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Mabalacat City College

Institute of Teacher Education

Duque, Angelica C.
BSEd II-Filipino

Inquiry Based Learning

Inquiry-Based learning it is a learning and teaching method that prioritizes student
questions, ideas and analyses. To highlight the pedagogy’s nuances, it is important to define
inquiry-based learning from both a learner and teacher perspective.
o From a student point-of-view, inquiry-based learning focuses on investigating an
open question or problem. They must use evidence-based reasoning and creative
problem-solving to reach a conclusion, which they must defend or present.
o From a teacher point-of-view, inquiry-based teaching focuses on moving students
beyond general curiosity into the realms of critical thinking and understanding. You
must encourage students to ask questions and support them through the investigation
process, understanding when to begin and how to structure an inquiry activity.

Using methods such as guided research, document analysis and question-and-answer

sessions, you can run inquiry activities in the form of:

 Case studies
 Group projects
 Research projects
 Field work, especially for science lessons
 Unique exercises tailored to your students

Whichever kind of activity you use, it should allow students to develop unique
strategies for solving open questions.
The 4 Types of Inquiry Based Learning

o Confirmation Inquiry — you give students a question, its answer and the method of
reaching this answer. Their goal is to build investigation and critical-thinking skills,
learning how the specific method works.
o Structured Inquiry — you give students an open question and an investigation
method. They must use the method to craft an evidence-backed conclusion.
o Guided Inquiry — you give students an open question. Typically in groups, they
design investigation methods to reach a conclusion.
o Open Inquiry — you give students time and support. They pose original questions
that they investigate through their own methods, and eventually present their results to
discuss and expand.

What are the Benefits of Inquiry-Based Learning?

While rote memorization is an important skill to master, inquiry is a skill that will take you
into the 21st century. In today’s society, our workforce demands individuals be inquisitive
and be able to solve complex problems. Inquiry implies a need to know, where students seek
answers and want to find resolutions. Educators can nurture these inquisitive minds so that
students can carry this mind set with them throughout their life.
Inquiry based-learning has other advantages as well:
o Students who are actively involved in the classroom develop problem-solving skills
which can be applied to their schoolwork as well as later in life.
o An inquiry-based approach can be used in any classroom and in any age group. Older
students will benefit from more sophisticated questioning, but inquiry can be
implemented into everyday activities with younger students.
o Inquiry-based learning works extremely well in a collaborative environment. Since
inquiry is based on questioning, you will need at least two people to work with, one to
ask and one to answer.
o Struggling students who do not do well in a teacher-led classroom respond well to an
inquiry-based learning environment. It helps builds their confidence and self-esteem.
The Key to Effective Questioning
Since inquiry-based learning is based on getting students to ask questions, it’s essential that
you, the teacher, are able to model inquiry effectively. Research suggests asking four types of
questions: Inference questions, interpretation questions, transfer questions, and questions of
o Inference questions. These are questions that ask students to think beyond the
information that is available.
o Interpretation questions. These questions propose that students have an
understanding of the consequences of the information.
o Transfer questions. While inference and interpretation ask students to think deeper,
transfer questions ask students to take their knowledge and use it.
o Hypotheses questions. These are questions that make students predict and test their
o Questions need to be something that students care about. Remember, students will
be coming up with questions themselves so they need to be something that they care
about or are interested in finding out.
o Questions must be answerable. If you are having a discussion about a book you are
reading in class, a question such as “Why did the author write the story?” can be an
effective question if the answer exists and the students can find it, or if they have a
strong opinion about it. If you ask a question such as, “Why did the author write the
last paragraph in way that they did?” , students will not be able to answer this
question, because they are not the author.
o Answers should not be a fact. “What year did Rosa Parks die?” This question can
simply be found on the Internet in a matter of seconds and does not make a
compelling question. “What factors caused Rosa Parks to die?” would make a
compelling question because students would have to research this information.
o Questions must be objective. Questions such as “What does evidence suggest?” or
“What do scientists believe” can objectively be answered. But, a question such as
“Which play is better, __ or ___?” Cannot be objectively answered.
4 Phases of Inquiry-Based Learning
1. Interacting
Big Idea: Dive into engaging, relevant, and credible media forms to identify a
‘need’ or opportunity for inquiry

