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DATE 13/07/2011 DOC. MSE30097 REV. 6.4.

MANUAL CONTROL OF ISA INSTRUMENTS


User manual
Ver. 6.4.0
Doc. MSE30097 Rev. 6.4.0 Page 2/92

REVISIONS SUMMARY VISA


N. PAG. DATE
6.0.0 All 16/10/2009 Issued Lodi

6.4.0 All 13/07/2011 Added Goose Publishing capability Morandi


Updated to revision 6.4.0 Lodi
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PREFACE ...........................................................................................................................................................7

1 FIRST SELECTIONS ......................................................................................................................................9

1.1 Menu description .................................................................................................................................................. 9


1.1.1 Menu ....................................................................................................................................................... 9
1.1.1.1 Restore ........................................................................................................................................................ 9
1.1.1.2 Move ......................................................................................................................................................... 10
1.1.1.3 Change dimensions ................................................................................................................................... 10
1.1.1.4 Reduce to icon .......................................................................................................................................... 10
1.1.1.5 Widen........................................................................................................................................................ 10
1.1.1.6 Next........................................................................................................................................................... 10
1.1.2 Menu file ....................................................................................................................................................... 10
1.1.2.1 New (CTRL+N) ........................................................................................................................................ 10
1.1.2.2 Open (CTRL+O) ....................................................................................................................................... 10
1.1.2.3 Save tests................................................................................................................................................... 11
1.1.2.4 Save Results .............................................................................................................................................. 11
1.1.2.5 Save tests on TDMS.................................................................................................................................. 11
1.1.2.6 Save Results on TDMS ............................................................................................................................. 12
1.1.2.7 Notes to the test......................................................................................................................................... 12
1.1.2.8 Manage formulas and custom fields .......................................................................................................... 12
1.1.2.9 Export graph ............................................................................................................................................. 15
1.1.2.10 Print....................................................................................................................................................... 15
1.1.2.11 Import from DRTS66 ............................................................................................................................ 15
1.1.2.12 Export to DRTS66 ................................................................................................................................ 16
1.1.2.13 Exit ........................................................................................................................................................ 16
1.1.3 Menu Settings ............................................................................................................................................... 16
1.1.3.1 Header ....................................................................................................................................................... 16
1.1.3.2 Digital inputs type ..................................................................................................................................... 17
1.1.3.3 Advanced settings ..................................................................................................................................... 18
1.1.4 Window......................................................................................................................................................... 22
1.1.5 Languages ..................................................................................................................................................... 22
1.1.6 Help menu ..................................................................................................................................................... 22

1.2 The toolbar .......................................................................................................................................................... 24

1.2.1 New ........................................................................................................................................................ 24

1.2.2 Open ..................................................................................................................................................... 24

1.2.3 Save .................................................................................................................................................. 24

1.2.4 Print ....................................................................................................................................................... 24

1.2.5 Measurements ........................................................................................................................................ 24

1.2.6 IEC61850 .............................................................................................................................................. 25

1.2.7 Vectors ................................................................................................................................................. 25

1.2.8 Connect and disconnect ................................................................................................................ 26

1.2.9 Generate the auxiliary DC voltage supply .......................................................................... 27

1.2.10 Generate Prefault .................................................................................................................................. 27

1.2.11 Test start ................................................................................................................................................. 27


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1.2.12 Test stop ................................................................................................................................................ 27


1.2.13 Reset ...................................................................................................................................................... 27
1.2.14 IRIG-B synchronization ......................................................................................................................... 28
1.2.15 TRANSCOPE ........................................................................................................................................ 28

2 THE PROGRAMMING WINDOW .............................................................................................................29

3 THE PREFAULT PANEL ..........................................................................................................................31

3.1 DC voltage supply ............................................................................................................................................... 31

3.2 Frequency ............................................................................................................................................................ 31

3.3 Minimum Prefault time ...................................................................................................................................... 31

3.4 Ramp DC voltage ................................................................................................................................................ 32

3.5 Increments ........................................................................................................................................................... 32

3.6 Current and voltage values ................................................................................................................................ 32

3.7 Add Prefault to test ............................................................................................................................................. 32

3.8 Reset values ......................................................................................................................................................... 32

3.9 Binary outputs..................................................................................................................................................... 32

4 THE FAULT WINDOW ..............................................................................................................................34

4.1 Basic Options....................................................................................................................................................... 34


4.1.1 Test ID .......................................................................................................................................................... 34
4.1.2 DC supply ..................................................................................................................................................... 35
4.1.3 Shot type ....................................................................................................................................................... 35
4.1.4 Test selection ................................................................................................................................................ 36
4.1.4.1 Dragging test ............................................................................................................................................. 36
4.1.4.2 Shot test .................................................................................................................................................... 38
4.1.4.3 Delta test ................................................................................................................................................... 38
4.1.4.4 Delta ramp test .......................................................................................................................................... 39
4.1.4.5 Ramp test .................................................................................................................................................. 44
4.1.5 Frequency...................................................................................................................................................... 46
4.1.6 Maximum time .............................................................................................................................................. 47
4.1.7 Circuit Breaker Delay ................................................................................................................................... 47

4.2 Advanced Options ............................................................................................................................................... 49


4.2.1 Waveform ..................................................................................................................................................... 49
4.2.2 Initial Fault Angle ......................................................................................................................................... 52
4.2.3 Increments ..................................................................................................................................................... 54
4.2.4 Analogue measurements ............................................................................................................................... 54

4.3 Fault parameters ................................................................................................................................................. 55


4.3.1 Current & Voltage Values............................................................................................................................. 55
4.3.2 Power Values ................................................................................................................................................ 56

4.4 Test control buttons ............................................................................................................................................ 57


4.4.1 Add to the Tests list ...................................................................................................................................... 57
4.4.2 Delete all rows .............................................................................................................................................. 57
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4.4.3 Reset values .................................................................................................................................................. 57


4.4.4 Reset delta ..................................................................................................................................................... 57
4.4.5 Automatically add test and result row ........................................................................................................... 57
4.4.6 Executed and not executed tests.................................................................................................................... 57

4.5 Input contacts ...................................................................................................................................................... 58

4.6 Binary outputs..................................................................................................................................................... 60

4.7 Test program table.............................................................................................................................................. 61

5 TEST EXECUTION ...................................................................................................................................67

6 TEST RESULT WINDOW .........................................................................................................................68

6.1 Graphs ................................................................................................................................................................. 68


6.1.1 Cartesian ....................................................................................................................................................... 69
6.1.2 Polar .............................................................................................................................................................. 69
6.1.3 Graph Settings............................................................................................................................................... 69
6.1.3.1 Graph Title ................................................................................................................................................ 70
6.1.3.2 Formula ..................................................................................................................................................... 70
6.1.3.3 Delete all ................................................................................................................................................... 70
6.1.3.4 Show data of test ID .................................................................................................................................. 70
6.1.4 Advanced Graph Settings.............................................................................................................................. 70
6.1.4.1 Lin-Lin ...................................................................................................................................................... 70
6.1.4.2 Join with lines ........................................................................................................................................... 70
6.1.4.3 Show tripped tests only ............................................................................................................................. 70
6.1.4.4 Limit X and Y axes ................................................................................................................................... 70

6.2 Results .................................................................................................................................................................. 70


6.2.1 Modify test ID ............................................................................................................................................... 71
6.2.2 Show data of test ID ...................................................................................................................................... 72
6.2.3 Field column ................................................................................................................................................. 72

6.3 Graph and results ............................................................................................................................................... 72

7 PRINTING RESULTS................................................................................................................................74

7.1 Move on the document ....................................................................................................................................... 75

7.2 Print ..................................................................................................................................................................... 75

7.3 Export file ............................................................................................................................................................ 75

7.4 Zoom .................................................................................................................................................................... 75

8 IMPORT RESULTS IN EXCEL .................................................................................................................76

APPENDIX 1: IEC61850 ..................................................................................................................................78

A1.1 Relay connection .................................................................................................................................................... 78

A1.2 File Menu ................................................................................................................................................................ 79

A1.3 Main Area ............................................................................................................................................................... 80


A1.3.1 Exploring Goose ............................................................................................................................................... 80
A1.3.2 Filters ................................................................................................................................................................ 82
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A1.3.3 Virtual Contacts ................................................................................................................................................ 83


A1.3.4 Substation files (SCD) ...................................................................................................................................... 85
A1.3.5 Publishing Gooses ............................................................................................................................................. 86

APPENDIX 2: MEANING OF PARAMETERS .................................................................................................91


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Preface

The program Manual Control has been designed as an interactive test software for all ISA
Automatic relay test sets, to test any kind of relay; it is also provided with an Harmonic
waveforms generator. The program is completely re-built with respect to the former MANUAL
software; its main new features are the followings.
. The program controls MDI windows: whenever a New command is issued or a former test
program or test result is opened, the corresponding window is created. This allows putting side by
side different test result diagrams and to compare them.
. The program allows to define a test program and to save it, without executing it. Test execution
can be performed at a second time.
. During test execution, results can be seen immediately as a table or diagram.
. The selection of parameters to be displayed has been made much more friendly.
. The Measurements table, that shows phase to phase voltages, powers, vector sequence components
stays open during tests: it is possible to watch how changing currents, voltages, angles, the
parameter of interest is modified.
. During tests, it is possible to select whether parameters at START are to be added or not to the test
program.
With respect to former releases, Release 6.4.0 has the following new features.
• When the PC is not connected to the test set, it is now possible to select the type of test set
that will be used: thanks to this feature, it is now possible to edit test programs without the
test set connected.
• It is possible to perform the threshold and trip delay test of Rate of Change relays; most
important, Frequency and Voltage rate of change.
• The measurement is disabled with the Dragging test selection.
• The following features apply only to DRTS66 family test sets.
• Once the program is started, it is possible to call the TRANSCOPE program. After this, the
two programs can operate at the meantime. NOTE: this applies only to DRTS6X test sets
with the TRANSCOPE option. The test set connection is by the ETHERNET interface.
• It is possible to set the test stop (trip or ramp) with the AND or OR of selected trip inputs.
NOTE: without this selection, trip test stopped on the AND of inputs, and ramps stopped on
the OR of inputs.
• Control of AMI332 or AMI632 boosters.

The program allows to define tests where all the parameters generated by the test set can be set and
modified at will. The creation of test programs make it a semi-automatic tester. Other main features,
existing in the former MANUAL program, are:
. Capability to load/save the results created as a Microsoft Access file (.MDB)
. Harmonics definer for each phase, up to the 100th harmonic.
. Capability to load a result and repeat all the tests included.
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The program is started from TDMS by selecting Manual control.


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1 FIRST SELECTIONS

When the Manual control is pressed, the following window is displayed.

1.1 Menu description


The list of menu is accessible at the top of the main window.

1.1.1 Menu
When the icon is selected, the following menu list is opened. Any operation refers to the current
window. NOTE: this icon is located in the main menu as the program is started or when the window
is completely open; otherwise, the icon moves to the window itself, and selections in grey are
enabled.

1.1.1.1 Restore
With this command, the former window dimension is restored.
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1.1.1.2 Move
With this command, it is possible to move the window on the screen. The command allows putting
two windows side by side.

1.1.1.3 Change dimensions


With this command, it is possible to change the dimension of the window.

1.1.1.4 Reduce to icon


With this command, the window is closed.

1.1.1.5 Widen
With this command, the window goes to its maximum dimension.

1.1.1.6 Next
With this command, the next window is displayed.

1.1.2 Menu file


When File is selected, the following menu list is opened.

1.1.2.1 New (CTRL+N)


This menu item allows to create a new window, where a new test program can be created.

1.1.2.2 Open (CTRL+O)


This menu item allows to load a test file, with a pre-set test program that does not include any test
result.
The same command allows to load a result file that contains all the tests performed and the relative
relay settings (graphics included).
The default directory where results are searched is C \ XTEST \ XPRONET; from there, you can
find the desired file using the WINDOWS standard dialogue window.
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1.1.2.3 Save tests


This command allows to save the test that the user has prepared, without the need of executing it.
The default directory is C \ XTEST \ XPRONET; from there, you can save the test program where
desired, using the WINDOWS standard dialogue window.

