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While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this


book, the publisher assumes no responsibility for errors or
omissions, or for damages resulting from the use of the
information contained herein.

FCE KEY WORD TRANSFORMATION MADE EASY

Third edition. July 8, 2020

Copyright © 2020 D.Méndez.

Written by D.Méndez.

ISBN: 9781506678987

www.aprendeinglesenleganes.com

No part of the contents of this book may be reproduced or used in any


form or by any means without the written permission of the author,
except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and
reviews

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INTRODUCTION

The Key word transformation tests a wide range of different grammatical structures and
vocabulary. You must show your ability to paraphrase using the key word and, most
importantly, keeping the meaning the same.

The difficulty lies on the great variety of grammatical structures that you need to learn in
order to do this part of the Use of English exam successfully.

You will be required to use structures such as passive tenses, conditional clauses, reported
speech, causative verbs, inverted sentences, comparatives and superlatives, phrasal verbs,
idioms, set phrases, etc. The book that you have in front of you will help you with that.

This book will help you get a better understanding of the different and most common
grammatical structures , that you will have to face when completing the Key word
transformation part of the Use of English exam.

As they say, practice makes perfect. The more Key word transformation exercises you do, the
better you will become at doing them. What’s more, over time you will get a feel for what
kind of grammatical structure or lexical item is needed for the exercise that you are doing.

To your success.

D.Méndez

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CONTENTS.
5. HOW TO DO KEY WORD TRANSFORMATION EXERCISES
7. SENTENCES REQUIRING TWO CHANGES
8. SPECULATING ABOUT THE PRESENT
9. SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST
10. AGO to FOR / FOR to AGO / LAST
AGO to SINCE/ SINCE to AGO - SINCE to FOR / FOR to SINCE
STILL to YET / EVER to YET
FIRST TIME to HAVE NEVER
TOO to ENOUGH / ENOUGH to TOO
11. REPORTED SPEECH
12. ACTIVE VERB FORM to PASSIVE VERB FORM
13. INVERTED SENTENCES
15. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
16. INVERTED CONDITIONALS
17. DEGREES OF LIKELIHOOD
18. WISHES AND PREFERENCES
20. COMPARATIVE – SUPERLATIVE
21. COMPARATIVE STRUCTURES - ADVERBS
22. CONTRAST STRUCTURES
23. SYNONYMS
28. CAUSE AND EFFECT
29. CAUSATIVE VERBS
30. PHRASAL VERBS
31. 50 COMMON PHRASAL VERBS (C2 LEVEL)
34. C2 PROFICIENCY PHRASAL VERBS (TABLE)
35. PHRASAL PREPOSITIONAL VERBS
37. VERBS FOLLOWED BY A TO-INFINITIVE
38. VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUND (ING)
39. NEGATIVE WORDS
40. MODAL VERBS
41. PREPOSITIONAL VERBS
42. PREPOSITIONAL VERBS ( LIST)
45. VERB PATTERNS
47. INFORMAL to FORMAL / FORMAL to INFORMAL
48. LINKING WORDS
50. PARAPHRASING
54. IDIOMS
55. 50 COMMON IDIOMS (C2 LEVEL)
58. C2 PROFICIENCY IDIOMS (TABLE)
59. SET PHRASES
60. 50 MOST COMMON SET PHRASES (C2 LEVEL)
63. COMMON C2 LEVEL PHRASES (TABLE)
64. KEY WORD TRANSFORMATION - PRACTICE EXERCISES
68. ANSWERS
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HOW TO DO KEY WORD
TRANSFORMATION EXERCISES
EXAMPLE :
For questions 25–30, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first
sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between three and
eight words, including the word given. Here is an example (0).

Example:
(0) Do you mind if I watch while you work.
OBJECTION
Do you …....................................................... you while you work.

Example: 0 have any objection to my watching


How to do this exercise
1) READ BOTH SENTENCES AND UNDERLINE DUPLICATE INFORMATION.

Do you mind if I watch while you work.


OBJECTION
Do you …....................................................... you while you work.
2) LOOK AT THE KEY WORD GIVEN.
In the example above the key word is OBJECTION
IS IT USED IN ANY COMMON SET PHRASES, PHRASAL VERBS, COLLOCATIONS?
3) THINK OF A WAY TO PARAPHRASE THE PART THAT YOU HAVE NOT UNDERLINED , USING THE KEY WORD.
Make sure your sentence means the same as the first sentence.
In this case, we can use the phrase “have objection to (doing) sth” to paraphrase “Do you mind
if …”. They are synonymous expressions.
NUMBER OF WORDS
Count the number of words you have used in the gap. You must use between three and eight words,
including the word given. If you use only two or more than eight, you will lose marks.
CONTRACTIONS
Contractions like ‘he’s’ or ‘won’t’ are counted as two words, so be careful. ‘Can’t’ is the only
exception because it contracts ‘cannot’ which is just one word. Also remember that you have to use
the key word in the gap as part of the 3-6 words without changing it.
Do not forget to use the key word.
MARKING
Up to two marks will be awarded per each correct answer.

