Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 56

CHAPTERIII

MULTIPLEINTEGRATIONS

DepartmentofFoundationYear,
Institute of Technology of Cambodia

2019–2020

1 / 70
CALCULUSII ITC

Contents

1 Surfaces in Space
2 Quadric Surfaces
3 Definitions and the Existence of Multiple Integrals
4 Multiple Integral Calculus
5 Double Integrals
6 Change of Variables for Double Integrals
7 Application of Double Integrals
8 Triple Integrals
9 Change of Variable in Triple Integrals
10 Application of Triple Integrals
Contents

1 Surfaces in Space
2 Quadric Surfaces
3 Definitions and the Existence of Multiple Integrals
CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70
4 Multiple Integral Calculus
5 Double Integrals
6 Change of Variables for Double Integrals
7 Application of Double Integrals
8 Triple Integrals
9 Change of Variable in Triple Integrals
10 Application of Triple Integrals
Surfaces in Space

Definition 1
CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70

The trace of a surface S in a plane is the intersection of the surface and the plane. In particular, the traces of S in
the xy-plane, the yz-plane, and the xz-plane are called the xy-trace, the yz-trace and the xz-trace, respectively.
Note: To find the xy-traces, we set z = 0 and sketch the graph of the resulting equation in the xy-plane. The other
traces are obtained in a similar manner. Of course, if the surface does not intersect the plane, there is no trace in
that plane.
The traces and the surface of the paraboloid z = x2 + y2.
Surfaces in Space

Definition2
Let C beacurveinaplane,andlet ` bealinethatisnotparallelto
thatplane.Thenthesetofallpointsgeneratedbylettingaline
traverseC whileparallelto` atalltimesiscalleda cylinder.The
curveC iscalledthe directrixofthecylinder,andeachlinethrough
C parallelto` iscalleda rulingofthecylinder.

CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70 We now turn our attention to a class of surfaces called cylinders.
Surfaces in Space

Example3
Sketchtheparaboliccylinder y = x 2 − 4.

CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70


Surfaces in Space

Example4
y 2 z2
Sketchtheellipticcylinder + =1 .
4 9

CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70


Surfaces in Space

Example5
Sketchthesurfaceof z = cosx.

CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70


Contents

1 Surfaces in Space
2 Quadric Surfaces
3 Definitions and the Existence of Multiple Integrals
4 Multiple Integral Calculus
5 Double Integrals
6 Change of Variables for Double Integrals
7 Application of Double Integrals
CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70 8 Triple Integrals
9 Change of Variable in Triple Integrals
10 Application of Triple Integrals
Quadric Surfaces

Definition6
Thegraphofthesecond-degreeequaton

Ax 2 + By 2 + Cz 2 + Dxy + Exz + Fyz + Gx + Hy + Iz + J =0 (∗ )

iscalleda quadricsurface.
CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70
Quadric Surfaces
A series of rotation and translation can transform equation (∗)
into the form

aX2 + bY 2 + cZ2 + d = 0
CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70
aX2 + bY 2 + cZ = 0
which are called the standard form in the new coordinates
system. For this reason we will restrict our study of quadric surfaces to those represented by the equations
ax2 + by2 + cz2 + d = 0
ax2 + by2 + cz = 0.

Note:
When we sketch the following quadric surfaces, we will find it useful to look at their traces in the coordinate
planes as well as planes that are parallel to the coordinate planes.
Ellipsoid:
Figure: First, we find x−,y− and z−
Quadric Surfaces
Figure: Computer generated intercepts, and then sketch
Hyperboloid of One Sheet:

Figure: Sketch the trace on the plane


CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70 Figure: Computer generated z = k (in this case) for an
appropriate value of k and for z = 0. Then use symmetry.
Hyperboloid of Two Sheet:

Figure: Sketch the trace on the plane


Quadric Surfaces
Figure: Computer generated z = k (in this case) for an
appropriate
value of k. Then find the z− intercept and use symmetry.
Cone:

CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70

Figure: Sketch the trace on the plane z


= k (in this case) for an appropriate Figure: Computer generated value of k. Then use symmetry.
Paraboloids:

Figure: Sketch the trace on the plane z = k (in this case) for an
appropriate Figure: Computer generated value of k.
Quadric Surfaces
Note: It opens upward if c > 0 and opens downward if c < 0.
Hyperbolic Paraboloid:

Figure: Computer generated


Figure: Sketch the trace on the plane z = k (in this case) for an appropriate value of k.
Note: Note: There is one positive and one negative sign.
CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70
Contents

1 Surfaces in Space
2 Quadric Surfaces
3 Definitions and the Existence of Multiple Integrals
4 Multiple Integral Calculus
5 Double Integrals
6 Change of Variables for Double Integrals
7 Application of Double Integrals
CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70 8 Triple Integrals
9 Change of Variable in Triple Integrals
10 Application of Triple Integrals

Figure: Case n = 3
Integral over Rectangles
Let R be an n-dimensional rectangle, i.e.,
R =[a1,b1] × ··· × [an,bn]
={(x1,...,xn) ∈ Rn : xi ∈ [ai,bi],i = 1,2,...,n}.
The content or volume of R is defined to be
V (R) = (b1 − a1) × ··· × (bn − an).
The numbers b1 − a1,...,bn − an, are the edge lengths of R.
A grid on R is a collection of n-dimensional rectangles
G = {R1,R2,...,Rp} obtained by subdividing the sides of R. That is,
R = R1 ∪ R2 ∪ ... ∪ Rp
CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70
If f : R −→ R, we can approximate the total nth-dimensional
volume bounded below by R and above by f with the following Riemann sum:
p
X
f(xi)V (Ri) i=1
where xi ∈ Ri and V (Ri) is the content of Ri.
The function f is said to be Riemann integrable if the limit
p
T = lim Xf(xi)V (Ri) k∆k→0
i=1
Integral over Rectangles
exists, where ∆ is the diameter of subrectangle.
Definition7
If f isRiemannintegrable,T iscalledthe Riemannintegralof f
overR andisdenoted
Z Z
··· f (x 1,x 2,...,x n ) dx1··· dxn
R

Frequentlythisnotationisabbreviatedas
Z Z
f (x)dx or fdV.
R R

Whenn =2 andn =3 ,wedenotetheintegralbyoneofthesymbols


ZZ ZZ ZZZ ZZZ
f (x,y )dA or fdA, f (x,y,z )dV or fdV.
R R R R

CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70


Integral over More General Subset of Rn
Definition8
Let f : S ⊂ R n → R beaboundedfunctiondefinedonabounded
subsetS ,andlet
( f (x), x ∈ S
f S (x)=
0, x∈/S
Let R bearectanglecontaining S .Thenthe integral of f overS is
definedtobe
Z Z
f (x)dx = f S (x)dx
S R

if RR f S (x)dx exists.

Definition9
Z
Wecall V (S )= dx the content of S .
S

CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70

Figure: Case n = 2: S ⊂ R
Integral over More General Subset of Rn
Properties of Integral
Let f,g : S ⊂ Rn → R be integrable. Then f + cg is integrable on S and
Z Z Z
(f + cg)(x)dx =f(x)dx + cg(x)dx
S S S

If f ≤ g then

|f| is also integrable and


CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70

fg is integrable on S.
Properties of Integral
If S = R is a rectangle, f is continuous on S, and g ≥ 0, then there is some x0 ∈ S such that

If S1,S2 ⊂ S, then
Z Z Z
f(x)dx = f(x)dx − f(x)dx
S1−S2 S1 S1∩S2
Z Z Z Z f(x)dx = f(x)dx + f(x)dx −
f(x)dx.
S1∪S2 S1 S2 S1∩S2
If S1 ∩ S2 has zero content then
Z Z Z f(x)dx = f(x)dx + f(x)dx.
S1∪S2 S1 S2
Contents

