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Timber - Physical Properties

Modulus of Modulus of
Common Botanical Density Density
Rupture Elasticity
Name Name (kN/m3 (lbs/ft3
(MPa) (MPa)

Alder 3.73 23.7

Applewood
Pyrus malus 7.31 46.51 87.9 8770.14
or wild apple

Fraxinus
Ash / black 5.16 32.84 88 11046.06
nigra
quadrangula
Ash / blue 5.92 37.65 96.33 9653.04
ta

Fraxinus
Ash / green pennsylvanic 5.98 38.08 98.49 11477.7
a lanceolata

Fraxinus
Ash / white 6.26 39.83 108.01 12252.69
americana

Populus
Aspen 3.93 25.03 59.25 8220.78
tremuloides

PopuIus
Aspen /
grandidentat 4.04 25.72 62.59 9770.76
large tooth
a
Balsa
(Tropical Ochroma 1.52 9.675
America)

Tilia glabra
Basswood or Tilia 3.9 24.85 60.14 10094.49
americanus

Fagus
grandifolia
Beech 6.43 40.89 100.55 11575.8
or Fagus
americana
Carpinus
Beech / blue 7.03 44.76 83.19 7377.12
caroliniana
Betula
Birch / gray 5.42 34.46 67.49 7818.57
populifolia
Betula
Birch / paper 5.89 37.46 86.23 10977.39
papyrifera
Birch /
Betula lenta 7 44.58 115.86 14911.2
sweet
Birch /
Betula lutea 6.55 41.7 116.54
yellow
Buxus
Boxwood/Bui
semperviren 10.06 63.95
s
s
Buckeye / Aesculus
3.76 23.91 52.58 8132.49
yellow octandra
Juglans
Butternut 3.96 25.22 56.11 8142.3
cinerea

Cedar / Juniperus
4.83 30.72 59.55 6003.72
eastern red virginiana

Cedar /
Thuja
northern 3.09 19.67 44.73 5572.08
occidentalis
white
Cedar /
Chamaecypa
southern 3.45 21.98 46.79 6425.55
ris thvoides
white
Cedar /
Cedrela
(Tropical 5.25 33.4
odorata
American)

Cedar /
Thuja plicata 3.37 21.48 52.78 8034.39
western red

Cherry / Prunus
5.24 33.34 86.43 10261.26
black serotina
Prunus
Cherry / wild
pennsylvanic 4.17 26.53 59.84 8750.52
red
a
Castanea
Chestnut 4.45 28.34 60.43 8534.7
dentata
Dalbergia
Cocobolo 10.79 68.6
retusa
Guilbourtia
Coralwood 10.79 68.6
spp.
Leitneria
Corkwood 2.03 12.92
floridana
Cottonwood Populus
4.25 27.03 60.23 9535.32
/ eastern deltoides
Cypress / Taxodium
4.73 30.09 72.99 9908.1
southern distichum
Dogwood Cornus
7.81 49.69 105.16 10643.85
(flowering) florida

Douglas fir Pseudotsuga


5.02 31.96 82.8 13312.17
(coast type) taxifolia

Douglas fir
Pseudotsuga
(mountain 4.38 27.84 65.92 9623.61
taxifolia
type)

Ebony /
Andaman Diospyros
9.59 61.06 76.52 12458.7
marble- kursii
wood (India)

Ebony /
Ebene
Diospyros
marbre 7.53 47.95 54.45 9878.67
melanida
(Maritius / E.
Africa)
Elm / Ulmus
5.43 34.59 82.8 9299.88
American americana
Ulmus
racemosa or
Elm / rock 6.45 41.08 103.5 10653.66
Ulmus
thomasi
Ulmus fulva
Elm /
or 5.57 35.46 91.13 10300.5
slippery
pubescens
Eucalyptus /
Eucalyptus
Karri (W. 8.13 51.75 119.29 18491.85
diversicolor
Australia)

Eucalyptus /
Mahogany Eucalyptus
10.38 66.05 112.82 15774.48
(New South hemilampra
Wales)

Eucalyptus /
West Eucalyptus
7.72 49.13 103.4 14342.22
Australian marginata
mahogany
Abies
Fir / balsam 4.06 25.85 53.17 8622.99
balsamea

Fir / Douglas
(See
Douglas Fir).

Abies
Fir / silver 4.07 25.91 65.63 10555.56
amabilis
Concalco
9.42 60
Alves
Greenheart
Nectandra
(British 11.24 71.485
rodioei
Guiana)

Grenadilla Dalbergia
12.02 76.45
(Mpingo) melanoxylon

Nyssa
Gum / black 5.42 34.46 66.9 8230.59
sylvatica
Eucalyptus
Gum / blue 7.81 49.69 115.27 16510.23
globulus

Liquidambar
Gum / red 5.2 33.09 82.4 10251.45
styraciflua

Gum / Nyssa
5.14 32.71 67.2 8721.09
tupelo aquatica
Hemlock Tsuga
4.23 26.91 59.45 8299.26
eastern canadensis