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SENTENCES REQUIRING TWO CHANGES
At C2 level you will frequently be required to make two changes in the second sentence such as
using a set expression as well as a change from active to passive. The transformations will also
require you to think about grammar. For example, passives, inverted sentences, conditionals,
reported speech, etc.
(Passive + phrasal verb)
Management have decide to postpone the meeting.
OFF
The meeting...has been put off ...by Management.

(Partial phrase + phrase)


John is far superior to Mike in terms of technical knowledge.
MATCH
When it comes ...to technical knowledge Mike is no match ... to John.

(Passive + change from adjective to noun)


Employees are thought to be worried about being made redundant.
CONCERN
There ... is thought to be concern ... amongst employees about being made redundant.

(Reported speech + verb change)


'I am not in the mood for playing football' he said.
FEEL
He said that...he didn’t feel like playing...football.

(Passive to active + phrasal verb)


The essay must be given to your teacher by Friday.
HAND
You ... must hand in your essay ... to your teacher by Friday.

(verb change + phrasal verb)


I'm sorry to say that it will not be possible for me to make the meeting tomorrow.
ABLE
I will ... not be able to turn...up at the meeting tomorrow , I’m afraid.

(Verb change + verb form)


I don't believe in marrying the first girl you date.
THINK
I don't .....think it is a good idea ......to marry the first girl you date.

(Verb change + verb form)


Were you able to convince him?
IN
Did you ....succeed in convincing him..... him?

(Inversion + phrase)
Last week, the train was late every day except for Monday.
RUN
Only... once did the train run on time / on/to schedule ... last week and that was Monday.
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SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST
KEY WORDS:
Maybe,
Perhaps,
I’m sure,
Definitely,
I’m certain,
They probably, FOLLOWED BY PAST TENSE / PRESENT PERFECT
It’s possible that…
It’s impossible that…
It’s not possible that…
It’s out of the question that…

SPECULATING ABOUT THE PAST


Maybe, Perhaps = may have + past participle
I’m sure, I’m certain = must have + past participle
They probably = may have + past participle
It’s possible that… = may , might have + past participle
It’s impossible that , it’s not possible that , It’s out of the question that...=
can’t have + past participle

Examples :

Perhaps he missed the train this morning.


MAY
He …..may have missed ....the train this morning.

It’s possible that she has injured her arm in the accident.
HAVE
She ….may have injured …..her arm in the accident.

I’m sure she didn’t mean to offend you.


MEANT
She ......can’t/ cannot have meant .... to offend you.

I’m certain he’s not gone home because his car is still parked outside.
GONE
He ..can’t have gone home... because his car is still parked outside.

I think they probably didn’t wait for us because it was raining.


NOT
I think they .... may not have waited ....for us because it was raining.

Press ctrl and click on this link to download a very useful table : Speculating about the past - Table

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REPORTED SPEECH ( indirect speech )
We use the reported speech to say what someone did or said.
The usual structure of reported speech is:
reporting clause + that clause + reported clause - The that clause can be omitted
Direct speech : "I am tired."
reporting clause + that clause + reported clause
He said (that) he was tired

'What do you think about my boyfriend ?' she asked me. Present Simple
ASKED
She ....asked me what I thought ... about her boyfriend? Past Simple
‘I always said I didn’t do anything wrong!’ the man said.
OUTSET
From ... the outset the man (had) denied ... doing anything wrong.
'I'll tell you tonight,' Jim promised. Future Simple (will)
WOULD
Jim promised that ....he would tell me that .... night. Would
'I’m pregnant with twins, ' she announced.
THAT
She ....announced that she was pregnant ....with twins.
"When I arrived , they had finished the exam," She said. Past simple + Past perfect
HAD
She said that when she...had arrived they had finished...the exam. Past perfect + Past perfect
"I had been watching a film when the alarm went off, " He explained. Past simple
GONE
He said that when the alarm ... had gone off , he had ....been watching a film. Past perfect
"That must be Steve on the phone” Said Alan. Must
TO
Alan..... said that had to be ..... Steve on the phone. Had to
Press ctrl and click on this link to download a very useful table : Reported Speech - Best Table ever

DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED SPEECH


present simple past simple
present continuous past continuous
past simple
past perfect past perfect
present perfect
past continuous
past perfect continuous
past perfect continuous

can/could could
may / might might
must had to
will /would would
shall /should should

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INVERTED SENTENCES
In formal and literary styles, the subject and auxiliary are inverted when negative adverbials are placed at
the beginning of the sentence for rhetorical effect.
There are different types of negative adverbials, such as “on no account”, “never”,”no sooner”,“hardly”,
“only after”, “only when” , etc. While some of them take the inversion in the first part of the sentence,
others do so in the second part.
Press ctrl and click on this link to download a very useful table : Inverted sentences - Table

Karl didn’t send us any postcards during her travels through Panama.
ONE
Not ... one postcard did Karl send us while ... she was travelling in Panama.

Parking in a disabled parking space is not allowed at any time.


YOU
On ...no account should you park ....in a disable parking space.

As soon as I got home , I got a text from my girlfriend


HAD
No...sooner had I got home than ..I got a text from my girlfriend.

The engine must not be turned off at any time during the test.
NO
At ...no time must the engine ...be turned off during the test.