1 Surfaces in Space
2 Quadric Surfaces
3 Definitions and the Existence of Multiple Integrals
CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70

4 Multiple Integral Calculus


5 Double Integrals
6 Change of Variables for Double Integrals
7 Application of Double Integrals
8 Triple Integrals
9 Change of Variable in Triple Integrals
10 Application of Triple Integrals
Iterated Integral

Theorem1(Iteratedintegral)
If f isintegrableoverasubset S in R n ,thentheintegral
Z
fdV
S

canbecalculatedintermof n-folditeratedintegral
Z n Z Z
··· n n f (x 1,x 2,...,x n )dx 1
o dx o ··· o dx .
2 n

CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70


Change of Variables
Theorem2(Changeofvariablesformula)
Let S u ,S x ⊂ R n betworegions, T beaone-to-one C 1 functionfrom S u
onto S x with T − 1 differentiable,and f : S x ⊂ R n → R becontinuous.
Thatis
x i = x i (u1,...,u n ) ⇐⇒ ui = ui (x 1,...,x n )
for i =1 , 2,...,n. Ifthe n × n Jaccobiandeterminant
∂x 1 ∂x 1
∂u 1 ... ∂u n
J = .. .. .. 6
=0 ,
. . .
∂x n ∂x n
∂u 1 ... ∂u n

then
Z Z
f (x )dx = f (T (u))|J |du.
Sx Su

CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70


Contents

1 Surfaces in Space
2 Quadric Surfaces
3 Definitions and the Existence of Multiple Integrals
4 Multiple Integral Calculus
5 Double Integrals
6 Change of Variables for Double Integrals
7 Application of Double Integrals
CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70 8 Triple Integrals
9 Change of Variable in Triple Integrals
10 Application of Triple Integrals
Double Integrals

Figure: Function f(x,y) lies on regionFigure: The rectangles lying within R


R form an inner partition of R
CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70

Figure: Rectangular prism whose base


has an area of ∆Ai and whose height Figure: Volume approximated by
is f(xi,yi) rectangular prisms
Double Integrals

Definition10
If f isdefinedonaclosed,boundedregion
R inthe xy-plane,thenthe
doubleintegraloff overR is
n
Z ZZ
fdA = f (x,y )dA = lim X f (x i ,y i )∆A i
R R k∆ k→0
i=1

providedthelimitexists.Ifthelimitexists,thenf is integrableover
R.

Theorem3(AreaandVolume)
Let R beaboundedregioninxy-plane.Then
A = R R dA istheareaoftheregionR.
V=R R R f (x,y )dA isthevolumeofthesolidregionthatliesabove
R
R andbelowthegraphoff ,providedthatf isintegrableovera
planeregionR andf (x,y ) ≥ 0 forall (x,y ) in R.
CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70
Double Integrals

Theorem4(PropertiesofDoubleIntegrals)
Let f and g becontinuousoveraclosed,boundedplaneregion R and
let c beaconstant.
ZZ ZZ
cf (x,y )dA = c f (x,y )dA
R R
ZZ ZZ ZZ
[f (x,y ) ± g(x,y )]dA = f (x,y )dA ± g(x,y )dA
R R R
ZZ
f (x,y )dA ≥ 0 if f (x,y ) ≥ 0
R
ZZ ZZ
f (x,y )dA ≥ g(x,y )dA if f (x,y ) ≥ g(x,y )
R R
ZZ ZZ ZZ
f (x,y )dA = f (x,y )dA + f (x,y )dA,where R isthe
R R1 R2
unionoftwononoverlappingsubregionsR 1 and R 2 .

