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STEP 2 – CHAPTER 1 OF A RESEARCH PROJECT

PERFORMED BY:
Kelly Maribeth Avendaño Gelviz
ID: 1’049.637.985

COURSE
Research Project

GROUP 551028_5

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OPEN AND DISTANCE


SCHOOLS EDUCATION SCIENCES - ECEDU
DEGREE IN ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE
CEAD Tunja
TABLA DE CONTENIDO

1. INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................................2
1.1 General background........................................................................................................3
1.2 Statement of problems....................................................................................................4
1.3 Research objective..........................................................................................................5
GENERAL OBJECTIVE.........................................................................................................5
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES.......................................................................................................5
1.5 Limitations of the research...................................................................................................5
1.6 Significance of the study......................................................................................................5
2. CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW.................................................................................6
2.1 Overview................................................................................................................................6
2.2 Previous studies....................................................................................................................7
3. CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH FRAMEWORK.......................................................................11
3.1 Theoretical framework........................................................................................................11
3.2. Research hypothesis.........................................................................................................20
3.3. Operationalization of the variables..................................................................................21
4. CHAPTER 4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY...................................................................21
4.1. Methods of research used................................................................................................22
4.2. Respondents and sampling procedures.........................................................................22
4.3. Research instruments/questionnaire...............................................................................23
5. REFERENCES......................................................................................................................23
1. INTRODUCTION

Throughout history the human being has always been concerned with gaining
knowledge to evolve, making the most of his intellect and seeking the improvement
of the quality of life. Education is one of the areas that pursues the progress of man
and plays an important role in the growth of society, providing theoretical
foundations and experiences that serve for the work and social performance.
Among the main knowledge that education must facilitate today is learning the
English language, because it is becoming a global language and is required to be
able to access certain jobs or professional careers, so it is necessary to have a
good preparation from the first years of life starting from primary school. Another
important element is the use and use of technologies, since they not only facilitate
academic development but also make it possible to save time and perform tasks
efficiently. This document proposes the use of Information and Communications
Technologies (ICTCs) as a support tool that enables autonomous learning of the
English language by facilitating learning for people with reading and writing
impairment, mild cognitive disability, personality problems such as depression and
dyscalculia. In addition, the phases and methodology used for the realization of the
activities that will be reflected in the pedagogical proposal are described. This
proposal to use THE TICs for the School Nuestra Señora de Fatima Tunja
headquarters makes it possible for teachers to educate in a novel and creative
way, in addition allows each student to go at their own pace and develop their
learning process according to their skills and motivating the student to not only
learn the language but also interact with the technological tools that are currently
present in many areas of daily life and who are not properly exploited.

1.1 General background

The areas of cognitive development are the evolutionary process of transformation


that allows the child to develop skills and skills, through the acquisition of
experiences and learnings, for adaptation to the environment, involving processes
of discrimination, attention, memory, imitation, conceptualization and problem
solving. We understand as an area of cognitive development that understands
physical knowledge in terms of knowledge of the physical properties of objects and
how to act on them, actively exploring with all the senses; and the space-time
knowledge defined in terms of the child's perceptions of his space and time. Social
knowledge, defined as understanding the keys of the community and the ability to
understand and express feelings and desires of onesefiedness and others.
The essential characteristic seen in these minors is rapid fatigue with marked
decreased working capacity and low concentration of attention. Therefore, they
cannot sustain for a long time an intellectual work of a certain intensity. They often
have headaches and weakening of memory which has a significant impact on the
learning process. In his behavior characteristic features are observed: Some are
excitable, restless, irritable, weeping, tense. Others are languid, slow, inhibited.
They are highly sensitive to strong stimuli; that's why in a classroom for many
children, where the teacher speaks in a not-so-high tone of voice, they tend to
disorganize easily. His mood is usually unstable. Learning issues occur because
they quickly forget the procedures for solving certain school assignments, simplify
them. Many difficulties are observed in writing such as repetition of letters and
syllables, omissions, because of the rapid tiredness that leads them to work
carelessly and without concentrating attention. They usually react much better in
individual work and in small groups of students. In the corrective pedagogical care
of these children it is necessary to ensure a very quiet, gentle and balanced family
and school environment. Avoid excess schoolwork for a long time, leading to the
change of activity necessary for rest according to the child's fatigue curve.