Last week, the train was late every day except for Monday.
RUN
Only... once did the train run on time / on/to schedule ... last week and that was Monday.

As soon as I left the house , it started to rain heavily.


HAD
Hardly ..had I left the house when/before.... it started to rain heavily.

The demand for tickets is so high that the play has been extended by a month.
HAS
So ... high has the demand for tickets been that ... the play has been extended by a month.

It’s the first time I’ve seen such a beautiful car!


BEFORE
Never ... before have I seen ... such a beautiful car!

She understood little about her father’s job.


DID
Little did she understand about her father’s job.

KEYWORDS:
Hardly had I... when... / Never had she .../ Seldom do we ...
Rarely did /will you .../ Only then did I.../ Not only (do/have)... but (they) also...
No sooner had ....than.../ Scarcely had I ...when.../ Only later did she...
Nowhere have I .../ Little did .../ Only in this way could .../ In no way do I ...
On no account should you.../ Under no circumstances should you...

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INVERTED SENTENCES
AFTER PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES WITH NO
On no account should children be left unsupervised in this play area.
In no way can a goalless draw be seen as a good result for United.
Under no circumstances was Sally going to admit defeat.
At no time should you endanger yourself or others.
No sooner had they started their walk than it started to rain.

AFTER NOT
Not only did the team win the county cup, they also came top of their league.

AFTER LITTLE
Little did I think then that I would miss the bright lights in years to come.
Little was she expecting Sam to walk through that door.

WITH SO... THAT / SUCH … THAT


So popular has the system become that it now carries nearly two million
passengers each day.
Such was the outcry that the advertisement had to be withdrawn.

WITH NEITHER OR NOR


Yasmin doesn’t relish living in a highrise apartment and neither do I.
Jenny hasn’t been asked to work overtime and nor should you be.

ADVERBS (hardly, scarcely, barely)


Hardly had I got into bed when the telephone rang.
Scarcely had he sat down when there was a knock at the door.
Barely had we arrived when it started to rain.

INVERSION IN THE SECOND PART OF THE SENTENCE


AFTER ONLY
Only after I'd seen her did I understand her problem.
Only by working extremely hard could we afford to eat.
Only if you study hard can you be successful.
Only in the USA have I seen such high buildings.
Only once I had talked to him did all make sense.
Only when we'd all arrived home did I feel calm.

AFTER NOT
Not before looking at it closely did I know what it was
Not until I saw John did I really believe he was safe.
Not since I was child have I had such a great time

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WISHES AND PREFERENCES
WISH / IF ONLY : we’d like a present situation to be different
Wish/ if only + past simple
I wish you didn't live so far away.
If only we knew what to do.
He wishes he could afford a holiday.

WOULD RATHER/ WOULD SOONER : used to talk about preferring one thing to another.
Same subject : would rather + bare infinitive without to
I’d rather/sooner spend my money on clothes than cigarettes.
Different subject : subject 1 would rather/sooner subject 2 + past simple
I’d rather you didn’t smoke here.
He would sooner I returned his laptop.

HAD BETTER - ‘D BETTER : to talk about actions we think people should in a specific situation
Had better + bare infinitive without to
You'd better phone him and tell him that you're not going.
I think you'd better not go out in this weather. You will catch a cold.

IT'S (HIGH/ABOUT) TIME : something should have been done sooner or a long time ago
It's (high/about) time + past subjunctive
It's time you went to bed. You'll have to get up early tomorrow.
It's high time I bought a new pair of jeans.
It's about time this road was completed. They've been working on it for months.

HOPE : we’d like something to happen or to be true.


Hope + to infinitive
They hope to visit us next year.
Hope + that clause
'I hope (that) she'll like these flowers.'

PREFER : to like, choose, or want one thing rather than another


Prefer something to something
I prefer coffee to tea.
Prefer + to infinitive
Do you prefer to exercise indoors or outdoors?
Prefer + ing
I prefer working on my own.
Would prefer … rather than …
I’d prefer to walk rather than get a taxi.
Would prefer it if + object + past simple
I would prefer it if you didn’t smoke in here.

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WISHES AND PREFERENCES
I really think you should be more assertive about your rights.
UP
It’s about time ... you stood up for your rights / for yourself ... more.

You should really stop behaving like a child.


THOUGH
It’s high time ... you stopped behaving as though you were ... a child.

They should do a proper review of teachers’ salaries.


OUT
It’s time ... they carried out ... a proper review of teachers’ salaries.

I think it preferable for all students to write in ink.


RATHER
I ... would/’d rather all students wrote ... in ink.

I regret now spending so much money on that car.


SPLASHED
I wish now... I hadn’t splashed out ... so much money on that car.

I’d prefer you not to smoke in my house.


RATHER
I...would rather you didn’t ...smoke in my house.

It’s a pity that he turned up without warning me.


LET
I wish he ... he had/he’d let me know ...was coming.

It’s a shame she wasn’t aware how much I cared for her.
STRENGTH
If only ... she had been aware of the strength / she had known the strength... of my feelings for her.

Please don’t wear shoes in the house.


RATHER
I ... would/’d rather you took off / you didn’t wear ... your shoes in the house.