The first phase of inquiry (often produced by strategies for promoting inquiry-based
learning) is one characterized by interaction. This interaction can be:
Student-to-material. This material is ideally obtained through formal (i.e., research)
and informal (e.g., reading, social and digital media, collaboration) means. It can be
modeled or supplemented by teacher-provided materials
Student-to-peer. This interaction is chosen by teacher or student, informed by need for
information and perspective
Student-to-expert (experts within relevant fields at accessible levels)
Student-to-media (digital, text, pure data, etc.)
The nature of inquiry is ideally both curiosity-based and fluid. Narrow criteria,
restrictive rubrics, and other traditional artifacts of ‘school work’ can stifle inquiry at
this point of the learning process. The teacher’s role at this point in the learning
process is focused on resources, modeling curiosity, and cognitive coaching.
Tone: Open-minded, curious, unburdened, playful
Student Indicators: actively skims a variety of media, follows curiosity, responds
with awe, dwells with certain media depending on curiosity or perceived utility; seeks
out peers for ideas and resources
Teacher Indicators: models curiosity, thinks-aloud when interacting with disparate
media, asks probing questions, withholds evaluative statements, provides exemplars,
monitors and encourages student thinking habits
Appropriate Questions: What sources of information are available to me? What do
others around me know? What’s worth studying? What possibilities, problems, or
situations tend to interest me? What types of experiences, perspectives, and data are
available to me? When am I at my best?
2. Clarifying
Big Idea: Summarizing, paraphrasing, and categorizing learning with teacher or
expert support.
This happens by analyzing data, identifying and clarifying misconceptions, and
otherwise ‘getting a feel’ for the scale, nature, and possibility of selected topics of
After skimming, reading, watching, and otherwise interacting with a variety of media,
this stage of the inquiry process is centered around students clarifying both their own
thinking, and the nature of ‘things’ around them: ideas for projects, scientific
challenges, opportunities for revision, need for design thinking, a new scale to tackle
persistent problems, etc.
Thinking patterns are both inward and reflective, and outward and communicated. In
that way, students both reflect on their own knowledge, while beginning to identify
possible pathways forward.
Tone: Slightly more focused, reflective, independent, cautious
Student Indicators: Paraphrases understanding in familiar language; resists looking
for ‘answers’ and ‘solutions’; distinguishes between fact and opinion; evaluates the
credibility and relevance of sources; focused on possibility
Teacher Indicators: offers non-evaluative and frequent feedback; provides relevant
graphic organizers and other ways to ‘frame’ student thinking; asks probing questions
that focus on student thinking: what they know and why they think they know it;
Appropriate Questions: What’s the big picture here? What are the pieces and how
do they fit? What’s accessible, and what’s not? What’s possible? Am I missing
critical data, perspectives, or opportunities for collaboration that could further clarify
my thinking? What do I seem to understand, and how do I know?
3. Questioning
Big Idea: Asking questions to drive continued, self-directed inquiry
The questioning phase is a critical phase of the inquiry-based learning process, if for
no other reason than misunderstandings, lack of organization, uneven confidence, or
an inability to see the ‘big picture’ surface here more clearly than other phases.
Students and teachers alike must also be able to trust the nature and patterns of
inquiry that are often recursive and iterative: They often move back and forth between
phases, and new skills and understandings can be obtained in frustratingly small
increments. Inquiry-based learning is more about the process, tone, and instincts of
learning than other ‘tidier’ academic forms, which can require both students and
teachers to adjust their measures of progress, quality, and success.
Tone: Creative, confident, interdependent
Student Indicators: Curious, precise with questions, self-monitoring, big-picture
thinking, little-picture application
Teacher Indicators: models questioning, thinks-aloud in revising irrelevant or
otherwise flawed questions; models use of concept-mapping tools to analyze thinking;
hosts QFT sessions and Socratic seminars
Appropriate Questions: What’s worth understanding? Where are my knowledge
gaps? What is both within and beyond my reach? What have I done in the past that
can help me in this situation moving forward?
4. Designing
Big Idea: Designing an accessible, relevant, and curiosity-driven action or
product to culminate and justify inquiry
At this final stage of the inquiry-based learning process, learners are focused on
Design of solutions to address problems within a manageable scale
Design of logical and curiosity-based applications of current understanding
Design of next steps to extend their own learning pathway
Tone: Creative, restrained, calculating
Appropriate Questions: What now? What audience makes sense for this research?
Where can I do ‘good work’? What would be ‘cool’? What have others before me
Student Indicators: Clarifies thinking, busy, self-directed, uncertain but efficacious,
follows curiosity
Teacher Indicators: Creates ‘conditions and means’ for collaboration; identifies
areas for revision, reflects back on entire process (i.e., “how we get to this point”).