1.2 Statement of problems

The process of teaching and learning the English language has been carried out
through master classes and un dynamics. The levels reached by Colombian
students with this methodology are very low, according to the report delivered by
the ICFES, 55 percent (55%) students across the country did not pass the required
minimum level, 32 percent (32%) reached the last category (A1), which is
characterized by the use of everyday and simple expressions, and only 7% (7%)
reached the next level (A2), where the student is also able to understand phrases
and expressions. Based on these results, it can be determined that there is a flaw
in the methodology that teachers are employing, since the vast majority of students
are not even reaching a minimum level of English language learning and children
who have some cognitive deficit are being affected in greater proportion, so an
even greater effort is needed to improve the situation. This environment causes
demotivation, academic disadvantage and loss of opportunity.
Although some teachers have tried to innovate in their classes using the computer
and multimedia software, it is not yet possible to achieve the goal of the student
mastering the language. Another factor to keep in mind is that the pace of work is
not the same for everyone and some capture knowledge more easily than others.
To solve the aforementioned disadvantages, it is proposed the use of Information
and Communications Technologies - ICT's as tools that make possible the teacher
a methodological change in the teaching of English and give the student a greater
degree of responsibility in his training, making him protagonist of his educational
process and allowing him to learn meaningful, collaborative and for life. In this way,
a proposal that promotes autonomous learning, uses technologies as a teaching
resource and generates better learning outcomes by emphasizing children with
cognitive problems is contributed.

1.3 Research objective

GENERAL OBJECTIVE
Develop an activity guide that involves the use of ICT in English language teaching
focused on First and Second Grade students at Our Lady of Fatima College by
paying greater attention in children with cognitive difficulties.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
 Know the advantages of an ICT methodology over a traditional teaching
methodology.
 Identify some ICT tools and applications that are available for English
language teaching and learning.
 Consult technological and educational alternatives for English language
teaching in cognitively deficit students.
 Develop an activity guide by implementing THE ICT tools for First and
Second grade students.

1.5 Limitations of the research

This is basic research that its main scope is to develop a guide focused on carrying
out activities involving ICT in teaching the English language, taking material from
different sources of the Internet and compiling them with the aim of facilitating the
learning of First and Second grade children.
Among the project limitations it should be noted that the guide developed will not
be distributed to teachers of the Colegio Nuestra Señora de Fatima, nor will it apply
to students due to the situation currently being carried out by the COVID-19 global
pandemic. Likewise the purpose of this research in purely academic.
1.6 Significance of the study

Considering that the English language is currently being imposed and is becoming
indispensable to be able to access the world of work in Colombia and in general in
the world, people must prepare better every day and learn to master English as
their second language. At the same time, technological advances are delving into
daily life, in school, work, home among others, becoming necessary the acquisition
of knowledge to facilitate the performance and development of children with
cognitive deficits thus improving the motor and sensitive development of children in
general. To learn in a pleasant, novel and autonomous way the English language
can be made use of ICT's("Repositorio.ual.es", 2020) as tools that allow the user
individually or group to acquire knowledge and most importantly put them into
practice at any time in their life. The use of ICT in Education (2020) has been
gradually strengthening, because despite the economic difficulties and apathy of
some teachers to use technological resources in their chair, some have been able
to adapt and effectively use the tools currently available in the teaching process
learning. ICTs promote the Autonomous Learning of the English language and
contribute to the construction of knowledge in a collaborative way, due to the
flexibility in the management of time as in the case of discussion forums, the
possibility of sharing and discussing opinions as in teleconferences, to the
interaction between user and machine when using multimedia software and I
consider it especially useful to use Chat in the process of learning to write the
English language as well as video-calls to acquire more fluidity.

2. CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Overview

Hail Montalvo, Evelio, & Haro Vaca, Silvia. (2016), I conduct an analysis of the
current state of the digital content industry and Ecuador's regulatory and legal
environment, mainly related to internet security and intellectual property rights
issues; and through research, identifying the needs of users and taking advantage
of the opportunities and challenges presented by online education; a digital content
model for online education is recommended, based on a collaborative public
scheme to promote digital culture.

García Guillén, S., Garrote Rojas, D., & Jiménez Fernández, S. (2016), comments
that the development of the network as is the Internet, throughout the planet is an
undoubted issue. In terms of education, methodology, teaching innovation
experiences, applied research being asked or issues involving the presence of the
network from a moment. It is undeniable that the Internet is leaving teachers, of all
educational levels, hence the sharing of the work that is developing around the
network in this world that is planet Earth is a priority and necessary. The vision that
from Latin America is offered from a collaborative perspective enriches all
individuals as it collects different ideas to apply to a whole and improve the
teaching and learning process in any field, sphere or educational level.

A reflection on the importance of the use of Information and Communications


Technologies (ICT's) to enhance reading comprehension in autistic subjects, in
particular, should be in the area of cognitive, linguistic, social and psychomotor
development. In the same way the technological means were thought as a strategy
to use and support the teaching-learning process of autistic subjects in the area of
reading and writing. (Badillo-Jiménez, V. T., & Iguarán-Jiménez, A. M. 2020).

Sánchez del Cerro, T. (2019), designed a program in the face of the need detected
on the good use of information and communication technologies of the population
with autism disorder, intends to generate a program that allows adolescents and
parents, to have knowledge and strategies for responsible and safe use of the
technologies of these tools. To carry out the design of this program, a search was
carried out of the specialized literature, from which, the educational needs
presented by these people have been established, focusing on the diagnostic
criteria of the DSM-5(Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th
Edition). The result of this research is a program with thirty activities aimed at both
the child and their families. All of them aimed at enhancing the least developed,
and social capacities within the school. This program is updated, functional,
concrete and focused on the needs of children, adolescents and their parents. It is
estimated that this programme can be taken to other sectors or educational
contexts.