1.1.2.4 Save Results


This menu item allows to save a file containing the test program and the relative results. The default
directory is C \ XTEST \ XPRONET; from there, you can save the test program where desired,
using the WINDOWS standard dialogue window.

1.1.2.5 Save tests on TDMS


This menu item allows to save the test program to the TDMS data base. When the item is selected,
the following window opens.

First of all, you have to key in the name of the program; then you have to select the relay for which
the program was created; finally you press the Save button. If you go to the TDMS data base, you
can start the test program by clicking on the corresponding line.
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1.1.2.6 Save Results on TDMS


This menu item allows to save a file containing the test program and the relative results to the
TDMS data base. The procedure is the same as the one of the preceding paragraph.

1.1.2.7 Notes to the test


By selecting this menu it is possible to add comments regarding the tests performed. This notes will
be included in the results file and can be printed.

1.1.2.8 Manage formulas and custom fields


When this feature is selected, the following window is opened.

With the first page, Formula Editor, the user can define formulas that compute parameters (such
as: power, phase to phase voltage, sequence components..) using the parameters V, I, phase. It is
possible to define an unlimited number of formulas. It is also possible to insert in the test and result
table up to six formulas. Here is the description of the selections:
• Formula: edit the formula in this line. To save the formula it is possible to operate on any of
the six rows; once the label is defined, by pressing the + button the formula is added to the
bottom of the Saved Formulas box, with the label defined.
• Check buttons: they allow verifying that there is no formal error in the edited formula.
• Labels: defines the name for the formula so that it can be identified in the result table.
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• Fields: these are the parameters that the editor will consider valid for calculations. Their
name is slightly different from the table columns names but it’s easy to understand their
meaning: in case of doubt, please refer to the Appendix 2. It is necessary to use exactly
these names otherwise the formula cannot be interpreted.
• Functions: these are the mathematical functions that the editor will consider valid.
• Operators: these are the operators that the editor will consider valid.
• Evaluation: they are logical operators that allow defining control expressions. For instance,
it is possible to compare a result with the tolerance limits, and decide whether it is
acceptable or not.
• Saved formulas: these are the defined and saved formulas, and there is no limit to the
number of formulas to be saved. Once a formula is saved, it can be copied into the formula
field by selecting the formula field first, and then by double clicking on the selected
formula. A saved formula can be deleted by selecting it and then clicking on the minus
button .
To define a mathematical formula, simply write it into the Formulas box and press the
corresponding “Check” button to make sure that the formula is correct. In order to avoid edit errors,
double-click on the list to choose the desired parameter: it will automatically be appended to the
selected formula.
For logic formulas, their formats are the followings.
• IIf:
IIf(expression, truepart, falsepart)
First input the logic expression, that allows selecting the results. Examples of expressions:
I1>10; I1<10; I1<8 OR I1>12; I1 BETWEEN 8 AND 12.
• AND, OR must be preceded and followed by a space;
• BETWEEN: by pressing it the following expression is loaded:
<Field> BETWEEN <Value1> AND <Value2>
As Field it is possible to input a variable or a mathematical expression. Values 1 and 2 can
also be a variable or a mathematical expression. For instance, if the condition is that I1 must
be between 8 and 12, the expression becomes:
I1 BETWEEN 8 AND 12
You have to remove the brackets < and >, and leave the spaces. In the fields <Value1> and
<Value2> you have to inputs numeric values: for instance, 0 = Pass; 1 = Fail.
• Now, to control a tolerance that has the same range for all the test, you can write:
• IIf(I1 BETWEEN 8 AND 12, 0, 1)
If the current I1 has the value between 8 and 12 the result is 0; else, the result is 1.
• If the nominal value changes at every test, it is necessary to program different values for
each row. To this purpose, the parameters CustomFld1, (2, 3, 6, 5, 6) and 2 can be assigned
to Value 1 and 2. With these parameters the expression is:
IIf(I1 BETWEEN CustomFld1 AND CustomFld2, 0, 1)
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With this formula, when the user defines the test program, it is possible to enter each row, and
to assign to these two variables the values related to that test. For instance, in a time
dependant over-current relay the trip delay (that chances with current) can be assigned
different values for each test.
• The last test formula, titled Pass/Fail, allows introducing text fields in the table. The
expression becomes the following:
IIf(I1 BETWEEN CustomFld1 AND CustomFld2, ‘True’, ‘False’)
It is necessary to put single quotes by the side of the ‘text’: in the pass/fail field the selected
text will be reported as a result. This improves the test result reading.
In the following window are reported:
• Formula # 1: IIf expression;
• Formula # 2: IIf BETWEEN expression;
• Formula # 3: IIf with BETWEEN defined values (8 and 12);
• Formula # 2: IIf with BETWEEN and values to be defined line by line;
• Formula # 2: Pass/fail with BETWEEN and values to be defined line by line.

The IIf operator is very powerful, and can solve complicated cases. Suppose for instance that you
want to test two tolerances in the same program: one, for instance, after a ramp test on I1, and the
other one after a time test on contact C1. Let us decide to write the maximum and minimum of the
tolerance as follows:
CustomFld1 = Threshold test minimum value;
CustomFld2 = Threshold test maximum value;
CustomFld3 = Time test minimum value;
CustomFld4 = Time test maximum value.
Now, the type of test variable name is dbType; its value is 4 for ramp test. You can write the
following formula:

IIf(val(dbType) = 4, IIf(I1 BETWEEN CustomFld1 AND CustomFld2, 'PASS', 'FAIL'), IIf(Tdelay_1


BETWEEN CustomFld3 AND CustomFld4, 'PASS', 'FAIL'))
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The first IIf is for the type of test. If it is a ramp, then, if the I1 ramp test result is between
CustomFld 1 and 2, then it is Pass; else, it is Fail. The second IIf (not a ramp test), then, if the
Tdelay1 time test result is between CustomFld 3 and 4, then it is Pass; else, it is Fail.
Once the program is written, you have to go line by line and write in CustomFld the limits for the
threshold or for the time measurement: this solves the problem.
Once the editing is finished, by pressing the OK button, calculations will be made and the result
table will be filled with the results.
As for the other fields, it is possible to show these parameters in the result table, and to choose them
as X-axis or Y-axis of the graph. For instance, if you associate P to Formula1 and Q to Formula2,
you can easily plot the test result in the P-Q coordinates.
With the second page, Custom fields, the following window is opened.

The purpose of this field is to allow the operator to label the Custom fields, as they will be shown in
the programming table: for instance, minimum and maximum. Then, in the program table, it will be
possible to input the minimum and maximum tolerance values.

1.1.2.9 Export graph


The command allows to create a file of the test result diagram, in the formats: .WMF; .BMP; .JPEG.
Selecting the command, the default directory is C \ XTEST \ XPRONET \ TESTS; from there, you
can save the test program where desired, using the WINDOWS standard dialogue window.

1.1.2.10 Print
This menu item is discussed in the relative chapter.

1.1.2.11 Import from DRTS66


Once test results have been performed on an instrument of the DRTSxx family by using its local
control, it is possible to download them to the PC, for further examination, save, print. This
operation is possible after having saved, on the testset, the test result on the USB key. The
procedure is the following one.
• Insert the USB memory into a slot of the PC. Press Import form DRTS66
: the standard dialogue window is opened.
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• Select the file to be imported: test results are shown on the display. Test results analysis is
explained in the following chapters.

1.1.2.12 Export to DRTS66


It is also possible to edit a test on the manual program, save it onto an USB memory, load it into the
local Manual control program, and eventually execute it locally. This feature allows editing the
desired tests on the PC, and this operation is faster than on the test set.
The only important limitation is that the delta ramp test is not available on the local control; so, if
you try to export this type of test, the following message will be displayed.

The operation of importing the file into DRTS66 is explained in the DRTS66 Local control manual.

1.1.2.13 Exit
The command closes the application and all its windows.

1.1.3 Menu Settings

1.1.3.1 Header
By choosing this menu item, the user is asked to fill data that identify the references of the test. They
will be printed with test results, allowing the traceability of the test performed. In detail, please
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insert the Substation name (Plant name), the Line name (Feeder), data regarding the relay such as
Relay Manufacturer, Relay Model and Serial Number. Also fill the Operator and Instrument
Serial Number fields. The other fields are to be considered optional.

1.1.3.2 Digital inputs type


Digital inputs type can be selected in the window below.

Digital inputs are divided into groups with the same common ground. Depending on the instrument
it may be groups of two contacts or four contacts. It is possible to apply different selection to the
groups, or the same selection to all inputs.
Selections are:
. Dry contact: there is no voltage;
. DC or AC voltage. In this case, it is possible to select the threshold, i.e. the voltage below which
the input will be considered zero.
The Debounce field allows to program the time duration of bounces, in µs: any change beyond this
time is taken as an actual change of the input.
At the end of programming, press OK. These parameters will be applied to all test: they cannot be
changed from a test to another one.
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1.1.3.3 Advanced settings


With this selection, the following window is opened. The window has three tabs: Instrument
options, Other options, Program references.

A) Instrument options

. The selection CT Side acts on current angles. If it is Line Side current angles are unaffected; if it is
Busbar Side, current angles are automatically shifted by 180° by the program. This phase shift is not
noticed to the user: angles remain the same. This eases the tests to be performed in reversed
direction.
. The selection Instrument allows to choose the test set that will be used, including boosters, so that
it is possible to program the test with the correct selections for current and voltage ranges and so on.
Pressing the down button, the test sets list is displayed.

Changing the test set type changes also the available options: for instance, the following is the
window with the DRTS-6 selection.
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. The selection V4 Output acts on voltage output V4 of DRTS6 and DRTS66.


If the selection is V4, the output can be programmed as all other outputs.
If the selection is V0, the test set computes the zero sequence voltage and phase as a function of
voltages V1, V2 and V3, applying the formula:
V0 = (V1 + V2 + V3) /3
Where bolded characters are vectors.
If the selection is V0*√(3), the test set computes the zero sequence voltage and phase as a function
of voltages V1, V2 and V3, applying the formula:
V0*√(3) = (V1 + V2 + V3) / √(3)
Where bolded characters are vectors.
NOTE: with this selection, according to the amplitude and phase of the three voltages can be such
that the amplitude of V0*√(3) exceeds the maximum: in this case, the user is alerted.
. The selection DRTS6 Current Output acts on current outputs of DRTS6 and DRTS66, but with
different limits.
For DRTS66, if the selection is 6x32 A the operation is the normal one; if it is 3x64 A, the user
should put in parallel I1 with I4; I2 with I5; I3 with I6, respectively. The program accepts that the
maximum current value is 64 A; then, for any programmed current values, divides the programmed
value by two, and commands the two paralleled outputs with this current. Test result is also
doubled, so that the user is eased in his task of operating at 6x64 A.
For DRTS6, if the selection is 6x15 A the operation is the normal one; if it is 3x30 A, the user
should put in parallel I1 with I4; I2 with I5; I3 with I6, respectively. The program accepts that the
maximum current value is 30 A; then, for any programmed current values, divides the programmed
value by two, and commands the two paralleled outputs with this current. Test result is also
doubled, so that the user is eased in his task of operating at 6x30 A.
. Also booster selections change with the test set.
For DRTS66, available boosters are AMI332 and AMI632. Also the TRANSCOPE option is
available.
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For DRTS6, there are other boosters: AMI150, AMIV66, AMI66, AMV66, AMI99. According to
the type of booster, to the right the window displays the possible alternative operation ways.
. The selection External amplifiers for DRTS and DRTS3 allows for the operation modes that are
summarized in the following table.