Differentiated Instruction

Years ago when one-room school-houses were common, teachers had one classroom
filled with students at different grade levels and different learning abilities. The teacher had
to differentiate their instruction to accommodate for the various grade levels and learning
needs of all the students. Therefore, teaching a lesson to an eighth grade student looked and
sounded different than the same lesson content taught to a second grade student. Likewise
today, in a single grade classroom, teachers are faced with similar challenges teaching
students of varying abilities (Anderson, 2007; Rutledge, 2003). Teachers can use the same
strategies, as later explained, of differentiating instruction by using a variety of techniques
and materials to assist students of all abilities to have successful learning experiences.

According to educational consultant and expert on differentiated instruction, Carol

Ann Tomlinson (2000), differentiated instruction is varying instruction to accommodate for
the differences in students' learning needs. Differentiation "consists of the efforts of teachers
to respond to variance among learners in the classroom" (p. 2). When a teacher modifies the
way they present a lesson or changes an assignment for specific students, they are
differentiating their instruction. Even re-teaching a lesson offers a way to differentiate
instruction. In re-teaching the same lesson, a teacher will use a different method and different
examples to teach the same content. An attempt to adapt instruction or materials used to
address the learning needs of students, is differentiating instruction.

In order to differentiate instruction in the classroom, a teacher must address three student
characteristics, which Tomlinson (2001) identified as: readiness, interest, and learning
profiles. Student readiness is how much background knowledge a student has relating to a
topic. Student interests are the topics that students want to learn and will motivate them to be
engaged in learning. Lastly, learning profiles of students involve how students learn.
Considering these student characteristics, a teacher can effectively differentiate their

Areas of Differentiated Instruction

Even though students have different skills, abilities, and talents, the goal in differentiation
is "to have all students attain a similar level of mastery over specific content" (VanSciver,
2005, p. 535). To achieve the goal of mastery, teachers can differentiate their instruction in
four different areas: content, process, products, and learning environment (Tomlinson, 2000).
Tomlinson (2001) stated "A differentiated classroom provides different avenues to acquiring
content, to processing or making sense of ideas, and to developing products so that each
student can learn effectively" (p. 1).
1. Content

Content is what students need to learn. According to Tomlinson (2001), a teacher can
differentiate content based on the student characteristics, as previously mentioned.
One way to modify content is based on students' readiness level. For example, a
student who has mastered multiplication is ready to move on to division, while
another student who is struggling with multiplication needs to finish mastering the
subject before moving on to a new topic. Thus, the teacher needs to differentiate
content to accommodate these two students' learning needs. Another way to
differentiate content is by student interest. For example, one group of students may
explore their interest in bugs, while another group explores the topic of changes
related to weather. Allowing these students to explore their interests is differentiating
content. A third way to differentiate content is through students' learning profiles, or
how they learn. For example, one student may learn best by reading and taking notes,
while another student needs to hear the new material and see graphs and pictures
(Tomlinson, 2001). Thus, a teacher can present lesson content in a variety of ways to
accommodate students' different learning profiles.

