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Vehicle & Operator Services Agency

Categorisation of Defects
Introduction

Purpose of the Guide Layout of the Guide For all types of agricultural vehicle IM
references 3, 21, 24 and 33 will not
1. This Guide is intended primarily for the 3. This publication is divided into three parts apply.
use of Examiners within VOSA and covering the main groups of road
Authorised Constables. However, it is vehicles. For types driven/drawn at speeds not in
made available more widely so that excess of 20mph the following IMs
vehicle owners, operators and drivers can Part 1 is intended for heavy goods and might not apply, or might apply in part
become more aware of VOSA’s public service vehicles and may also be only: IMs 5, 7, 8, 12, 14, 17, 22, 23, 24,
standards. used for agricultural motor vehicles, 25, 26, 27, 48, 62 to 67 inclusive and 71
trailers and trailed appliances (see note to 73 inclusive.
below).
Its purpose is:
Part 2 is for cars, private buses and light As a general rule when inspecting these
• to provide guidance on the action to goods vehicles. slower vehicles and using the IMs
take when roadworthiness defects are mentioned above, Examiners should
found during vehicle inspections; Part 3 is for motorcycles including only be concerned with items that they
combinations. find fitted. That is, a vehicle should not
• to promote consistency among
Note: An agricultural motor vehicle,
be considered defective if a particular
Examiners item was not fitted as original
trailer or trailed appliance is one that is
constructed or adapted for use off roads equipment.
2. The Guide is not a legal document and for the purpose of agriculture, horticulture
must not be treated as an interpretation of or forestry and which is primarily used for 4. The page layout for all three parts is the
the relevant legislation, which only the one or more of those purposes, but does same and consists of four columns.
courts can provide. not include a "dual-purpose" vehicle as
defined in the Road Vehicles Column 1: describes the defect;
(Construction and Use) Regulations.
Column 2: describes the severity of the
They fall into two distinct groups: those defect;
driven/drawn at speeds not exceeding
20mph and those driven/drawn at speeds
in excess of 20mph. Column 3: gives guidance on the action
to be taken;
When using Part 1 of this document in
connection with the inspection of an Column 4: gives guidance notes on
agricultural motor vehicle, trailer or trailed standards and legal requirements.
appliance the following exceptions must
be noted:
Categorisation of Defects April 08 i
Introduction

Policy on the Issue of Prohibitions 7. In addition to preventing the further use of 8. A prohibition might take effect
seriously defective vehicles on the road, immediately or could be delayed for up to
5. A Prohibition Notice (PG9) is a ban on the prohibition notices are used: ten days. Immediate prohibitions are
use of a vehicle on a public road. A issued where, in the opinion of an
prohibition will normally be issued where • to notify the operator or owner of the Examiner, the defects on the vehicle are
a vehicle is found by an Examiner to be, defect(s) that caused the prohibition, so such that further driving of it would involve
or likely to become, unfit for use or where that they can be put right before the a risk of injury to any person.
driving of the vehicle would involve a risk removal of the prohibition;
of injury to any person. Where, in the Examiner’s opinion, no
• in the case of vehicles subject to such risk exists, the prohibition will come
6. When a prohibition is in force it is an operator licensing, to inform the Traffic into force at such time, not later than 10
offence to drive or tow or permit to be Commissioner that prohibitable defects days from the date of the inspection
used, a vehicle on the road unless an have been found; (delayed prohibition) as seems
exemption notice has been issued or appropriate to the Examiner, having
when certain circumstances as listed on • to enable VOSA to target additional regard to all the circumstances, and will
the reverse of the prohibition notice apply. enforcement checks on operators afterwards continue in force until it is
whose record suggests that removed.
maintenance is inadequate.
A delayed prohibition allows continued
Note 1: VOSA is required by law to use of the vehicle until the prohibition
send a copy of each prohibition to the comes into force. The period of delay on
relevant Traffic Commissioner. prohibitions will reflect

Note 2: A Commissioner can curtail, • the severity and number of defects


revoke or suspend licences on the basis observed,
of prohibitions, convictions or failure to
comply with the conditions of holding a • their significance in road safety and
licence, one of which is the requirement environmental terms,
to have arrangements for ensuring
adequate maintenance. • any risk presented by continued use of
the vehicle,

while taking into account the operational


and financial implications for the operator.

ii April 08 VOSA
Introduction

Period of Delay 9. Where Examiners find on a vehicle


roadworthiness defects not serious
Examiners will normally select one of the enough to warrant prohibition, they will
following periods of delay, which have been advise the user/ owner using a Vehicle
grouped together into three bands according Inspection Notice. This notice is advisory
to the number and severity of the defects listed only and does not in itself prevent further
on the prohibition notice (PG9): use of the vehicle.

Band Period of Delay Severity of Defects Listed on the PG9 Even if not prohibitable, some of the
defects may mean that the vehicle is
A Maximum 10 days Less than 5 defects in non critical areas; unroadworthy and does not comply with
the law. Continued use of a vehicle
B 4 to 7 days 1 defect in a safety critical area or 5 or more defects issued with either a Delayed Prohibition
in non critical areas; or a Vehicle Inspection Notice listing
advisory defect(s) risks prosecution
C Up to 3 days More than 1 defect in a safety critical area of the vehicle. under the Road Vehicles (Construction
and Use) Regulations or Road Vehicles
Definition of Safety Critical Lighting Regulations and so it will be in
Safety Critical defects or systems are those the user’s interest to repair defects as
that could affect the control or directional soon as practicable after they are noticed.
stability of the vehicle.
Note: A Technical Roadside Inspection
Throughout this Guide, recommendations are Report (PG35EC) will be issued following
indicated by a letter in the action column, as follows a HGV/ PSV spot check examination in
place of a Vehicle Inspection Notice used
"I" denotes an immediate prohibition for other vehicles. This will include any
advisory defects.
"D" denotes a delayed prohibition

"IN" advisory defects not considered serious


enough to prohibit the vehicle. They are
reported on a Vehicle Inspection Notice
explained in the following paragraph.

Categorisation of Defects April 08 iii


Introduction

Vehicles Undergoing Repair Vehicles Claimed to be Out of Use Vehicles Damaged in Collisions

10. As a general rule, vehicles undergoing 12. Vehicles claimed to be withdrawn from 13. Vehicles examined following collisions
repair, and those partially dismantled use should be treated as in the previous should generally not be prohibited if all
and awaiting spare parts should not be two paragraphs in that they should defects arose from the collision unless it
examined. However, where it is generally not be examined or prohibited. is believed that further use of the vehicle
reasonable to assume the extent of the Where there is doubt about an in a defective state is intended. If there
repair is limited or is of a token nature operator’s claim, Examiners should seek are prohibitable defects which pre-
only and the vehicle’s general firm evidence of non-use, for example existed the collision a prohibition will be
appearance suggests that it was last evidence of de-licensing. However, issued and the collision damage
used on the road in a seriously defective such evidence does not preclude an included on the notice. It must be made
condition, an examination may be examination if it appears that the vehicle clear which items were caused by the
carried out of the items not receiving has been recently used, or it is likely to collision and which were present before.
attention. A prohibition, if issued, should be used on the road in a seriously To achieve this, segregate the defects
be endorsed "UNDER REPAIR". defective condition. In these with the headings, "COLLISION
circumstances a prohibition, if issued, DAMAGE" and "DEFECTS NOT DUE
Vehicles Awaiting Repair or Scrapping should be endorsed with a comment to TO COLLISION ".
indicate that the vehicle was claimed to
11. Vehicles parked on operators’ premises have been withdrawn from service.
and claimed to have been withdrawn
from use pending repair or scrapping
can be examined if it appears that the
vehicle has recently been used on the
road in a seriously defective state.

As with vehicles undergoing repair, the


fact that the vehicle was off the road
and claimed to be withdrawn from
service should be noted on a
prohibition, if issued, by endorsing it
"AWAITING DISPOSAL" or "AWAITING
REPAIR".

iv April 08 VOSA
Introduction

Standards for Prohibition Issue 16. Examiners will record decisions on the
appropriate prohibition document
14. This Guide also explains the standards concisely and clearly. Descriptions such
that guide Examiners on the issue of as "worn", "loose", "noisy", "broken",
prohibition notices to unroadworthy "fractured", "inefficient", corroded", are
vehicles following inspections at any not sufficient on their own.
location. Where possible, sufficient detail should
be recorded about defective
When making decisions on components to enable subsequent
roadworthiness, Examiners will take into identification. Tyre sizes and serial
account such factors as prevailing numbers should be recorded for each
weather, vehicle use and configuration, defective tyre listed on the prohibition.
and other information issued by VOSA,
such as statutory test inspection
manuals, amplification notes and
technical bulletins.
Examples
15. When dealing with vehicles that have
been Type Approved, approved to a Inadequate Wording Suggested Wording
national scheme or certified to the
Cetificate of Initial Fitness requirements a. Free play front wheel bearing Excessive free play nearside front wheel
(PSVs only), Examiners need to be bearing.
careful not to require higher standards
of construction, or the fitment of items, b. Handbrake mechanism seized Handbrake mechanism seized and
than were required/ fitted when the handbrake ineffective.
vehicle was manufactured and
‘approved’. c. Front brake pipe chafed Offside front brake flexible hose chafed
almost through.

d. Leakage of brake fluid O/S rear Severe leakage of brake fluid from O/S rear
brake cylinder when brake applied.

e. Exhaust smoking Exhaust emitting excessive black smoke.

Categorisation of Defects April 08 v


Introduction

17. The term "insecure" is used many times The proportion will depend on factors such Components that are not part of a
throughout this Guide to describe a as the design of the component etc, but as a critical system, eg some body panels,
defective condition. This term should be general rule, no more than 20% (1 in 5) of can tolerate a higher proportion of their
taken by Examiners to mean either: the fixing devices should be loose etc. More fixings either loose, broken etc. Again,
than this proportion means that the the proportion will depend on the design
• that a component on the vehicle has remaining fixing devices could be over- of the component but, as a general rule,
relative movement (looseness) at its stressed and could therefore fail at any time. no more than 33% (1 in 3) of the fixing
fixings or in relation to an associated Examples of critical systems include (this is devices should be loose, broken,
component where there should be not an exhaustive list): missing or otherwise ineffective.
none,

}
or A component secured by a non
• that a component is not safely or • steering except those components standard, temporary means should be
completely attached at its fixing or to not subject to judged on its merits.
an associated component. • brakes heavy loads or forces, eg
power steering reservoirs 18. The nature of each defect listed on the
All components on a vehicle must be or brake relay valves prohibition must be such that, had it
safely attached while it is in use on the • suspension linkages been the sole defect detected,
road. However, how safely a • trailer couplings prohibition action would still be justified.
component needs to be attached • live (ie moving) transmission The number of defects found is not a
depends on its function. components criterion for the issue of a prohibition.
• wheels and hubs
Areas of the vehicle considered critical 19. Notwithstanding the guidance above,
in terms of the likelihood of the vehicle The proportion suggested above does not prohibition notices are allowed to be
to endanger the driver, any passengers apply to: issued for any failure to comply with the
and other users of the road, can tolerate Road Vehicles (Construction and Use)
fewer fixings that are broken, loose, • components in a critical area or system Regulations or the Road Vehicles
missing or otherwise ineffective than secured by a single fixing device. If this Lighting Regulations, where the
those in a less critical part of the device is loose, broken etc, the Examiner is satisfied that the vehicle is,
vehicle. component is to be considered insecure. or is likely to become, unfit for service.