SELECT. 3I+3V 6I 6V 3V-3I


AMIV-3 Currents are generated by booster Currents from booster Voltages from N.A.
(DRTS) and by DRTS: programs assume and from DRTS, with booster and from
that they are in parallel same ranges. DRTS, with same
ranges.
AMI-3 Currents are generated by booster Currents from booster N.A. N.A.
(DRTS) and by DRTS: programs assume and from DRTS, with
that they are in parallel same ranges.
AMIV-33 Currents are generated by booster Currents from booster Voltages from Booster’s currents
(DRTS.3) and by DRTS.3: programs and from DRTS.3, booster and from are equal and
assume that they are in parallel with same ranges. DRTS, with same opposite to DRTS.3
ranges.
AMI-33 Currents are generated by booster Currents from booster N.A. Booster’s currents
(DRTS.3) and by DRTS.3: programs and from DRTS.3, are equal and
assume that they are in parallel with same ranges. opposite to DRTS.3

. The selection ART100 SETUP refers to the ART100 single phase test set, where four operating
modes are possible: V1-I1 (basic); V1-V2 (synchrocheck tests); I1-I2 (current differential); V2-I2
(earth directional). As the test set has three current sockets and three voltage sockets, it is also
possible to select to which sockets are connected V1 and I1.

B) Other Options
The following window is opened.

. The selection CT Ratio allows to use a CT on the current outputs. By choosing Use CT, the
following selections are enabled (specifically designed for the option IN2-CDG).
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It is possible to select the CT primary side and secondary side currents, and to define on which
outputs it will be used. The program takes into account the ratio, and allows programming the
secondary side currents that will be injected into the relay during the test, while generating primary
side currents. Also test results are secondary side currents.
In a similar way, by selecting IN-3 CDG, the corresponding optional ratios are selected.
. The selection Time delay allows the user to define how to display trip times and delays: in
seconds or in cycles. In the latter case it is possible to select the reference frequency to be used for
the cycle calculation.
. The selection Measure Conversion constants is applicable when the MISU option is present. In
this case, the selection is useful when measuring signals via a transducer, such as clip-on
transformer: by setting the transformer ratio, primary values can be displayed.
. The selection Automatically update nominal time value in Ramp test if the previous test row
is a Shot test allows performing the function that is explained in the Ramp test paragraph: please
refer to it.
. The selection Zero Power allows to define the specific working parameters of this operation
mode, and will be enabled only if the instrument is connected with the zero power connector fit.
Selections are: current and voltage conversion ratios, and maximum voltage on current outputs.
With the ratio values, the program will accept as an input the primary voltages and currents here
displayed (that can have any value, such as 500 V and 500 A) and transform these values into the
secondary ones. With the “Max peak voltage on current outputs” selection, the current range can be
reduced to 1/10th, to improve accuracy.
. The selection “ROC on Delta ramp” refers to the test of ROC (frequency, voltage..) relays. The
parameter is the multiplier of the ROC threshold that has been measured, and it is used for the time
delay test. Please, refer to the paragraph explaining the Delta threshold test.
C) Program Preferences
The following window is opened.
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. The selection Icons Dimensions allows to choose the dimensions of the program icons.
. The selection Show Coloured Currents and Voltages allows to display Currents and Voltages
tabs in different colours (red, yellow, blue for the first three outputs).
By pressing OK the parameters will be saved, and with Cancel any change is discarded.

1.1.4 Window
The selection opens the following window.

The selections refer to how to arrange the windows in the program screen.

1.1.5 Languages
This menu gives the capability to select the language without closing the program, among the listed
ones. The active language will be saved by quitting the program .

1.1.6 Help menu


The selection opens the following window.

. The selection Help on Line (F1) opens this manual in .PDF format: you can find the argument of
interest.
. The selection Instrument Information, after the test set is connected, opens the following
window.
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This is useful to know the firmware version of the test set: if it is older than the one available on the
ISA WEB site, you better upgrade it.
. If you press ISA WEB site, the program opens it in a web broswer:

In particular, you can access the software or firmware download by pressing SOFTWARE
DOWNLOAD.
. If you press About Manual Control, the program opens the following info window:
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Here you can read the software revision level, and decide whether it needs to be upgraded.

1.2 The toolbar


The program toolbar is the following one.

Notes: the icon is highlighted when the test set is connected; the icon is shown only when
the test set is connected. The meaning of the icons is the following.

1.2.1 New
The operation of this selection is the same as File-New: a new program window is created.

1.2.2 Open
The operation of this selection is the same as File-Open: it is possible to open a test program or a
test result.

1.2.3 Save
The operation of this selection is the same as File-Save: it is possible to save a test program or a test
result. By pressing the down arrow the following selections are accessible.

1.2.4 Print
The operation of this selection is the same as File-Print.

1.2.5 Measurements
This selection opens in a new window a very useful tool , as it allows to display other parameters
that are computed from currents, voltages and angles: these parameters are useful for all relays using
them in their settings.
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This window shows the main derived functions of the parameters being generated.
. The user can select which current and voltage have to be considered phase 1,2 and 3 for Power
calculations, and also which is the reference voltage to calculate phase to phase voltage. Given the
actual values of the Prefault or of the Fault Panels, it then calculates the Active Power, Reactive
Power, phase to phase Voltage. In the above window, we have programmed: V= 100 V; I= 10 A;
currents phase shifted by 30° with respect to voltage.
. The table displays also the Positive, Negative and Zero Sequence components, both in angle and
phase.
. It also shows the total amount of Active Power, Reactive Power and the relative Power factor.
All numbers are recalculated as the user changes any of the voltages or currents or phases.

The problem is that, as too many variables are involved, it is impossible to program in this table the
positive sequence voltage value: too many voltages give the same result. However, if a positive
sequence voltage is the setting of the relay under test, changing voltage amplitudes and phases and
controlling the corresponding sequence value allows to obtain very quickly the desired value.

1.2.6 IEC61850
This button is enabled when the test set is equipped with the optional IEC61850 board. By pressing
it, a window is opened to allow to control the IEC61850 board. For a detailed explanation, please
refer to Appendix 1.

1.2.7 Vectors
The operation of this selection is to open the Vector diagram of currents and voltages. The diagram
is the following one.
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In the example, with DRTS6, currents are rated 5 A (full range 15 A), and voltages are rated 125 V
(full range). Currents are 30° phase shifted with respect to voltages.
The diagram shows voltages as arrows, while currents are terminated with dots. The length of each
parameter is proportional to the full scale range.
This window is separated with respect to program windows: it can be left open, and vectors will
change according to the programming.
The diagram helps the user to understand the vectors relationship. Besides, if you go with the mouse
on a vector and click, you can move it around the plane: the new amplitude and phase will be
displayed on the program window (see later for more details).

1.2.8 Connect and disconnect


Once the test set is connected to the PC, by pressing this icon it is possible to establish the
connection. If there is no test set active connection, the following alert is displayed.

Once the connection problem is solved, by pressing the icon again the following window is opened.
NOTE: this window opens if in the SETCOM utility software the selection is to ask for the type of
instrument. If you have just one instrument type and use only one interface, this operation can be
skipped.
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Confirm the test set and the interface, then press OK: the icon will change to .
By pressing the icon again , you can disconnect the test set from the PC.

1.2.9 Generate the auxiliary DC voltage supply


With this command the DC voltage supply is generated, to power-on the relay under test.

1.2.10 Generate Prefault


By pressing this icon the test set will generate the parameters that have been selected in the Prefault
window (see the relative chapter): the DC voltage supply and all the other outputs.

1.2.11 Test start


If you press the start icon, test parameters will be applied to the relay under test, as programmed in
the Fault window (see the relative chapter).

1.2.12 Test stop


Usually the test ends when the relay trips; however, if for some reason (wrong connections…) it is
necessary to stop the test, by pressing this icon the fault values are removed, only the DC voltage
supply is maintained. After corrections, if you press Start again, the test will continue, starting from
the test that has been interrupted (included).

1.2.13 Reset
This button removes all parameters, including the DC voltage supply; so, it is to be used in case of
errors that can impair the test set operation.
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1.2.14 IRIG-B synchronization


This selection is available only with the DRTS66 series of test sets: as pressed, faults will be
injected at the detection of an IRIG-B synchronization signal. This feature is not available in
revision 6.4.0 of TDMS and will be available in future releases.

1.2.15 TRANSCOPE
This selection is available only with the DRTS66 series test sets, when the option is available. As
pressed, the TRANSCOPE program is opened, while Manual stays active. This allows monitoring
and recording test currents and voltages generated by the program, and the corresponding relay
response.

For more details, please refer to the TRANSCOPE software manual.


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2 THE PROGRAMMING WINDOW

The programming window is divided in two sections: left and right.

To the left, there are three tabs: Faults, Prefaults and Test table.

The left part is divided in two by an horizontal line, that now has the name SHOW TESTS.
The test program can be any length, and to each single test is associated a line. During
programming, the user may wish to monitor the programmed lines: this is obtained by pressing the
up arrow of Show tests.

The SHOW TESTS horizontal bar is now HIDE TESTS, and the programmed lines can be read.
Also, the bar can be shifted up and down by dragging it with the mouse; however, some part of the
programming area will be concealed: in particular, the part related to trip inputs and auxiliary
outputs, that is just at the end of the page.
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The part to the right is dedicated to test results. There are three tabs: Graphs, results, graphs and
results; the default is graphs.

During the test, in the result diagram and in the corresponding table are displayed test results.

The vertical line with two arrows can be moved left by dragging the mouse to the left, if the diagram
is to be expanded, or to the right, in order to enlarge the programming table.

By pressing the two arrows you can completely enlarge the window on both sides.

In the following, each section is explained.

Last, below the diagram, by pressing the right arrow it is possible to hide the diagram settings.
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3 THE PREFAULT PANEL

The prefault panel is used to define the pre-fault values that are generated in the fault sequence, and
that correspond to an “healthy” situation of the system. We start from this because it is better to
think of what are the parameters before the fault injection. The window is the following one:
Prefault is colored, the other selections are grey.

Selections are the followings:

3.1 DC voltage supply


It is the voltage supply to the relay; it can be programmed from 0 to the test set maximum range
(260 V for DRTS6).

3.2 Frequency
It is possible to program the prefault frequency, that can be any value between 0 and 2000 Hz (700
Hz maximum for test sets with 300 V voltage outputs). NOTE: the programmed value is
memorized, and displayed on next test; however, if it is not 50 or 60 Hz, prior to test start the user is
alerted.

3.3 Minimum Prefault time


Between two tests there is a time for the test set to transmit test data, and for the test set to transmit
results. This time can go from 0,5 s to 1 s. If it is desired to be sure that the prefault duration has a
minimum value, this value can be programmed here: this is useful if the relay takes some time to
reset.
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3.4 Ramp DC voltage


Relays have capacitors on the DC voltage supply, that are usually big enough to ensure the
operation in case of voltage drop for a given maximum time (for instance, 20 ms). This capacitor is
to be charged as we supply the relay: this causes a current inrush, that is limited by our circuit.
However, if the capacitor is very big (3300 µF up), the test set understands that there is a short
circuit, and stops generating. This problem is overcome by checking this box: the DC voltage is
applied with a slow ramp, the current is reduced, and there is no alarm.

3.5 Increments
The value of programmed parameters can be modified just typing the new value. However, for
instance in the dragging test (see after), it is useful to be able to increase or decrease the value by an
amount that can be programmed here. There are two increments (decrements) that can be
programmed:
. A smaller value, that is actuated by moving the mouse wheel or by pressing the up/down arrows;
. A bigger value, that is actuated by moving the mouse wheel and pressing the left mouse button, or
by pressing the page up/page down arrows.

3.6 Current and voltage values


For each output, it is possible to select: prefault amplitude; prefault phase; maximum test value.
This latter parameter allows avoiding exceeding current or voltage during the test. Note that test
value can have any value, irregardless to prefault ones.
The way to operate on these parameters is the same as for the Fault panel: please, refer to the
following chapter.

3.7 Add Prefault to test


With this button, the selected prefault values are added to the test program. This means that, if
necessary, it is possible to change prefault values during the test.

3.8 Reset values


When pressed, all selected prefault values are set to zero.

3.9 Binary outputs


The prefault state of binary outputs can be modified by clicking on the contact icon: it will
alternately close and open at each click. If you press the Binary Outputs button, the following
window is opened.
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Also here you can click on the icon to change the contact state: the programming will be repeated on
the front page. In addition, you can here give a name to the contact.
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4 THE FAULT WINDOW

In the fault panel the user can adjust all the parameters (voltages, currents, angles, frequency, DC
supply) and define the kind of test he needs. After pressing the “Add to the test list” button, the test
will be added to the table.
The first horizontal part of the window has two tabs: Basic Options and Advanced Options.