A teacher can use a variety of texts and materials to differentiate content in their
classroom (Tomlinson, 2001). Using a variety of texts not only allows each student to
find material at their level of understanding or readiness level, but also allows them to
find material that matches their interests.

A teacher can also use mini-lessons to differentiate content in their classroom

(Tomlinson, 2001). A mini-lesson is a short lesson based on a specific topic of
instruction (Teaching Reading K-2 Workshop, 2003). By using mini-lessons, after the
initial teaching of the lesson, students who have mastered the material can move on to
a new topic, or they can be challenged to apply new knowledge at a deeper level.
Students who have not mastered the content can receive additional assistance to better
understand the new content.
2. Process.
Another area of differentiated instruction that can be modified is the process, or "how
the learners come to understand and assimilate facts, concepts, or skills" (Anderson,
2007, p. 50). Process involves the way students use the content that was taught and
apply their understanding to a task. Teachers can adapt the process according to
students' characteristics of readiness, interest, and learning profiles. Examples of
adapting the process for student readiness include allowing more time for a student to
complete an activity. In addition, teachers can differentiate process by student interest
by giving students a choice in the learning activity they wish to complete. Adapting
process though students' learning profiles may involve allowing students to work
independently or with a small-group, or providing students with hands-on learning
experiences of the content. Giving students several ways to understand the content
makes use of differentiating process (Tomlinson, 2001; Anderson, 2007).

One method for differentiating process is interactive journaling. Journal topics or

prompts can be assigned for specific students based on their ability level or interest.
Students can also be allowed to write freely about any topic or write their feelings,
thoughts, and reflections about what they are learning. The teacher then reads each
student's journal, assesses for understanding of the content, makes comments, and
responds to student's writing (Tomlinson, 2001).
3. Products.
Products, or the outcome measure, are what each student produces as evidence of
their learning and can be modified as a way to differentiate instruction. Students
demonstrate they have learned the content by applying what they have learned in
creating a product; this could be an assignment, project, or an assessment. Based on
students' readiness levels, teachers can differentiate the product to enable the student
to apply their knowledge in a certain way, such as by varying the degree of difficulty
of the product, or by varying the amount of teacher involvement. Using activity
centers is one way to differentiate product according to students' interest and allows
students to select the activity or outcome that matches their interests (Tomlinson,
2001). One activity to differentiate the product by students' learning profiles is to have
students perform a skit or role-playing activity in an activity center, or complete a set
of questions on a worksheet (Levy, 2008). As later explained, two specific methods to
differentiate product are tiered assignments and choice boards.
4. Learning Environment.
Lastly, the learning environment can be adapted as a way to differentiate instruction.
There are many elements involved in the classroom environment that may be
modified, including rules, procedures, furniture, available materials, and mood
(Tomlinson, 2000). If a student's learning profile requires absolute silence in order to
concentrate on an assignment, the teacher might send that student to the library or find
a quiet spot in the classroom for that student to work. Another student may benefit
from working while sitting in a cubicle, with walls surrounding the desk to minimize
visual distractions (Tomlinson, 2000). Differentiating the classroom environment may
provide a student with a more inviting atmosphere to learn.

Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences

1. Linguistic intelligence
The linguistic intelligence is the capacity to understand written and spoken language.
Thus, students with a strong linguistic intelligence learn through language. Activities
such as storytelling, brainstorming, tape recording, journal writing, and publishing
allow these learners to demonstrate their strengths (Dickinson, 1996). Books are
important to the linguistic learner; they thrive on using words, reading, and telling

2. Logical-mathematical intelligence
The logical-mathematical intelligence is the capacity to understand logic and numeric
operations. Students with this intelligence strength enjoy learning activities such as
calculations and quantifications, classifications, and categorizations using logical
reasoning (Annstrong, 2009).

