s value in the store. Often
purchase grain, increasing competition to achieve high volumes in Africa.
the financier, the store owner, and the
and generally reducing the sharp drop of farmer group representative will each control
prices at harvest. If the smallholder Ownership structure of an exchange a key to one of the padlocks on the door and
farmer can meet the minimum ranges from those entirely owned and therefore control the movement of the
conditions for a deposit to a warehouse supported by the private sector (e.g., commodity from the store. In Mali the ‘tierce
(either individually or in a group), she or SAFEX, which began with 84 members detention’ (third party holding) worked in a
he can delay selling their commodity, each paying Rand 50,000 to join), to those similar manner with the banks controlling the
waiting for prices to increase, and still that are government-owned (e.g. UCE, release of traders’ goods stored in a third
party warehouse.

ICT to Enhance Warehouse Receipt Systems and Commodity Exchanges in Africa Last updated November 2010
HOW ICT CAN HELP weakness of this basic ICT approach was traders far from the CEX “real time” (or
The primary use of ICT in WRSs and that it was next to impossible for bidders near real time) reporting of bids, offers
CEXs has been to shift from paper-based elsewhere to participate in the process. and traded prices for any particular
administration to electronic systems and commodity. ECX in Ethiopia also
to accommodate 24 hour trading. This WRSs use software to manage a secure provides electronic feeds of traded
speeds transaction times (which under a interface between the issuer of the prices in markets around the country.
paper-based warehouse receipt model warehouse receipt, the owner of the Access to the trading platforms is
can take up to 14 days to transfer receipt and the financial institution through different types of brokers who
ownership of a warehouse receipt), and, holding a lien on the receipts, and the may be accessing the system virtually or
with significant volumes, can reduce back transfer to buyers. in physical “pits” at exchange locations
office administration costs. Using ICT where different brokers buy and sell
can also allow far-flung traders to 2. Telecommunications: WRSs that from each other on behalf of their
participate in a CEX. Of the roughly six use electronic receipts use the Internet to clients.
WRSs in sub-Saharan Africa, only transfer title documents to owners,
Ethiopia, Uganda, and South Africa use banks, buyers and, where required, to a 4. Radio and television: Radio and
electronic receipts and link to CEXs, central registry that records issuance, television can be useful tools to raise
however Ghana and Kenya intend to cancellation, transfer of ownership, liens awareness of both CEXs and WRSs,
invest in electronic systems. for financial transactions, and stock such as how to work with these new
reconciliation by location. market institutions and to disseminate
1. Software: Software applications traded prices by commodity. UCE uses
developed for CEXs range from linked Exchanging such electronic transactions radio and ECX uses both radio and
financial spreadsheets to more complex does not require broadband Internet television for such purposes.
software. Software can be “off the shelf” access so it can be done using relatively
(meaning developed for and used by cheap data exchanges via cell phone IMPACT
many customers) which is then adapted networks, most of which provide access There is currently no data in Africa that
(e.g. ACE); custom developed (e.g. UCE) to the Internet today. Given the chances shows if, and if so, how, ICT used in
or a combination of the two approaches. of losing connectivity, any system needs warehouse receipt systems and
Either way, cost estimates start at about to have built-in safeguards to confirm any commodity exchanges increases any
$80,000. Most of the software data exchanges have been completed benefits to smallholder farmers or
engineering expertise has been sourced successfully (a standard process for improves the competitiveness of African
from either South Africa (e.g., Sandbox robust telecommunications dependent agriculture commodity value chains.
Projects, which designed software for software applications).
