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04/11/2007 20:54:00

1) Why is America sometimes called the “Democratic Paradise”?


• Because we have more elections than other countries.
2) What is the purpose of popular elections?
• 1) to give legitimacy to the government
• 2) to legitimize change
3) What is called a command for the elected officials to carry out their platforms?
• A mandate (the conditions for a mandate do NOT generally exist)
4) Do most people vote prospectively or retrospectively?
• Retrospectively
5) Name two BASIC kinds of elections?
• Primary & general
6) Describe/define a primary election?
• In a presidential primary, for example, the 2 parties will pick a candidate
to represent their party in the general election
7) Describe/define a general election?
• In a general election, voters will decide which candidate will actually fill
the elective public office
8) Name 2 kinds of primaries?
• Closed primary, open primary
9) Describe/define closed primary?
• A primary in which only a party’s registered voters are eligible to vote.
10) Describe/define open primary?
• Where members of other parties & independents participate & vote.
11) What do you call an organized attempt by voters of one party to influence the
primary results of the other party?
• Raiding
12) Name 3 other types of elections?
• Initiative, referendum, and recall
13) An election that allows citizens to propose legislation & submit it to the state
electorate for popular vote is called what?
• Initiative
14) An election whereby the state legislature submits proposed legislation to the
state’s voters for approval is called what?
• Referendum
15) An election in which voters can remove an incumbent from office by popular
vote is called what?
• A recall
16) Critics of the presidential primary argue that-what 3 things?
• 1) It doesn’t emphasize policies
• 2) The scheduling of primaries affects who wins
• 3) The media are too important
17) When a presidential candidate puts a lot of resources at the beginning of a
primary, what do we call it?
• Front-loading
18) Primaries favor the horse-race aspect or substance?
• The horse-race aspect
19) Party delegates have what 3 characteristics?
• 1) Usually wealthy
• 2) Highly educated
• 3) More ideologically extreme
20) At the party’s National Convention, do they pick a candidate or just ratify
them?
• Ratify
21) The abolishment of the electoral college; is it likely or unlikely?
• Unlikely; also, states would not divide their votes, most likely.
22) Strong challenges face an uphill battle against incumbents . What do they look
for?
• They look for scandal; they look for a member of Congress to make a
mistake; they look for redistricting, and they look for someone to retire.
23) What is gerrymandering?
• Questionable political redistricting
24) Who was accused of gerrymandering?
• Tom Delay
25) What percentage of eligible voters vote regularly?
• 40%
26) In general, voter turnout is higher among who?
• Older people, higher income, more education
27) What is the most important structural reason why people don’t vote?
• Registration rules
28) What is the most important non-structural reason why people don’t vote?
• Alienation/attitude (towards politics)
29) What is voting for candidates of different parties for various offices in the same
election?
• Ticket-splitting
30) What is one of the dangers of the nominating campaign?
• Candidates become too extreme
31) When running for high office, how many actual campaigns are there?
• There are 5 (nomination campaign, general election campaign, personal
campaign, organizational campaign, media campaign)
32) Who is the head of a political party?
• Campaign manager/consultant
33) What is another name for political consultants? Spin doctor
34) Critics of political consultants claim that the rise of “spin doctors” has stripped
campaigns of what?
• Of substance; have turned campaigns into a bag of tricks
35) What is the law of going negative?
• If someone goes negative on you, go negative back
36) The most controllable aspect of the campaign is the what?
• Paid media
37) What is the most trusted aspect of the campaign?
• The free media
38) The problems with media coverage of a campaign are what?
• 1) Their obsession with the horserace aspect of the campaign
• 2) They encourage scandal & negativity
• 3) Modern campaigns discourage substance
39) In order to manipulate press coverage a “spin doctor” will what?
• 1) Isolate the candidate from the press
• 2) Stage media events
• 3) Put a positive spin on whatever the candidates do
40) Do debates matter?
• YES! Because they can alter a sizable minority, which is what usually wins
the election or loses, illustrated by the 2000 debates-Bush v. Gore
41) Who was the first president to use technology?
• FDR (radio)
42) Who was the first modern president to use technology?
• Kennedy (TV)
43) Howard Dean used what technology to reach voters?
• Internet
44) Why do we want to regulate the flow of money in politics?
• We don’t want anyone or group to buy off the system.
45) Political money is regulated by the federal government according to what first
big law for finance reform?