3. Spatial intelligence
The spatial intelligence is the capacity to visualize what is spoken, read, or written
and the ability to manipulate those visualizations (Gardner, 2005). According to
Nicholson-Nelson (1998), students with this intelligence strength learn best by using a
"mental or physical picture to best help understand new information" (p. 11).
Activities such as drawing, using maps, and solving puzzles allow these students to
demonstrate their strengths.

4. Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence
The bodily-kinesthetic intelligence is the capacity to learn through movement and to
"solve problems or fashion products using your whole body, or parts of your body,
like your hands or mouth" (Gardner, 2005, p. 8). Students with a strong bodily-
kinesthetic intelligence have excellent hand-eye coordination. Activities in which
these learners do well include: role-playing, building, playing games, and
participating in hands-on activities (Armstrong, 2009).
5. Musical intelligence
The musical intelligence is "the capacity to create, perform, and appreciate music"
(Gardner, 2005, p. 7). Students with this intelligence strength understand musical
concepts and learn well through songs, rhythms, chants, and poetry.

6. Interpersonal intelligence
The interpersonal intelligence involves understanding people. These students are
known as being "people smart" (Lazer, 2000). They have a strong sense of
community and work well with others. Interpersonal activities include: peer sharing,
cooperative groups, board games, and simulations (Armstrong, 2009).

7. Intrapersonal intelligence
The intrapersonal intelligence is the "capacity to understand oneself' (Gardner, 2005,
p. 8). Students with this intelligence strength have a strong sense of self and do well
working alone. They are in touch with their own feelings and are good at reflection.
Activities an intrapersonal learner would enjoy include: working alone, setting goals,
meditating, and choosing which activity to complete. (Nicholson-Nelson, 1998).

8. Naturalistic intelligence
The naturalistic intelligence is the capacity to "distinguish and categorize objects or
phenomena in nature" (Moran, Kornhaber, & Gardner, 2006, p. 25). Students with
this intelligence strength enjoy being outdoors, exploring, and learning about plants
and natural events.

9. Existential intelligence
The existential intelligence is the capacity to think about the big picture and why
things or people exist. Students with this intelligence strength may ponder questions
such as "who are we, why do we die, [and] how did we get here" (Nicholson-Nelson,
1998, p. 12). McCoog (2010) stated that students who display a "strong existential
intelligence need the freedom to ponder, conceptualize, and hypothesize about the
content presented in class" (p. 127). Activities for these types of learners may include:
analyzing and thinking about questions that do not have a clear answer, pondering
how variables interact, and evaluating how concepts relate to one another (McCoog,

The existential intelligence is still in development, and Gardner considers it to be

"half an intelligence" (Gardner, 2006, p. 21). Because it has not been determined if
there is a part of the brain that specifically corresponds with this form of intelligence,
Gardner (2009) continues to gather evidence regarding the existential intelligence and
hopes to report his findings in the "next few years" (p. 5).