• components in a critical area or system


where detailed instructions are given in
the manual (eg wheel studs/nuts). In
such cases, these instructions must be
used in preference.
vi April 08 VOSA
Introduction

20. The scope of any inspection of the Exemptions (PG9B) 24. Examiners are advised that "fit for
vehicle might be limited by the circum- service" must be taken as meaning that,
stances at the inspection site, by the 22. Exemption Notices are issued to permit if tested, the vehicle would comply with
vehicle’s design or construction and by prohibited vehicles to proceed to a place all the relevant annual test standards.
the absence of particular inspection of repair under controlled conditions The discovery of defects that would
facilities. once the prohibition has come into result in an annual test failure could be
force. The conditions of movement will given as a reason for refusing to remove
For this reason, there might be other be detailed on the Exemption Notice. a prohibition.
defects that cannot be seen at the time Examiners will normally issue an
of the inspection and are therefore not Exemption Notice only if in their opinion 25. Vehicles subject to the MOT test will
listed on the prohibition or vehicle the vehicle can be moved to such a normally be considered "fit for service"
inspection notice. In some cases, place without risk to public safety. when they have passed the test and
checks will be made on specific areas of have been issued with a pass certificate
the vehicle only, eg exhaust emissions. Removal of Prohibitions (VT20/VT20W) dated after the date of
the prohibition notice issue.
Variation Notices (PG9A) 23. Before a prohibited vehicle can be used
again on a public road the Prohibition 26. In the case of heavy goods vehicles and
21. Variation Notices are used to alter Notice must be removed by the issue of public service vehicles, the law imposes
certain details of an existing prohibition. a ‘Removal of Prohibition’ Notice the responsibility on the Examiner
This will normally be necessary (PG10). An Examiner is allowed to considering removing a roadworthiness
following a subsequent inspection of the remove a roadworthiness prohibition prohibition, of satisfying himself that the
vehicle that reveals additional defects or when satisfied that the vehicle is "fit for vehicle is "fit for service".
where some but not all of the defects service".
listed on the prohibition have been In law, Examiners have absolute
rectified. Accordingly, where a further more discretion over the scope of
extensive inspection is required and the examination, which in their opinion is
In addition to altering the list of defects, available inspection facilities are necessary for them to be satisfied that
Variation Notices can alter the time and inadequate for that purpose, an the vehicle is "fit for service".
date of an existing prohibition by making Examiner may direct the vehicle to a
a delayed prohibition ‘Immediate’ or vice testing station for an inspection prior to
versa. removing the prohibition.

Categorisation of Defects April 08 vii


Introduction

27. VOSA provides general guidance only In addition to these the clearing
on how Examiners will satisfy Examiner will need to take the following
themselves that a vehicle is "fit for factors into account:
service".
• any comments made by the Examiner
The Examiner to whom a vehicle is or Authorised Constable;
presented for prohibition clearance will
need to take into account any • the time elapsed and mileage covered
recommendation regarding the level of since the issue of the prohibition;
clearance inspection recorded on the
Prohibition Notice by the issuing • the operator’s maintenance history;
Examiner.
• the date of the last annual inspection.
He/ she will bear in mind that the
issuing Examiner should have already 28. More detailed information on the
taken into account the following factors procedures to be followed in order to
in framing their recommendation: have roadworthiness prohibitions
removed is provided on the reverse side
• whether he/ she would have cleared of the Prohibition Notice.
the prohibition "on site", without a
further more extensive examination,
had the defects been rectified then;

• the extent of the inspection already


conducted;

• the nature of the defects described on


the PG9.

viii April 08 VOSA


Introduction

Complaints and Appeals However, where an operator is


dissatisfied with the outcome of their
29. The Law does not provide for a complaint and wishes to escalate their
statutory appeal against the issue of a points they should be forwarded to the
prohibition. However, VOSA does have Customer Complaints Co-ordinator.
a formal complaints procedure. Police
issued prohibitions are outside the Letters should be addressed to:
scope of this procedure.
Customer Complaints Co-ordinator
Operators wishing to use this procedure Vehicle and Operator
will find information on the reverse of Services Agency,
the Prohibition Notice handed to the Berkeley House,
driver by the issuing Examiner at the Croydon Street,
time the prohibition is issued. Bristol BS5 0DA

If owners, operators or drivers feel they 30. If you continue to be dissatisfied with the
have been unfairly or harshly treated, treatment of your complaint, you may
they can complain to the relevant write to the Chief Executive who may
manager at the local VOSA Office. refer your grievance to the independent
adjudicator.
On these occasions, operators can use
this Guide to judge whether the action 31. Regulations provide for appeals to be
taken was consistent with VOSA’s made against the refusal of an
published guidance. Each complaint will Examiner (or Authorised Constable) to
be logged, acknowledged and a formal remove a Prohibition Notice.
written reply provided.
The owner or operator of the vehicle
Complaints can be dealt with most may appeal (in writing) within 14 days to
easily at the local VOSA Office level the address above.
since the vehicle and prohibition notice
will normally be readily available.

Categorisation of Defects April 08 ix


1
VOSA Categorisation of Defects

Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods


and Agricultural Vehicles
VOSA Categorisation of Defects Contents
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods and Agricultural Vehicles
IM No.* Page IM No.* Page IM No.* Page
#3 Seat Belts………………………….............1 #22 Driver’s Mirrors.......................................50 #48 Suspension.............................................85

1
#5 Exhaust Emissions...................…............4 #23 Glass and View of the Road....................51 53 Axles, Stub Axles and
Wheel Bearings......................................90
6 Road Wheels and Hubs...........................5 #24 Accessibility Features.............................54
54 Steering Mechanism...............................91
#7 Size and Type of Tyres.............................7 #25 Windscreen Wipers and Washers..........62
57 Transmission...........................................95
#8 Condition of Tyres....................................8 #26 Speedometer / Tachograph.................. .63
58 Additional Braking Devices (including
9 Sideguards, Rear #27 Audible Warning (Horn)..........................64
retarders)................................................96
Under-Run Devices and Bumper Bars...11 28 Driving Controls......................................65
59 Brake Systems and Components...........97
10 Spare Wheel and Carrier........................16 30 Steering Control......................................66
#62 Rear Markings and Reflectors...............104
11 Vehicle to Trailer Coupling.....................17 #33 Speed Limiters........................................68
#63 Lamps...................................................105
#12 Trailer Parking and Emergency 34 Pressure /Vacuum Warning
Brakes and Air Line Connections...........20 #66 Direction Indicators and Hazard Warning
and Build Up...........................................71
Lamps...................................................109
13 Trailer Landing Legs..............................22 36 Hand Lever Operating Mechanical Brakes....73
#67 Aim of Headlamps.................................110
#14 Spray Suppression, Wings and Wheel 37 Service Brake Pedal...............................74
Arches....................................................23 #71 Service Brake Performance..................111
38 Service Brake Operation.........................75
#72 Secondary Brake Performance.............113
15 Cab Security.......................................... 26 39 Hand Operated Brake Control Valve......78
#73 Parking Brake Performance..................115
16 Driver and Passenger Doors .................27 41 Condition of Chassis.............................. 79
42 Electrical Wiring and Equipment.............80
#17 Driver’s Accommodation and Steps........32
43 Engine and Transmission ......................81
18 Driver’s Seat...........................................33
44 Oil and Waste Leaks..............................82
19 Security of Body.....................................34
45 Fuel Tanks and Systems........................83
20 Condition of Body...................................37
46 Exhaust Systems and PSV Waste
#21 Interior of Body.......................................40
Systems.................................................84

*IM = Inspection Manual for HGV and PSVs


# = For agricultural vehicles see paragraph 3 of the Introduction
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM3
and Agricultural Vehicles Seat Belts
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Seat Belts (See Notes) NOTE: THIS IM ITEM DOES NOT


APPLY TO AGRICULTURAL VEHICLES

1
Any dangerous defect/ damage/ feature Likely to inflict injury I
of a seat belt restraint system 1. The legal requirements for fitment of
seat belts are too complex to be
Any obligatory seat belt missing (See - D repeated in this guide. Refer to the
Notes 2, 3 and 5) relevant Inspection Manual.
As general guidance, Notes 2 and 3
Any obligatory or non obligatory seat Not capable of performing its intended D below have been included.
belt vandalised/inoperative/ defective/ purpose or likely to fail when required 2. Goods vehicles first used on or after 1
insecure/ anchorage or seat mounting (See Note 2) October 2001 and that exceed 3500kg
weak (See Notes 5, 6 and 7) design gross weight are required to be
fitted with seat belts to the drivers’ and
front passenger seats.
3. Seat belts are required to be fitted to
• driver’s and specified front passenger
seat on minibuses
- first used before 1 October 1988
- with not more than 12 passenger seats
• all front seats on minibuses first used
on or after 1 October 1988
- with up to and including 16
passenger seats
- not exceeding 3500kg design
gross weight
• forward facing exposed seats on
coaches first used on or after 1
October 1988
• all seats in buses, coaches and
minibuses first used from 1 October
2001 which are not authorised to
carry standing passengers.

Categorisation of Defects April 08 1


IM3 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Seat Belts and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Seat Belts (cont’d) 4. In this item the term "seat belt"


includes the belt, its mountings and

1
seat to which it is fitted.

5. "Obligatory belt/ s" in this item means


those belts which are required to be
fitted by virtue of the vehicle’s
construction. The term "non-
obligatory belt/ s" means any
additional belts fitted and includes
those required by virtue of the
vehicle’s use.

6. As a guide, defective includes


excessive corrosion, serious
deterioration or fracture in load
bearing area within 300mm of
anchorage.

7. When taking prohibition action in


respect of vandalism, if examiners
are able to establish that the damage
is recent and no reflection on the
operator’s maintenance system they
should endorse the defect ‘Not
maintenance related’.

2 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM3
and Agricultural Vehicles Seat Belts
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Seat Belts (cont’d) 8. Prohibition action will not be


appropriate where there are

1
insufficient belts on forward facing
seats for the number of children being
carried on an organised trip.
Prosecution action will be taken in
this situation.

9. Large buses, except coaches, are


not required to be fitted with belts
either by virtue of their construction or
use. Coaches can be converted into
buses by limiting their powered speed
to less than 97km/h (60mph).
However, the conversion must not be
readily reversible i.e. the limiter
system must be sealed to prevent
tampering.

10. A seat belt is a minimum of a lap belt.

Categorisation of Defects April 08 3


IM 5 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Exhaust Emissions and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Diesel Smoke Emission 1. Turbocharged engines might emit


smoke on free acceleration. This is

1
Exhaust emitting excessive smoke Sufficient to obscure vision or likely to I not necessarily a defect.
(See Notes 1, 2, 3 and 4) cause danger to other road users
2. This inspection also applies to vehicle
Smoke levels exceed annual test standard D auxiliary engines that are in operation
by more than 10% or; black haze or darker, when the vehicle is seen.
or other colour which tends to obscure
vision 3. The annual test standard applies only
to vehicles subject to statutory annual
Exceeding the annual test limits by 10% or IN test and, for the purposes of
less or continuous haze, any colour prohibition issue, a margin equivalent
to 10% of the limits will be allowed to
Spark Ignition Engine Emissions exclude marginal infringements.

Exhaust emitting excessive levels of Sufficient to obscure vision or likely to I 4. The Light Absorption Coefficient
pollutants (See Notes 2 and 3) cause danger to other road users Scale used for diesel exhaust smoke,
being logarithmic, results in standards
Emission levels exceed the annual test D for delayed prohibition issue of
standard by more than 10%, or tends to >3.7m-1 for turbocharged engines,
obscure vision and >3.0m-1 for naturally aspirated
engines when the 10% margin is
Exceeding the annual test limits by 10% or IN added to the prescribed limits.
less or continuous haze, any colour

4 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 6
and Agricultural Vehicles Road Wheels and Hubs
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Road Wheels and Hubs 1. Fracture at the bridge over the valve
is not considered a reason for action.

1
Any wheel(s) missing - I
2. In the case of wheels with detachable
Wheel fractured or welding breaking Failure imminent (see Note 1) I spring retaining rings fitted to wheel
away rims of the semi-drop centre type
Otherwise than above D (these are identified by the ends of
the ring, which are shaped so as to
Wheel hub fractured Failure or detachment imminent I interlock), abutting ends are
permissible provided the retainer is
Otherwise than above D adequately and safely located in the
wheel rim.
Wheel stud holes elongated/ damaged If visible with wheel nuts in place or I
detachment likely 3. A tyre retaining ring butting causing
the flange to lift more than 1.5mm is
Any stud hole severely worn/ elongated D to be regarded as excessively
displaced.
Wheel nut, washer or stud missing/ More than one wheel nut/ stud is missing, I
loose/ fractured, not clamping or fully loose or obviously not clamping or locating 4. Some agricultural vehicles have extra
locating in taper in the road wheel taper (see Note 4) fixings for the sole purpose of
attaching additional wheels. These
More than one spigot wheel nut washer I are not part of this inspection while
fractured additional wheels are not fitted.