4.1 Basic Options


The following is the Basic options window.

4.1.1 Test ID
This selection allows to identify a group of tests that make a part of the test. For instance, a 67N
relay can be tested on the V-I characteristic, and on the angular sector. Providing different ID’s to
these two parts, will allow on the test results diagram to see separately the two curves.
Clicking the left arrow opens the list of ID’s having already been defined.
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By clicking the right arrow, the following window is opened.

• Add test ID: this command allows you to add an identifier with any name. The program
numbers the ID’s that you have created.
• Rename test ID: the ID can be renamed.
• Set colour of test ID: it allows giving different colours to test results having different ID’s:
this helps the identification on the test result graph. The colour selection is performed on the
following window.

• Delete test ID: it is possible to remove an ID.

4.1.2 DC supply
This selection allows to program the value of the relay DC supply: the prefault value is copied here,
so that usually it is not modified. It can be used to verify DC voltage under (over) protections.

4.1.3 Shot type


This window allows selecting the following test evolutions:

• Prefault - Fault - Prefault


With this selection, at test Start, prefault values are generated for the prefault time (defined in the
Prefault window); then fault values are generated, and they last at maximum the programmed
maximum time, Tmax. After a trip occurring within Tmax, parameters are held at their value for a
duration equal to the programmed Circuit breaker delay, Thold; then they return to the pre-fault
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value. If the trip does not occur within Tmax, parameters go to the pre-fault value, still after Thold.
All parameters remain at pre-fault value until the next command from the PC arrives.

Fault

Prefault
Param
Tpre Tmax
Timing

Trip

Measure T1 Thold

• Fault - Prefault
Same as PFP, without prefault values on the very first test.

• Prefault - Fault - zero


This test is a better simulation of what actually occurs in a plant, because after the CB intervention
all parameters go to zero. However, with this sequence it is important to program the prefault
duration time, Tpre, else the next sequence would become Zero – Fault – Zero, and some relays
could interpret the sequence as close onto fault, and behave differently from usual.
Compared to PFP, when the last test is finished, all values go to zero. The zero duration depends on
the transmission time between PC and instrument (0,5 s nominal).

• Fault - zero
Same as PF0, without prefault values: all next tests start and return to zero.

4.1.4 Test selection


Pressing this arrow the following window is opened.

4.1.4.1 Dragging test


With this selection the instrument emulates a manual test set that injects currents and voltages
adjusted by means of knobs. Once performed this selection, the Vectors window is automatically
opened; by its right side is shown the status of trip input contacts (closed = bright red).
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The parameter adjustment can be performed in the following ways:


• Press Start: all outputs are generated. Reach the end of a vector, click the left mouse and
keep it pressed: the vector can be adjusted in amplitude and phase: the values are
displayed on the screen. If you move the vector after test start, the flashing icon gives the
pace at which data are refreshed on the test set. Purpose of the test is to find a threshold: it
is reached when an input changes its state (off to on or vice versa).
• Go to the programming window of the desired parameter, and increment or decrement
using: mouse rotating wheel alone; wheel + left mouse button; Up – Down arrows; Pag Up
– Pag Down keys. The amount of the increment or decrement can be programmed in the
Prefault window.
The question mark by the side of the Test selection opens a window with diagrams showing the
parameters evolution with time, as a function of the selected Shot type. With FPF, the diagram is the
following.

The dragging mode finishes if the Stop button is pressed.


NOTE: when Dragging is selected, the selection Analog Measurements, available in Advanced
Options, is disabled.
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4.1.4.2 Shot test

This is the typical manual test. The user sets the fault values, chooses the shot type, and then presses
the Start button: the test is started, and by the side of the selected trip inputs are shown the trip
delays. See later on the available selections about creating a test program.
Pressing the question mark by the side of the Test selection, the window shows the following
diagram, with selection FPF.

The test ends as the relay trips. The operation can be repeated any time. NOTE: if more than one
input is selected, the test will stop on the last one tripping (AND criteria).

4.1.4.3 Delta test


Basically, there are two types of relay characteristics: parameter vs. time, or parameter vs.
parameter. With the first type, each point of the curve is a time measurement; with the second one,
each point is a threshold. With the first type of curve, it could be possible to verify the curve just
performing a series of shot tests, changing the suitable parameters between one test and the other.

This selection allows to perform this test in a semi-automatic mode, by selecting the starting
parameters values, the increment of the parameters and the number of tests to be performed. The
only care is avoiding to exceed the maximum or minimum value. Once selected, the window
becomes the following one.
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• In Number of Tests program the desired tests number;


• In Voltage, angles, currents, frequency, DC voltage program the starting values, or the
parameter values during the test, even if the will not change;
• In the ∆ fields program the positive or negative values of the parameters change between
two tests. NOTE; DC voltage and frequency have to be checked to input the ∆ field. There is no
limit to the number of parameters to be changed, nor to the changing values, unless exceeding
parameters limits: in this instance, a message like the following one will be displayed.

• Limits are as follows:


1. For voltages and currents: the minimum value is zero, the maximum value is the one set in the
prefault window.
2. For angles: no limits.
3. For DC voltage and frequency: the limits of the instrument.
• Pressing OK, the program modifies automatically the number of tests; pressing Cancel you
are back to the programming window.
• As this is a semi automatic test execution, in order to execute it, it is necessary to press the
button Add to the test List (see later for details): the window will display the selected
number of tests.
• Pressing Start, all tests will be performed one after the other; the result table will show the
test result. After variables selection (see later), the corresponding diagram will also be
displayed. NOTE: if more than one input is selected, the test will stop on the last one
tripping (AND criteria).

By pressing the question mark by the side of the Test selection, the window shows the following
diagram, with selection FPF: the selected parameter is incremented (decremented) by ∆; each test is
a trip test; you have N timing results.

4.1.4.4 Delta ramp test


The natural way for finding the threshold of a relay seems to be starting the test, and increasing the
relevant parameter until the relay trips. This procedure, described in the following paragraph, is
applicable only to time independent relays with a single threshold. If thresholds are two, the second
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one cannot be found with a ramp, because it is impossible to know whether the trip has been caused
by the first or the second zone.

t ∆I

t>
STOP:<Tth STOP:>Tth
Tth
A B
t>>

I> I>> I (V, °, F, VDC, Z, P)...

For instance, in the curve above, showing a two threshold time independent overcurrent relay,
threshold I> can be found by increasing slowly the current until the relay trips, but for I>> it is
impossible to be sure about the zone causing the trip: it can be I> as well as I>>.

Actually, this is the most common situation, found in relays such as distance relays and all the
multi-threshold relays. In all these cases it is necessary to use a different approach, that can be used
with I>> and also with I>. The idea is that finding a threshold always implies two tests: the delay
of the first one, A, is t>; the delay of test B is t>>. If the difference befween the two is ∆I, the best
estimate for the threshold is:
Ith = (IA + IB)/2;
The threshold measurement accuracy is equal to ∆I/2.
Actually, the two trip times don’t need to be just t> and t>>, else you could fail because of timing
errors. The criteria is to fix a threshold time between t> and t>> (for instance, Tth = (t> + t>>)/2;
then:
If trip time < Tth, then zone 1;
If trip time > Tth, then zone 2.

These considerations are the base for the Delta ramp test: as the world says, it is a ramp performed
in steps. DO NOT MISTAKE this test with the former Delta test: with this latter, you have N trip
time measurements, while with Delta ramp you don’t know a priori how many tests will be
performed, and the result will be one: the relay threshold. Once selected, the window becomes the
following one.
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The programming of parameters is the same as with the Delta test, with the following differences:
• The parameter “Number of tests” is missing;
• There is a new parameter, “Threshold time”: it is the time value explained above. For the
example above, for the I>> test, it is enough to program Tth = (t1 + t2)/2; for the I> test, as
the delay for currents less than I> is infinite, one can program Tth = 1 + t>;
• Another parameter is “Value injection”. We will discuss about it shortly after.
• End of test criteria are two: the test may stop if the trip time is less than the specified
threshold time Tth, or the test may stop if the trip time is more than the specified threshold
time Tth. The figure above shows the two cases: in the first one, the first value should be
LESS THAN the threshold, and then the current is increased; in the second one, the first
value should be MORE THAN the threshold, and then the current is decreased. Test results
will differ by the programmed Delta; however, they will actually be the same. If you
increase the parameter, the best threshold estimate is:
Actual threshold = Test result – Delta/2; accuracy Delta/2.
• If you decrease the parameter, the best threshold estimate is:
Actual threshold = Test result + Delta/2; accuracy Delta/2.
• In both cases it is possible to define whether, between two following tests, you want to go
back to the prefault values, or if you want to generate a sequence of increasing fault values:
this second behaviour is very close to ramping the parameter. For this purpose the user can
check the option “Skip prefault values”. Once the test is completed, the instrument will go
back to the prefault values or to zero depending on the selection made in the “Shot type”.
Pressing the question mark clarifies the different outputs.
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• The above figure shows the parameter versus time as the test evolves: parameters go to
the prefault value; values are increased until the relay trips; test result is the threshold
value. Note that, in case of decreasing values, you would have trips on the first tests,
until the relay does not trip.

• In the second instance, Skip prefault values is checked: you have an increasing
parameter, but values don’t go to prefault, and keep increasing until the relay trips (or
doesn’t trip with negative delta).
• Once you have programmed the test, like with the Delta test you have to press the “Add
to the test list” button; however, unlike the Delta test, only one test line will be added.
• Pressing Start, there will be no results until the test is stopped: on the result table there
will be a new line with threshold values, and on the diagram just one dot.

A particular type of relays is the one where the setting parameter is not a current, voltage, angle
threshold, but it is the parameter Rate of Change (ROC). A relay of this type is the frequency ROC
relay, where the tripping criteria is not only minimum (maximum) frequency, but also frequency
ROC, negative or positive. Similar relays are testing the voltage ROC.

Testing these relays is not obvious, as, when we perform a ramp test it is for the search of a
threshold; also the trip time measurement is not obvious. The test is therefore performed in two
parts: the first one is searching the ROC setting; the second one is measuring the trip delay. These
two parts make one single command, that is accessed by the Value injection window. If you press
the button to the right, the following window is displayed.
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The default selection, Value injection, refer to standard threshold tests, as explained before; the
other three ROC selection refer to: amplitude (V or I), phase, Frequency. When the ROC amplitude
is selected, the window is the following one.

With respect to the Delta test explained before, there are two new parameters.
• Nominal time: it is the nominal relay trip time; it is used as explained in the following Ramp
test.
• ∆A/s INI: it is the first value of the ramp to be tested. If the relay does not trip, the ramp will
be incremented by the programmed ∆A/s value.

Example: your relay is set at 30 V/s. You start the test at 20 V/s; next test will be performed at 21
V/s. Test stops as the relay trips; you find the actual ROC with the accuracy of ± 0,5 V/s.

For the ROC phase selection, the situation is identical. For the ROC frequency, the window is the
following one.
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The initial frequency ROC and the ROC increments are located as follows.

If, in some extreme case, it is desired to set different ROC’s for the various outputs, you can select
Frequency single phase; in this case, the window is the following one.

As you see, each output can separately change the frequency ROC.

Once the threshold is found, the corresponding trip delay is measured multiplying the threshold by
the factor that can be programmed in: Settings – Advanced settings – Other options. The default
value is 25, because the trip delay of ROC relays changes very much with the ROC itself.

For example, the following test was performed with: Nominal frequency = 50 Hz; INI ROC = 0,2
Hz/s; ∆ROC = 0,02 Hz/s. The test result is shown in the following.

Where:
• Input C1 is the relay trip delay;
• Frequency is the frequency value at the moment of trip;
• ∆Freq. Summarizes the test setting values (∆ROC = 0,02 Hz/s; INI ROC = 0,2 Hz/s;
Nominal frequency = 50 Hz);
• ∆Freq FIN is the frequency ROC threshold.