CALCULUSII ITC 34 /70


Double Integrals

Theorem5(Fubini’sTheorem)
Let f becontinuousonaplaneregion R.
If R isdefinedby a ≤ x ≤ b and g1(x ) ≤ y ≤ g2(x ) where g1 and g2
arecontinuouson [a,b ] then

ZZ Z bZ g2 (x )
f (x,y )dA = f (x,y )dydx
R a g1 (x )

If R isdefinedby c ≤ y ≤ d and h 1(y) ≤ x ≤ h 2(y) where h 1 and


h 2 arecontinuouson [c,d ] then
d h 2 (y)
ZZ Z Z
f (x,y )dA = f (x,y )dxdy
R c h 1 (y)

CALCULUSII ITC 34 /70


Double Integrals

Example11
Evaluatetheintegral
ZZ
(1 − x 2 − y 2 )dA
R
where
(a) R istheregiongivenby 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 and − 1 ≤ y ≤ 2.
(b) R istheregionboundedbyparabola y = x 2 andaline y = x .

Definition12(Averagevalueofafunction)
If f isintegrableovertheplaneregion R ,thenthe averagevalue of f
over R is
1 ZZ
f (x,y )dA
A R
where A istheareaof R.

CALCULUSII ITC 34 /70


Contents

1 Surfaces in Space
2 Quadric Surfaces
3 Definitions and the Existence of Multiple Integrals
4 Multiple Integral Calculus
5 Double Integrals
6 Change of Variables for Double Integrals
7 Application of Double Integrals
CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70 8 Triple Integrals
9 Change of Variable in Triple Integrals
10 Application of Triple Integrals
Change of Variables for Double Integrals

Theorem 6 (Change of Variables for Double Integrals)


Let R be a vertically or horizontally simple region in the xy-plane, and let S be a vertically or horizontally simple
region in the uv-plane. Let T from S to R be given by T(u,v) = (x,y) = (g(u,v),h(u,v)) where g and h have
continuous first partial derivatives. Assume that T is one-to-one except possibly on the boundary of S. If f is
continuous on
R, and ∂(x,y)/∂(u,v)
ZZ
f (x,y )dxdy = is nonzero
ZZ
on))S|J 2then
f (g(u,v ),h (u,v |dudv.
R S
Change of Variables for Double Integrals

Example13
Evaluatethefollowingintegrals
ZZ
1 I = cos(2x + y) sin(x − y) dA, whereR istheregionbounded
R
bythelines y =0 ,y = x and x +2 y =8 .
ZZ
2 J = (x + y2) dA, whereR istheregionboundedbythelines
R
y = ± x and y = ± x +1 .
ZZ 2
3 K = (x − y2)exy dA, whereR istheregionboundedbythe
R
linesy = x,y = x +2 andthehyperbolas y =1 /x and y =4 /x.

CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70


Double Integrals in Polar Coordinates

Figure: Polar sector Figure: Polar grid superimposed over region R


Consider a specific polar sector Ri, as shown in Figure. It can be shown that the area of Ri is

∆Ai = ri∆ri∆θi
CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70

where ∆ri = r2 −r1 and ∆θi = θ2 −θ1. This implies that the volume of the solid of height f(ri cosθi,ri sinθi) over region
Ri is approximately
f(ri cosθi,ri sinθi)ri∆ri∆θi
and we have

.
Double Integrals in Polar Coordinates

Theorem7(ChangofvariablestoPolarform)
Let R beaplaneregioncosistingofallpoints (x,y )=( r cosθ,r sin θ)
satisfyingtheconditions 0 ≤ g1 (θ) ≤ r ≤ g2 (θ),α ≤ θ ≤ β,where
0 ≤ (β − α) ≤ 2π.If g1 and g2 arecontinuouson [α,β ] and f is
continuouson R ,then
β g2 (θ)
ZZ Z Z
f (x,y )dA = f (r cosθ,r sin θ)rdrdθ.
R α g1 (θ)

CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70


Double Integrals in Polar Coordinates

Example14
ZZ 2
Evaluatetheintegral x dA,where
R
1 R = { (x,y ) ∈ R 2 : x 2 + y2 ≤ 1} .
2 R = { (x,y ) ∈ R 2 :1 ≤ x 2 + y2 ≤ 4} .
3 R = { (x,y ) ∈ R 2 : x 2 + y2 ≤ 4; x ≥ 1} .
4 R istheregionareaenclosedbythegraphofPolarequation
r = cos2θ.

CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70


Contents

1 Surfaces in Space
2 Quadric Surfaces
3 Definitions and the Existence of Multiple Integrals
4 Multiple Integral Calculus
5 Double Integrals
6 Change of Variables for Double Integrals
7 Application of Double Integrals
CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70 8 Triple Integrals
9 Change of Variable in Triple Integrals
10 Application of Triple Integrals
Moment and center of mass
Definition15
Let ρ isacontinuousdensityfunctiononthelaminaR.Then
ZZ
m= ρ(x,y )dA isthemassofthelamina.
R
ZZ
Mx = yρ(x,y )dA isthefirstmomentofR abouty-axis
R
ZZ
My = xρ(x,y )dA isthefirstmomentofR aboutx -axis
R
Thecentreofmass is
− − My Mx
x, y = , .
m m

If R representsasimpleplaneregionratherthanalamina,the
− −
point x, y iscalledthecentroidoftheregion.

CALCULUSII ITC 45 /70


Moment of inertia

Definition 16 (Moments of inertia)


Let ρ is a continuous density function on the lamina R, Then
is the moment of inertia of the R
about L where L can be a point or a straight line; and d is the distance from a point (x,y) of the region R to L.
I L = ZZ d2(x,y )ρ(x,y )dA
ZZ
R
2
Ix =y ρ(x,y)dA is the moment of inertia of R about x-axis.
R

y =
ZZ 2
ICALCULUSII x ρ(x,y )dA ITC 2 /70 is the moment of inertia of R about y-axis.
R

I0 = Ix + Iy is the moment of inertia of R about the region and it is called the polar moment of inertia.
Surface area

Example17
ZZ ZZ q
1+[ f x (x,y )]2 z+[=9
Findthesurfaceareaofthepartoftheparaboloid
Surfacearea= dS = − x 2)]−2 dA.
f y (x,y y 2 that
liesabovetheplane z =5R . R

CALCULUSII ITC 45 /70


If f,fx and fy are continuous on the closed region R in the xy-
plane, then the area of the surface S given by z = f(x,y) over
R is defined as follow.

Figure: Surface z = f(x,y) over region


R
Surface area

Example18
Findthesurfaceareaoftheportionoftheplane z =2 − x − y thatlies
abovethecirclex 2 + y2 ≤ 1 inthefirstquadrant,asshowninFigure.

CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70


Surface area

Example19
Findtheareaofthatpartoftheplane y + z =2 insidethecylinder
x 2 + z 2 =1 .

CALCULUSII ITC 45 /70


Contents

1 Surfaces in Space
2 Quadric Surfaces
3 Definitions and the Existence of Multiple Integrals
4 Multiple Integral Calculus
5 Double Integrals
6 Change of Variables for Double Integrals
7 Application of Double Integrals
CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70 8 Triple Integrals
9 Change of Variable in Triple Integrals
10 Application of Triple Integrals
Q is a bounded solid region
Vi is a volume of the i-th box
(xi,yi,zi) is a point in the box
Vi
The volume of the i-th box is
∆Vi = ∆xi∆yi∆zi.
Triple Integrals
The norm k∆k of the
Definition20(Tripleintegral)
If f iscontinuousoveraboundedsolidregion Q ,thenthe triple
integral of f over Q isdefinedas
n
Z ZZZ
fdV = f (x,y,z )dV = lim X f (x i ,y i ,z i )∆ Vi
Q Q k∆ k→ 0
i=1

providedthelimitexists.

Theorem8
The volume ofthesolidregion Q isgivenby
ZZZ
Volumeof Q = dV.
Q

CALCULUSII ITC
partition is the length of the
2 /70

Figure: Volume of longest diagonal of the boxes in the partition.