Any one stud or nut missing or loose D


(See Note 4)

Any one spigot wheel nut washer fractured D

Excessive clearance between hub spigot A diametric aggregated clearance of more D


and wheel than 3mm between the spigot and the
locating surface of the wheel

Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 5


IM 6 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Road Wheels and Hubs and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Road Wheels and Hubs

1
Tyre retaining ring abutting or fractured Retaining ring is excessively displaced from I
its seating and total displacement is
imminent (See Notes 2 and 3)

Wheel seriously distorted Affecting steering or vehicle stability I

Otherwise than above IN

Half shaft bolts, nuts or studs loose/ Loss of drive or detachment likely I
missing
Otherwise than above IN

Incompatible wheel fitted Fouling other components where failure of I


the wheel or affected component is likely

Otherwise than above IN

6 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM7
and Agricultural Vehicles Size and Type of Tyres
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Tyres NOTE: PNEUMATIC TYRES ARE NOT


A LEGAL REQUIREMENT ON

1
The nominal size, ply rating, load index, If tyre is obviously overloaded I AGRICULTURAL VEHICLES NOT
speed rating of any is below that DRIVEN/ DRAWN AT MORE THAN
appropriate for the vehicle Otherwise than above (see Notes 1 and 2) D 20MPH

Tyres of different types/ nominal sizes/ Tyre of different type (ie cross ply or radial) I 1. It is appreciated that during roadside
aspect ratio fitted on an axle fitted inspection Examiners might not have
access to tyre tables, and in some
One tyre is of a different nominal size or D instances the size or ply rating might
aspect ratio from those on the same axle not be readily identifiable.
(See Note 2)
2. It cannot be assumed that, because
A tyre’s application does not comply with (See Note 6) IN either tyre of a twin wheel is not in
its ‘condition of use’ marking contact with the ground when the
vehicle is stationary on a level
Radial ply tyres fitted to front axle and (See Note 3) I surface, there is a difference in
crossply or bias-belted to rear axle or nominal size.
bias-belted to front axle and crossply to
rear axle 3. This does not apply to vehicles with
twin or extra wide tyres on the rear
Tyres of different types fitted on (See Note 4) I axle, or to tyres manufactured for
steerable axles (and fitted to) engineering plant. It
also does not apply to vehicles with a
Tyres of different types fitted on driven, (See Note 5) I maximum speed not exceeding
non steerable axles 30mph.

4. Applies only for 2 or more steerable


axles.

5. Applies only for 2 or more driven non


steerable axles.

6. e.g. ‘Trailer Use Only’, ‘FRT’,


`Directional Tyres.

Categorisation of Defects April 08 7


IM8 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Condition of Tyres and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes
NOTE: THIS IM ITEM DOES NOT APPLY TO
Tyres AGRICULTURAL VEHICLES NOT
DRIVEN/ DRAWN AT MORE THAN 20MPH

1
Tyre walls in contact Caused by under inflation or incorrect wheel IN
fitting (See Note 1) 1. Some tyres, e.g. radials, with flexible
side walls might "kiss" under load. In
Tyre bulging or tread lifting Caused by separation or partial failure of its I these cases, wall contact is not a
structure (See Note 2) reason for rejection.
2. Bulging includes any lifting of the
Tyre has a break in the fabric or deep Body cords damaged (See Note 3) I tread rubber and must not be
cut (See Note 2a) or damage to the side confused with undulations which
wall or tread area Cut 25mm or longer exposing body cords D might be present due to
manufacturing imperfections. In the
Body cords exposed (See Note 2b) D case of capped re-treads care must
be taken not to confuse unbonded
Breaker cords damaged in the tread area D tread overlapping the tyre wall with
tread separation. A bulge in the
Breaker cords exposed in the tread area IN sidewall area may be up to 5mm
proud of the original sidewall. In most
Otherwise than above (See Note 2a) IN cases, the tyre will be stamped with
‘BSAU 159e’ or ‘BSAU 159f’ in the
Tyre seriously under inflated Likely to affect steering or overload the I vicinity of the repair. A repair will feel
other tyre on a twin fitment solid and should not deflect as would
a bulge associated with casing
In the case of a single tyre fitment on a non- I separation.
steered axle 2a. Cuts which are deep enough to
reach the body cords or ply but are
Otherwise than above IN less than 25mm or 10% of the section
width, whichever is the greater, and
have not damaged or exposed the
body cords or ply do not breach the
legal requirements for tyres.
2b. “Exposed” for this purpose means
the cords are visible or it can be
established that they are exposed
with the use of a probe.
8 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM8
and Agricultural Vehicles Condition of Tyres
TYPICAL CONSTRUCTION OF A RADIAL TYRE

1
BREAKER CORDS

BODY CORDS

The breaker cords are layers of steel cord cut at various angles and
placed on top of each other over the ply and under the tread. The
purpose of the breaker cords is to keep the tread flat on the road
surface, they have no effect on the strength of the tyre.

Categorisation of Defects April 08


Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM8
and Agricultural Vehicles Condition of Tyres
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Tyre tread worn beyond legal limit Depth of tread is not at least 1mm I 3. Body cords are those extending from
throughout a continuous (excluding tie-bars) bead to bead.

1
circumferential band for at least three
quarters of the tread width on Although damage to such cords has a
different effect on tyres of radial and
• any tyre on a steered axle, or crossply construction, the problems of
• 50% or more of the total number of differentiation are very complex and
tyres fitted to non-steered axles. the stated standards must be applied.
(See Note 4)
Body cords must not be confused
Otherwise than above D with the breaker cords in the tread
area. The consequence of damage
The base of any groove of the original tread IN to breaker cords is not generally so
pattern is not clearly visible (See Note 5) severe. For this reason, the different
action is recommended.
Tyre fouling Tyre damaged and/ or likely to fail I
4. Tie-bars are short projections formed
Otherwise than above IN into the base of the tread pattern
grooves to brace or stiffen the
Recut tyre fitted Fitted to vehicle on which recut tyres are IN adjacent ribs or blocks in the initial full
not permitted (See Note 6) depth state of the tread pattern.

Spare Tyre In the initial full depth stage, the tie-


bar upper surface will be below the
Spare tyre bulging/ fabric cut/ fabric - IN tread surface.
exposed/ tread worn beyond legal limit
In the later stages of tread wear the
tie-bars might interrupt the continuity
of the tread pattern grooves. This is
acceptable.

Steered axle is one used to control


the direction of the vehicle by the
driver.

Categorisation of Defects April 08 9


IM 8 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Condition of Tyres and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes
5. "Original Tread Pattern" means:-

a. In the case of a re-treaded tyre, the

1
tread pattern immediately after the
tyre was re-treaded.

b. In the case of a wholly re-cut tyre,


the manufacturer’s re-cut tread
pattern.

c. In the case of a partially re-cut tyre,


on the part that has been re-cut, the
manufacturer’s re-cut tread pattern,
and on the other part, the tread
pattern of the tyre when new.

d. In the case of any other tyre, the


tread pattern of the tyre when the
tyre was new.

Note: Grooves which wear out before the


main grooves and other minor features
such as sipes, small lateral extensions to
the circumferential grooves and minor
lateral grooving on the shoulders are
to be disregarded when considering
whether the “original tread pattern”
is visible.

6. It is permissible for re-cut tyres to be


fitted to:

• motor vehicles of unladen weight


exceeding 3050kg, or between
2540kg and 3050kg if fitted to wheel
rims exceeding 405mm diameter,
and

• trailers of unladen weight exceeding


1020kg (2290kg total weight for
fixed plant carriers).

10 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 9 Sideguards, Rear Under-run
and Agricultural Vehicles Devices & Bumper Bars
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Bumpers, Sideguards and Under-run Note 1 - Application and Exemptions


Devices (See Note 1)

1
Sideguards - Application
Bumper bar, sideguard or under-run Detachment likely either partially or I Motor Vehicles first used from 1 April
device insecure, damaged or missing completely or having projections or jagged 1984 with a design gross weight
edges likely to cause injury exceeding 3,500kg and where the
distance between the centres of any two
Missing where required D consecutive axles exceeds 3m.

Otherwise than above IN Trailers manufactured from 1 May 1983


with an unladen weight exceeding
1,020kg and where the distance between
the centres of any two consecutive axles
exceeds 3m; or in the case of a semi-
trailer, where the distance between the
centre of the kingpin position and the
centre of the foremost axle exceeds
4.5m.

Semi-Trailers manufactured before 1


May 1983 which have a design gross
weight exceeding 26,000kg and which
form part of an articulated vehicle with a
design gross train weight exceeding
32,520kg and where the distance
between the centre of the kingpin and
the centre of the foremost axle exceeds
4.5m. Where more than one kingpin is
fitted it is the distance from the rearmost
position which is taken into account.

Categorisation of Defects April 08 11


IM 9 Sideguards, Rear Under-run Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Devices & Bumper Bars and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Sideguards - Exemptions
• A vehicle or trailer constructed so that

1
it can be unloaded by part of the
vehicle being tipped sideways or
rearwards.
• A vehicle or trailer designed solely for
use in connection with street cleaning,
the collection/ disposal of refuse or the
contents of gullies/ cesspools. (Skip
carrying vehicles are classed as refuse
vehicles and as such are exempt).
• A trailer specially designed and
constructed, and not merely adapted,
to carry round timber, beams or
girders, being items of exceptional
length.
• Tractor units.
• A vehicle or trailer specially designed
and constructed,and not merely
adapted to carry other vehicles loaded
onto it from the front or rear. (Vehicles
with a standard flat body fitted with a
"beaver tail" are not exempt).
• A trailer with a load platform which is
not more than 750mm from the ground
throughout that part of its length under
which a sideguard would have to be
fitted.
• A semi-trailer incorporating a sliding
bogie.

12 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 9 Sideguards, Rear Under-run
and Agricultural Vehicles Devices & Bumper Bars
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

• A rigid motor vehicle or trailer


designed for and constructed for the

1
special purpose of carrying long (but
not exceptionally long) timbers from an
off road location in a forest.

To fulfil this definition the vehicle must


meet the following criteria:-

• It must be of skeletal construction.


• It must have a minimum of two upright
side supports (sidebolsters) fitted to
each side of the vehicle.
• It must not be fitted with a load
platform, other than chassis rails,
cross bearers and the minimum
amount of flooring necessary to
protect wiring or brake line
components.

It is permissible for the vehicle to be


fitted with the following:

• Loading equipment i.e. a loading crane


or similar device.
• Cross bearers that do not have upright
side supports.

Note:- This list is not exhaustive but


covers the vehicles likely to be
encountered.

Categorisation of Defects April 08 13


IM 9 Sideguards, Rear Under-run Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Devices & Bumper Bars and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Under-run - Application
Motor Vehicles with a design gross

1
weight exceeding 3,500kg and first used
from 1 April 1984; or Trailers
manufactured from 1 May 1983 with an
unladen weight exceeding 1,020kg.

Under-run - Exemptions
• Tractor units.
• A vehicle or trailer fitted at the rear
with apparatus specially designed for
spreading material on a road.
• A vehicle or trailer so constructed that
it can be unloaded by part of the
vehicle being tipped rearwards.
• A vehicle or trailer specially designed
and constructed, and not merely
adapted, to carry other vehicles loaded
onto it from the rear. (Vehicles with a
standard flat body fitted with a "beaver
tail'' are not exempt).
• A trailer specially designed and
constructed, and not merely adapted, to
carry round timber, beams or girders,
being items of exceptional length.
• A vehicle or trailer fitted with a tail lift
so constructed that a lift platform, with
a minimum length of 1m, forms part of
the floor of the vehicle.
• A vehicle specially designed,and not
merely adapted, for the carriage and
mixing of concrete.
Note:- This list is not exhaustive but
covers the vehicles likely to be
encountered.
14 April 08 VOSA
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INTENTIONALLY BLANK

Categorisation of Defects April 08 15


IM 10 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Spare Wheel & Carrier and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

1
Spare wheel carrier insecure or fractured Detachment imminent I

Otherwise than above IN

Spare wheel insecure Detachment imminent and likely to fall from I


the vehicle

Otherwise than above IN

16 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 11
and Agricultural Vehicles Vehicle to Trailer Coupling
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Coupling on Vehicle

1
Deformed or cracked pin jaw, hook or Trailer security adversely affected I
ball

Mounting of jaw, hook or ball to chassis Failure or detachment likely I


insecure

Locking device missing, inadequate, Locking device ineffective I


damaged or ill-fitting
Otherwise than above D

Worn pin, jaw or hook Thickness of metal at any point reduced to I


2/ 3 or less of its original thickness and
trailer attached.