• The Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1974
46) PAC money is given primarily to incumbents in an officially recognized,
federally mandated, fund-raising committee for an interest group called what?
• A political action committee (PAC)
47) The basic truth about PACs is that a very small number of PACs conduct the
bulk of PAC activity & have a what kind of influence on the process?
• Disproportionate
48) Do PACs directly buy votes?
• No, the buy access
49) Many believe that 2002 Campaign Finance Reform-McCain/Feingold or BCRA
(Bi-partisan Campaign Reform Act) will: a) Restrict free speech? b) Will help
incumbents? c) Will weaken political parties? Answer: YES!!
50) Why do incumbents hate soft money?
• Because it’s usually attacking them.
51) The first newspapers published in America was when?
• 1690
52) A form of newspaper publishing during the early 20th century, concerned with
reforming government & business was called what?
• Muckraking
53) What form of journalism came first-yellow journalism or muckraking?
• Yellow journalism
54) The media consists of what?
• Print media & electronic media
55) The internet is which type of media-print or electronic?
• A little bit of both
56) What percentage of people get their information from TV?
• 83%
57) Local TV stations that carry the programming of a national network are called?
• Affiliates
58) Which branch of government is No.1 in terms of media coverage?
• The President
59) Media coverage of Congress is overwhelmingly what?
• Negative
60) What do we call it when a President appeals directly to the American people?
• Going public
61) What event had the most profound impact of any modern event on the manner
and substance of the press’s conduct?
• Watergate Scandal of 1972
62) So recent press attention to private activities & personalities of candidates is
called what?
• Character issue
63) A factor that permits the modern press to undertake character investigation is
a ruling by the Supreme Court; that public officials would have to prove “actual
malice” to win a libel suit. What was that case called?
• New York Times Co. V. Sullivan (1964)
64) TV & radio is regulated by the Federal government because why?
• Airwaves are considered public property
65) What is an interest group?
• Organized groups that try to influence public policy.
66) In Bowling Alone, Putnam argues that fewer people are joining groups.
True or False?
• TRUE!
67) What do special interest groups do?
• 1)They fill voids left by traditional political parties. 2) The give Americans
another opportunity to being their claims to government 3) They make
the policy process more representatives 4) They are protected by the 1st
Amendment
68) David Truman’s theory explaining why interest groups formed is called what?
• Disturbance theory
69) What are the 6 types of interest groups?
• 1) Public interest groups, 2) economic interest groups 3)governmental
interest groups, 4) political action committees 5)multi-issue groups, 6)
single-issue groups
70) Common cause environmental groups are what kind of interest group?
• A public interest group-they provide something that benefits everyone.
71) A PAC is a political arm of a business, a trade association, or a professional
groups. True or False?
• TRUE!!
72) The Christian Coalition, NOW (National Organization for Women) are what kind
of interest groups?
• Multi-issue groups
73) The NRA (National Rifle Association) is what kind of special interest group?
• Single-issue group
74) What is the most powerful interest group in the country?
• AARP (American Association of Retired People)
75) What is the downside to interest groups?
• They increase the cost of public policies, they advance selfish interests,
they ignore the rights of other groups.
76) The 1960’s & 1970’s were characterized by the rise of what?
• Public Interest Groups
77) In the 1970’s, 1980’s & 1990’s, there was a backlash against the public interest
groups of the 1960’s? True or False?
• TRUE!!!
78) What interest group is dominating the system now?
• Big Business Interest groups
79) What recent politician was interested in shrinking the size of government and
the influence of interest groups?
• Al Gore
80) Many of the most effective lobbyists are: former members of Congress, former
Congressional staffers or former members of the executive branch or former
employees of the federal bureaucracy. True or False?
• TRUE!!
81) An especially strong link exists between interest groups & regulatory agencies
like the EPA. Why?
• Interest groups want to influence policy; EPA is an executive agency.
82) Interest groups lobby the court by sponsoring losses & filing briefs. These
briefs are called what?
• Amicus curiae (friend of the court)
83) A federally registered fund-raising committee that represents an interest
groups in the political process and are a little different than regular interest groups
is called what?
• PACs (they don’t formally have members) (they don’t get tax breaks,
either)
84) Several factors contribute to the success of an interest groups. What are the
factors?
• Leaders, Patrons/Funding, members
85) What is a free-rider?
• Someone who benefits from an interest group without joining or
contributing
04/11/2007 20:54:00
04/11/2007 20:54:00