Hemlock / Tsuga
4.71 29.97 68.18 7818.57
mountain martensiana

Hemlock / Tsuga
4.24 26.97 63.86 9957.15
western heterophylla

Hickory /
Hicoria
bigleaf 50.53 126.65 13096.35
laciniosa
shagbark
Hickory /
Hicoria alba 51.21 133.02 15401.7
mockernut
Hickory / Hicoria
51.21 139.79 15725.43
pignut glabra
Hickory /
Hicoria ovata 52.17 141.17 14960.25
shagbark
Ostrya
Hornbeam 7.48 47.57 100.26 11762.19
virginiana
Ironwood / Rhamnidium
11.66 74.17 177.56 20601
black ferreum
Jacaranda /
Dalbergia
Brazilian 8.34 53.07
nigra
rosewood

Larch / Larix
5.76 36.65 80.83 11654.28
western occidentalis

Guaiacum
officinale
Lignum
and 12.66 80.5
Vitae
Guaiacum
sanctum
Locust /
Robinia
black or 6.95 44.2 133.71 14204.88
pseudacacia
yellow
Locust Gleditsia
6.53 41.58 103.89 11428.65
honey triacanthos
Magnolia / Magnolia
5.06 32.21 87.41 12517.56
cucumber acuminata
Mahogany Khaya
6.55 41.7 121.45 10584.99
(W. Africa) ivorensis

Mahogany Swietenia
5.3 33.71 66.02 8014.77
(E. India) macrophylla

Mahogany Swietenia
5.3 33.71 69.65 8730.9
(E. India) mahogani
Maple /
Acer nigrum 6.08 38.71 91.92 11193.21
black

Maple / red Acer rubrum 5.36 34.09 91.72 11330.55

Maple / Acer
4.96 31.59 62.2 7897.05
silver saccharinum

Maple / Acer
6.63 42.2 107.62 12654.9
sugar saccharum

Mpingo Dalbergia
12.02 76.45
(Grenadilla) melanoxylon

Quercus
Oak / black 6.56 41.77 94.76 11310.93
velutina

Quercus
Oak / bur 6.58 41.89 70.73 7092.63
macrocarpa

Oak / Quercus
8.22 52.32 90.84 11271.69
canyon live chrysolepis
Quercus
Oak / laurel 6.61 42.08 92.7 10928.34
montana
Quercus
Oak / live 9.58 60.99 127.04 13547.61
virginiana
Quercus
Oak / pin 6.64 42.27
pallustris
Quercus
stellata or
Oak / post 7.24 46.07 91.23 10428.03
Quercus
minor
Quercus
Oak / red 6.45 41.02 98.3 12497.94
borealis

Oak / scarlet coccinea 6.96 44.26

Quercus
Oak /
montana
swamp 7.42 47.2 95.45 12233.07
(Quercus
chestnut
prinus)

Quercus
Oak swamp bicolor or
7.77 49.44 121.25 14185.26
white Quercus
platanoides

Oak / white Quercus alba 6.97 44.33 104.77 12272.31

Diospyros
Persimmon 7.61 48.45 124.78 14155.83
virginiana
Pine /
Pinus
eastern 3.66 23.29 61.41 8809.38
strobus
white
Pinus
banksiana or
Pine / jack 4.52 28.78 55.92 8515.08
Pinus
divericata
Pine /
Pinus taeda 5.82 37.02 89.17 13282.74
loblolly
Pine / Pinus
6.26 39.83 106.93 14175.45
longleaf palustris

Pine / pitch Pinus rigida 5.32 33.84 72.59 9466.65

Pinus
Pine / red 4.97 31.65 86.43 12399.84
resinosa
Pine / Pinus
5.73 36.45 91.63 13194.45
shortleaf echinata

Populus
Poplar / balsamifera
3.25 20.66 46.7 7023.96
balsam or Populus
candicans

Poplar / Liriodendron
4.19 26.66 63.96 10378.98
yellow tulipifera
Sequoia
Redwood semperviren 4.28 27.22 74.16 9397.98
s
Rosewood /
6.97 44.3
Bolivian
Rosewood /
7.65 48.7
E. Indian
Sassafras
Sassafras 4.64 29.53 63.08 7749.9
uariafolium

Satinwood Chloroxylon
10.11 64.37 94.96 10800.81
(Ceylon) swietenia

Oxydendrum
Sourwood 5.82 37.02 80.83 10624.23
arboreum

Spruce / Picea
4.2 26.72 71.02 10486.89
black mariana
Picea rubra
Spruce / red or Picea 4.05 25.78 70.14 10506.51
rubens
Spruce /
Picea glauca 4.23 26.91 62.59 9819.81
white

Platanus
Sycamore 5.29 33.65 69.85 9829.62
occidentalis
Larix laricina
Tamarack or Larix 5.47 34.84 80.74 11320.74
americana

Tectona
Teak (India) 5.78 36.33 88.68 11722.95
grandis
Walnut / Juglans
5.51 35.09 102.22 11624.85
black nigra
Willow /
Salix nigra 4 25.47 43.36 5032.53
black