No trailer attached D

Ball excessively worn Worn to such an extent that the safe I


coupling of the trailer is unlikely to be
achieved

Otherwise than above D

Categorisation of Defects April 08 17


IM 11 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Vehicle to Trailer Coupling and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Coupling on Vehicle 1. In certain designs the fifth wheel


coupling position can be adjusted or

1
Fifth wheel attachment to chassis Relative movement between chassis and I is spring loaded on the chassis.
insecure coupling to the extent that coupling failure
or detachment likely 2. A certain amount of movement
between tractor unit and trailer is
Fifth wheel insecure (See Notes 1 and 2) D permissible. The acceptable amount
varies with the make of vehicle.
Otherwise than above IN
3. The term ‘jaw’ includes multi-towing
Fifth wheel jaw excessively worn or out Worn to such an extent that the trailer king I eyes.
of adjustment pin might not be securely held (See Notes 2
and 3) 4. Some couplings do not require a
safety locking device. Action must
Otherwise than above D only be taken where there is clear
evidence that a device is, or has
Safety locking device (e.g. chain and (See Note 4) D been, fitted.
clip) missing/ not operating

Excessive wear in or insecurity of any Failure or detachment likely I


member or securing device
Otherwise than above D

Security spring weak or broken Broken I

Weak D

A load bearing part of the coupling Failure or detachment likely I


cracked
Otherwise than above D

18 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 11
and Agricultural Vehicles Vehicle to Trailer Coupling
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Coupling on Trailer

1
Draw bar cracked or deformed Seriously cracked or fractured I

So seriously deformed that use would I


cause danger

Otherwise than above IN

Mounting of draw bar to trailer insecure Failure or detachment likely I

Otherwise than above D

Draw bar eye or ball socket deformed, Trailer security affected I


cracked or excessively worn
Otherwise than above D

Locking device missing, inadequate, Locking device ineffective I


damaged or ill-fitting
Otherwise than above D

A safety device missing or not operative - I

King pin attachment excessively worn, - I


cracked or insecure

Worn operating member Detachment likely I

Otherwise than above IN

Worn draw bar attachment pins and The thickness of metal at any point reduced I
brackets to 2/ 3 or less of its original thickness

Significant reduction in thickness D

Categorisation of Defects April 08 19


IM 12 Trailer Parking and Emergency Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Brakes and Air Line Connections and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Parking Brake Operation and 1. This applies to brake systems that


Performance use a ratchet and pawl mechanism

1
and means that, when the brake is
Parking brake does not operate on at - I fully applied, there is not sufficient
least two road wheels further movement of the lever
because it is at the end of its working
Brake cannot be set with trailer either - I travel on the ratchet. Some foreign
coupled to, or uncoupled from, the trailers will not be fitted with parking
drawing vehicle brakes.

Brake mechanism fractured, insecure, Mechanism fractured or defective to such I


excessively worn or badly corroded an extent that the brake is inoperative or
failure is likely

Detachment of brake mechanism imminent I

Otherwise than above D

Insufficient reserve travel on brake lever Brake efficiency impaired I


(See Note 1)
Otherwise than above D

20 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 12 Trailer Parking and Emergency
and Agricultural Vehicles Brakes and Air Line Connections
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Trailer Emergency Brake 2. Before starting this test, make sure


the air reservoirs on the tractor are

1
Trailer brakes are not applied - I fully charged. With tractor unit
automatically when red (emergency) parking brakes ON and trailer parking
brake line is disconnected. brakes OFF, ask the driver to
(See Notes 2, 3, 4 and 5) disconnect the RED (emergency) line
brake connector between tractor and
Air Line Connections trailer.

Any brake line on the drawing vehicle Preventing the correct operation of a I 3. In most cases, the application of the
fitted with a manual tap (See Note 6) braking system trailer brakes can be checked by
observing the actuation of the trailer
Otherwise than above D brake levers.

Service brake line operating adaptor Preventing the correct operation of the I 4. The red line connector must be
providing inadequate lift or not fitted braking system reconnected by the driver after this
inspection.
Otherwise than as above D
5. Agricultural vehicles driven at not
Service (yellow) line on a unit to trailer - I more than 20mph might not be fitted
combination not connected (See Note 7) with emergency brake lines. This is
acceptable.

6. This applies to all trailers and to


drawing vehicles first used on or after
1 April 1989. This action should not
be applied to foreign vehicles unless
affecting the correct operation of the
brakes.

7. This includes combinations fitted with


EBS braking systems.

Categorisation of Defects April 08 21


IM 13 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Trailer Landing Legs and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Trailer Landing Legs

1
Attachment of landing leg insecure Detachment likely I

Otherwise than above IN

Pad, wheel, or handle insecure Detachment likely I

Otherwise than above IN

22 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM14 Spray Suppression,
and Agricultural Vehicles Wings and Wheel Arches
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Wings and Wheel Arches (See Note 5) NOTE: THIS IM ITEM DOES NOT
APPLY TO AGRICULTURAL VEHICLES

1
Wing insecure (See Note 1) Detachment likely, or rubbing on a tyre I NOT DRIVEN/ DRAWN AT MORE THAN
20MPH.
Otherwise than above IN
1. The term wing includes other similar
Wing badly holed/ corroded/ missing/ Presenting a risk of injury I devices.
torn/ split
Not acting as a complete shield having D 2. Spray suppression is required for
regard to the original design (unless specifically exempt):-

Otherwise than above IN • Goods vehicles exceeding 12


tonnes gross vehicle weight first
Insufficient clearance between wing and Wing rubbing or likely to rub on tyre, I used from 1 April 1986
tyre particularly when laden, and thereby cause • Trailers exceeding 3.5 tonnes gross
damage to the tyre or a danger of injury eg: vehicle weight, manufactured on or
fire risk, steering affected after 1 May 1985
• Trailers exceeding 16 tonnes gross
Otherwise than above IN vehicle weight with 2 or more axles.

Interior wheel arch holed/ corroded (See Holed or seriously weakened I 3. The spray suppression requirements
Note 4) do not apply to vehicles incapable of
Otherwise than above IN exceeding 30mph.

Obligatory spray suppression equipment Detachment likely I 4. The ‘holed’ aspect only applies to
insecure/ damaged/ missing/ incomplete PSVs and only when it allows the
(See Notes 2, 3, 6 and 7) Missing/ incomplete D ingress of water or spray from the
road wheels.
Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 23


IM 14 Spray Suppression, Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Wings and Wheel Arches and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

5. Forestry vehicles (with skeletal


chassis and bolsters): Rigid motor

1
vehicles are exempt spray
suppression and sideguards but must
have wings. Forestry semi trailers
are exempt spray suppression,
sideguards and wings.

6. Incomplete in this context is where a


major section of the wing and/ or the
whole of the spray suppression
material is missing.

7. Some foreign vehicles will not have


spray suppression fitted and this is
acceptable.

24 April 08 VOSA
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INTENTIONALLY BLANK

Categorisation of Defects April 08 25


IM 15 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Cab Security and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Cab Security 1. Some vehicles are fitted with tilt cabs


or cabs with flexible mountings,

1
Cab not mounted securely on the Driving control likely to be affected I movement of which is a design
chassis or mountings defective feature. This is not to be confused
(See Note 1) Driving control not likely to be affected D with excessive wear or insecurity.

A significantly defective mounting D

Otherwise than above IN

A retention and/ or locking device on a If only one locking device fitted I


forward tilting cab defective or missing
If more than one device is fitted and at least D
one is serviceable

Defective attachment of wind deflector to Detachment likely I


cab roof
Otherwise than above IN

26 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 16
and Agricultural Vehicles Driver and Passenger Doors
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

PSV Passenger Doors (See Note 1) 1. The term "door" in this context
includes entrance and exit doors and

1
Door missing (See Note 1) - I emergency exits including emergency
windows.
Door jammed/obstructed/ cannot be Jammed, obstructed, cannot be opened or I 2. In the case of a driver’s door, this
opened from either the inside or outside. deliberately secured so that it cannot be action is only appropriate if it is the
opened. (See Notes 2 and 4) sole means of access. Some sliding
type driver’s doors are not designed
Any emergency break glass window with D to be retained in the open position.
breaking device missing 3. Vehicles first registered before 1 April
1959 need not have a device that
Any emergency break glass window or I isolates the door gear from the
door, the operation of which is affected by braking system.
the application of advertising film 4. This will not apply to doors that:
(See Note 4a) • have been permanently closed off
as part of an officially agreed
Door cannot be retained in the closed - I modification
position • have been locked to safeguard the
vehicle and its contents while left
unattended
• are on a vehicle travelling empty
Door hinges/ catches/ pillar worn/ loose/ Door is very difficult to shut or is likely to fly I and where the driver can produce a
insecure/ weakened open key to unlock the door.
4a. This action will be appropriate only if
Otherwise than above IN the door has been sealed closed or,
in the case of a break glass window,
Sliding door jammed/ likely to become Jammed or likely to become displaced I the film has not been broken around
displaced/ is not retained in the open or (See Notes 2 and 4) the bead.
closed position 5. It is in order to operate an
Otherwise than above IN "emergency" control before applying
manual pressure to open a power
Door holding device missing/ ineffective - IN operated door.

Door check device missing/ ineffective - IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 27


IM 16 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Driver and Passenger Doors and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

PSV Passenger Doors (See Note 1) 6. Sensitive door edges are required on
PSVs manufactured on or after 14

1
Door stiff or fails to operate Unable to fully open or close I May 1990 or first used on or after 1
October 1990 where the whole of the
door opening is more than 500mm
Otherwise than above IN behind the driver’s seat.
Door operation affects braking system Repeated operation of the doors depletes I 7. A safety system for preventing a
the braking system air/ vacuum below the passenger from being trapped must
pressure/ vacuum threshold at which the be provided on all power operated
doors without a soft rubber edge.
circuit protection valve should operate
(See Note 3) 8. Every power-operated door fitted to a
minibus must cease closing when
Power operated door cannot be opened (See Note 5) I meeting a resistance and either re-
manually open or be capable of being opened
manually.
9. Warning devices are only required on

Door sensitive edge or other safety Where required (See Notes 6, 7 and 8) I • Schedule 6 minibuses which do not
have two stage slam locks
device not working • Large buses with more than 20
Otherwise than above IN passenger seats which are certified
for one person operation and used
"Door open" warning device inoperative Where required (See Note 9) I on local services on each
emergency door and hinged
emergency window.
• ‘Continental’ doors (Continued)
Otherwise than above IN

Draught excluder insecure Likely to cause obstruction or injury I

Otherwise than above IN

28 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 16
and Agricultural Vehicles Driver and Passenger Doors
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes
9. (Continued)
PSV Passenger Doors (See Note 1) • Vehicles first used on or after 1
October 1990 with power operated
doors which are more than 500mm to

1
Door operation severe Likely to cause injury I the rear of the driver’s seat (typically
centre doors). In this case the warning
Otherwise than above IN must be visual.
• Any external door or hinged exit
Obligatory markings or fittings - IN (including any emergency exit) which is
missing/ damaged/ ineffective outside the driver’s direct line of sight
on a vehicle certified on or after 1
Any normally fitted exit door handle - IN January 1997. This does not apply to a
door of a minibus if that door has a two
guard missing stage lock.
Cab Doors • On any emergency door or floor hatch
on a Bus Directive or ECE regulation
Driver’s external door Likely to impede driver in an emergency or I vehicle. This must be an audible device
jammed/ obstructed/ will not to fly open inadvertently (See Notes 10
fasten/ difficult to open and 11)
• On any hinged emergency window
which is not clearly visible to the driver
on a Bus Directive or ECE regulation
Otherwise than above IN vehicle. This must be an audible device
10. Where the driver’s door of a PSV
Door hinges, catches or pillars in such a Door likely to fly open I doubles as an emergency door
condition that the door is difficult to close (See Note 1).
or could fly open inadvertently Otherwise than above IN 11. On a HGV, if one door is deliberately
(See Note 12) rendered inoperative, then it must be
considered to be an integral part of
Sliding door which cannot be secured in Driver’s door cannot be secured I the cab.
the open or closed position and/ or 12. The cab doors and fastening
runners or tracks so badly worn or Otherwise than above IN devices on agricultural vehicles are
sometimes crudely designed. Before
defective that the door cannot be applying these standards Examiners
opened and closed without excessive must take account of the original
effort (See Note 12) design of the component.
The potential speed of the vehicle,
the likelihood of a door flying open

Categorisation of Defects April 08 29


IM 16 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Driver and Passenger Doors and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes
12. (Continued)
and whether it would be likely to
swing beyond the edge of the
vehicle must also be considered.