In the same way, there is an interest in educational quality on educational


campuses. The teaching exercise requests teachers who transmit content
efficiently and this is achieved with the application of Information and
Communications Technologies (ICTs) in the teaching and learning process that
strengthen the performance of students. Methodological strategies are proposed
that can be used in the process of learning the subject for this case Social Studies.
Difficulties in the subject of Socials have been identified in the students, so it is
necessary to implement ICT, to make the learning meaningful and the work of the
teacher much easier. The interactive didactic guide, through the application of ICT
should be used by the student to enhance their cognitive skills and their relevance
in the educational field.
2.2 Previous studies

The study shows that hearing impairment has no limits to children and people in
general who possess it, since they have the same cognitive abilities as any other,
the only difference lies in the ability to communicate. That is why they propose in
this research to seek tools that support training and provide opportunity for both
children and teachers and parents who have this condition, in the same way to
sensitize the educational society of the need to adapt the curriculum according to
the needs of the student to facilitate inclusion, carrying out new pedagogical
practices , train and study the language and communication of these people.

Gómez Domínguez, Cristian Enrique, Ramírez Romero, José Luis, Martínez-


González, Oscar, & Chuc Piña, Ismael. (2019), the article presents the results of a
study by English teachers in a municipality in southeastern Mexico on the use of
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). The methodology of the
study is quantitative, experimental in nature. The study covers institutional
elements that bring together teachers and students, which shows that the
technologies teachers use are little varied the most commonly used are laptop and
applications without promoting innovation. Similarly, teachers were found to use
ICT primarily for administrative work associated with lack of training or reluctant to
experiment with new teaching and learning methods.

Pinion, N. D. L. A. G., & Nares, Y. D. C. P. (2017), This work discloses the state of
Mexico's education system with respect to other countries such as South Korea,
the Netherlands, Finland, Canada and Russia, and the influence of Information and
ICT Communications Technologies on teaching English, its employment, and the
benefits of teachers and students at the core level. The type of study enabled
an analysis of the use and management of ICTs as a teaching strategy that help
improve academic performance in the written production of the English language.
The work is focused on teaching in 7- and 8-year-olds in schools. It is
demonstrated that the english subject is compatible for the use of technologies as
it makes classes dynamic and attractive to students, motivating their interest in
learning another language.

Morales-Garrido, A.B. (2018), This work presented as a product of a grade option


method focuses especially on teaching vocabulary on a foreign language, English,
to work with the use of technologies in the classroom of early childhood education
ranging from 3 to 6 years old. One of the general objectives of any educational
action is to develop to the maximum the potential of students, because beyond
learning new languages involves interacting with their peers, learning to play, to
sing, to value, to discover, to express. With regard to the use of audiovisual
language and technologies, it is intended to provide an educational treatment so
that students have mastery in the understanding of audiovisual content and
develop a good use in the classroom. It is very important for the teacher to know
how to teach through Information and Communications Technologies at THE ICT
so that it does not become a monotonous educational resource for students and
ends up being a demotivating element. So an easy-to-use didactic strategy is
proposed on a daily basis to motivate students to learn a new language through
Information And ICT Communications Technologies.

Martínez Muñoz, H. G. (2018), This research seeks to design interactive teaching


material, for the teaching and learning of the theme of fruits in the English
language, for children aged 8 to 10 years of fifth grade basic general education of
the General Manuel Serrano school. Since according to statistics made to know
the level yields results that affirm a deficit of quantity and human quality of teachers
for teaching the English language that is generating in students lost interest in
learning a second language. The following problems arise: lack of budget at the
school in order to manage this kind of expenses, teachers do not have the
necessary training in the design programs to create it and students have few hours
of English language class. For these reasons, this research seeks to design digital
teaching material to reinforce knowledge of the English language through the
digital teaching game. It is specified as specific objectives: to know the teaching
and learning methodology for the English area, to define the design criteria
appropriate to the target audience, and to design teaching material, using the tools
of the adobe Ilustrator and adobe Flash CS6 programs. Documentary research is
used for information collection to investigate projects in the English language and
descriptive research was also used through the qualitative method in which
interviews are conducted with design professionals and teachers. Another method
that was used is non-participating observation where fifth graders participate in the
classroom, learn about their learning methods, and learn about the material they
use. Taking into account the information obtained, the illustrations, animations and
programming of the game are carried out. At the end of this process, it was
concluded that students by strengthening English language learning and increasing
their interest in learning it can achieve good results from the process.

Pinzón Moyano, N.D. (2018), Presents a report of the development of the


internship, which consisted of the accompaniment, reinforcement and support, to
the teachers of an Educational Institution in the city of Bogotá, for the primary
students of the English subject, covering a population always grade, from
preschool to the fifth grade of primary. The intervention consisted of supporting
teachers in the educational processes of learning and teaching English as a
second language, since in the course of each academic period there has been a
lack of knowledge in this subject. The content of the document shows a large
number of concepts of the theoretical framework, where the set of ideas,
procedures and theories is determined, then the concept of curriculum and
fundamental components is established, a description on the use of ICT is
established, in order to strengthen teaching competence on the Moodle platform.