SAFEX and UCE) or outside of Africa. Further, it is important for donors and
ECX developed their system locally and Exchanges can also use SMS (text practitioners to recognize that ICT is not
ACE is using local talent to develop the messaging via cell phones) to offer the driver in the development of
additional World Food Program (WFP) information—essentially market price warehouse receipts systems and
ICT platform link between ACE and information—to traders or producers in commodity exchanges, nor is it even
ZAMACE. far flung locations. For example, Kenya’s necessary for scale or sustainability. In
WRS uses SMS to communicate with the fact, using ICT (and its challenges) may
ACE actually supported its initial warehouse receipt owners to register prove to be an expensive distraction to
successful WFP purchase using a simple warehouse receipts with the regulator. those working to create successful and
spreadsheet projected onto a screen so ECX in Ethiopia uses SMS codes to useful WRSs and CEXs, given the other
all bidders and the WFP representative disseminate price information. At the critical components that must be
could see it simultaneously. Bidders moment these systems are simple and addressed for such systems to be
wrote their bids on paper forms, handed not designed to push information to successful. Even the Chicago Board of
them to the ACE representative to users based on users’ profiles. An Trade still largely uses a paper receipting
review, and then they were passed to efficiently working, high volume process, though the trading floor is
the person updating the spreadsheet. commodity exchange will result in electronic. Nonetheless, after the initial
This is an example of how a little standardized pricing information that can cost outlay, ICT software and applications
technology can be used to help new feed back into the market. Other than can reduce operating costs. Electronic
trading mechanisms get started and have SAFEX, exchanges in Africa are not yet receipts and automated commodity
a significant impact on bidders. Before trading sufficient volumes of staples to exchanges can, if properly implemented,
this, WFP used a closed paper tender offer an effective price discovery system. increase transaction speed; allow remote
process (with additional restrictions on participation; and reduce human errors,
bidders) and no sellers could improve All of the CEXs in Africa have websites, though the impact may be minimal until
their bids based on seeing what but these are not used to conduct trade volumes increase.
competitors were bidding. The biggest business. Online access does provide

ICT to Enhance Warehouse Receipt Systems and Commodity Exchanges in Africa Last updated November 2010
KEY PREREQUISITES In Africa, only Ethiopia, Uganda, and LESSONS LEARNED
Key prerequisites for both WRSs and South Africa currently recognize Some of these lessons relate to the
CEXs are systems for standardized electronic warehouse receipts. In development of WRSs and CEXs
grading and weights, standardized 2004, SAFEX announced it would themselves, some to their use of ICT.
storage facilities, professional storage accept electronic as well as paper
management, suitable insurance warehouse receipts for settlement • To succeed, commodity exchanges
products, and enforceable standardized for future contracts. This was after must be driven by private sector
contracts and market intelligence. 5 Four the Electronic Communications and acceptance and financial involvement
other key prerequisites are: Transaction Act (ECTA) clarified that and, in most cases, evolve to
agreements concluded by data facilitate warehouse receipt systems.
• A trusted regulator, who ensures that messages had legal force. The Donors and well intended
the systems are transparent and Chicago Board of Trade only started governments should not try to force
participants comply with their rules. using them for just the rice markets their evolution onto the market
The regulator can be a government in 2007 and while there is talk about unless the underlying conditions are
body or a private sector body, but covering other commodities, old right.
must be independent of external preferences remain.
influence and completely trusted by • The use of ICT rarely, if ever, is a
the private sector players Purchase 4 Progress (P4P) critical success factor to facilitating
(particularly the financial sector). The World Food Programme’s the establishment of a sustainable
(WFP) P4P program is working to WRS or CEX. It can, however, be
• Volume: Estimates vary, but the increase the volumes of staple critical to help the system scale.
absolute minimum threshold for commodities it procures through
cost recovery for a self-sustaining • Donors and practitioners can
local marketing systems, such as a
WRS in Africa is estimated at over facilitate the development of
CEX or registered warehouses,
120,000 MT. For example, the warehouse receipts in several ways:
rather than soliciting paper tenders
EAGC Kenyan warehouse receipt as they have historically done. As 1. Direct more resources to the
program estimates it needs 150,000 one of the main commodity development of the building
MT to cover the cost of regulating procurers in many African blocks required for a successful
the system—this includes staff and countries, WFP can add significant WRS and CEX system.
regular inspection of the volume to these marketing systems.
warehouses. In Malawi and Zambia, P4P is using 2. Facilitate the establishment of a
the commodity exchange platforms trusted, capable regulator;
• Regular Seasonal Price Increases. For providing regulatory training on
to advertise and handle the delivery
the majority of seasons, the price of warehouse operations,
of bids against a tonnage and quality
the commodity should increase from regulation, and handling (and
specification, rather than placing an
harvest to later in the season to not overloading the regulator
offer and receiving individual paper
cover the additional costs of with the job of integrating
bids. Although passing the volume
depositing in a regulated warehouse smallholder farmers into the
purchased through the exchanges
receipt program (handling, storage, systems directly).
significantly increases the volumes
and regulation) and receiving
the exchanges are handling, it does 3. Recognize that developing
not do so in a manner that builds sophisticated systems and
• Electronic transactions are recognized the market systems in place, but changing behavior can take
as legal. ICT enabled WRSs and through parallel systems which are years. Design and fund long-
CEXs can only be used if electronic unlikely to be adopted for the bulk term plans, based on sound
documents and transactions are of the trade undertaken. For business models, with
legally enforceable within the example, WFP in Uganda procured intermediate targets and a
country of operation; if not they will 1,796 MT in 2009 through three realistic exit strategy.