1 13. On Bus Directive and ECE Regulation


vehicles, there might not be a primary
emergency exit, if the vehicle has two
service doors. On Bus Directive
vehicles, the primary emergency exit
may be power operated; floor hatches
may be used as emergency exits.

14. Bus Directive: This means a bus or


coach which meets the requirements of
the Bus Directive EC 2001/85. The
vehicle may have a full type approval or
may have been inspected to the
requirements of the directive. The
technical print for the vehicle will indicate
“Bus Directive” vehicles.

15. ECE regulation vehicle: This means a


bus which has been built or approved to
ECE regulation 36 (buses with more
than 22 passengers), ECE regulation 52
(buses with not more than 22
passengers) or ECE regulation 107
(Double Deck buses).

30 April 08 VOSA
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Categorisation of Defects April 08 31


IM 17 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Driver’s Accommodation and Steps and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Driver’s Cab/ Area and Fittings

1
Driver’s cab floor insecure/ badly Affects driving control or safety of driver I
weakened
Otherwise than above IN

Driver’s cab step or step ring on a wheel Likely to cause injury to users or become I
insecure/ badly weakened/ damaged/ detached
worn
Otherwise than above IN

Step has a jagged edge Likely to cause injury to a person near the I
vehicle

32 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 18
and Agricultural Vehicles Driver’s Seat
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Driver’s Seat

1
Driver’s seat loose on its mounting, Seat so loose/ weakened/ or in such I
frame fractured, seriously weakened or condition that it could cause the driver to
otherwise defective lose control of the vehicle

Otherwise than above IN

Driver’s seat adjustment inoperative/ Seat likely to move inadvertently or cannot I


badly worn be located

Categorisation of Defects April 08 33


IM 19 Security of Body, Containers and Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Crane Support Legs and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Security of Body 1. The presence of defective items does


not necessarily mean that the body is

1
Body components and fixings (eg twist- Insecurity of body components or cross or I to be regarded as so insecurely fixed
locks) loose/ fractured/ missing longitudinal members to the chassis, likely as to be dangerous.
to affect safe carriage of passengers or load
The cumulative effect of any defects
Fixings insecure or defective but not IN found, or their effect on other items, is
affecting safe carriage of passengers or the criterion to be used when judging
load (See Note 1) this item.

Excessive displacement of the body Likely to lead to loss of control I 2. Most designs of vehicles have a
relative to the chassis certain amount of freedom between
Otherwise than above (See Note 2) D the body and chassis to allow for
flexing. This must not be confused
with insecurity.
Security of Containers
3. In the case of a dual purpose flat bed,
Container fastening device missing/ Likely to affect the overall security of a I if all the twist locks have been
insecure/ incomplete/ seized/ not fitted container removed then it is not to be regarded
with a secondary locking device/ not as defective.
capable of adequately securing a A container fastening insecure and likely to I
container (See Note 3) detach

A container fastening missing when the D


other of a matched pair is present

A container fastening incomplete/ seized / D


without a secondary locking device/
ineffective

Otherwise than above IN

34 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 19 Security of Body, Containers and
and Agricultural Vehicles Crane Support Legs
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Support bolster or structure insecure/ Likely to affect the overall security of a I


cracked/ corroded or damaged container 4. These criteria can be extended

1
beyond those fitted to vehicles with
Container mounting point unlikely to be D cranes to any vehicle equipped with
secured or supported by it stabilizing/support legs.

Otherwise than above IN 5. This guidance applies where retaining


devices were originally fitted. An
alternative retaining device is
Support bolster not fitted with locking Likely to affect the overall security of a I acceptable provided the support leg is
pins or other securing method container adequately secured.
incorporating an effective locking device
Container mounting point unlikely to be D
secured or supported by it

Otherwise than above IN

Crane Support Legs

Crane Support Leg insecure/ retaining Insecure or likely to extend I


device missing/ insecure or in such a
condition that it will not adequately retain Retaining device missing or incapable of D
the leg (See Notes 4 and 5) operating as designed

Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 35


THIS PAGE HAS BEEN LEFT
INTENTIONALLY BLANK

36 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 20
and Agricultural Vehicles Condition of Body
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Body Panelling 1. The presence of some defects does


not necessarily mean that the body is

1
Exterior body panel damaged/ missing/ Likely to become detached or to cause I in such a condition that it would be
protruding/ insecure injury or permit the load to be shed or dangerous for other road users.
leaked The cumulative effect of any defects
found, or their effect on other items, is
Otherwise than above (See Notes 1 and 2) IN the criterion to be used when judging
this item.
Any embellishment Likely to become detached and/ or cause I
protruding/ damaged/ insecure (Specify injury 2. Any superficial damage that does not
component) affect the strength of the component
Otherwise than above IN is not to be regarded as a defect.

Part of body designed to carry or contain Load likely to become detached or to cause I
the load missing or damaged injury or permit it to be shed or leaked

Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 37


IM 20 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Condition of Body and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

PSV Flap Type Doors (See Note 3)

1
Any flap/ door catch defective/ catch Detachment likely or is likely to fly open I 3. These standards do not apply to
missing/ insecure small access flaps eg. fuel filler or
Otherwise than above IN coolant filler access flaps.

Any flap/ door protruding when Likely to cause injury or damage I


closed/ exposing sharp (jagged) edges

Otherwise than above IN

Flap/ Door check device Door opening too far and likely to obscure D
missing/ ineffective obligatory lights

Otherwise than above IN

38 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 20
and Agricultural Vehicles Condition of Body
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

PSV Luggage Compartments 4. This will apply only where luggage is


being carried in the compartment at

1
Water leakage into luggage Likely to soil or damage passengers’ D the time of inspection.
compartment luggage (See Note 4)
5. Devices to hold flaps/ doors open are
Otherwise than above IN required only where they are provided
to give access to luggage
Luggage compartment damaged/ dirty Likely to soil or damage passengers’ D compartments. Similar flaps or doors
luggage (See Note 4) provided for other purposes e.g.
engine or spare wheel access are not
Otherwise than above IN required to have them.

Luggage compartment floor Floor likely to collapse I


damaged/ deteriorated/ weak
Otherwise than above IN

Luggage compartment door catch Detachment likely or is likely to fly open I


defective/ catch missing/ insecure inadvertently

Otherwise than above IN

Luggage compartment door protruding Likely to cause injury or damage I


when closed/ exposing sharp (jagged)
edges Otherwise than above IN

Luggage compartment door holding Door does not remain in the open position I
device missing/ ineffective (See Note 5) and is likely to close and cause injury

Otherwise than above IN

Luggage compartment door check Door opening too far and likely to obscure D
device missing/ ineffective obligatory lights

Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 39


IM 21 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Interior of Body and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

PSV Floor, Gangways, Steps and


Stairs

1 Floor/ gangway/ passageway/ steps/


stairways/ retractable steps/ platforms or
Holed or likely to collapse I

floor traps weakened (State location) Otherwise than above IN

Retractable step not retracting - I

Floor trap weakened/ damaged/missing Likely to collapse or likely to cause I


obstruction or injury

Otherwise than above IN

Floor trap locking device defective Trap insecure and likely to lift I

Otherwise than above IN

Floor/ step/ stair/ stair covering Likely to cause obstruction or injury I


torn/ lifting/ bubbling
Otherwise than above IN

Floor/ step/ stair/ treadplate/ moulding Non slip surface worn smooth and/ or lifting I
badly worn/ lifting and likely to cause obstruction or injury

Otherwise than above IN

Step/ stair insecure/ weakened/ Likely to cause injury or become detached I


damaged/ having jagged edges/
defective Otherwise than above IN

40 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM21
and Agricultural Vehicles Interior of Body
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

PSV Passenger Entrance 1. Steps or platforms forming part of an


emergency exit are not required to be

1
Entrance floor mat badly worn/ of Likely to trip passengers I illuminated.
incorrect size
Otherwise than above IN

PSV Artificial Lighting

Interior lamp missing/ inoperative - IN

Inadequate illumination at Constituting a risk of injury I


entrance/ exit/ step/ stair (See Note 1)
Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 41


IM 21 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Interior of Body and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

PSV Passenger and Crew Seats 2. Any surface contamination of the seat
covering should not take into account

1
Passenger seat incorrectly spaced or a Access to an exit is obstructed D dust in the seat fabric or loose
crew seat which encroaches on the surface dust.
minimum gangway width and does not Otherwise than above IN
fold away automatically (See Note 4) 3. Applicable if due to an accidental
spillage.
Seat insecure Likely to become displaced I
4. Some older coaches have been
Otherwise than above IN certified with crew seats with latches
to operate before the seat will fold.
Seat covering slashed/ torn - IN Prohibition action will not be
appropriate in these cases. If there is
Seat frame fractured Seat failure or displacement likely I any doubt, take Inspection Notice
action only and advise.
Otherwise than above IN

Passenger seats generally contaminated Likely to soil clothing (See Note 2) D


or dirty

Isolated seat or group of seats (See Note 3) IN


contaminated

Seat damaged Likely to cause injury I

Likely to tear clothing D

Otherwise than above IN

42 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 21
and Agricultural Vehicles Interior of body
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

PSV Interior Fittings 5. Roof lights mean translucent panels


fitted in the body roof.

1
Parcel rack insecure/ damaged/ holed Likely to collapse or to permit luggage to fall I
on passengers 6. Large buses used solely as local
service vehicles need not carry a first
Otherwise than above IN aid kit.

Guard not fitted to parcel rack end Items likely to fall onto driver I 7. PSVs and Schedule 6 minibuses only.

Interior stanchion/ guard rail/ grab rail Likely to detach under weight of passengers I 8. This inspection also applies to
missing/ insecure/ damaged and/ or cause injury articulated PSV bellows.

Otherwise than above IN

Missing grab strap IN

Roof light insecure/ missing Likely to become displaced and fall onto I
occupants (See Note 5)

Otherwise than above IN

Fire extinguisher missing/ empty/ (See Note 7) IN


defective/ wrong type e.g. powder

First aid equipment missing/ incomplete (See Notes 6 and 7) IN

Interior body panel damaged/ holed/ Likely to cause injury to any person I
missing/ protruding/ insecure
(See Note 8)
Otherwise than above IN

Legal writing/ warning notices missing/ - IN


illegible

Categorisation of Defects April 08 43


IM 21 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Interior of body and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

PSV Interior Fittings 9. Bells/ buzzers/ visual warnings are not


required on buses with less than 13

1
Passenger communication device Where driver is in a separate compartment I passenger seats or Schedule 6
missing/ inoperative (See Note 9 and 10) minibuses but are required on Non-
Schedule 6 minibuses with 13 or
Otherwise than above IN more passenger seats. All bus
directive and ECE regulation vehicles
Engine cover missing/ insecure Missing from saloon or driver’s I which carry standing passengers
compartment must have at least one illuminated
sign to indicate to passengers the bus
Insecure and fumes can enter cab or saloon D is stopping. Some communication
devices will sound once only until re-
Otherwise than above IN set by passenger doors opening or
similar.
Engine compartment sound deadening Likely to become displaced or cause fire I
material insecure/ oil soaked hazard 10. Bus Directive and ECE Regulation
vehicles, which are not authorised for
Otherwise than above IN the carriage of standing passengers,
do not require passenger to driver
Graffiti/ contamination on an internal Likely to soil clothing D communication devices.
surface (State location)
Other unauthorised writing or drawing IN

Otherwise than above IN

Other equipment insecure (e.g. TV, Likely to become detached and/ or cause I
video, coffee bar etc) injury

Otherwise than above IN

44 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 21
and Agricultural Vehicles Interior of body
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Ventilation Equipment (See Note 11) 11. Where more than one means of
ventilation is provided an

1
Opening windows cannot be opened 50% or more opening windows cannot be D assessment will have to be made as
opened to whether more than 50% of the
total ventilation of all types is
Forced air ventilation equipment missing 50% or more forced air ventilation outlets D ineffective. If in doubt take advisory
/ inoperative/ ineffective (See Note 12) missing/ inoperative/ ineffective action only.