If you want to go home , you should wait until the rain stops.
HAD
You...had better wait ...until the rain stops , if you want to go home.

Key words : rather , only, wish, etc.


First sentence begins with/contains : I regret, you, they, he, should, it’s a pity/shame that...
Second sentence begins with : It’s about time , it’s high time, it’s time, if only, I wish, etc.

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SYNONYMS
You will frequently be tested on your knowledge of synonyms in the C2 Proficiency Use of English paper.
These will generally consist of a group of words that form a set expression.
For example: told the press that = went on record as saying that / something annoys someone =
someone takes exception to something. Make a point of learning 'chunks' like these when you come
across them.
MEANING TO PHRASE
Sometimes in the first sentence, you will be given the meaning of the phrase that you are being
tested on. They key word will be part of the phrase.
(were told to ... or... TO were given no choice but to ... or ...)
The students were told to either keep quiet or leave the art gallery.
NO
The students ... were given / had no choice/alternative/option but to ... keep quiet or leave the art
gallery.

(couldn’t stop thinking about TO kept going over and over)


Paul couldn’t stop thinking about the argument he had had with his brother.
OVER
Paul ... went / kept going over and over (again) in his ... mind the argument he had had
with his brother.

(something annoys me TO I take exception to something)


Although poetry readings are fun, the way in which poems are read sometimes annoys me.
EXCEPTION
Much as I ... enjoy/like poetry readings, I sometimes take exception to ... how poems are
read.

(something is really important TO someone set a lot of store on something)


Susie believes this job interview is really important.
STORE
Susie ... is setting/placing / sets/places great/much / a lot of store on ... this job interview.

(difficult not to laugh TO difficult to keep a straight face)


We found it difficult not to laugh because the situation was so funny.
KEEP
We found it difficult to ... keep a straight face in OR keep a straight face because/
as/since it was ... such a funny situation.

(someone told the press that ... TO someone went on record saying that...)
The manager told the press that his team had played very badly.
RECORD
The manager ... went on record as saying ... that his team had played very badly.

(change the subject TO go off at a tangent)


I can never follow what he’s saying – he’s always changing the subject.
TANGENT
If he ... didn’t (always) go off at a tangent ... I would know what he was talking about.

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CAUSE AND EFFECT
After, Stem from, spring from, result from, result in, sth translates into sth, cause someone to do
something, be caused by sth, lead to sth, bring something about, have the effect of, as a result of, as a
consequence of, prevent/stop someone (from) doing sth, owing to, on the grounds of, because, be to
blamed for sth, etc, the more...the more , the less... the less.

My neck feels much better since I bought that new pillow.


RESULTED
Buying that new pillow... has resulted in my neck feeling ... much better.

Unless you pay your bill, your water supply may be disconnected.
RESULT
Failure ..... to pay your bill will result in your ... water supply being disconnected.

The pain in my shoulder never recurred after I went to see the osteopath.
OF
There ... was no recurrence of my shoulder .... pain after I went to see the acupuncturist.

Melissa thought her daughter was reluctant to go dancing because she was shy.
DOWN
Melissa put her .... daughter’s reluctance to go dancing down ... to shyness.

As long as sales hold up, the company intends to stock iPods.


DECLINE
Providing there's ... no decline/not a decline in sales , the company has ... every intention of stocking
iPods.

The jury couldn't reach a verdict because of the complexity of the case.
PREVENTED
The complexity of the case ... prevented the jury (from) reaching ... a verdict.

I think you need to work hard to make a relationship a success.


MORE
I think ... the more you work (hard) at a relationship ... , the better it will be.

The careful preparation for the event ensured it was a memorable day for everyone who attended.
WHICH
The care ...which went into preparing (for) the ... event ensured it was a memorable day for everyone.

The recent increase in self-employment has been the result of changes in regulation.
TRANSLATED
Changes in regulation ... have translated into a ... recent increase in self-employment.

Mr. Edwards was sacked partly because of his arriving late to work.
CONTRIBUTED
Mr. Edwards' constant lateness ... contributed to his dismissal/sacking .... from the company.

Key words : Nouns (effect, consequence, grounds, etc.)


Verbs ( caused, lead, bring , owing to, resulted, etc,)
Conjunctions /adverbs( because, due to, since, as, so, therefore, etc. )

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50 COMMON PHRASAL VERBS (C2 LEVEL)
1. ACCOUNT FOR - To explain/give a reason for why something happens or happened.
The increase in carbon dioxide emissions may account for changes in the climate.

2. ACCOUNT FOR - to form, use, or produce a particular amount or part of a group of people or things.
Electronic goods account for over 30% of our exports.

3. ASSIGN SB TO STH - to give someone a particular job or place to work


Which police officer has been assigned to this case?

4. ASSOCIATE WITH SB - to spend time with a group of people, especially people who are disapproved of
I don't want my children associating with drug addicts and alcoholics.

5. ATTRIBUTE STH TO STH - to say that something is caused by something else


He attributes his success to hard work.

6. BACK DOWN - to admit that you were wrong or that you have been defeated
Eventually, Roberto backed down and apologized.

7. BUTT IN - to interrupt or join in a conversation or activity when the other people do not want you to
The interviewer kept butting in and wouldn't let me answer the question.