have to be backed by physical paper exchange registered warehouses
(approximately 80 percent of the 4. Target the commercial sector
contracts negating much of the
commodity deposited in the (mainly large traders and
improved transaction speeds
warehouses), but not through the processors) for incorporation
electronic receipts offer.
exchange itself. first. They will bring the
volumes required for success
and may eventually “subsidize”
the involvement of small-scale
5Market intelligence is the need by banks to
farmers. In 2004, the Zambian
know enough about the market locally and
regionally to be able to assess the value of Agricultural Commodity Agency
any warehouse receipt as collateral. (ZACA) began targeting large-

ICT to Enhance Warehouse Receipt Systems and Commodity Exchanges in Africa Last updated November 2010
scale commercial farmers, agricultural commodity exchanges exchange can result in an exchange
traders, and processors and was can take years, needs political price that does not reflect a trading
showing signs of success. support, and often needs revising price for the commodity in the
However, increasing pressure when reality does not match market price. Therefore those who
to incorporate smallholder legislative expectations. In most use the exchange as a method of
farmers and address their cases the existence of strong price discovery will need to know the
development needs meant the contract law is sufficient for WRSs premium or discount the real
ZACA personnel lost their and CEXs to operate. commodity is trading to the price
focus and lead ultimately to its indicated on the exchange. African
insolvency. • Those developing WRSs and CEXs exchanges could become vehicles for
often lack the needed ICT unfettered speculation (and, worse,
5. Depending on the system background to clearly identify all money laundering) and not service
designed, smallholder farmers software needs and issues. This has the agricultural markets they were
will need to work in groups or resulted in spiraling software set up to serve.
through associations to meet development costs and delays in start
minimum deposit tonnages. dates. Specialized ICT consultants • ECX’s business model is unique in
should be used to work with that the government, through
6. Focus market linkage efforts on
implementers to help define export controls, mandates that
inventory credit, then WRSs
functional and technical coffee buyers and sellers use the
and then CEXs.
requirements, design a procurement exchange. Up until now, very little
• For any investments in ICT, facilitate approach, and consider available staple commodities trading in
the use of sound ICT practices, software options and an Ethiopia have passed through the
which include as an evaluation implementation plan that reflects best ECX system (coffee represents
criterion successfully implemented practices. 6 approximately 96 percent of its
similar systems elsewhere. Spend trading volume). Therefore, while
• Commodity exchanges only generate
plenty of time talking to references ECX has experienced a rapid
“transparent” prices if sufficiently increase in volume, and therefore
(or even visiting them) with specific
traded volumes of each commodity income, the government mandate
and open ended questions. For
are passing through the exchange on
example, ask the references the that drives this success will be
a regular basis to generate such difficult to replicate to other
three things they would have liked
prices. Price transparency is a side commodities (particularly staples)
to know or do differently if they
benefit of an exchange—it is not a
could go through the process of ICT and countries.
reason to establish an exchange.
implementation again; the four ways
One strong role for ICT is to • Non-transparent government
they would like the system to work
transmit this information—once intervention in markets (buying,
better; and the difference between
available—rapidly and efficiently selling, price setting, export bans,
the initial price and time estimates
either directly or indirectly through a etc.) as experienced in most of
(covering up-front as well as on-
market information service. eastern Africa apart from Uganda,
going fees) and the actual costs and
disrupts the natural market
time taken. If possible, encourage • SAFEX has expanded from a way of response, bringing about
any bidders to include a local firm as finding a remote buyer or seller, unpredictable price spikes and dips.
a substantive part of their team, including price hedging mechanisms
This increases the risk of
perhaps providing some on-going into a vehicle for speculation by participating in the market, reduces
support (backed up system experts hedge funds and others. When it the number of players in the market
most likely elsewhere). first started, 50 percent of contracts
and ultimately reduces investment in
on the exchange resulted in physical
• Bank support to WRSs and CEXs is and the usefulness of market
deliveries via transfer of a warehouse institutions such as WRSs and CEXs.
more likely if a key banking
receipt; now less than 2 percent of
institution with an aggressive market
contracts result in physical deliveries. • Any WRS or CEX—with or without
development program is involved
The same evolution can be seen on ICT tools— needs to have a serious
from the start. Intermediary
Chicago Board of Trade and LIFFE- business plan developed up-front to
products (such as inventory
EURONEXT. This boom in set its path to sustainability. External
financing) may facilitate a more
speculation can be tracked back to business consultants may be good
successful start up. Providing a first
the beginning of 2004. Speculative resources to assist with this to be
loss guarantee also encourages bank
buying in a commodity on an “hard nosed” third parties to test
• Setting up legislation to specifically 6 USAID can help draft terms of reference for • Any use of telecommunications for
cover warehouse receipts and selecting such consultants. Contact
WRSs or CEXs needs to recognize
jpayne@usaid.gov for suggestions.