Otherwise than above IN 12. Some forced air ventilation systems


will not operate unless the engine is
Canopy ventilator defective Canopy insecure and detachment likely I running and the alternator is
charging.
Seized open and not protecting passengers D
from elements

Seized closed and no alternative ventilation D


available

Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 45


IM 21 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Interior of body and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Accessibility Features 13. Apply the standards in this section for


vehicles that have not been issued

1
Wheel Chair Spaces with an Accessibility Certificate or
Disability Discrimination Act special
Rearward Facing Wheelchairs authorisation.
(See Note 13)

Stanchion or retractable rail relating to Likely to detach if used or cause injury to I


the wheelchair area missing, insecure or any person
damaged
Otherwise than above IN

Partition or panel relating to the Panel likely to fall away and/or cause injury I
wheelchair area missing, damaged or to any person
insecure
Otherwise than above IN

Unrestrained wheelchair padded Insecure and likely to fail when loaded or I


backrest insecure or damaged cause injury to any person

Otherwise than above IN

46 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 21
and Agricultural Vehicles Interior of body
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Forward Facing Wheelchairs 14. If missing or ineffective but other


(See Note 14) wheelchair spaces are available and

1
free of defects an exemption may be
Occupied wheelchair or user restraint Missing, ineffective, incapable of performing I issued allowing the vehicle to
fixings missing, ineffective, deteriorated its intended function or likely to detach if complete its journey. A condition will
or insecure (See Note 14) loaded be imposed specifying the number of
wheelchair passengers permitted.
Otherwise than above IN

Floor fixings loose or projecting Serious risk of passengers tripping or being I


injured

Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 47


IM 21 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Interior of body and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Wheelchair or user restraint system Incapable of being easily operated in an I


missing, damaged or defective emergency.

1 Otherwise than above IN

Boarding Devices- Lifts and Ramps

A lift or ramp severely weakened, with Likely to fail or cause injury to any person I
sharp edges or other protrusions
Otherwise than above IN

Lift or ramp cannot be secured in the Posing a risk of injury to any person I
stowed position
Otherwise than above IN

48 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 21
and Agricultural Vehicles Interior of body
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Powered Lifts and Ramps 15. An inoperative powered ramp or lift


that does not pose danger to any

1
Defective in operation Posing a risk of injury to any person I person or road user should be
subject to inspection notice action. If
Otherwise than above (See Note 15) IN the lift or ramp is permanently
disabled VTP5 Notifiable Alteration
action is required allowing a revised
Carrying Capacity Authorisation to
be issued.

Categorisation of Defects April 08 49


IM 22 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Driver’s Mirrors and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Mirrors 1. HGVs first used before 1 April 1985


(PSV: 1 April 1983) must have either

1
External rear view mirror and/ or glass If no adequate view to the rear (See Note 1) I one offside exterior mirror and one
missing/insecure/damaged (See Note 3) interior mirror, or an exterior mirror on
External mirror likely to become detached I each side.

Otherwise than above IN HGVs first used on or after 1 April


1985 (PSV: 1 April 1983) must have
Interior rear view mirror/ missing/ Likely to become detached and fall onto I an exterior mirror on each side.
defective/ insecure (See Note 3) driver/ occupants
Rigid HGVs first used on or after 1
Missing or unusable (See Note 2) D October 1988 exceeding 12 tonnes
GVW must have an exterior mirror on
Otherwise than above (See Note 2) IN each side, plus one close proximity
mirror on the nearside.
A periscope defective Likely to become detached and fall onto I
driver/ occupants, or otherwise in such Articulated HGVs first used on or
condition as to cause injury after 1 October 1988 exceeding 12
tonnes GVW must have an exterior
Otherwise than above IN mirror on each side, plus one close
proximity mirror on the nearside, plus
one wide angle mirror on the
nearside.

2. A missing or unusable interior mirror


must be regarded as a defect only
when the vehicle has no external rear
view mirror on the nearside.

3. Mirrors are not required on


agricultural vehicles driven at not
more than 20mph or any agricultural
vehicle first used before 1 June 1986.

50 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 23
and Agricultural Vehicles Glass and View of the Road
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

View to the front 1. Reversing monitors and navigation


screens may be acceptable, provided

1
Driver’s view to the front impaired having Any object seriously impairing driver’s view I they do not impair the drivers view to
regard to the original design of the through the area swept by the windscreen the road.
vehicle (See Note 1) wipers

Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 51


IM 23 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Glass and View of the Road and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Windscreen and Windows 2. On vehicles first used before 1


January 1959, if glass is fitted to

1
Windscreen cracked/ scratched/ Driver’s view of the road seriously I windscreens and windows facing to
discoloured impaired/ presents a danger to occupants of the front on the outside of any motor
the vehicle/ detachment likely vehicle, except the upper deck of a
double decked vehicle, it must be
Otherwise than above IN safety glass.

Windscreen not of safety glass (See Notes 2, 3, 4 and 5) I 3. On PSVs first used between 1 January
1959 and 31 May 1978, if glass is
Driver’s side window not of safety glass (See Notes 2, 3, 4 and 5) D fitted to windscreens or any windows
on the outside it must be safety glass.
PSV driver’s interior door/ screen not of (See Notes 3, 5, 6 and 8) D
safety glass or of a safety glazing 4. Safety glass on vehicles first used
material before 1 June 1978 need not be
marked as such. Where markings
PSV window not of safety glass or of a (See Notes 2, 3, 4 and 5) D have been applied, these can fade
safety glazing material with time.

PSV window glazing missing/ insecure/ Missing, detachment likely and/ or presents I 5. On vehicles first used on or after 1
cracked a danger June 1978, windscreens and other
windows wholly or partly on either side
Otherwise than above IN of the driver’s seat must be of
specified safety glass. All other
Relevant vehicle (See Note 4) with glass - IN windows must be specified safety
not marked with an acceptable mark. glass or glazing.

Windscreen and front side windows Average light transmission <30% I 6. On PSVs first used on or after 1 April
excessively tinted 1959 and before 1 April 1988,
Average light transmission >30% <45% D transverse windows or transparent
partitions not of safety glass or safety
Average light transmission >45% <65% IN glazing must be adequately protected
against breakage should a passenger
be thrown against them.

52 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 23
and Agricultural Vehicles Glass and View of the Road
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

PSV Windows 7. On PSVs first used on or after 1 April


1988, all transverse windows or

1
Window louvres cracked/ broken/ Detachment likely and/ or presents a danger I transparent partitions must be of
insecure safety glass or safety glazing.
Otherwise than above IN
On PSVs first used before 1 April
Weather strip damaged/ deteriorated - IN 1959, transverse windows or
transparent partitions not of safety
Window dirty Affecting vision and/ or light IN glass or safety glazing must be
adequately protected against
breakage if they face transverse
seats.

8. Safety glazing is permissible for


windows forming all or part of a door
fitted in the interior of a PSV at the
side of the driver’s seat so as to form
a compartment for the driver.

Categorisation of Defects April 08 53


IM 24 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Accessibility Features and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

See Note 1 1. The standards in this section apply


only to vehicles issued with an

1
Wheel Chair Spaces Accessibility Certificate or Special
Authorisation. As an alternative to
Sign or instruction indicating the Missing or illegible IN schedules 1, 2 or 3 some vehicles
direction the wheelchair and user should with accessibility certificates will be
face during travel missing or Bus Directive vehicles and will include
deteriorated compliance with Annex VII of the
directive.
Safety instructions explaining the use of Missing or illegible IN
the wheelchair space and restraint Annex VII means Annex VII to Bus
systems missing or deteriorated (not Directive 2001/85/EC and ‘Annex VII
Annex VII vehicles) vehicle’ means a Bus Directive vehicle
required to comply with Annex VII.

ECE regulation vehicle means a bus


which has been built or approved to
ECE regulation 36 (buses with more
than 22 passengers), ECE regulation
52 (buses with not more than 22
passengers) or ECE regulation 107
(double deck buses).

This information is noted on the


technical record of the vehicle. For
vehicles not issued with such
certificates or where it is not known
apply the standards in IM21.

54 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 24
and Agricultural Vehicles Accessibility Features
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Rearward Facing Wheelchairs 2. On Annex VII vehicles a backrest


where fitted need not be padded and

1
Padded backrest missing, insecure or Insecure and likely to fail when loaded; I as an alternative to a backrest a
damaged or other device supplied to missing and likely to cause injury to any device which acts as a support for the
support the wheels or the back of the occupant wheels of the wheelchair may be
wheelchair missing or damaged (See permitted.
Note 2) Otherwise than above IN

Stanchion or retractable rail relating to Likely to detach if used or cause injury to I


the wheelchair area missing, insecure or any person or danger caused by absence
damaged
Missing D

Otherwise than above IN

Partition or panel relating to the Panel likely to fall away and/or cause injury I
wheelchair area missing, damaged or to any person or danger caused by absence
insecure
Missing D

Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 55


IM 24 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Accessibility Features and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Forward Facing Wheelchairs 3. No wheelchair user restraint for Bus


(See Note 3) Directive Annex VII vehicles if the

1
passenger seats in the vehicle are not
Wheelchair or user restraint fixings Ineffective/ incapable of performing its I required to be fitted with any form of
missing/ ineffective/ deteriorated or intended function or likely to detach if occupant restraint.
insecure loaded

Missing (position unoccupied) D

Otherwise than above IN

Floor fixings loose or projecting Serious risk of passengers tripping or being I


injured

Wheelchair or user restraint system Ineffective/ incapable of performing its I


missing/ damaged or defective intended function or likely to detach if
loaded

Incapable of being easily operated in an I


emergency

Missing D

Otherwise than above IN

56 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 24
and Agricultural Vehicles Accessibility Features
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Safety instructions on the use of Missing or illegible IN


wheelchair and/or wheelchair user

1
restraints missing or deteriorated
(Not Annex VII vehicles)

Boarding Devices - Ramps and Lifts

A lift or ramp missing, insecure or Likely to fail or cause injury to any person I
severely weakened, with sharp edges or
other protrusions Missing D

Otherwise than above IN

Lift or ramp cannot be secured in the Posing a risk of injury to any person I
stowed position
Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 57


IM 24 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Accessibility Features and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Lift surface device for preventing Wheelchair users at risk of injury I 4. Examiners should be aware that the
wheelchairs from rolling off defective or secondary means of operation can be

1
missing Not capable of operating as intended D achieved by using a portable ramp.