Triple Integrals

Theorem9(PropertiesofTripleIntegrals)
Let f and g becontinuousoveraboundedsolidregion Q andlet c bea
constant.
Z Z
cf (x,y,z )dV = c f (x,y,z )dV
Q Q
Z Z Z
[f (x,y,z ) ± g(x,y,z )]dV = f (x,y,z )dV ± g(x,y,z )dV
Q Q R
Z
f (x,y,z )dV ≥ 0 if f (x,y,z ) ≥ 0
Q
Z Z
f (x,y,z )dV ≥ g(x,y,z )dC if f (x,y,z ) ≥ g(x,y,z )
Q Q
Z Z Z
f (x,y,z )dV = f (x,y,z )dV + f (x,y,z )dV ,where Q is
Q Q1 Q2
theunionoftwononoverlappingsubregions Q 1 and Q 2 .

CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70


Triple Integrals

Theorem10(EvaluationbyIteratedIntegrals)
Let f becontinuousonasolidregion Q definedby

a ≤ x≤ b
h 1(x ) ≤ y ≤ h 2(x )
g1(x,y ) ≤ z ≤ g2(x,y )

where h 1,h 2,g 1 and g2 arecontinuousfunctions.Then,

ZZZ Z bZ h 2 (x )
Z g2 (x,y )
f (x,y,z )dV = f (x,y,z )dzdydx
Q a h 1 (x ) g1 (x,y )

CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70


Triple integrals
Example21(IteratedIntegral)
Evaluatethetripleiteratedintegral

Z 2Z x
Z x+ y
ex (y +2 z)dzdydx.
0 0 0

Example22(UsingaTripleIntegraltoFindVolume)
Findthevolumeoftheellipsoidgivenby 4x 2 +4 y 2 + z 2 =16 .

Example23(ChangingtheOrderofIntegration)
Evaluate √ √
π/2 π/2 3
Z Z Z
sin(y 2)dzdydx.
0 x 1

CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70


Triple integrals

Example 24 (Determining the Limits of Integration)


Set up a triple integral for the volume of each solid region.
(a) The region in the first octant bounded above by the cylinder z = 1 − y2 and lying between the vertical
planes x + y = 1 and x + y = 3.
(b) The upper hemisphere z = p1 − x2 − y2.
(c) The region bounded below by the paraboloid z = x2 + y2 and above by the sphere x2 + y2 + z2 = 6.
Contents
CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70

1 Surfaces in Space
2 Quadric Surfaces
3 Definitions and the Existence of Multiple Integrals
4 Multiple Integral Calculus
5 Double Integrals
6 Change of Variables for Double Integrals
7 Application of Double Integrals
8 Triple Integrals
9 Change of Variable in Triple Integrals
10 Application of Triple Integrals
Triple integral in cylindrical coordinates

Let Q be region described by


Q = {(x,y,z) ∈ R3 : (x,y) ∈ R,h1(x,y) ≤ z ≤ h2(x,y)}
CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70

where R is the projection of Q onto the xy-plane and suppose


that
R= {(r,θ) : α ≤ θ ≤ β,g1(θ) ≤ r ≤ g2(θ)}
Triple Integral in Cylindrical Coordinates

We have

x= rcosθ
TripleIntegralinCylindricalCoordinates

β g2 (θ) h 2 (r,θ )
ZZZ Z Z Z
f (x,y,z )dV = f (r cosθ,r sin θ,z )rdzdrdθ
Q α g1 (θ) h 1 (r,θ )


CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70
y= rsinθ =⇒ |J| = r

z = z
Triple Integral in Cylindrical Coordinates

Example25
Findthevolumeofthesolidregion Q cutfromthesphere
2 2 2
x + y + z =4 bythecylinder r = sin θ asshowninFigure.
CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70
Triple Integrals in Spherical Coordinates

x = ρsinφcosθ y = ρsinφsinθ
z = ρcosφ Figure: Spherical
block:
∆Vi ≈ ρ2i
CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70

sinφi∆ρi∆φi∆θi
Q = {(ρ,θ,φ) : ρ1 ≤ θ1 ≤ θ ≤ θ2,φ1 ≤ φ ≤
ρ ≤ ρ2, φ2}
Triple Integrals in Spherical Coordinates

We have

x= ρsinφcosθ
Theorem11
θ2 φ2 ρ2
ZZZ Z Z Z
f (x,y,z )dV = F (ρ,φ,θ )ρ2 sin φdρdφdθ
Q θ1 φ1 ρ1

where
F (ρ,φ,θ )= f (ρ sin φcosθ,ρ sin φsin θ,ρ cos φ).