8. CALL FOR STH - to demand that something happens


Several of the newspapers were calling for his resignation.

9. CHIP IN (STH)- If several people chip in, they each give money to pay for something together.
We all chipped in to buy our teacher a present.

10. COVER (STH) UP OR COVER UP (STH)- to stop people from discovering the truth about something bad
She tried to cover up her mistakes.

11. CRACK DOWN ON - to start dealing with bad or illegal behaviour in a more severe way.
The library is cracking down on people who lose their books

12. DAWN ON SB - If a fact dawns on you, you become aware of it after a period of not being aware of it.
It suddenly dawned on them that Mary had been lying.

13. DIE DOWN - if something dies down, it becomes much less noisy, powerful, or active.
The wind died down during the night.

14. DIVE IN/INTO STH -


to start doing something suddenly and energetically, often without stopping to think.
When I start a new project, I like to dive right in and see how it works.

15. DRY UP - If a supply of something dries up, it ends.


The work dried up and he went out of business.

16. ENGAGE IN STH - to take part in something


The two sides have agreed to engage in talks.

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C2 PROFICIENCY - PHRASAL VERBS
account for sth crack down lean on sb sketch sth out
assign sb to sth crack up leap at sth sleep with sb
associate with sb cry out (sth) listen in slip away
attribute sth to sth cut back (sth) live through sth slip out
back off dawn on sb look ahead slip up
back out die down look sth over spin (sb) around/round
back sb up dive into sth loosen up splash out
back sth up dole sth out make of sb/sth spring from sth
be called up drift apart mount up spring up
be crying out for sth drift off muddle sth up spy on sb
be descended from drive sb/sth out narrow sth down squeeze sb/sth in or
sb/sth dry up open up squeeze in sb/sth
be flooded with sth engage in sth own up stand in
be glued to sth fall back on sb/sth patch sth up stay out of sth
be/get caught up in sth feast on sth plunge into sth step down
bounce back fend for yourself plunge sth into sth stick by sb
burst out flick through sth pose as sb stick up for sb/sth
butt in frown on/upon sth press on stir sth up
call for sth get through sth provide for sth store up sth
call sth up get to sb put sth aside stumble across/on/upon
catch on get up to sth react against sth sth/sb
catch up with sb go by reckon on sth/doing sth subject sb/sth to sth
cheer sb on go down reckon with sth take sth in
chip in (sth) go into sth reconcile yourself to sth take over
chop sth down go on reduce sb to sth/doing talk sb out of sth/doing
clean sth out go through with sth sth sth
cling (on) to sth go up reduce sth to sth talk sth through
close in go without (sth) refer sb/sth to sb/sth tear sth apart
come about grasp at sth refer to sth tear sth down
come across hail sb/sth as sth relieve sb of sth think ahead
come along hand sth down or hand resign yourself to sth think back
come between sb down sth resort to sth/ doing sth tip sb off
come by sth head off revert to sth/doing sth tire of sth/sb/doing sth
come down to sth/doing hold sth back rip sb off top sth off
sth hold down a job rule sb/sth out track down sb/sth or
come in (be involved) hold off (sth/doing sth) run around track sb/sth down
come in for sth hold onto sth/sb run through sth urge sb on
come into sth hold out hope run up against sth wipe sth out
come out (be said) hold sb/sth back saddle sb with sth work sth out
come out of sth hold sth against sb seal sth off write sb/sth off
come over jump at sth send for sb
come round keep (sth) up send sth out
come through keep at sth set sth off
come through (sth) keep sth back set out
count sb in keep sth from sb settle (sb) down
count towards sth keep sth to yourself shake sth off
count sb/sth up keep up (with sth) shake sb up
cover (sth) up kick (sth) off
crack (sb) up lead up to sth

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Phrasal Prepositional verbs
(three-word phrasal verbs)
Phrasal-prepositional verbs have three parts: a verb, a particle and a preposition.
The particle and the preposition cannot be separated. Many of these verbs are often used in
informal contexts, and their meaning is difficult to guess from their individual parts.

Average out at Feel up to Make up for


Add up to Fill in for Make up to
Back out of Fix up with Make up with
Be on about Fob off on/with Measure up to
Be up for Hold back on Miss out on
Be up to Gang up against/on Move in on
Break in on Get away with Move on to
Break out of Get back to Open up to
Bring out in Get back at Own up to
Burst in on Get along with Press on with
Call out to Get on with Push on with
Call out on Get out of Put down to
Cash in on Get over with Put in for
Catch up on Get rid of Put up to
Catch up with Get round to Put up with
Chalk up to Get through to Run away from
Check up on Get through with Run out of
Clamp down on Get back on Send away for
Close in on Go ahead with Shy away from
Come down with Go in for Stand in for
Come down on Go on about Stand in with
Come forward with Grow out of Stand up for
Come up against Keep away from Stand up to
Come up for Keep up with Stand up with
Come up with Let in on Stick up for
Cut back on Listen in on Take out on
Cut down on Listen out for Take up on
Do away with Live up to Talk back to
Do out of Load up on Turn away from
Drop in on Look down on Wake up to
Drop out of Look forward to Walk away from
Face up to Look in on Walk away with
Fall back on Look out for Walk out on
Fall behind with Look up to Walk out to
Fall out with Make off with Watch out for
Fed up with (be) Make out with Zero in on
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Phrasal Prepositional verbs
I didn’t have time to finish the exam, so my last three answers were incomplete.
RAN
I..... ran out of time to finish .... the exam, so my last three answers were incomplete.