Otherwise than above IN

Contrasting band of colour along the Missing or visually ineffective D


edge of a ramp or lift deteriorated (not
Annex VII lifts) Deteriorated but still visible IN

Powered Lifts or Ramps

Fails to operate by the primary means or Posing a risk of injury to any person I
operation presents a risk to any person
Inoperative or otherwise than above D

Secondary means of operation Fails to operate at all or missing D


incomplete or defective (See Note 4)

Audible warning of operation inoperative Missing or inaudible D


(not Annex VII vehicles fitted with a lift)
Otherwise than above IN

58 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 24
and Agricultural Vehicles Accessibility Features
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Lamp and audible warning of operation No warning of operation I


of an Annex VII vehicle powered ramp

1
Otherwise than above IN

Portable Ramps and Powered Ramp/


Hoist secondary operation

There is not at least one portable ramp Missing D


available for use where required (i.e.
where there is no manual ramp,
powered lift or ramp fitted and working)
or no manual secondary means to
operate a powered lift/ ramp

A portable ramp with no suitable A hazard likely to cause injury I


stowage position
Otherwise than above IN

A portable ramp which cannot be safely Incapable of being fitted or if fitted not I
fitted for passenger use capable of performing its function

Categorisation of Defects April 08 59


IM 24 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Accessibility Features and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Viewing Devices (See Note 5) 5. This is not required where the lift or
ramp is in direct field of driver's vision

1
Driver does not have when seated in the The inside and outside of the door area or I from driving seat or where the
driver's seat either directly, using the lift or ramp are not visible to the driver operating control is adjacent to the lift
mirrors or other devices a clear view of from the driver's seat or ramp.
the inside and outside of the door area
in which a power operated lift/ ramp is Insecurity and likely to cause injury I 6. Internally this would be at a
located (not applicable if the operating wheelchair space or externally
control is not adjacent to the lift or ramp) Otherwise than above IN adjacent to the wheelchair entrance
that is outside the direct view of the
driver. Where the wheel chair
Communication Devices (See Note 6) entrance/ exit is within direct view of
Missing or inoperative D the driver no device is required.
Any device intended for wheelchair
users inoperative or missing.
Missing or inoperative D
Any exterior communication device
inoperative or missing.

60 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 24
and Agricultural Vehicles Accessibility Features
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Entrance and Exit Lighting 7. Examiners should consider any other


(See Note 7) artificial and natural lighting.

Lighting specifically intended for


wheelchair users to be able to board or
Illumination of the area so inadequate as to
pose a risk to the safety of users
I
1
alight in safety is missing, inoperative or
badly deteriorated. Other lighting provides sufficient illumination IN
for users

Steps/Floors/Gangways

Slip resistant material deteriorated and Users likely to loose their footing I
no longer effective
Otherwise than above IN

Contrasting band of colour along the Missing D


edge of a step missing or deteriorated
(not Annex VII or ECE regulation Deteriorated but still visible IN
vehicles)
Step projecting and/or likely to cause injury I

Folding or extendible step damaged or Cannot be stowed correctly IN


not functioning correctly

Kneeling Suspension

Controls do not stop and reverse - I


lowering process

Categorisation of Defects April 08 61


IM 25 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Windscreen Wipers and Washers and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Washers and Wipers 1. If the windscreen can be opened, or,


by some other means, an adequate

1
Windscreen wiper missing/ damaged/ Any wiper missing, inoperative or damaged I view can be obtained from the driving
inoperative/ blades worn (See Note 1) such that the driver’s view to the front is seat, the vehicle need not be
impaired provided with wipers or washers.

Subject to prevailing weather conditions D 2. Washers are not required on PSVs


(ie weather fine) whilst on local service duty

Otherwise than above IN 3. Washers are not required on


agricultural motor vehicles first used
Windscreen washer not fitted/ Vision seriously impaired I before 1 June 1986 or those driven at
inoperative/ system incomplete speeds not exceeding 20mph.
(See Notes 1, 2 and 3) Otherwise than above IN

62 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 26
and Agricultural Vehicles Speedometer/ Tachograph
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Speedometer 1. Vehicles first registered on or after 1


October 1937 must be fitted with a

1
Speedometer not fitted/ incomplete/ - IN speedometer unless the vehicle is
inoperative/ dial glass broken/ missing/ legally limited to a speed not
cannot be illuminated (See Notes 1, 2 exceeding 25mph or is incapable by
and 3) reason of its construction of
exceeding 25mph.
Tachograph
2. A tachograph may be fitted in place of
Where required, a tachograph is not Tachograph defects to be dealt with under - a speedometer to a vehicle not
fitted/ sealed/ inoperative (See Notes 2, the Transport Act (GVI70 /TE160) within the scope of EC regulations.
3 and 4)
3. Tachograph/ Speedometer fitment
does not apply to Agricultural motor
vehicles driven at not more than
20mph.

4. Examiners should be aware that if


recording equipment is fitted there are
situations where no offence is being
committed and therefore no action
should be taken. A person is not
liable if it can be established that it
had not been reasonably practicable
for the equipment to be repaired by
an approved workshop e.g. it had
become defective during the journey.
Drivers in these circumstances are
required to keep manual records.

Categorisation of Defects April 08 63


IM 27 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Audible Warning (Horn) and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Horn 1. This inspection item does not apply to


an agricultural vehicle driven at not

1
Horn missing/ insecure/ inoperative Detachment imminent I more than 20mph or other motor
(See Note 1) vehicles which have a maximum
Otherwise than above IN speed not exceeding 20mph.

64 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 28
and Agricultural Vehicles Driving Controls
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Driving Controls This Section does not apply to the


condition of brake controls. IM Nos

1
Driving control missing/ incomplete/ Control so defective or impeded in its travel I 36, 37 and 39 apply.
fractured/ damaged/ excessively that it fails to fulfil its function
corroded/ impeded in its travel/
incorrectly positioned/ insecure (Specify Otherwise than above IN
component)

Clutch pedal anti-slip pad loose/ If originally fitted IN


deteriorated

Engine stop control inoperative - IN

Condition of Driver’s Area

Driver’s area littered with rubbish/ Liable to interfere with proper control of the I
ancillary equipment vehicle

Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 65


IM 30 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Steering Control and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Steering Wheel 1. The maximum permissible "free" play


on a steering wheel is as follows:

1
Excessive "free" play at steering wheel Likely to impair directional control of the I
vehicle If a point on the rim of the steering
wheel moves without the road wheels
Otherwise than above D moving for a distance of
(See Notes 1, 2 and 3)
• (except on rack and pinion steering)
Steering wheel (hub/ rim/ spokes) Failed or failure imminent or jagged edges I 1/ 5 of diameter of steering wheel,
fractured likely to cut driver’s hand e.g. 76mm on a 380mm diameter
wheel
Otherwise than above (See Notes 4 and 5) D • (on rack and pinion steering) 1/ 30
of diameter, e.g. 13mm on a 380mm
Steering wheel (hub/ rim/ spokes) Detachment imminent I diameter wheel. Free play of up to
insecure 1/ 8 of diameter, e.g. 48mm on a
Otherwise than above D 380mm diameter wheel is
acceptable where the steering wheel
Steering wheel loose to column shaft - I - is placed forward from rack and
pinion steering, and
Steering wheel retaining device missing - I - has a number of joints to the rack.
(specify device)
2. Power steering must be checked with
the engine running. While the power
steering pump is working but not
providing hydraulic assistance, the
steering wheel play is slightly greater
than with manual steering systems.

3. In some types of steering, e.g. those


with universal joints or flexible
couplings, there might be a certain
amount of movement present that is
not due to wear.

66 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 30
and Agricultural Vehicles Steering Control
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Steering Column 4. Cracks in the plastic covering of a


spoke do not necessarily indicate that

1
Excessive lift or side movement of Abnormal movement indicating failure of I the spoke is fractured.
steering column component parts
5. Jagged edges on the rim of a steering
Otherwise than above (See Notes 3 and 6) D wheel (e.g. due to cracks in plastic
covering) are a reason for action
Steering column coupling excessively Failure imminent I ONLY if they are likely to cut the
deteriorated/ worn/ insecure driver’s hand.
Otherwise than above (See Notes 3 and 6) D
6. Some vehicles have flexible top
Steering wheel/ column adjuster Steering wheel/ column cannot be secured I bearings for the steering column, in
defective as required which case more than average
movement is permissible.
Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 67


IM 33 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Speed Limiters and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes
1. If applicable to the vehicle type, date of
Speed Limiters first use and use (international or
domestic) - See Table A.

1
Speed limiter missing/ disconnected Evidence of intent to circumvent the speed I
(See Note 1 and Table A for the restrictions 2. Between January 2005 and January
requirements according to use, class 2008 the scope of vehicles requiring
and age of vehicle) Unintentional non-compliance (See Note 3) D speed limiters has been extended.
Speed limiter not restricting the vehicle Evidence of intent to circumvent the speed I 3. Unintentional non-compliance will include
to its legal maximum (See Notes 2 and restrictions those instances provided for in regulation
Table A) where the speed limiter has become
Unintentional non-compliance but applicable I defective during the current journey even
restricted speeds clearly exceeded (over 10
if the driver is aware. Providing the
kph) (See Note 3)
available evidence indicates the driver is
generally complying with the applicable
Unintentional non-compliance but evidence D
speed (within 10 kph) delayed prohibition
that applicable restricted speed limit is
action will be appropriate.
being generally complied (within 10 kph)
(See Notes 3 and 5)
4. Some speed limiters do not require the
fitting of external tamperproof devices.
Speed limiter plate missing/ defective/ - IN
Action must only be taken where there is
showing evidence of disturbance
clear evidence that a device has been
disturbed/removed or is defective.
Speed limiter tamper proof device - D
5. When considering prohibition action for
missing/ defective/ showing evidence of
non compliance within 10kph of the
disturbance
restricted speed, Examiners must
Any interrupter device fitted to the - I consider the response speeds accepted
vehicle in contravention of the at annual test - Table A refers. When a
requirements check is completed using the TVI
programmer/simulator, the annual test fail
standard must be met prior to prohibition
action being taken (pre-digital
tachographs excluding mechanical
tachographs).
68 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM33
and Agricultural Vehicles Speed Limiters
Table A
This applies to all vehicles required to be fitted with a speed limiter:
Passenger Vehicles with more than 8 Passenger Seats (Bus)
Vehicle Size C&U reg 36A First registered Use Diesel / LPG / Natural Gas Summary Petrol Annual test response

1
(Gross Design paragraph speed at which vehicle
Weight) date Stabilised speed not to exceed date Stabilised speed not to exceed will be failed
not exceeding 2B & 7 1 January 2005 All existing requirement 100 kph existing requirement 100 kph 102 kph or more
5000 and after

2C & 7 1 October 2001 to 31 All existing requirement 100 kph Not Required 102 kph or more
December 2004 (diesel/LPG/CNG only)
(Euro III or later engine) As of 1st
5001 to 7500 2A & 7 1 January 2005 All existing requirement 100 kph January 2008, all existing requirement 100 kph 102 kph or more
and after vehicles with
2C & 7 1 October 2001 to All existing requirement 100 kph diesel/LPG or Not Required 102 kph or more
31 December 2004 natural gas (diesel/LPG/NG only)
(Euro III or later engine) engines require
7501 to 10000 2&7 1 January 2005 All existing requirement 100 kph a speed limiter existing requirement 100 kph 102 kph or more
and after
set at 100kph or
2&7 1 October 2001 to All existing requirement 100 kph not to exceed existing requirement 100 kph 102 kph or more
31 December 2004
100kph
2 & 7A 1 January 1988 to All existing requirement 100 kph depending on existing requirement set speed 107 kph or more
30 September 2001 of 100 kph
age.
10001 > 2&7 1 January 2005 All existing requirement 100 kph existing requirement 100 kph 102 kph or more
and after
2 & 7A 1 January 1988 to All existing requirement 100 kph existing requirement set speed 107 kph or more
31 December 2004 of 100 kph

Passenger Vehicles with more than 16 Passenger Seats (Coach)


Vehicle Size C&U reg 36A First registered Use Diesel / LPG / Natural Gas Summary Petrol Annual test response
(Gross Design paragraph speed at which vehicle
Weight) date Stabilised speed not to exceed date Stabilised speed not to exceed will be failed
7501 > 1&6 1 April 1974 to All existing requirement speed set All require speed existing requirement speed set 118 kph or more
31 December 1987 at 112 kph at 112 kph
limiter set at
112kph.