2

CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70
y= ρsinφsinθ =⇒ |J| = ρ sinφ.

z = ρcosφ
Finding Volume in Spherical Coordinates

Example26
Findthevolumeofthesolidregion Q boundedbelowbytheupper
nappeofthecone z 2 = x 2 + y 2 andabovebythesphere
x 2 + y 2 + z 2 =9 .
CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70
Contents

1 Surfaces in Space
2 Quadric Surfaces
3 Definitions and the Existence of Multiple Integrals
4 Multiple Integral Calculus
5 Double Integrals
6 Change of Variables for Double Integrals
7 Application of Double Integrals
CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70 8 Triple Integrals
9 Change of Variable in Triple Integrals
10 Application of Triple Integrals
Center of Mass and Moments of Inertia
Definition27
Supposethat ρ(x,y,z ) givesthemassdensityatthepoint (x,y,z ) ofa
solidregion Q .Then
ZZZ
m= ρ(x,y,z )dV isthetotalmassofthesolid.
Q
ZZZ
M yz = xρ (x,y,z )dV isthefirstmomentof yz -plane.
Q
ZZZ
M xz = yρ(x,y,z )dV isthefirstmomentof xz -plane.
Q
ZZZ
M xy = zρ(x,y,z )dV isthefirstmomentof xy -plane.
Q
− − −
The centerofmass of Q islocatedatthepoint (x, y, z ),where

− − − M yz M xz M xy
(x, y, z)= , , .
m m m
CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70
Center of Mass and Moments of Inertia
Definition28
ZZZ
IL = d2(x,y,z )ρ(x,y,z )dV isthemomentofinertiaabout
Q
L,where L canbeapoint,orastraightline,oraplane;and d is
thedistancefromapoint (x,y,z ) oftheregion Q to L.
ZZZ 2
Ix = (y + z2)ρ(x,y,z )dV isthemomentofinertiaabout
Q
x -axis.
ZZZ
Iy = (x 2 + z2)ρ(x,y,z )dV isthemomentofinertiaabout
Q
y-axis.
ZZZ
Iz = (x 2 + y2)ρ(x,y,z )dV isthemomentofinertiaabout
Q
z-axis.
ZZZ 2
Io = (x + y2 + z2)ρ(x,y,z )dV isthemomentofinertiaof Q
Q
abouttheorigin.
CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70
Moments of Inertia

Definition29
ZZZ
I xy = z2ρ(x,y,z )V isthemomentofinertiaof Q about
Q
xy -plane.
ZZZ 2
I yz = x ρ(x,y,z )dV isthemomentofinertiaof Q about
Q
yz-plane.
ZZZ 2
I xz = y ρ(x,y,z )dV isthemomentofinertiaof Q about
Q
xz -plane.
ZZZ
Io = (x 2 + y 2 + z 2)ρ(x,y,z )dV isthemomentofinertiaof Q
Q
abouttheorigin.

CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70


Finding Mass in Cylindrical Coordinates

Example30
Q givenby4x2 +4 y2 + z2 =16,lying
Findthemassoftheellipsoid
abovethexy-plane.Thedensityatapointinthesolidisproportional
tothedistancebetweenthepointandthexy-plane.
CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70
Finding a Moment of Inertia

Example31
Findthemomentofinertiaabouttheaxisofsymmetryofthesolid Q
boundedbytheparaboloidz = x2 + y2 andtheplanez =4 asshown
inFigure.Thedensityateachpointisproportionaltothedistance
betweenthepointandthez-axis.
CALCULUSII ITC 2 /70

Оценить