Sam says that the concert was not as good as he expected.


LIVE
Sam says that the concert….. didn’t live up to his ……expectations.

I found it hard to think of the right answer.


COME
It was hard ….. for me to come up with …. the right answer.

He admitted that he had made a mistake.


OWNED
He …… owned up to having made ……… a mistake.

Peter’s mum always makes sure that he does his homework.


CHECKS
Peter’s mum always.... checks up on him to see ... if he is doing his homework.

Everybody admires him for what he's done in his career.


LOOKS
Everybody .........looks up to him......... for what he's done in his career.

We waited until the second quarter before releasing the product.


BACK
We... held back (on the product release/on releasing the product) .... until the second quarter.

Paul substituted for Jack , while Jack was on holiday.


STOOD
Paul .... stood in for Jack .... , while Jack was on holiday.

Key words : Verbs ( ran, live, come , owned, etc.)


Adverbs (out, in, up, back, etc.)
Prepositions (with , against, on, to, etc.)
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PREPOSITIONAL VERBS
There are certain verbs that are usually followed by certain prepositions. We called them
prepositional verbs.
They are just a verb followed by a preposition. Prepositional verb = Verb + Preposition
They make a new verb with a different meaning to the normal verb without the preposition.
All prepositional verbs are transitive (they have an object). The object comes after the preposition.

He is extremely good at designing products.


EXCELS
He ... excels in product ... design.

The Russian team lost 6-0 to Italy.


PREVAILED
The Italian .... team prevailed over ... Russia 6-0.

She decided not to go to university.


AGAINST
She ... decided against going ...to university.

What time did you get to the airport yesterday?


AT
What time ...did you arrive at ...the airport yesterday?

I met a friend by chance in the supermarket this morning.


CAME
I ...came across a friend ...in the supermarket this morning.

Many teenagers like social networking sites such as Facebook or Twitter.


WITH
Facebook and Twitter... are popular with ...teenagers

I will consider your idea and come back to you with a decision next week.
OVER
I will... think over your idea... and come back to you with a decision next week.

The evidence supports the conclusion that the victim knew her killer.
INFER
We can ... infer from the evidence ... that the victim knew her killer.

I wouldn’t ask him to look after my dog , if I were you.


WITH
If I were you , I ...wouldn’t trust him with ...my dog.

He couldn’t resist the temptation to order a glass of wine


SUCCUMBED
He ... succumbed to temptation and ... ordered a glass of wine.

Press ctrl and click on this link to download a very useful table : dependent prepositions

Key words : Prepositions (with, from, at , in ,etc.)


Verbs (excels , prevailed, came, succumbed, etc.)

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INFORMAL TO FORMAL / FORMAL TO INFORMAL
Common C2 level formal verbs : address ,applaud, bear, caution, commence, compromise, contract, deem,
disclose, elapse, endorse enjoy, eradicate ,erode ,examine, excel ,exemplify, exercise, infer, inhabit,merit,
part, perceive, precede, prevail, refrain ,reign, relate, remove,render, replace,sadden,seek ,strive, succumb,
summon, surpass ,translate, utter, violate.

The price of petrol has gone up recently.


INCREASE
There…. has been an increase in ….the price of petrol recently.

Nathan's friends talked him out of going to the concert alone.


DISSUADED
It was Nathan’s friends .... who dissuaded him from going ... to the concert alone

Police are looking into allegations of fraud involving senior executives.


INVESTIGATED
Allegations of fraud involving senior executives…. are being investigated by…. police.

I'm not used to having to think of other people when I make plans.
ACCUSTOMED
Having to think of other people when I make plans…. is something I’m not accustomed…to.

The theft was not noticed until the owners opened the shop on Monday morning.
LIGHT
The theft only ... came to light when/after/once ... the owners opened the shop on Monday morning.

You didn’t sign a contract so you don’t have to pay them any money.
OBLIGATION
If you have not signed a contract , you are…. under no obligation ….to pay them any money.

“Because you have a good driving record , I’ve decided to overlook this offence” - said the policeman.
LIGHT
In… (the) light of your …. good driving record, I’ve decided to overlook this offence.

If you need any help with your project, just let us know.
ASSISTANCE
If we can ....be of (any) assistance …. with your project, please don't hesitate to ask.

Michael strongly disagreed with the decision that was made.


ISSUE
Michael took strong issue with the decision that was made.

They think that Michael's cousin stole the money.


SUSPECTED
Michael's cousin .... is suspected of having stolen/ stealing.... the money.

As a result of this latest scandal, the senator’s career is finished .


BROUGHT
This latest scandal has .... brought the senator’s career to an ... end.

TIP : If the first sentence is informal and the key word is a formal noun or verb - that’s a clear indication of
an informal to formal transformation.