In most Latin American countries, English language teaching has been less
received in schools and colleges despite being a language that has been taught
since years ago from very early ages, this is due to the few or inefficient learning
strategies used in the classroom, which in turn has not yielded the expected result
or worse yet , that the student does not like or have an interest in learning this
important language. This has also caused difficulties in the educational
advancement and concern towards society because students get their high school
by learning very little vocabulary and with serious confusion with English grammar.
For many years, the government has allocated very few or even no resources to
English language teaching and as a result, it is something that affects all teachers
and therefore students. Although the infrastructure of some public educational
establishments in the country has been improved, however, it has not reached
remote locations such as surrounding villages where there is still a need for
laboratories even in rural schools where all subjects are taught by a single teacher,
more than there are few students. In schools in Ecuador, there are also problems,
such as the lack of interest in learning or simply differentiating verbs from
adjectives, due to ignorance of effective teaching methods used and within a few
hours of that language being taught in the week. This research paper takes as a
model the Private College "Educate 2000" with a population of 350 students, where
58 cases of children with special educational needs have been released with
medical evidence, the sixth degree of Basic General Education with 30 students of
whom 8 have been diagnosed with Attention Deficit And Hyperactivity Disorder
"ADHD" , where the management of learning strategies has better results than
those investigated in other educational institutions within it, because there are
more hours dedicated to teaching and practicing the English language.

Rivadeneira Cevallos, D. J. (2017). It presents an interesting document with many


questions and reflections that teachers in training have when facing a class As why
in the same class, some students learn more than others. There are many
individual differences among students that cause these variations that fall within
their special educational needs. One is the teacher's ability to use learning
strategies with students. Therefore, teaching through learning strategies in the
classroom is ensuring learning. Because of the importance that the English
language has acquired worldwide today, it had to be taught from basic education in
an active, creative and recreational way to get rid of the traditional and
monotonous way, these were tools that motivated and aroused the interest in the
student to learn, due to the various options offered in the process and were
necessary to change the traditional methodology in english language teaching,
allowed students to have been creators of their own significant knowledge.
Teachers should understand, analyze and implement teaching techniques through
the motivation used in this process. It was important to study this problem in Social
Development in the Institution because the goal was to get children to integrate
further by learning this language and demonstrate what they were capable of to do
their best; Taking into account the above and in order to promote the learning
process, more teamwork is proposed in a practical way that stimulates students'
abilities. The treatment had to be given continuously with the aim of achieving a
true educational quality and in a more comprehensive way. Research is intended
to be a guide for all those of us who enter the wonderful world of teaching.

3. CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

3.1 Theoretical framework

Information and communication technologies


ICTs are part of the technological culture around us that we must live together.
They expand our physical and mental abilities. From this perspective the use of
ICT in education becomes a methodology and teaching tool as it provides a variety
of possibilities for the teacher to put into operation their creative mechanisms and
can vary the stimuli, activities and learning situations as often as each student or
group needs. ICTs have brought globality into the world of communication,
facilitating interconnection between people and institutions globally, and removing
spatial and temporal barriers.
The information previously processed relates to the theory that Martínez, X. (2019)
exposes, regarding virtual learning environments, which can be digital and
intangible that provide necessary conditions for the realization of learning activities.
They are suitable spaces to share, analyze, reflect, research and discover
knowledge that can be energized by the teacher according to the interests and
needs of the students. In addition, this space becomes an interactive process
where everyone learns from everyone.
The pedagogical use of TIC
In Colombia, for the Ministry of Information and Communication Technologies
(MINTIC) the term TIC under Article 6 of Law 1341 is "the set of resources, tools,
equipment, software, applications, networks and media, which allow the
compilation, processing, storage, transmission of information such as: voice, data,
text, video and images". ICTs have a number of uses, including to create, modify,
store and retrieve information, contributing to the generation of knowledge
Hernández, C., Gamboa, A., & Ayala, E. (2014).Another important issue for the
population of Colombia is regulated by Law 1341 defining the concepts and
principles on the information society and the organization of ICTs, which is created
by the National Spectrum Agency and dictates other provisions, such as
massification and endowment in ICT in the educational context, defining the
guiding principles that are stipulated in Article 2 and assigning the Colombian state
responsibility for promotion and access equal opportunities for all people. Likewise,
the National ICT Plan 2008-2019 seeks social inclusion and competitiveness in the
country through the proper appropriation and use of ICTs in everyday life as
productive for citizens, businesses, academia and government. This requires
providing basic competencies to citizens for the use of digital technologies in a way
that integrates their lives with the use of digital tools as an accelerator for social
inclusion. In this task of training in ICT, the role of the school is fundamental.
Educators have a responsibility to develop in the schools the skills necessary to
face the challenges that the information society presents to them. From these
approaches can be defined according to Hernández, C., Gamboa, A., & Ayala, E.
(2014), the pedagogical use of ICTs as a vital tool, which improves learning and
teaching processes, allowing teachers to guide and provide teachers with the
possibility to improve their classroom practices, creating more dynamic and
interactive learning environments, for the acquisition of meaningful learning,
stimulating mental processes, facilitating teamwork and interpersonal relationships.
The pedagogical use of ICTs is given to reinforce, support or be able to implement
pre-existing pedagogical approaches, models or methodologies that can help
transform school environments for learning. "The pedagogical use of a
technological resource can only be identified and described in the strict sense in
the context of a practice or activity in which that resource is carried out." In view of
these considerations, the pedagogical use of ICT in education, becomes a
teaching, pedagogical and a great challenge for teachers, because they are truly
responsible for the successful learning and teaching process in students and
shows them new possibilities to develop their basic and communicative
competencies, according to their needs and context. In addition, through them they
are energized, strengthened, rebuilt, recreated and innovated the different
environments and pedagogical moments in the classroom. Consequently, the use
of ICT as a pedagogical tool takes a great boom in learning and teaching
processes. According to this, ICT in education, are those electronic and computer
technologies that allow to extend and develop communication in the different
scenarios. Their importance in today's world is enormous because they are
producing a significant change in communications, social relations, business
structures, in short, they are changing the Society. Technologies are a powerful
teaching tool that teachers can use to achieve autonomous, creative, responsible,
disciplined, meaningful and quality learning for students. And in teachers he
develops technological, pedagogical, research, communication and management
skills by facilitating innovative practices. The authors agree that the use of ICTs in
education refers to the use of the various technological or computer means,
techniques, advanced devices that allow the storage, processing and
dissemination of visual, digital or other information having a specific purpose. They
encourage student collaboration, help focus on learning, improve motivation and
interest, promote the spirit of search, promote integration, and stimulate the
development of certain intellectual skills such as reasoning, problem solving,
creativity, and learning ability to learn. With the use of ICT, Hernández, C.,
Gamboa, A., & Ayala, E. (2014), it is necessary for the teacher to assume a new
role in the virtual platform and become a facilitator of learning, learn from his
students and promote the production of knowledge through collaborative work
through new learning environments that are the result of new teaching strategies
full of creativity and the effective use of new technological tools. In addition, it can
be possible to arouse the interest in teachers for scientific research and enable the
improvement of creative skills, imagination, communicative and collaborative skills
being able to access more information and providing the means for better integral
development of individuals. There are many impacts that can cause the proper use
of ICTs in learning according to the requirements and the class of students
involved in that process. The results will then depend on how they are used in
different areas of knowledge.
Learning and teaching process
The study of a considerable number of recent and related research on the subject
addressed here allows to recognize a wide movement of the ideas of different
authors towards the search for further deepening in the teaching-learning binomial.
There could be many factors that are currently influencing the subject, but without
a doubt, in the background of it we cannot ignore the body of knowledge that the
current Psychology contributes in relation to learning.
Nor can we ignore what this theoretical body has contributed to make a deeper
analysis of our educational practice, as an essential way to achieve greater
conceptualization or reconceptualization of the teaching-learning process.
As an illustration of the above, in addressing the "knowledge building and
mechanisms of educational influence" it proposes that because of a number of
circumstances linked to the historical development of psychology, the constructivist
conception of learning has paid attention to individual processes, not the fact that
these processes take place in an interpersonal context , and that, therefore, we will
not be able to provide a detailed, informed and useful explanation of how students
learn in school if we do not analyze learning processes in close connection with the
teaching processes with which they are interconnected.
This process has historically been characterized in different ways, ranging from
identification as a teaching process with a marked emphasis on the central role of
the teacher as a transmitter of knowledge, to the most current conceptions in which
the teaching-learning process is conceived as an integrated whole in which the
leading role of the education is highlighted.
The teaching-learning process is a dialectical unit between instruction and
education; equal characteristic exists between teaching and learning. The entire
teaching-learning process has a systemic structure and functioning, that is, it is
made up of closely interrelated elements or components.
This approach involves an analysis of the different types of relationships that
operate to a greater or lesser extent in the components of the teaching-learning
process.
Components of the teaching-learning process

The components are:

 Objectives
 Content
 Forms of organization
 Methods
 Media
 Evaluation

School success

According to the perception of Redondo R., J. (1997), it requires a high degree of


adherence to the purposes, means and values of the educational institution, which
probably not all students present.

Although there is no shortage of those who unconditionally accept the life project
offered to them by the institution, it is possible that one sector rejects it, and
another, perhaps the most substantial, only identifies with it circumstantially. They
accept, for example, the promise of social mobility and use the school to achieve it,
but do not identify with school culture and values, so they maintain towards the
institution an attitude of accommodation, which consists in transiting it with only the
necessary effort.

They either meet her in her natural environment but do not believe or do not need
to believe in her promises, because they have decided to give up what is offered to
them, or they have it insured anyway for their social status and then try to
dissociate themselves from their demands.