4.1.4.5 Ramp test


This test allows ramping up or down the desired parameters, until the relay trips. NOTE: if more
than one input is selected, the test will stop on the first one tripping or not tripping (OR criteria).
The programming window is the following one.
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• Unlike Delta and Delta ramp tests, variables are no more ∆I, V, °,..: being gradients, they
become ∆I/s, …
• With this selection, all parameters can change with positive or negative gradients; the only
impossible thing is to perform a frequency and angle gradient at the meantime. Actually, an
angle gradient involves also a frequency gradient, and vive versa. In this case, the selection
is refused with a message.

• With the Ramp test, the maximum test time parameter, Tmax, is important, because the
program verifies if, during this time, one or more parameters exceeds the limits: if so, the
following message is shown.

• If you press OK, the Tmax parameter will be set to a value such that the parameter does not
exceed the limits.
• Limits are as follows:
1. For voltages and currents: zero, or the maximum voltages and currents made set in
the prefault window.
2. For angles: no limits.
3. For DC voltage and frequency: the limits of the instrument.
• The ramp test is carried out by generating initially the prefault values (if selected PF0 or PFP
cycle) for the corresponding time; afterwards, fault values are generated, and selected
parameters are incremented or decremented until the first one of the selected inputs trips.
• Pressing the question mark to the right of the “Test selection” clarifies the test performance.

Tnom < (MIN, MAX)


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MEASURE
THRESHOLD

START Rate of
change
PREFAULT FPF
FP0

TRIP
Thold
Tpref
Tmax

• The parameter is at the prefault value: as the test starts, it goes to the fault value, then it
ramps (up or down) at a constant pace, until the first contact trips. At that moment, if the CB
delay time is set, during this time it stays at the reached value, then it goes to the prefault
value or to zero, according to the “Shot type” selection.
• An important point about the ramp is that, as the contact is timed, the value reached when
the relay trips is something more or less than the desired threshold. The test set transmits to
the PC the values at trip; then, the program corrects for this error by taking into account the
parameter “Nominal time”. You should program here the nominal trip time; then, the
program will show the actual threshold by computing:
(Actual threshold) = (Test set value) – (Gradient) * (Nominal time).
It is possible to see that the error is bigger with a fast gradient, and with a big nominal time.
• Also the trip time can have errors, that could affect the above correction. To consider this,
the program gets as nominal value the last trip time measurement. So, in order to minimize
the error, you should perform first a trip time measurement, then the ramp test. In a test
program, if you program the trip test before the ramp test, and in the ramp test leave at zero
the nominal relay trip time, during test execution the measured trip time will be
automatically passed to the next ramp test, and used as nominal trip time (see Advanced
settings).
• As you may see, the ramp test is inherently affected by this error; this is why we have
foreseen the delta ramp test, where the maximum error is pre-defined as ∆/2.
• Once you have programmed the test, you have to press the “Add to the test list” button: one
test line will be added.
• Pressing Start, there will be no results until the test is stopped: on the result table there will
be a new line with threshold values, and on the diagram one dot.

4.1.5 Frequency

By the side of this selection there is a first box with a selection arrow. Pressing it, the following
selections become available.
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• All phases: all fault outputs will change their frequency to the selected one.
• V1 only: only V1 will change frequency, while all other outputs will stay at the prefault
value.
• V123: outputs V1, V2 and V3 will change frequency, while all other outputs will stay at the
prefault value.
• V123-I1 only: V1, V2, V3 and I1 will change frequency, while all other outputs will stay at
the prefault value.
• All unless V4: all outputs will change frequency, unless V4, that will stay at the prefault
value.
• V1 and V2: only V1 and V2 will change frequency, while all other outputs will stay at the
prefault value.
• Single phase. This selection is available only with the DRTS66 series. When checked, the
parameters window becomes the following one.

It is possible to program a separate frequency for each individual output. Please, consider that,
with this selection, the phase will be kept only for outputs at the same frequency.

These selections allow testing synchrocheck relays, putting in series voltages or paralleling currents
with different frequencies and so on.
The next box allows programming the fault frequency, that can have any value with respect to the
prefault one. Frequency limits are: 0 to 1999,999 Hz for all outputs unless 300 V; for this, limits are
0 to 699 Hz.

4.1.6 Maximum time

It is possible to program here the maximum test duration.


• For trip and Delta tests, if there is no trip within Tmax, test result is reported as “Timeout”.
In the result diagram, the corresponding point has the value of Tmax.
• In Delta Ramp tests, programming Tmax allows telling apart the zones of a relay, so that the
threshold can be quickly found.
• In Ramp tests, the parameters keep increasing or decreasing until Tmax is reached.

4.1.7 Circuit Breaker Delay


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After a trip, faulty values are removed by the CB; so, parameters go to zero after the CB operating
delay. This parameter allows simulating this delay: if it is left to zero, parameters go to prefault
values or to zero as soon as the trip is sensed; otherwise, they keep on by the time programmed here.
We had the instance of the fault recorder inside the relay that used this time to perform the fault
recording: with this parameter at zero, fault recording did not operate.
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4.2 Advanced Options


The following is the Advanced Options window.

4.2.1 Waveform
The default selection is Sinusoid: all outputs are pure sinusoidal waveforms. However, sometimes it
is necessary to test relays that measure the harmonic distortion (typically occurring at start up) and
operate some locking logic if the waveform is distorted. Typical cases are: second harmonic
restraint on differential relays, odd harmonics restraint on voltage relays.
Selecting “Special Wave”, the following window is opened.

The meaning of the selections is the following.


• Harmonics given in % or in RMS: this is the first choice. The window above is the one with
harmonics in %; if the selection is RMS, the window becomes the following one. Values are
V and A, and no more percentages.
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• Fundamental waveform angles. This selection changes with the first choice, harmonics in %
or RMS. In both cases, these angles are the ones of the base frequency. Angles can be set
here; they cannot be changed when the test is performed. If the first choice is %, amplitudes
can be separately changed on the outputs, as usual. If the first choice is RMS, then also the
fundamental component amplitudes are to be set here, and cannot be changed during the test.
• Show two cycles: the waveforms diagram can be one cycle or two cycles.
• V1, V1 phase…: these are the test set outputs that we want to distort.
• THD: this is the Total Harmonic Distortion, that is the square root of the sum of the squared
distortions.
• Harmonics, from the 2nd to the 100th: here you can program the amount of distortion and
phase with respect to the fundamental. The maximum distortion is 1000%. As you do, you
will see the corresponding diagram being distorted. In the picture above, currents are
distorted at 17% on the second harmonic, and voltages are distorted at 30% on the third
harmonic. If the first choice is %, we can separately program the amount of distortion for
each harmonic, and the corresponding phase with respect to the fundamental. If the first
choice is RMS, we can program the RMS amplitude of the distorted component.
• Type of waveform. Zero Power instruments allow for high frequency output: this selection is
active only if the test set is in the Zero Power mode. By selecting the “Pure sinusoid”, it is
possible to choose the frequency to be generated depending on the selected nominal
frequency. The frame shows the frequency output.
The maximum frequency that can be downloaded and reproduced by the instrument is
20kHz. Please take notice of the following considerations:
For frequencies up to 10kHz, the output that will generate the special waveform can be
selected in the fault panel in the normal way.
For frequencies above 10kHz, the following message will appear:
As the message clearly states, it is not possible to
choose which outputs will generate the special
waveform. Waveforms above 10kHz will be
generated only on the selected channels.
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• Nominal frequency: this is the basic frequency that will be distorted by harmonics. The
range is from 5.0 to 60.0 Hz, in steps of 0.1 Hz. Maximum frequency error: 0,1 Hz.
• Save and Open a waveform file. It is possible to save a waveform, and then to open it again.
Files will be saved with the .mdb extension; the icon by the file side is the following one .
• Upload Waveform. Once the distorted waveform has been created, it has to be transmitted to
the test set, that will reproduce the waveform operating in a mode similar to the
COMTRADE file reproduction, but with the difference that the file we transfer now refers to
one waveform only, that will be repeated by the test set to infinity. During the transmission,
an icon showing a test set with a waveform on it will be displayed for a very short time;
then, the test set is ready for the waveform generation. After the Upload, data are saved into
the programming table even if you press Cancel to quit.
• Hide unused columns. All columns with zero parameters will be hidden: this helps
controlling the programmed distortion.
• Clear all data: when pressed, all values are reset to zero.
• Exit: it deletes all the parameters that have not been transmitted or saved by an OK
command, quits the window and re-enters the Sinusoidal selection. To re-enter the window,

press the harmonics icon .


• OK: you return to the programming window, and distorted values are saved.
For the distorted waveform generation, it is necessary to press OK after having
uploaded the data. After OK, the window now has the following aspect (harmonics in %).

As you see, angles are no more programmable, while amplitudes are. It must be clear
that the amplitude that we program is the rms value of the generated output: please,
don’t check the distorted output with averaging multimeters.
If harmonics were given as RMS, the window would be the following one.
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Also amplitudes cannot be modified.

• When programming the generation, it is possible that the peak of the distorted waveform
is more than the sinusoidal waveform peak: in this case, the maximum output cannot be
generated by the test set. In the following example, the peak of V1 (distorted) is higher
than the others (sinusoidal waveforms).

In this situation, if you program the maximum output the following alarm message is
displayed, alerting that it is impossible to generate the programmed value.

If you press Cancel, then you have to reduce the output or to change the waveform until the
message does not show up any more. If you press OK, the amplitude is automatically
reduced to the maximum value that can be generated (in the instance above, 255 V). If you
check the box, the amplitude reduction is performed automatically, without alerting.
• If you want to modify the distortions, re-enter the Special wave mode by selecting the
icon : last programmed values have been kept.

4.2.2 Initial Fault Angle

This parameter allows to control the instant value of currents and voltages as the fault is initiated.
Considering that outputs are sinusoidal, the parameter is expressed in degrees.
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The default is Off: this means that the initial value of the sinusoid is not controlled, and can change
from one test to the next one: this could cause trip time differences. The good of this parameter is
that, setting it, the ambiguity on trip time is removed. Pressing the arrow, the following window is
opened.

The desired Initial Fault Angle can be set only on one output: all other outputs will be generated at
the angle defined by the phase shift with respect to the selected one. For instance, selecting I1 the
right programming area becomes accessible.

Selecting zero degrees means that the fault starts as I1 is zero; selecting 90° means that the fault
starts when I1 is at its maximum value. If prefault values are not zero, when the fault is started there
is no lack of continuity with respect to healthy values.
The following figure shows two outputs: output A is the one on which the point on wave is
controlled at 0°; output B is another one, - 90° phase shifted with respect to output A.
In = 0°

PREFAULT FAULT

Point on wave at 0° on output A

Next figure shows the waveform having been programmed at 90°.


In = 90°

A
FAULT
PREFAULT

Point on wave at 90° on output A


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4.2.3 Increments
This function is the same as the one explained in the Prefault chapter.

4.2.4 Analogue measurements

The selection refers to the optional analogue measurement board, that allows measuring the current
or voltage output of a converter under test. By default this selection is Off; pressing the selection
arrow the following is displayed.

It is possible to select if the measurement is DC or AC. Next selection is the measurement input:
on DRTS.6, four inputs are available.

After this, the box by the sight side displays the measured input: it is possible to compare it to the
nominal value, given the parameters applied to the transducer.
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4.3 Fault parameters


The next horizontal part of the window has two tabs: Current & Voltage Values, and Power
Values.

4.3.1 Current & Voltage Values

With this selection it is possible to access the programming of currents, voltages, phase angles.
The number of programmable parameters follows the type of test set, and whether or not a booster
is connected. For instance, this is how the window looks like when you have DRTS66 and
AMI632: 12 currents and 6 voltages at the meantime!.

There is no limitation unless for the maximum values programmed in the Prefault window. Note
that angles are referred to the test set internal reference: if they have the same values as the prefault
ones, fault values will be in phase with the prefault; else, the angle will change along with the
amplitude change, if programmed.
The programming can be performed in many ways.
• Double click on a box: there will be a coloured frame around it, and it will be possible to
modify the value. By the side of the box, there will be an “equal” icon: pressing it, the
programmed value will be copied on the associated groups of variables, that are: I1, I2, I3;
I4, I5, I6; V1, V2, V3.