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PARAPHRASING
FIRST SENTENCE TRANSFORMED SENTENCE
... Is the only drawback of... ...has no drawbacks aside from ...
Apart from ... With the exception of...
Except for... Aside from...
As far as someone knows something will happen Someone has no reason to suppose that
something won’t happen
Someone has every reason to suppose that
something will happen
As far as someone knows... To the best of someone’s knowledge...
Bring something up Make mention of something
Can’t promise that ... There is no guarantee that...
Concluded that ... Came to the conclusion that...
Consider Take into account
Did not look like... Bore no resemblance to...
Looks very similar to ... Bears a close resemblance to....
Didn’t seem to be ... Didn’t show any sign of being ...
Do you mind if i do ...? Do you have any objection to me/my doing...?
Everyone is .... Including someone Someone is as ... As anyone else
Have never forgotten to do ... Has never failed to remember to do...
I don’t feel i can do ... I could not possibly do...
Is threatening something Something is under threat ...
It remains to be seen ... Only time will tell...
It’s impossible to say how ... There is no saying/knowing/telling how ...
It’s quite urgent that be do something Something must be done as a matter of urgency
More and more ... Are doing ... There is a growth in ... Doing ...
Not discuss something any further ... Something is no longer open to discussion
Someone did not find it difficult to do... Someone had no difficulty in doing...
Someone did their best to ... Someone made every effort to...
Someone doesn’t intend to do... Someone has no intention of doing ...
Someone intends to do... Someone has every intention of doing ...
Someone doesn’t mind ... It makes no difference to someone...
It’s all the same to someone...
Someone doesn’t think he will be able to do... There is little prospect of someone doing sth

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50 COMMON IDIOMS (C2 LEVEL)
1. FALL ON DEAF EARS - if advice or a warning falls on deaf ears, everyone ignores it.
The workers' demand for a wage increase has fallen on deaf ears.

2. GET THE HANG OF STH - to learn how to do something, esp. when it is not simple or obvious.
I’ll teach you how to use the design program – you’ll get the hang of it after a while.

3. HOLD WATER - if an argument, reason or explanation holds water, it appears to be valid.


Her argument doesn’t hold water, if you ask me.

4. BE IN THE SAME BOAT - to be in the same unpleasant situation as other people.


He’s always complaining that he doesn't have enough money, but we're all in the same boat.

5. A BONE OF CONTENTION - something that people disagree or argue about


The main bone of contention between us is our children’s education.

6. BE LOST FOR WORDS - to be so surprised, shocked etc. that you do not know what to say
Jack was lost for words when he was awarded the prize.

7. BREAK NEW GROUND - to do something completely different from what has been done before.
This recovery technique breaks new ground.

8. CARRY WEIGHT - to be respected and have influence


The plan is not likely to carry much weight with (=have much influence over) the authorities.

9. CATCH SOMEONE’S EYE - to cause someone to notice something or someone.


I was looking around the store for a present for my mom, and this book caught my eye.

10. BE ON THE SAME PAGE – have a similar understanding of something.


Before we make a decision, I want to make sure everybody is on the same page.

11. BE ON CLOUD NINE – To be very happy


He was on cloud nine when he learned he had won the lottery

12. COME TO TERMS WITH STH –To start to accept a situation and deal with it.
Sooner or later you will have to come to terms with the death of your wife.

13. COME UNDER FIRE - be criticized.


The government will come under fire again when the latest crime figures are released.

14. COME/ GET TO GRIPS WITH STH - to understand and deal with a problem or situation.
So far we have failed to come to grips with the magnitude of this problem.

15. CLEAR THE AIR - to remove the bad feelings between people.
I had a massive argument with my boss, but at least it has cleared the air.

16. DRAW THE LINE AT STH - to never do something because you think it is wrong:
I don’t mind doing some gardening but I draw the line at digging.

17. FIND COMMON GROUND - sth that people can agree about, especially when they disagree about other things
It seems increasingly unlikely that the two sides will find any common ground.