It would be excellent for all students to enter school with a lot of motivation to learn,
but the reality is far from this perspective, as some students still find school activity
boring or irrelevant.

Three dimensions: education, teaching and learning


To delve into the educational phenomenon, it is necessary to start from the
conceptualization of the magnitude of what education, teaching and learning is.
The concept of education is broader than that of teaching and learning, and has
fundamentally a spiritual and moral meaning, its object being the integral formation
of the individual.
When this preparation results in high training at the intellectual, moral and spiritual
level, it is an authentic education, which will achieve greater perfection as the
subject masters, self-controls and self-directs its potentialities: desires, tendencies,
judgments, reasoning, and will.
Education
Education is the set of knowledge, orders and methods by which the individual is
assisted in the development and improvement of intellectual, moral and physical
faculties.
Education does not create faculties in education, but cooperates in its development
and precision. It is the process by which man is formed and defined as a person.
The word educate comes from Educere, which means to take it out. Apart from its
universal concept, education has special characteristics depending on the peculiar
features of the individual and society.
In the current situation, from greater freedom and loneliness of man and from an
accumulation of possibilities and risks in society, it follows that education must be
demanding, from the point of view that the subject must do more of his part to learn
and develop his full potential.
Teaching
It is the process by which special or general knowledge about a subject is
communicated or transmitted. This concept is more restricted than that of
education, since it is aimed at the integral formation of the human person, while
teaching is limited to transmitting, by various means, certain knowledge.
In this sense, education includes teaching itself. Teaching methods rest on the
theories of the learning process and one of the great tasks of modern pedagogy
has been to experimentally study the effectiveness of these methods, while trying
their theoretical formulation.
Learning
This concept is part of the structure of education, therefore, education comprises
the learning system. It is the action to be instructed and the time that such action
takes. It is also the process by which a person is trained to give a solution to
situations; such a mechanism ranges from data acquisition to the most complex
way of collecting and organizing information.
Learning is of fundamental importance to man, since, when he is born, he is devoid
of intellectual and motor adaptation means. Consequently, during the first years of
life, learning is an automatic process with little participation of the will, then the
voluntary component becomes more important (learning to read, learning
concepts, etc.), giving a conditional reflection, that is, an associative relationship
between response and stimulus.
Sometimes learning is the consequence of trials and errors, until a valid solution is
achieved. According to Pérez G, A., (1992), learning also occurs, by intuition, that
is, through the sudden discovery of the way to solve problems.
Pedagogical strategies and methodology
Pedagogical strategies are a set of actions systematically planned over the time
they are carried out to achieve a particular purpose or mission; refer to a set of
activities, in the educational environment, designed to achieve effectively and
efficiently the achievement of the expected educational objectives. From the
constructivist approach this will consist of the development of skills by students; In
other words, they are the procedures, actions, thoughts and tools that students use
to learn. This design can be made by both the teacher and the student, who can
make each other.
They are the set of techniques, activities and means that are planned taking into
account the needs of the population to which they are aimed, the objectives that
are set and the nature of the areas and courses, all with the purpose of making the
learning and teaching process more enjoyable. Strategies are also a guide to
actions to follow and are aimed at a learning-related goal. They can also be
defined as the process by which the student chooses, coordinates, and applies
procedures for learning-related purposes. In addition, the role of the teacher as the
role of the student must change, becoming active responsible for their own
learning. The teacher will be facilitator for learning in new learning environments
where the student has spaces to grow not only personally but integrally. Such
environments should promote the collaboration and relationship of students in
different dimensions of being.
Pedagogical strategies, the methodology used and applied in the different learning
and teaching processes allow favorable performances in students. Because
methodology is a concrete way of teaching, a method or path, a specific tool that is
used to transmit the contents, procedures to meet the learning objectives proposed
by the teacher. The choice of methodology depends on the teacher's experience,
his own conceptions, the relationship he makes in the methodology and teaching
objectives, the students and the contents.
Therefore, we must consider pedagogical strategies and methodologies as
fundamental elements in the teaching proposals that strengthen school processes
making them more enriching. That is why Vázquez proposes the didactic proposal
as the construction of different innovative educational strategies that facilitate the
learning and teaching processes, addressing the contents in a playful way where
ICT is incorporated and the teacher is recognized as the guiding of the educational
process. The didactic proposal is also conceived as an instrument for planning
daily tasks and facilitating the intervention of the teacher allowing him to organize
his educational practice.
However, it is important to emphasize that by incorporating technologies into
different learning and teaching processes, it is necessary to implement
pedagogical strategies such as hypermedia (hypertext, multimedia) for the
development of core competencies; defines hypermedia as the set of methods or
procedures used to write, design, or compose content that has text, video, maps,
or other means and that also has the possibility to interact with users, i.e. a
generalization of hypertext.
Hypertext is defined by Bianchini (1999), as the approach to handling and
organizing information through a network of nodes that are connected with links. It
is a structured database that allows the user to go from one place to another. It
also defines multimedia, as a hypertext network in which not only text but also
images, audio and video are included. However, these instruments that energize
learning environments make sense if implemented for the benefit of students. This
is how Patricia Jaramillo emphasizes that the use given to ICT tools in the learning
process, are oriented to support the transmission of messages to students, support
active learning through experimentation with different objects of study, facilitate
interaction to learn through the different ICT tools and pedagogical strategies
designed for this purpose.
Similarly, for Batista (2004), digital and intangible environments; provide necessary
conditions for the realization of learning activities. In education these environments
can be used in the modalities, face-to-face, non-face-to-face or mixed. In which two
types of elements are distinguished: constituents that refer to means of interaction,
resources, environmental and psychological factors; the conceptual refer to
aspects that define the educational concept of the virtual and that are: instructional
design and interface design.
Digital Literacy according to Piscitelli (2009) defines it "as the ability to recognize
(equivalent to reading) and produce (equivalent to writing) meanings in a domain".
This determines that digital literacy not only involves being consumers of
information through the media, but also involves producing it. Taking into account
digital and media skills, they involve a large number of reading and writing
techniques through the spaces where individuals can consume and produce digital
texts. They should also have the ability to critically evaluate information and master
how to use that information to solve the problems it faces. Being digitally literate
understands when and why digital technologies are appropriate and may or may
not be helpful in performing a task. Digital literacy requires the development of a
wide variety of digital skills that must be integrated into the curriculum according to
the needs of the population.
Educational outcomes are measured through competencies not only in students
but in the preparation acquired by the teacher as a mediator and guidance of ICT-
mediated learning and teaching processes, including:
Technological competence is "the ability of the teacher to select and use in a
relevant, responsible and efficient way a wide variety of technological tools,
understanding the principles that govern them, how to combine them and their use
in the educational context".
The communicative competence of teachers is "the ability to express, establish
contact and relate in virtual and audiovisual spaces through various means and
with the management of multiple languages, synchronously and asynchronously".
Pedagogical competence is "the ability to use ICTs to strengthen learning and
teaching processes, recognizing the scopes and limitations of incorporating these
technologies into the integral training of students and in their own professional
development".
Educational inclusion through ICT Initially the term inclusion was closely related
to the special educational needs of some students, going on to cover education in
general, promoting the idea that school should be for all girls, regardless of its
characteristics and shortcomings "inclusion must be seen as a constant search for
better ways to respond to the diversity of students is about learning to live with
difference and at the same time studying how we can make the difference".