• After having entered a box, press CTRL and click on other associated variables: they will
be selected together, and this is shown by the coloured frame around them.

Now, if you use the increments or decrements (arrow up/down; Pg up/down; mouse wheel;
mouse left button + wheel), all these variables will change together.
• If you are programming angles, there are two icons: equal and star.
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If you press the equal icon, all the angles will get the same value; if you press the star icon, the
other two phases will have the programmed angle plus 240° and 120° respectively: this eases
the programming in case of phase rotation.
• You can also operate using the vector diagram; also here, in more ways.
• Select the variable that you want to adjust. If this variable is zero, going on the vector
diagram, pressing the left button and keeping it pressed, you can change amplitude and
phase of the variable. If the variable is not zero, you can only change the amplitude but not
the phase, or the phase but not the angle.
• If you select more than one variable, they will be changed altogether when acting on one of
them: amplitude and phase together, or amplitude or phase.
• If you are on the vector diagram and want to quit this mode, either press ESC or click on
any point outside the vector diagram.

4.3.2 Power Values

This selection eases the test of power relays. The starting point is that active ans reactive power are
a function of three variables:
P1 = V1*I1*cos(ΦV-I);
Q1 = V1*I1*sin(ΦV-I).
It is therefore impossible to program a given power, because the same value can be obtained by an
infinity of combinations of V1, I1, ΦV-I.
This selection is using the values of V1 and ΦV-I programmed in the Current & Voltage window,
and, changing the value of P, computes the corresponding values for Q, for the associated current
and for the apparent power; the same is with Q. As the angle is fixed, it could be impossible to
program some values for P or Q: you will be alerted by a message.
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4.4 Test control buttons


Below the fault parameters are located some buttons, that serve to control the test programming.

4.4.1 Add to the Tests list


This button has a checkbox by its side. The software can be operated in three different modes.
• “Automatically add test and result row” checkbox not checked: when you press Start, the
test is executed, but it is not recorded on the test table, nor the test result is shown in the test
result diagram or added to the test result table.
• “Automatically add test and result row” checkbox checked: when you press Start, the test is
executed and it is recorded on the test table: the corresponding test result is shown in the test
result diagram and added to the test result table.
• The button is pressed: the programmed test values are recorded in the test table but not
executed. You can go on programming the tests and adding them to the list. When you want,
you can press Start: all programmed tests will be executed, and test results reported in the
results table and diagram. Then, you can program other tests, until the relay is completely
tested.

4.4.2 Delete all rows


Pressing this button, all test program and results are cleared, after confirmation on the following
window.

4.4.3 Reset values


Pressing this button, all the programmed values of the test are set to zero.

4.4.4 Reset delta


Pressing this button, all the delta tests programmed values are set to zero.

4.4.5 Automatically add test and result row


Checking the box, as you start a test it will also be added to the test list: this is good when you want
to prepare a test. If, instead, you want to perform tests but not to create a test program, leave the box
unchecked.

4.4.6 Executed and not executed tests


Here are reported the number of programmed tests, and how many of them have been executed.
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4.5 Input contacts


The next horizontal part of the window allows programming input contacts.

By clicking on the contacts icons, it is possible to change the contact state from Normal Open to
Normal Closed and to not applicable; however, at least one contact must be enabled. Below the
enabled contacts are reported the timing measurements of the last test.
If you press the Input contacts button, the following window is opened.

• You can label the input contact.


• The contact status can be selected as in the front page: if you modify it here, the selection
will be reported also on the front page.
• You can choose whether the timer will stop on contact trip or reset: the second selection
serves to measure fixed time contacts, like the Reclose command.
• The default is that the timer starts when fault is injected: the measurement is shown here
below.
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• If you press the down arrow by the side of Start timer, the following selection is opened.

It is possible to start the timer at the trip or reset of any input, that should be enabled; timer is
stopped at trip or reset of another input, also selected. For instance, measuring the Reclose delay
can be performed starting the timer when the relay trips (for instance, connected to C1) and
stopping it when the Reclose command arrives (for instance, connected to C2).

The operation is shown here below.


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• In the example, C1 timing is zero, as timer starts and stops at the meantime; C2 displays the
Reclose delay.
• Last selection, AND or OR, applies when more than a contact is selected. In this instance,
you can stop the test when ALL inputs have tripped (AND selection) or when the first one
has tripped (OR selection).
IMPORTANT NOTE: before this feature was provided, the program was automatically
setting the above parameter as follows:
. Trip time delay measurements: AND criteria;
. Threshold measurement: OR criteria.
From this version on, and for the DRTS66 series, when you use more than one contact, you
have to decide on each test whether to use AND or OR; else, the AND (default) criteria will
be applied to all tests, including threshold tests.
For instance, we have programmed two trip tests. For both tests, C1, C2 and C3 were
enabled; but, on test No. 2, the stop criteria was AND; on test No. 3, the stop criteria was
OR. The following is the result table.

On the first test, three time measurements have been performed; on the second one, there is a
time measurement only on C2, that arrived first, while C1 and C3 display Timeout.
On the Stop timer parameter, the value 0:1 means that AND was selected; the value 0:0
means that OR was selected.

4.6 Binary outputs


The next horizontal part of the window allows programming the binary outputs.
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If you click on the icon, you can make the selected contacts to close as the test is started. If you
press the Binary outputs button, the following window is opened.

• You can label the input contact.


• The contact status can be selected as in the front page: if you modify it here, the selection
will be reported also on the front page.
• It is also possible to time the contact switch with respect to test start, programming the delay
on the side box (about 5 ms, the relay delay, will be added to the programmed value). This
can be useful to simulate the CB changing position after trip command, to simulate over-
reach command and so on.

Timing of auxiliary contacts

4.7 Test program table


The last horizontal section is the area reporting the programmed test. The following is an example
of Delta test where I1 starts at 2 A, and is stepped up by 0.1 A on 10 tests.
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• Columns are the test variables.


• The dimension of each column can be widened or reduced by using the mouse.
• It is possible to scroll horizontally or vertically the table.
• The meaning of variables is explained in Appendix 2.
• If you right click on the table, the following window is opened.

The content of the window changes if you have test results. You can:
• Select all the table;
• Delete all the table;
• Modify columns layout. This command is very important, because usually you are interested
at watching the few parameters of your test, and not all the many parameters of Appendix 2.
By pressing it, the following window is opened.

• The left column lists all the available parameters; the right one lists the parameters that you
want to be shown in the table: in this instance, all parameters. Double arrows move all
parameters from left to right (>>) and from right to left (<<). If you want to move just one
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parameter, click on it and then press the single arrow for right to left movement (>), or for
left to right movement (<). Last, you can move up or down a parameter in the list using the
corresponding arrows.
• Parameters are ordered according to the way reported in Appendix 2. The first set groups the
most commonly used parameters: three voltages, three currents, trip time, test type, shot
type, phases; next, all other parameters follow. There is a difference between parameters
displayed on the test program table and the test result one: this is shown in Appendix 2.
• Let us suppose that you are interested at watching the three currents I1 to I3 and the trip
contact C1: the selection is performed as follows. First of all, transfer all parameters from
right to left using <<. Next, transfer to right, with >, the parameters shown here below: Row
number, Executed, I1, I2, I3, Input contact 1, Test type, Shot type. Row number and so on
are useful but not mandatory; the trip time of C1 is shown only on the results table as it is a
test result. However, for each trip test, the delay is shown by the side of the selected
contacts.

This performed, you can:


• Copy the columns layout to the result grid and to the result diagram, by checking the two
boxes;
• Save the current layout into a Template file;
• Open an existing template: pressing the arrow gives you the list of templates;
• Delete current layout: the template will be removed, and the next template automatically
selected.
• After this operation, the window will look like the following.

• Only the parameters of interest are now displayed.


There are other operations available on the table. To access them, left click any blue square to the
left of the table: the corresponding row will become grey. If you want more than one row, keep the
left mouse button pressed and move to reach for all the desired tests, or press the shift arrow and the
up/down arrow. Now, right click on it: the selection table has enabled many more functions.
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• Repeat selected tests: repeats the tests corresponding to the selected rows. With this
command, if you have selected the whole test or a part of it, the following window is
opened.

With selection Yes, new results are overwritten on the former ones, and the test ID is the
same.
If, instead, New test ID is selected, the following window is displayed.

The program increments automatically the ID number of one digit, so that it is told apart. It
is possible to change the ID description: pressing OK, the test starts, and results are added to
the former ones, with the new ID. The program changes also automatically the results colour
on the result diagram; this helps recognising them from the former ones.
• Mark as executed: this function check as executed the selected rows. In this way it is
possible to treat a not executed test as if it was executed and therefore to skip it.
• Transfer the values of the selected line to the fault values: takes the values of the currents,
voltages and relative angles, frequency and DC supply as they have been stored into the
selected line of the table and copies them up on the fault values, so as to examine them or
evaluate derived parameters by using the Measurements window. This can be performed
only if the type of fault of the selected line and of the fault page are the same.
• Substitute the selected row values with the Prefault or Fault values: it is the opposite
operation with respect to the former one, and allows modifying the programming line per
line.
• The line must have the same test selection as the Fault values.
• Delete: deletes the selected rows from the test table regardless if they have already been
executed or still to be tested.
• Delete all rows: deletes all the rows in the test table.
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• Cut + Paste or Cut + Append: it is possible to remove a test from its position. Unlike Delete,
when you select it nothing happens: you have to go to the position where you want to move
the test, select the test before which you want to move the test you have cut, and press Paste:
the test will be moved in the selected position. If you want to put it at the end of the list,
select Append. NOTE: the test WILL NOT be copied in the results table.
• Copy + Paste or Copy + Append: it is possible to copy a test. When you select it nothing
happens: you have to go to the position where you want to move the test, select the test
before which you want to move the test you have cut, and press Paste: the test will be copied
in the selected position, and shown as To be executed. If you want to put it at the end of the
list, select Append. If you start the test, the result will be added at the end of the result table:
test program and test result will not match. After such operations, it is better to delete all
results, and start the program over again.
• Modify values. Once a test program has been prepared and saved, it could be useful to create
a new test program, where some constant value (any selected parameter) should be changed.
If you press the button, the opening window lists all the selected parameters.

• For instance, if a test was prepared at 60 Hz and you want it now at 50 Hz, click on
Frequency: the following will be displayed.

• Programming the new value, the Frequency will be changed on all the selected lines. NOTE:
this does not include prefault values. You can also change the settings of input contacts and
of binary outputs: if you select them, the corresponding programming table is opened.

• Attention: with the above modifications, the user must take care that the test program does
not match any more with results. Tests should be performed again in order to consider the
result valid.
• Comment to the test. This applies to each single test; the following window appears:
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• In the “Message” area, it is possible to input a comment to the test. Checking the “Show this
message” Checkbox allows the user to display the message prior to test execution. There is
also a “Notes” box, where other notes can be inserted. “Message” and “Notes” are stored
together with the test data and can contain also pictures.
By pressing the OK button, if the “Show this message” checkbox is set, this page will be
shown when the test is executed.
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5 TEST EXECUTION

When prefault and fault parameters have been defined, pressing the Start button the test is executed
three ways, according to the checkbox by the side of the “Add to test values” button, as explained in
the former chapter.
• After start, the sequence can be stopped pressing the Stop button. All tests not yet executed
are recognized because the “Executed” box in the results table is not checked. Pressing Start
again, the test will be completed.
• Upon pressing the Start button, the software shows a timer indicating the elapsed time since
the test begun and a coloured slider beside the graph to highlight that a test is in progress.

• If, instead of stop, you press the Reset button, all parameters are removed, including the DC
relay supply. If you want to recover, and if the relay is of the numeric type, don’t forget to
press the Generate prefault icon (green house), and to allow some time to the relay to be
ready for next tests.
• If, during the test, an overload situation is sensed, the test is stopped, and a message telling
which one is the alarm situation is displayed (in the following, the alarm is an overload on
I1).

• By pressing OK, the following message is displayed.

• After OK, you are in the same situation as after the Reset: to recover, generate prefault first.
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6 TEST RESULT WINDOW


The test result window has three tabs: Graphs, Results, Graphs and results.