The 4A’s in Teaching K-12

I. Activity
This will bring understanding to what the learners already know and clarity to
what learners should learn further. At this early stage, the student should already have
a retrospect of what they will be learning through the activity that will be presented.
II. Analysis
A more in-depth understanding of the lesson, it is another phase where the
students will process and classify what is valid and not. The teacher on this part will
ask further questions and will also lead as a facilitator rather than mere lecturing and
sharing facts and ideas. The students know gains a wider view of the lesson but at the
same time draws closer to the main topic.
III. Abstraction
The teacher on this part will now focus entirely on the lesson being presented
and ask more lead questions to lead the students in reinforcing what they know and
should know more. The student here starts to feel more the importance of the lesson to
her and see the necessity of it to his/her life.
IV. Application
The word itself describes the stage as bringing the student to a more practical
way of using HOW are they going to use what they have learned and thinking of new
ways on how it can be improve further.
Participant involvement and the Key to Learning: The 4 A’s
Now that we have discussed how to increase participation and facilitate dialogue, let’s
look at four specific activities, Anchor, Add, Apply, and Away, to help make your program
interactive and informative. These activities are especially effective if you are seeing learners
more than one time (Norris 2008).
Anchor activities connect the topic to the learners’ lives and serve as the lead
into your lesson plan or program topic. They also set the tone of your program and get
learners ready for learning.
ADD activities provide new information (this is the information that is the
objective of your presentation). Share your lesson or program objectives here. Select
three of your most important messages. Norris (2008) suggests the SPICE acronym to
help you design this part of your program:
S = Short (15-20 minutes)
P = Pictures or charts, video
I = Interesting (use different ways to present information)
C = Compelling (how does this make a difference in my life?)
E = Easy, simple-to-understand language
Apply activities give learners an opportunity to practice using the information
that you presented in the session. This is where your learners will do something with
the content or skill they just learned. It can be as simple as a partner interaction or
more complex such as producing something, like a recipe.
Away activities encourage learners to take the new information with them
when they leave your session and apply it to their own lives. This provides a
conclusion to your program. Review the content that was previously covered and ask
them to summarize what they have learned. Ask learners to share one thing they will
do as a result of today’s class. Always end with the open-ended question, “What are
your questions?” rather than “Does anyone have any questions?” (Norris 2003, 2008).

 For goal setting in this AWAY section:

When you meet again, discuss how learners did on their goals. If they did not reach
them, consider another approach that is more doable. They should not feel bad about
not reaching goals but consider what barriers they need to deal with in overcoming
their challenges.
Incorporating the 4 A’s into your program ensures your learnings have done the
 Anchored the topic in their own lives (ANCHOR)
 Received some great new information (ADD)
 Applied the information through an interesting activity (APPLY)
 Made a plan to use the new information in the future (AWAY)
Ideally, learners should experience all four A’s, and depending on the type of learning
experience, you may only incorporate a few of them. Regardless of how many of these
activities you use, the learners need to be able to apply what they have learned (Norris 2003,

What makes formative assessment stand out?

Formative assessment involves the use of immediate insights to guide instruction. If
we break down the term, we see that “Formative” comes from Latin formare ‘to form’.
Assessment simply refers to an evaluation. Together the words “formative” and
“assessment” refer to a guiding evaluation that helps to shape something. With formative
assessment, teachers mold or form instruction to better suit student learning. To glean
actionable insights, the best formative assessments are generally easy to implement and offer
immediate results that lead to instant intervention or instructional adjustments. Formative
assessment is a low-stakes, quick way to check in with students.
Here’s how education academics Paul Black and Dylan William explain the differences
between formative assessment and the general term “assessment”:
We use the general term assessment to refer to all those activities undertaken by
teachers — and by their students in assessing themselves — that provide information to be
used as feedback to modify teaching and learning activities. Such assessment becomes
formative assessment when the evidence is actually used to adapt the teaching to meet student

Another Way to Check-up on everyone

Formative Assessment Analogy
One common way to think of a formative assessment is to think about “check-ups”
with the doctor. During a check-up, the doctor assesses the status of your health to make sure
you are on track and to identify any areas where you might need more attention or support. It
can be used to promote healthy habits or catch symptoms of illness. If the doctor notices
something amiss, they may ask you to exercise more or eat less sugar and more vegetables!
The goal is to make strategic changes based on new insights. Similarly, formative assessment
provides feedback to teachers, allowing them to “check-in” on how students are doing, or, to
match this analogy, the “health” of learning!

Components that Define Formative Assessment

The main intent of formative assessment is to gather insight about student learning
during a unit to track student progress and inform instruction.
Formative assessments usually comprise of the following key aspects:

 Low-stakes assessment
 Goal of informing instruction
 Gain insight on learning status
 Helps identify knowledge retention and understanding
 Daily, weekly, or otherwise frequent checks
 Generally short and quick checks
 Comes in many forms: quiz, exit ticket, artwork, venn diagram, game, presentation,