When we talk about inclusive education, therefore, we mean that education that
responds to a philosophical, social, economic, cultural, political and pedagogical
approach and that pursues the acceptance and appreciation of differences in
school for each of the students. It is important to note.
The integration of people with special educational needs into society as a whole
and, therefore, also in school, in order to be as successful as possible, needs to be
gradual, consensual, that no one considers itself its owner and that all actors in the
educational community are involved in it.
Within this framework is the need to rethink, among other things, the practice of the
teacher, proposing alternative pedagogical strategies for the construction of:
 An educational culture in which everyone feels part of it.
 Responses to educational needs for people with barriers to
 learning and participation in different contexts.
 The promotion of multiple literacy.
 Constructive learning.
 The assessment of the abilities of all students.
 The sense of community, solidarity and plural belonging.
Advantages and disadvantages of using ICT for students
Among the benefits indicated by Zappala, D., Koppel, A., Sushodolsky, M. (2011),
which would provide ICTs for children with special educational needs would be as
follows:
 Versatility and flexibility allow a variety of applications with different
objectives, as well as adaptation to each particular case, being possible to
adapt the same device or program according to the needs of each child at
the time of work.
 They facilitate the individualization of teaching, adapting the tasks to the
level of skills of the students and according to their own learning rhythm.
 They allow repetition of exercise and self-correction by being able to check
the results immediately.
 They increase the degree of autonomy and personal independence, being
able to work alone and need less help from others. This allows teachers to
have more time to dedication to other students or activities.
 Greater speed and quality in the outcome of the work, which allows students
to save a considerable effort contributing to eliminate the sense of failure.
 In recreational or training activities in social skills among others, it increases
the communication and socialization of the group when designing activities
that involve collaborative work.
 Possibility to store data about the achievements of each student. The use of
standardized programmes in various treatments allows to establish a more
objective control over the progress of the students and the validity of the
program, to make the most appropriate decisions.
There are many advantages that we can attribute to ICT for students with
special educational needs, including the following:
 They help overcome the limitations that arise from the cognitive, sensory
and motric disabilities of the students.
 They promote the autonomy of students, since the tools can be adapted to
the needs of each student in a personalized way.
 They promote the synchronous and asynchronous communication of these
students with the rest of the classmates and the teachers.
 They save time for acquiring skills and skills in students.
 They encourage the diagnosis of students.
 They support a multisensory communication and training model.
 They encourage individualized training.
 They facilitate the socio-labor insertion of students with specific difficulties.
 They provide moments of leisure.
 They save time for acquiring skills and skills.
 They promote the approach of students to the scientific and cultural world.
 They promote a decrease in the sense of academic and personal failure.
As for some disadvantages or disadvantages that Zappala, D., Koppel, A.,
Sushodolsky, M. (2011), give the use of ICT in education with children with special
educational needs we have the following:
 The high economic cost they entail, so it is not possible to equip all people
who need them. In addition, the rapid advancement of research often turns
some products into outdated products in a short period of time.
 The lack of preparation of education professionals, occurring in some cases
even rejection by the use of these tools "technophobia".
 The inadequate use of technological means as a result of the introduction of
them in the educational field due to fashion and lacking previous
approaches that consider the study of the real needs of students. "The
abuse or misuse of these means can lead to passivity in students, enhance
a mechanistic reasoning, lack of imagination, intolerance to frustration,
individualism, etc."
3.2. Research hypothesis