6.1 Graphs
The following is the diagram of the test result for a time dependent over-current relay.

On the diagram it is available the function zoom on - off. The zoom is obtained by reaching with the
pointer the upper left part of the diagram that you want to zoom, clicking the left button of the
mouse, and keeping it pressed to reach the bottom right point: the screen will display a dense grid,
that shows the part to be zoomed. Releasing the left mouse button, the zoom is performed.

ON
OFF

For instance, the result of the above selection is the following one.
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To select zoom off, on any part of the diagram, execute the opposite operation, from bottom right to
top left.

6.1.1 Cartesian
With this selection the diagram is shown in Cartesian coordinates, that are good for this type of
relay.

6.1.2 Polar
With this selection the diagram is shown in Polar coordinates, that apply to relays where the phase
angle is a variable.

6.1.3 Graph Settings


The first two boxes are: X axis (Radius for Polar coordinates); Y axis (Angle). In both are available
the following selections:
• A place where the name of the variable can be input;
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• Enable/disable the horizontal or vertical grid in the graph ;


• The variable to be displayed, selected among the ones of the results table. Default values are:
I1 for the X axis, time for the Y axis.

6.1.3.1 Graph Title


It is possible to input the graph title, that will be written above the graph.

6.1.3.2 Formula
It is possible to create formulas, as explained in the “Manage formulas and custom fields”
paragraph.

6.1.3.3 Delete all


With this selection, the following confirmation message pops up.

Answering yes, all test results are deleted, but not the test program, that can be modified and
repeated.

6.1.3.4 Show data of test ID


All the test ID’s used for the test are displayed with the box checked. If, on the same relay, you have
performed different types of tests, and therefore assigned different ID’s, showing all test results
could cause a messy diagram. In this situation, just check one ID at a time: this will allow showing
coherent test results. Example: a directional relay 67N can be tested on the V-I characteristic, or on
the angular characteristic. Mixing these results would be confusing.

6.1.4 Advanced Graph Settings

6.1.4.1 Lin-Lin
With the down arrow, it is possible to select the test result to be displayed as: Lin-Lin; Lin-Log;
Log-Lin; Log-Log. Le latest one is the one usually used for over-current relays.

6.1.4.2 Join with lines


If checked, test result dots will be joined by lines, in the sequence of tests. Take care, because if the
selected variable is not constantly increasing or decreasing, lines could be messy.

6.1.4.3 Show tripped tests only


If not checked, timeout results will be shown with a time corresponding to Tmax.

6.1.4.4 Limit X and Y axes


If not checked, the program automatically uses the minimum and maximum parameter value; else, it
is possible to program the limits, so that the result can be more easily compared to the nominal
diagram.

6.2 Results
The following is the test result table for the time dependent over-current relay shown in the graph.
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In this example, the relevant parameter is not I: instead , it is I/I>, because this is the parameter used
in the relay nominal curve. This is why the first column is I/I>, that corresponds to the Formula 1,
that we have created for this purpose, where I> = 2,5 A. The second column is the measured time
delay at that current. Next, we have the I1 current, and the type of test.

If you select one row and then right click on it, the following window is opened.

Selections: Select all; delete; delete all rows; modify columns layout have already been explained in
the test chapter.

6.2.1 Modify test ID

Can be that, at the end of the test, you wish to group data another way: this can be performed using
this selection.
First of all, select the results where you want to change the ID; then, right click on these lines and
select the change. Once pressed, the program shows by the side the list of existing ID’s.
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One of these ID’s can be assigned to the selected rows: it is sufficient to click on it, and all the ID’s
of the selected lines will change accordingly.

6.2.2 Show data of test ID

This option serves to see only the test results corresponding to the selected test ID’s. Referring again
to the test of a 67N relay, you can select to display only test results of the V-I curve, or only the
angular sector. To perform this, uncheck the test ID’s that you don’t want to view.

6.2.3 Field column

At this moment, you can comment separately each test, for instance indicating Pass or Fail. This is
performed by selecting the Field parameter: six of these fields are available. Next, you can key in
any text you desire: your text will be saved with the test result.

6.3 Graph and results


With this selection you see on the screen both the result diagram and table.

Press here to enlarge


The diagram
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If you want to see the diagram better, press on the right arrow shown above: the settings will
disappear and the diagram will take their area. At the meantime, a left arrow will appear by the side
of the graph: pressing it, the window above will be displayed.
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7 PRINTING RESULTS

Upon choosing the Print Results options of the File menu, the following selection window appears.

It is possible to select whether to include the graphs or the Notes page in the report.
Notes to the complete test can be input pressing the Notes to test button: the window is the
following one.

It is also possible to choose the company’s logo: pressing the button, you can browse what you
want, provided that it is in .bmp format. In C \ XTEST you find a directory called LOGO, where we
have collected many logos taken from all the world.

It is also possible to choose the appropriate columns to be shown in the report; up to 9 columns can
be selected.

Upon pressing the Print preview, the report is created and displayed in a separate window.
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The toolbar above to the left is the following one.

7.1 Move on the document


With the first left arrow you go to the first page; with the second one you go left one page; with the
third right arrow you go right one page, and with the fourth right arrow you go to the last page.

7.2 Print
Pressing the printer icon the document is printed.

7.3 Export file


By pressing this icon it is possible to export the report into a variety of formats.

7.4 Zoom
By pressing the down arrow by the side of the lens icon it is possible to define the page dimension
on the screen.
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8 IMPORT RESULTS IN EXCEL

As mentioned in chapter 2 , a result file is formatted as a data base file, ready to be used by
Microsoft Access. Furthermore, it’s possible to import a result table in Microsoft Excel . In the
following figures is explained which are the selections in Excel:

• Define a new data base query:

• Data base type selection


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• Select the data base file:

• Select the columns:

• And, after the inclusion of all the columns without any filter, and ordering the rows by
“DBNumber”, the table will appear:
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APPENDIX 1: IEC61850

By means of a dedicated module, ISA Instruments can expand their testing capabilities by handling
IEC61850 messages. One such message coming from a device connected to the substation network
(such a relay) is also called Goose.
To control the IEC61850 board press the relative button in the Timer Fault window.

When the button is pressed the window Goose Explorer is opened.

By means of the Goose Explorer it is possible to explore the IEC61850 messages on the network.
The window shows a File menu, a main area divided in three pages (Exploring Goose, Virtual
Contacts and Goose Publishing) and an optional side that shows the Activity Log.

A1.1 Relay connection

Purpose of the test is to verify gooses sent by the relay on the Station bus. The connection is shown
in the drawing below.
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The connection to the relay is performed by connecting current and voltage outputs to the relay
under test. Also trip outputs are to be connected, so that it is possible to verify the trip delay.

Next, the instrument is to be connected to the Station bus. To this purpose, the instrument is
provided with an ETHERNET connector on its front. The connection to the Station bus can be
performed in two ways:
. if a switch is available: connect the instrument to the switch with a non crossover ETHERNET
cable provided. With this connection, very many messages will be seen by DRTS.6;
. if a switch is not available: the relay is to be disconnected from the Station bus and connected
directly to the test set with the crossover ETHERNET cable provided. With this connection,
messages seen by instrument are only those coming from the relay.

The next paragraph will describe how to perform the tests.

A1.2 File Menu

A simple and basic menu is provided in order to handle the data that is captured by the Goose
Explorer window.
• Open Exploring File: opens a database file (.gse extension) containing the result of a
session of exploring of the IEC61850 network. It will also load the filters, virtual contacts
and publishers that have been previously saved in the file.
• Save Exploring File: saves a database file (.gse extension) containing the result of a session
of exploring of the IEC61850 network. The file contains also any info on filters, virtual
contacts or publishers that have been set up.
• Open Substation File: opens a substation setting file (extension .scd; .icd; .xml) containing
the configuration of the substation, including the gooses available for each IED on the
network. Please refer to paragraph A1.3.4 for a more detailed explanation of this menu
option.
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A1.3 Main Area


As it can be seen, the main Area is divided in three main pages, that become four when a substation
file is opened:
• Exploring Goose
This page controls the Exploring Options, displays the Goose List and the Goose details and
also handles the Filters
• Virtual Contacts
This page displays and sets the Virtual Contacts.
• Substation File (only when selected from the File Menu)
This page shows the Goose List and details of gooses that are saved in a Substation file.
• Goose Publishing
This page displays and sets the Gooses that can be reproduced. Goose Publishing is only
available on DRTSxx instruments with IEC61850 board firmware revision from 1.00.

A1.3.1 Exploring Goose


The first action to perform in order to use effectively the Goose Explorer is to catch the messages on
the network. To this extent there are three Exploring options: Explore at START , Explore Now
and Use Virtual Contacts to STOP the test

It is possible to Reset the Goose queue with the relative button. This will clear the IEC61850 board
from any previous goose still pending. Press this button when required, but when the Exploring
session is closed.

Explore Now

When the Explore now option is selected it is possible to execute the exploring by pressing the
Start Exploring button. Choose appropriately the Exploring time by setting the relative box.
Upon pressing the button, the IEC61850 board mounted in the ISA Instrument starts to capture the
messages and these are immediately displayed in the Goose list frame.

The Start Exploring button turns Red and its caption is changed into Stop Exploring. The exploring
can thus be stopped at any moment by pressing the button.
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The grid displays for each Goose:


• Source Mac Address: physical address of the generator of the message
• Destination Mac Address: physical address of the destination of the message
• Goose ID: Identifier of the Message
• Data Set Reference: Identifier of the type of message created by the IED
• Event Time Stamp: Universal Time that identifies the Goose
Data in this grid can be ordered in various ways included in the Order Goose List by menu.

You can select this menu at any time, even during the download of gooses. It is possible to Order
data according to
• Number: the actual sequence in which the goose has been captured. (not necessarily they are
received by Time Stamp)
• Time Stamp: the UTC Time identifier of the goose
• Goose ID
• Source Mac Address
By selecting a row of the Goose List, it is possible to see the details of the Data Structure handled by
the selected Data Set Reference. The Goose Details grid is loaded accordingly.

Explore at START
When the Explore at Start option is selected, it is not possible to Start the exploring in this window.

The Exploring will be automatically performed during the execution of a Shot type test
This means that at the execution of the Shot, the software will:
• open an exploring session appropriately just prior to the test start
• execute the shot test until the relay trips as normal
• close the exploring session
• get the IEC61850 messages that have been generated and display them in the Exploring
Goose window
• display the results of the Shot in the main window of the software.

Use Virtual Contacts to STOP the Test


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In this case, the exploring will not be shown in this window.


This means that at the execution of the Shot, the software will:
• set the virtual contacts as they have been selected by the user
• execute the shot test until the relay trips as normal (but taking into account not only the trip
contacts but also the virtual contacts)
• get the trip times for the contacts monitored by the software and for the Virtual Contacts
enabled
• display the trip times in the Time columns of the table in the Virtual Contact page.

Do not Explore
Disables the IEC61850 option so that from now on it will not monitor the LAN for gooses.

A1.3.2 Filters
The amount of messages that can travel on a IEC61850 network can be burdening due to the amount
of objects connected to it. In order to select a portion of the messages, especially only the
meaningful once, related to the device undergoing the test, it is possible to set Filters.
Once a number of messages have been received, typically through an Explore now session, it is
possible to select only those that match a selection.
In particular, by selecting one message from the Goose List and by right-clicking with the mouse, a
menu is opened:

Relating to Filters, it is possible to


• add filter as IED: extracts the IED of the selected Goose and use it as a Filter, in order to
capture only the messages with that same DataSet Reference

The filter cannot be changed. A name can be given to the filter by selecting the Name
column and writing an appropriate name. Click on the En column in order to Enable the
Filter.

• add filter as TIMESTAMP: extracts the timestamp of the selected Goose and use it as a
basis for a Filter. The Time can be edited.
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The filter can be changed: click on the Value column and a box appears in order to edit the
time of the filter.

This will represent the minimum time after which messages will be sensed and captured by
the IEC61850 board. Any message with UTC Time prior to the Filter time will be discarded.
A name can be given to the filter by selecting the Name column and writing an appropriate
name. Click on the En column in order to Enable the Filter.