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C2 PROFICIENCY - IDIOMS
(be) out of line cross sb's path keep your head above sell like hot cakes
(keep sb) at arm's length disappear/vanish into thin water send shivers/a shiver down
a bone of contention air know your stuff your spine
a breath of fresh air do sth by the book learn/know the ropes set your sights on sth
a change of heart do the job leave someone to their own set/start the ball rolling
a double-edged sword do your own thing devices slip your mind
a drop in the ocean down and out leave/make your mark speak volumes
a fast track (to sth) down the drain let off steam stand your ground
a free hand down under let your guard down swallow your pride
a labour of love draw the line (at sth) let your hair down take sth to heart
a nest egg drive/send sb round the lose face take the plunge
a rough/bumpy ride bend lose heart the bottom line
a shoulder to cry on fall into place lose sight of sth the fast lane
a slap in the face fall on deaf ears lose sleep over something the ins and outs of sth
a sore point find common ground lose your cool the jury is (still) out
a stone's throw fly in the face of make a bad/good, etc. job through thick and thin
a stroll/trip/walk down follow in sb's footsteps of sth throw caution to the wind
memory lane get off/start on the wrong make sb's day throw in the towel
a tight corner foot make your blood boil throw sb in at the deep
across the board get out of hand make your blood run cold end
at any price get sth off your chest miss the boat tie the knot
at your fingertips get the hang of sth neck and neck tie the knot
be (like) water off a duck's get the picture no strings (attached) to/till/until the bitter end
back get your act together not be the end of the world touch and go
be alive and kicking/well get your own back (on sb) not be/come up to scratch turn over a new leaf
be at odds with sb/sth get/gain the upper hand not hold water turn your nose up at sth
be at/reach the end of your get/jump on the bandwagon not/never in your wildest under your nose
tether give and take dreams wear thin
be down in the dumps go against the grain off the beaten track with bated breath
be in sb's good/bad books go downhill on the face of it with your bare hands
be in the same boat go through the motions on the spot your best bet
be lost for words go through the roof on the spur of the moment your own flesh and blood
be on (your) guard go with the flow open your heart
be on cloud nine go/fall to pieces out of your depth
be on the cards go/run deep part and parcel
be on the same wavelength grasp the nettle pave the way
be poles apart grit your teeth pay the price
be streets ahead (of sb/sth) have a soft spot for sb/sth pick up the pieces
be the tip of the iceberg have sth up your sleeve play games
be/feel on top of the world have your hands full play it by ear
be/feel under the weather hit the roof play with fire
behind closed doors hit/strike/touch a (raw) poke/stick your nose into
behind the scenes nerve sth
beyond your wildest dreams hold your own pull strings
blow your mind if/when push comes to shove pull your weight
break new ground in a rut put sb in their place
bring a lump to your throat in cold blood put sb on the spot
burn the midnight oil in the blink of an eye put your feet up
by/in leaps and bounds in the dark put your finger on sth
call it a day in the face of sth put your foot down
carry weight keep a cool head put your foot in it
catch sb off guard keep a straight face read between the lines
catch sb's eye keep body and soul together recharge your batteries
clear the air keep sb on their toes ring a bell
come under fire keep your eyes open (for rock the boat
come/get to grips with sth sb/sth) run riot
keep your eyes peeled (for see eye to eye (with sb)
sb/sth) see red
keep your fingers crossed/
cross your fingers
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50 COMMON SET PHRASES (C2 LEVEL)
1. A MEANS TO AN END - sth you do because it will help you to achieve something else,
I didn't particularly like the job - it was just a means to an end.

2. A PLETHORA OF STH - an amount that is greater than is needed or can be used


The report contained a plethora of detail.

3. A PROFOUND EFFECT/IMPACT/INFLUENCE, ETC - If an effect, impact, etc. is profound, it is extreme.


The war had a profound impact on people's lives

4. A SHARP CONTRAST/DIFFERENCE, ETC. - A very noticeable contrast, difference.


There is a sharp contrast between the type of people who read the two newspapers.

5. A VAIN ATTEMPT/EFFORT/HOPE - unsuccessful or useless; failing to achieve a purpose.


The goalkeeper made a vain attempt to stop the ball crossing the line.

6. ADD INSULT TO INJURY - to make a bad situation even worse.


To add insult to injury, after cancelling our flight, they asked us to pay extra!

7. AGAINST ALL (THE) ODDS - despite something seeming very unlikely.


Against all the odds, we won our case on appeal.

8. APPLY YOURSELF(to sth) - to work hard at something, especially with a lot of attention for a long time
Stephen would do well if only he applied himself.

9. AS OPPOSED TO - rather than.


Students discuss ideas, as opposed to just copying from books.

10. AT A DISADVANTAGE- less likely to succeed than other people or things.


Anyone not familiar with the Internet is at a serious disadvantage.

11. AT A LOSS FOR WORDS - unable to think what to say, especially because you very surprised or shocked
He hesitated and briefly appeared at a loss for words.

12. AT SB'S EXPENSE - in order to make someone look stupid.


You should stop making jokes at other people’s expense.

13. ATTACH IMPORTANCE/VALUE, ETC. TO SB/STH - to believe that something is important, valuable, etc.
People attach too much importance to economic forecasts.

14. BE AIMED AT DOING STH - intended to achieve something.


This initiative is aimed at reducing road accidents.

15. BE AT A PREMIUM - to be not common and therefore valuable.


During the Olympic Games, accommodation will be at a premium.

16. BE AT LIBERTY TO DO STH - to be allowed to do something.


At this stage, we are not at liberty to reveal any names.

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KEY WORD
TRANSFORMATION
For questions 1-20, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first
sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between three
and eight words, including the word given.

1. Cameron has hinted that she doesn’t want to continue working with us any longer.
hint
Cameron has ………………………………………………………………….wants to work with us.

2. Mark is far superior to John in terms of IT skills.


match
When it comes ….……………………………………………………………….for Mark.

3. Many young people think that the Monarchy is irrelevant in today’s society and that it
should be abolished.
outdated
According to many young people, the monarchy is ………………………………..…………….with

4. It was really unexpected when Ryan scored a goal at the very last minute of the match.
time
At …………………………………………Ryan to score a goal at the very last minute of the match.

5. I like Rachel a lot although I wouldn’t want to marry her.


much
……………………………………………………………. Rachel , I wouldn’t want to marry her.

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EXERCISES 51

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