To provide a solution to the problem raised, it is necessary to propose alternatives


to determine whether the study has an appropriate approach. The following
hypotheses are raised:

 The use of Information and Communications Technologies (TICs) is not an


adequate learning strategy to improve the academic performance of First
and Second Grade students at Our Lady of Fatima College.

 The development of a guide for first and second graders of the Colegio
Nuestra Señora de Fatima using Information and Communications
Technologies (TICs) as a learning strategy, allows to improve academic
performance and in turn serve as an aid to propose class activities to
teachers.

3.3. Operationalization of the variables

This research project aims to give a slightly broader view of the advantages and
improved processes of English language teaching through methodologies using
technological information tools, evaluating the level of support for teachers and
students as well as how to improve support in this learning in children with
disabilities at the cognitive level , as well as analyzing and identifying the different
learning options is these first and second grades children of the Our Lady of
Fatima College. With this in mind, it can be determined that the variables present in
this research process are qualitative, thus determining this research as qualitative
because it studies the cognitive, social, age and interaction characteristics in the
different students.
With the above we can define the following qualitative variables on which this
research is based:

 Identification of children with existing cognitive problems in the classroom.


This is a nominal qualitative variable, which determines the origins of
students and their family characteristics, in addition to the difficulties of
adaptation.
 Environment within class sessions both in virtual form and in traditional
form. Nominal qualitative variable, which analyzes how teachers understand
the present interaction between students and language, as well as what is
the integration they give to their classes.
 Strategies to teach the management of ICT tools in the English class. A
nominal qualitative variable that identifies the different activities and tools
used by teachers to integrate ICTs into language teaching and thus motivate
students' learning.

4. CHAPTER 4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

4.1. Methods of research used

The most effective methodology for addressing this problem is qualitative because
with its tools it offers the possibility to find a solution, generate better vision of the
topic and answer the questions that address this problem. This methodology allows
us to analyze from different points of view, such as the teacher, the parent, the
student and the institution.
Among the types of research to be used will be the focus groups, interviews and
surveys expressed by Zita, A. (2020). With these tools, it is hoped to achieve the
complete characterization of the sampling population in addition to the socio-
cultural and procedural responses that allow a solution to this study.
It will work with semi-structured interviews because this will give flexibility to
explore the thinking and feelings of teachers and the educational community that
has direct contact with our sampling population, delimiting the use of ICT tools in
class sessions and their relationship to the expressions of each of the participants
of the sampler, which allows to understand the interpersonal processes present in
the classroom and school schedules , this survey will allow to define the population
with cognitive deficit, its type and level of deficiency.

4.2. Respondents and sampling procedures

In this research, the sampled population delimits to the students of the first and
second grades of primary school of the Colegio Nuestra Señora de Fátima, taking
into account, that according to previous interviews with coordination and guidance,
it was discovered that in these grades there are the greatest number of students
with cognitive deficits, while there is greater difficulty in involving methodologies
with information technology tools , due to the short ages and more dedicated time
needed for each student. Please note that this population studying only in the
morning hours and meetings with parents should be informed well in advance and
hopefully at the beginning of the day or after the parents' working hours to ensure
greater attendance.
Interviews will be initiated to determine which students have cognitive deficits and
which students have the greatest willingness to help to make use of the different
ICT tools. In parallel with this, the focus groups will work to determine the already
defined group institutional dynamics, the population will emphasize students with
the greatest cognitive deficit and perform focus groups by families and thus better
understand their status and elements necessary for better language learning in
such cases, in addition, interviews will be conducted with the different teachers in
the Area of English who investigate the pedagogical processes that are used and
how the technological and connectivity tools are inserted classes.

4.3. Research instruments/questionnaire

A. Do you have any cognitive deficits?


o Yes
o No
B. How old is the student?
o Answer: ________________________
C. How important is it to you as a family for the student to learn the English
language?
o Very important
o Important
o Unimportant
D. How important do you think it is to involve ICT tools in English language
teaching?
o Very important
o Important
o Unimportant
E. How much is your daily availability for rapprochement and help students
towards ICT tools?
o 1 hour
o hours
o 5 hours
F. Do you have the possibility of connectivity and acquisition of ICT tools?
o Yes
o No

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