It is possible to set up to 8 filters, although only one at a time can be enabled.


At the start of an Exploring session, if the filters have been changed, a message box will appear to
let the user choose whether to use the new filters or leave the previous filter condition.

A1.3.3 Virtual Contacts


Once the user has performed an Exploring of the messages, be it with or without Filters, it is
possible to set Virtual contacts. As the name describes, this is not a physical contact of the ISA
Instrument, but is a ‘virtual’ contact or a condition that becomes true for a device on the network.
This condition is verified by means of the occurrence of a very specific goose.
After selecting a goose from the Goose List in the Exploring Goose page, the Goose details frame
is loaded with the details of the selected Dataset data structure. Each of the parameters in this data
structure can be set in order to define a virtual contact.
Right-click with the mouse on a parameter and a menu appears.

It is possible to set the parameter as a basis for a virtual contact. By choosing the menu item, a new
virtual contact will be added to the Virtual Contacts page. It is possible to add up to 8 virtual
contacts.
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A virtual contact is identified by a


• Name: it can be given by the user by editing the relative box in the grid. The same name
will appear in the lower frame that represent the Trip condition for the Virtual contact.
• Dataset Reference: it represents the exact goose that serves as the basis for the virtual
contact. The same device can and does produce more than one Goose ID, so in order to set
the virtual contact it is not enough to define the Goose ID, but the selection has to be made
on the Dataset Reference.
• Type: it can be Boolean, Bit String, Unsigned, Signed, Float or UTC Time.
• Condition: depending on the type of the data it can be: Equal to, Less than, Greater than
or Not Equal to. It is set by default to Equal to, but it can be changed according to the data
type. Select the appropriate condition form the menu that appears when clicking on the
condition column.
• Value: together with the condition field, it defines the actual condition of the Virtual
Contact. In case of data type Boolean, it can only assume value True or False.
• Time: represents the actual ‘trip time’ of the virtual contact, or the time interpreted from the
goose that the device produces when the condition is verified. It cannot be modified, it is
automatically set by the software when a test is performed and a virtual contact has tripped.

In the lower part of the page, it is possible to set the Virtual Contacts trip conditions.
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In the situation here pictured, the test will trip, apart from the Trip contact conditions set in the main
page of the software in this conditions:
• trip of virtual contacts 1 and 2
• trip of virtual contacts 3 and 4
• trip of virtual contacts 5 6 and 8
• trip of the only contact 7

A1.3.4 Substation files (SCD)


By choosing the menu item File – Open Substation File, it is possible to explore the configuration
of the substation as provided by the manufacturer.
A standard dialog window appears to let the user choose the file. At the selection, a new page of the
Goose Exploring window called Substation File is opened.

This page can be closed by pressing the button that is shown on the header. The page is very
similar to the Exploring Goose page. It shows a table in the Goose List frame that can be ordered
by a dropdown menu, and for each goose that is displayed it shows the relative data structure in the
Goose Details table.
The list of gooses and relative details here shown are not the result of an exploring session, they
represent the nominal configuration of the substation.
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Exactly as for the Goose List frame in the Exploring Goose page, it is possible to set filters by
choosing a Dataset Reference or to use a detail to add a Virtual Contact.
This page can also be used by the operator to compare the contents of the SCD file with the results
of an exploring session as contained in the Exploring Goose page.

A1.3.5 Publishing Gooses


The Publishing Gooses functionality is available only on DRTSxx instruments with IEC61850
board firmware version 1.00 and following.

Publishing Gooses is a different activity than exploring. In this case, gooses are not simply explored,
but generated by the instrument and sent on the network to which the instrument is connected.
The instrument can therefore be both a publisher of Gooses and an explorer of Gooses.
In order to Publish a Goose, it is essential to capture a goose first and use it as a basis for the
publisher. Gooses can be obtained by exploring what is circulating on the 61850 network or by
selecting one from the list of gooses provided when loading a substation file.

Both the Goose List grid in the Exploring Goose page and the Goose List grid in the Substation
File page, allow the user to set a goose for publishing. When selecting a goose and right-clicking on
the grid, a menu appears as shown in the following picture.
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The Goose menu allows the user to select a goose for publishing by choosing the Publish Goose
menu item. This will copy the goose to the Goose Publishing list as displayed by the following
picture.

It is possible to set up to 16 different publishers. If the user tries to publish more than the maximum
number of publishers, the following message appears.
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The Goose List grid enables the user to interactively define the publishing depending on the
selection performed in each column of the grid:
• #: it represents the publisher port. Up to 16 different ports can be used at the same time,
therefore it is possible to publish 16 different gooses. The port number cannot be selected by
the user, it is automatically selected by the software when a goose is added to the list of
goose to be published. The port number is not important to the end of the publishing, it is
displayed just as an information to the user.

• Enable : By clicking on the cell identified by this column, it is possible to disable


the publishing of a goose during a publishing session. If the publisher is disabled, the entire
row is greyed-out and it is not possible to make any change until the goose is enabled again

• Status : A publisher can be in any of the two states: Idle ( ) or Running ( ).


When the publisher is in running mode, then the goose is ready to be published according to
the other selections in the grid. The entire row is greyed-out and it is not possible to make
any change. By clicking the cell identified by this column, it is possible to change the status
of the publisher from Idle to Running and from Running to Idle.
• Publish Mode: When clicking on the cell identified by this column it is possible to select the
Running mode of the Publisher:

If the selection is continuous, as soon as the publisher is set to running mode (see previous
column) the instrument starts publishing the goose immediately and continuously with a
period of 5 seconds. The publishing ends when the publisher is set to Idle (see previous
column)
If the selection is During Test, then when the publisher is set to running mode (see previous
column) the instrument does not start publishing the goose. The publishing will be
synchronized to the fault development when a test is performed according to the conditions
set through the columns Pre-Fault, Fault and Post-Fault.
• Dest Mac Address: this displays the Mac Address to which the goose is going to be
destined. This parameter cannot be changed and is inherited by the original goose that has
been selected for publishing
• Goose ID: as for the Mac Address, this parameter cannot be changed and is inherited by the
original goose that has been selected for publishing
• Dataset Reference: as for the Mac Address, this parameter cannot be changed and is
inherited by the original goose that has been selected for publishing
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• Prefault : By clicking on the cell identified by this column it is possible to define


whether the goose will be published during the prefault section of the test. As soon as a test
starts, for as long as the prefault conditions are generated the goose will be published, with a
period of 5 seconds. Gooses published during this section will normally simulate the
presence of healthy values on the line.

• Fault : By clicking on the cell identified by this column it is possible to define


whether the goose will be published during the fault section of the test. As soon as a test
starts, for as long as the fault conditions are generated the goose will be published, with a
period of 5 seconds. Gooses published during this section of the test will normally simulate
the presence of faulty values on the line.

• Postfault : By clicking on the cell identified by this column it is possible to define


whether the goose will be published during the post fault section of the test. As soon as a test
ends, for as long as the post fault conditions are generated the goose will be published, with
a period of 5 seconds. Gooses published during this section will normally simulate the
activity of the relay at the time of tripping.

• Test Mode : By clicking on the cell identified by this column it is possible to


define whether the goose will be published with the Test mode field set to 1 ( ) or 0 (no
icon).

• Commissioning : By clicking on the cell identified by this column it is


possible to define whether the goose will be published with the Commissioning field set to 1
( ) or 0 (no icon).

When clicking on a row of the Goose List grid, it is possible to view the data composition of the
goose in the Goose Details grid.
In this case it is possible to change the value of the data in order to prepare a different Goose for
publishing, for example it is possible to change the Value of Boolean data (between True and False)
to simulate the trip contact of the relay, or change the Value of BitString data.

Upon right-clicking on a row of the grid the following menu appears:

The Remove Goose option deletes the goose from the list of the publishers.
The Duplicate Goose option creates a copy of the goose in the list of the publishers.
The Delete All Gooses option clears the publishers list upon confirmation of the following
window:
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In order to stop the publishing of every publisher that has been set, press the Kill Publishing button.
This will set all publishers in idle mode.
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APPENDIX 2: MEANING OF PARAMETERS


The following table shows:
• The parameters, as shown in the selection table;
• The same parameters, as named in the Fields of the Formula editor;
• The meaning of each parameter;
• Whether the parameter is displayed in the test table, in the result table or both;
• Variables shown in grey are parts of the message not interesting for the user.

PARAMETER FIELDS MEANING TES RES


T
Show this dbShow A message can be added to each test line. X
message
Row Number dbNumber X X
Executed -- When the test is executed, the box is checked. X
Test ID Test_ID ID name X
Test ID -- ID description X
description
Test Number dbNumber Number of the test. It can differ from the row X
number because prefaults are listed in the row,
but are not numbered.
I1, I2, I3 I1, I2, I3 I Values for the first three currents X X
V1, V2, V3 V1, V2, V3 V Values for the first three voltages X X
Input contact 1 Tdelay_1 Timing of contact C1 X
Test Type dbType 0 = Dragging, 1= Shot, 4= Delta Ramp, 5= X X
Ramp
Shot Type dbFault 0= Prefault – Fault – Prefault; 1= FP; 2= PF0; 4= X X
F0
Result date ResultDate Date of test X
I1, I2, I3 phase phI1, phI2, phI3 Angle Values for the first three currents X X
V1, V2, V3 phV1, phV2, Angle Values for the first three voltages X X
phase phV3
Frequency dbfrequency Fault frequency X X
DC Supply dbDCC X X
I4 to I9 I4 to I9 I Values for the other currents X X
V4, V5, V6 V4, V5, V6 V Values for the other voltages X X
I4, to I9 phase phI4 to phI9 Angle Values for the other currents X X
V4, V5, V6 phV4, phV5, Angle Values for the other voltages X X
phase phV6
Input contact 2 Tdelay_2 to 12 Timing of other contacts X
to 12
Formula 1 to 6 Formula1 to 6 Custom formulas X X
Active Power -- Computed from V, I, φ X X
1-3
Reactive Power -- Computed from V, I, φ X X
1-3
Apparent -- Computed from V, I, φ X X
Power 1-3
Field 1 to 6 CustomFld1 to Operator comments X X
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6
Delta I1 to DC dbDelta_I1 to For Delta ramp and Ramp tests: increment with X
DC sign; starting value
Delta Ramp dbtime_thresho Threshold time X
time ld
Pre. Time dbTpre Prefault duration X
Max. Time dbTmax Maximum test time. If the test is Ramp, then the X
parameter becomes (Max time) : (Nominal relay
trip time).
Hold time dbHold_time CB delay X
Frequency out dbfrequency_ou It tells on which outputs the frequency is X
tput changed, following the list: 0 = All phases; 1 =
V1 only; 2 = V1V2V3; 3 = V1V2V3 + I1; 4 =
All unless V4; 5 = I1I2
Contacts dbenabled Shows the timer stop enabled contacts; it is X
Enabled expressed as the decimal number of 2^(selected
contacts binary value).
Contacts Level dblevel 0= N.O. X
Start Timer dbstart_timer_tr Timer start Trip input, if enabled; 0 = at test X
TRIP ip start; else = trip enabled contacts at Trip,
expressed as the decimal number of 2^(selected
contacts binary value).
Start Timer dbstart_timer_r Timer start Reset input, if enabled; 0 = at test X
RESET eset start; else = trip enabled contacts at Reset,
expressed as the decimal number of 2^(selected
contacts binary value).
Stop Timer dbstop_timer Trip or Reset; 0= Trip X
Binary Outputs Aux_1_16 This hex code tells which ones are the enabled X
contacts
Binary Outputs, Timer_aux_1 to Here is reported the programmed delay of the X
1 to 8 8 output
Initial F.A. dbwaveform 0 = no Initial Fault angle programmed; 1 to 15 X
variable are the numbers of currents and voltages
Initial F.A. dbpoint_on_wa Value of the Initial Fault Angle for the selected X
angle ve variable
Booster dbbooster Booster name; -1 = no booster X
Machine dbmachine The test set for which the program has been X
prepared
CT Side dbCT_side 0 = line side (no 180° rotation) X