ICT to Enhance Warehouse Receipt Systems and Commodity Exchanges in Africa Last updated November 2010
limitations or disruptions in access CONCLUSIONS
and bandwidth limitations by building RESOURCES
Within emerging markets, WRSs and
into any software ways to confirm CEXs have been notably successful in Ethiopia Commodity Exchange:
data transmissions, off-line work India, where volumes are enormous, http://www.ecx.com.et
modes and low bandwidth options. rural education levels are higher, Agricultural Commodity Exchange for
infrastructure is available, and Africa:
 Approaches to https://crm.exordia.co.za/ace/index.htm
sustainability/scalability of ICT speculation (gambling) is part of the
culture. WRSs and CEXs have not Johannesburg Stock Exchange:
tools for WRSs and CEXs: After http://www.jse.co.za
upfront design, implementation and yet succeeded in Africa beyond South
National Spot Exchange:
licensing costs, the costs of on-going Africa, because the building blocks
maintenance of such tools needs to required for success are still being
Sandbox Projects:
be recognized in budgets. As a rule established.
of thumb, software maintenance Uganda Commodity Exchange:
alone (not upgrades) should cost There is no analysis on the use and http://www.uce.co.ug
roughly 10 to 20 percent of initial impact of ICT on the operations of ZAMACE: http://www.zamace.com
licensing fees. Given these costs, warehouse receipts and commodity
consider starting with relatively exchanges. There is also very little African Commodity Exchanges Forum has
simple functionality until volumes good analysis on WRSs and CEXs recently started, bringing together African
increase. This does not necessarily that brings together experiences, commodity exchanges to share
mean that software should be custom lessons learned, models, ICT usage, experiences, lessons learnt, and assist each
developed—usually an expensive and comparisons between different other moving forward. ECX is the
approach in the long run. If it is operating environments, such as inaugural host.
custom developed, try to use a between the Indian models (which
are reputed to have successfully Coulter, Jonathan. “Warehouse
development organization that has
integrated large numbers of rural receipting, loss reduction and the
experience with such applications and development of value chains for grains,”
build on software components smallholders and benefited immensely
from ICT solutions), and those in (FAO, 2010).
already working well elsewhere.
Also, it is usually better to rely on an Africa.
Sargis, Bernard. “Role of Agricultural
ICT business with several employees Commodity Exchanges in price discovery
rather than one or two individuals Any successful warehouse receipt
and risk management for Grains;
with little institutional backup. system or commodity exchange Implications for East Africa,” (World Bank,
(national or regional) will need 2009)
increasingly sophisticated ICT
systems, however, ICT is very Walker, Sophie. “Transitioning from
unlikely to be a critical success factor providing Business Development Services
especially at the outset. It could to facilitating New Business Models:
though, if not implemented based on Regulating Warehouse Receipts,” (CRS,
best practices, be a costly factor 2010)
slowing any effort’s path to
sustainability. Also, any donor Financial Technologies Group: software
support using ICT to support such and systems solutions for exchanges.
systems should include clearly Bourse Africa partner in the Pan African
measurable, intermediate goals (e.g., Commodity Exchange. www.ftindia.com
for periods of six months and using
usage metrics, not process metrics)
with funding related to ICT contingent
on meeting them. DISCLAIMER
The views expressed in this
publication do not necessarily
reflect the views of the U.S. Agency
for International Development or
the U.S. Government.

This series of papers is supported by USAID’s Fostering Agriculture Competitiveness Employing Information Communication
Technologies (FACET) project under the Financial Integration, Economic Leveraging, Broad-Based Dissemination and Support
Leaders with Associates award (FIELD-Support LWA). It was written by Sophie Walker of ACDI/VOCA. FACET offers on-
demand field support to help missions with the challenges of using these ICT interventions in agricultural development. To
learn more about field support options, contact Judy Payne, ICT Advisor, (jpayne@usaid.gov).

ICT to Enhance Warehouse Receipt Systems and Commodity Exchanges in Africa Last updated November 2010