Categorisation of Defects April 08 69


Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
IM 33 Speed Limiters, Table A and Agricultural Vehicles
This applies to all vehicles required to be fitted with a speed limiter:
Goods
Vehicle Size C&U reg 36B First registered Use Diesel / LPG / Natural Gas Summary Petrol Annual test response

1
(Gross Design paragraph speed at which vehicle
Weight) date Stabilised speed not to exceed date Stabilised speed not to exceed will be failed

3501 to 7500 1A & 9 1 January 2005 and All existing requirement 90 kph existing requirement 90 kph 92 kph or more
As of 1st
after
January 2008, all
vehicles with
1B & 9 1 October 2001 to 31 All existing requirement 90 kph diesel/LPG or not required 92 kph or more
December 2004 natural gas (diesel/LPG/CNG only)
(Euro III or later engine)
engines require
7501 to 12000 1A & 9 1 January 2005 All existing requirement 90 kph a speed limiter existing requirement 90 kph 92 kph or more
and after set at 90kph or
not to exceed
1B & 8 1 October 2001 to All existing requirement 90 kph existing requirement 90 kph 92 kph or more
90kph
31 December 2004
(Euro III or later engine) depending on
age.
1&8 1 Aug 1992 to All existing requirement 96.5 kph EXCEPT 7501- existing requirement 96.5 kph 102 kph or more
30 September 2001 12000kg
12001 > 2&9 1 January 2005 and All existing requirement 90 kph vehicles existing requirement 90 kph 92 kph or more
after registered
between 1st Aug
2&9 1 October 2001 to All existing requirement 90 kph 1992 and 30th existing requirement 90 kph 92 kph or more
31 December 2004
September 2001
2&9 1 January 1988 to All existing requirement 90 kph which are set to existing requirement 90 kph 92 kph or more
30 September 2001 96.5kph.

70 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 34
and Agricultural Vehicles Pressure/ Vacuum Warning and Build Up
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Air/ Vacuum Build Up 1. If the pressure gauge has no warning


mark, take the 3.1kg/ sq cm (45

1
Air/ Vacuum build up slow If the warning device fails to cease I psi/ 3bar/ 310kPa) mark as the
operating or gauge does not reach 3.1kg/ sq warning mark.
cm (45psi/ 3bar/ 310kPa) within 9 minutes
for vehicle/ trailer/ semi trailer combinations 2. If the vacuum gauge has no warning
(6 minutes for rigid vehicles and uncoupled mark, take the 25 to 30cm Hg mark
tractor units) or 25cm to 30cm vacuum in 2 as the warning mark.
minutes (See Notes 1, 2 and 3)
3. These times are examples only and
If the warning device fails to cease D might vary with vehicle type.
operating or gauge does not reach 3.1kg/ sq
cm (45psi/ 3bar/ 310kPa) within 6 minutes 4. These defects apply only to
for vehicle/ trailer/ semi trailer combinations continuous flow hydraulic braking
(3 minutes for rigid vehicles and uncoupled systems.
tractor units) or 25cm to 30cm vacuum in 1
minute (See Notes 1, 2 and 3)

Hydraulic Build Up

Hydraulic pressure build up slow If warning device fails to cease operating I


within 6 minutes (See Note 4)

If warning device fails to cease operating D


within 4 minutes (See Note 4)

Categorisation of Defects April 08 71


IM 34 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Pressure/ Vacuum Warning and Build Up and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Air/ Vacuum Assistance 5. Applies (with the exception of the


gauge which is not normally fitted) to

1
Insufficient reserve of air/ vacuum Insufficient pressure or vacuum to give I continuous flow hydraulic braking
assistance for two or more applications of systems.
the brakes after the warning device has
operated (See Notes 1 and 2) 6. This inspection applies to all vehicles,
except those with an unladen weight
Warning Systems of less than 3050kg where the
vacuum reservoir is coupled direct to
Warning gauge/ flag/ light/ missing/ not Where only one such device is fitted (See I the engine induction manifold. These
functioning/ not visible Notes 6 and 7) vehicles do not require a pressure/
vacuum warning device. Certain type
Otherwise than above IN approved vehicles (e.g Mercedes
Benz 515, 609, 612, 614 and 709,
Warning gauge not illuminated Function not readily visible during the hours IN Iveco Daily) have been manufactured
of darkness (See Notes 6 and 7) without a warning device. The
absence of such a device in these
Warning buzzer inoperative (See Notes 5, 6 and 7) IN cases is not a defect.

7. Vehicles used from 1 April 1983 can


be fitted with either a visual warning
device or an audible warning device.
If both are fitted only one need work.
Vehicles first used before 1 April 1983
must be fitted with a visual warning
device. If an audible warning device
is also fitted this is considered to be
an addition to the mandatory
requirement.

72 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 36
and Agricultural Vehicles Hand Lever Operating Mechanical Brakes
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Controls 1. This means that, when the brake is


fully applied, there is not sufficient

1
Hand brake lever fractured/ incomplete/ Fails to fulfil its function I further movement of the lever
seized/ insecure because it is at the end of its working
Failure imminent I travel on the ratchet.

Otherwise than above D 2. A locking device might not be obvious


from a visual examination.
Hand brake lever travel impeded/ cannot Cannot be operated satisfactorily I
be readily operated
Otherwise than above D

Excessive side play in hand brake lever Failure imminent or could inadvertently I
disengage

Otherwise than above IN

Insufficient reserve travel on hand brake Brake efficiency impaired I


lever (See Note 1)
Otherwise than above D

Hand brake lever pawl and/ or ratchet Lever cannot be set or could inadvertently I
worn disengage

Otherwise than above IN

Any retaining/ locking device missing/ Retaining device missing or detached. I


insecure or detached (specify
component) Retaining device insecure or locking device D
missing or insecure (See Note 2)

Categorisation of Defects April 08 73


IM 37 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Service Brake Pedal and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Controls 1. Not applicable to power operated


braking systems provided the

1
Foot brake pedal fractured/ incomplete/ Fails to fulfil its function I footvalve is fully open before the
insecure/ pivot excessively worn pedal is fully depressed.
Failure imminent I
2. The provision of a pedal rubber which
Otherwise than above D is itself of an anti-slip material is not
to be regarded as defective if its
Foot brake pedal travel impeded/ cannot Cannot be operated satisfactorily I design pattern is worn smooth.
be readily operated
Otherwise than above D

Insufficient reserve travel on foot brake Brake efficiency impaired I


pedal (See Note 1)
Otherwise than above D

Foot brake pedal antislip provision Pad about to become detached or level of D
missing/ loose/ deteriorated / worn grip offered affected
smooth (See Note 2)
Otherwise than above IN

74 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 38
and Agricultural Vehicles Service Brake Operation
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Controls 1. These defects might not apply to


vehicles equipped with full air/ vacuum

1
Foot brake pedal "spongy" indicating a Brake efficiency impaired I or continuous flow hydraulic braking
fault in the brake system (See Note 1) systems.
2. Regulations only require that an anti-
Otherwise than above D lock warning light is fitted, it may be
fitted on the drawing vehicle in the
Foot brake pedal "creeps" to floor - I case of a semi-trailer.
(See Note 1) 3. The anti-lock light operating sequences
are complex. If Examiners are in
Air/ vacuum assistance not working Braking efficiency impaired I doubt about the existence of a defect
and the sequence plate is missing,
Otherwise than above D then providing the warning light is
operating, the issue of an Inspection
Motor Vehicle EBS/ABS Systems Notice is the appropriate course of
action.
Anti-lock or EBS warning light See Note 2 D 4. All ABS and EBS equipped vehicles
inoperative or indicates the existence of and trailers approved to UN or EU
a fault requirements must display a warning
light to indicate to the driver the
existence of a fault in the system. This
light is required to illuminate when the
system is energised and will extinguish
on satisfactory completion of the static
test. Some illuminate very briefly and
may be missed, particularly in bright
lighting conditions. It may be
necessary to wait as much as 30
seconds before re-testing to allow the
system to re-set.

Categorisation of Defects April 08 75


IM 38 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Service Brake Operation and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Trailer Electronic Braking Systems 5. An EBS pictogram from the system


(EBS) (See Notes 2, 3, 4 and 5) manufacture or the presence of a

1
seven pin ISO7638 plug on the trailer
Trailer EBS warning light not working or No available evidence of EBS function (See I 'headboard' are reliable indicators that
indicates the existence of a fault Notes 4) EBS is fitted.

6. A five pin ISO7638 plug on the


headboard is reliable evidence that a
trailer is not EBS equipped.
Trailer Anti-lock Braking Systems
(ABS) (See Notes 2, 3, 4 and 6) 7. If it can be determined that the trailer
is not equipped with load sensing in
Anti-lock brake warning light sequence - D addition to ABS then immediate
inoperative or indicates a fault (See Note 7) prohibition action may be appropriate.

Leaks

Indication of leakage in full air/ vacuum/ Leakage such that pressure or vacuum I
continuous flow hydraulic brake systems cannot be sustained with engine running just
above idling speed

Otherwise than above D

76 April 08 VOSA
THIS PAGE HAS BEEN LEFT
INTENTIONALLY BLANK

Categorisation of Defects April 08 77


IM 39 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Hand Operated Brake Control Valve and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Controls

1
Brake hand valve fractured/ If not functional I
damaged/ insecure/ lever loose
Otherwise than above D

Brake hand control valve cannot be - I


moved over its original full travel or
cannot be retained in the on or off
positions

Parking brake hand valve lever cannot - I


be set

Indication of leakage in full Leakage such that pressure or vacuum I


air/ vacuum/ continuous flow hydraulic cannot be sustained with engine running
brake systems just above idling speed

Otherwise than above D

78 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 41
and Agricultural Vehicles Condition of Chassis
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Chassis and Attachments 1. For components normally fixed to the


chassis eg fuel tanks, brake

1
Chassis main member/ cross member/ Likely to affect control of the vehicle, safe I reservoirs etc, see other sections.
outrigger severely corroded/ seriously carriage of load or detachment of
deformed/fractured/ insecure/ missing/ component imminent (See Notes 1 and 2) 2. This item includes the condition of
welding breaking away any flitch plates that are fitted.
Otherwise than above IN

Integral bodied vehicle panels forming Likely to affect control of the vehicle, safe I
part of the overall strength of the vehicle carriage of load or detachment of
of unsuitable type with inappropriate component imminent
fixings/ insecure
Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 79


IM 42 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Electrical Wiring and Equipment and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes
Battery Condition
1. PSVs only.
Battery insecure Likely to fall from vehicle or displacement I

1
constitutes a fire risk 2. Action to be taken if lights don’t work
properly is shown in IMs 63 and 66.
Otherwise than above IN

Battery leaking Electrolyte entering passenger compartment I


of a PSV or likely to cause failure of items
which could affect vehicle safety

Otherwise than above IN

Battery container not vented (See Note 1) D

Battery cell closure insecure/ missing Electrolyte entering passenger compartment I


or likely to cause failure of items which could
affect vehicle safety

Fumes entering passenger compartment I

Otherwise than above IN


Switchgear and Wiring

Wiring insecure/ inadequately Constitutes a fire risk I


insulated/ insulation is or will become
ineffective due to chafing or heat. Otherwise than above IN

Lighting switch insecure/ malfunctioning If lights work (See Note 2) IN

80 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 43
and Agricultural Vehicles Engine and Transmission
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Engine/ Transmission Security

1
Engine or transmission mounting/ Engine/ transmission detachment imminent I
subframe fractured/ deteriorated/ insecure
No longer capable of performing its function D
of location and support

Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 81


IM 44 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Oil and Waste Leaks and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Oil Leaks 1. When considering several leaks, due


regard must be given to the

1
Oil leaking onto road surface (specify Continuous flow I cumulative effect, which could justify
location on vehicle) prohibition action.
Dripping giving rise to a patch in excess of D
75mm diameter in 5 minutes (See Note 1) 2. "Waste" includes effluent from toilets
and other ancillary devices, but does
Otherwise than above IN not include water from sinks or hand
wash basins.
PSVs Only: Oil or waste contaminating Constitutes a health/ fire risk I
... (specify component/ material)
(See Note 2) Otherwise than above IN

82 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 45
and Agricultural Vehicles Fuel Tanks and Systems
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Fuel Tanks and Systems 1. Fabricated and "Emergency" caps are


acceptable provided they function

1
Fuel tank and/ or mountings insecure Detachment imminent I effectively. Use of rags etc. in place
of a fuel cap must be regarded as a
Significantly insecure D defect.

Otherwise than above IN 2. When considering several leaks, due


regard must be given to the
Fuel tank filler cap and/ or sealing Such as to permit fuel spillage and cause a I cumulative effect, which could justify
arrangement missing/ defective hazard to the vehicle and/ or other road prohibition action.
users (See Note 1)

Otherwise than above IN

Fuel leakage from ... (specify source) Continuous fuel leak or a leak constituting a I
hazard to other road users or PSV
passengers

Dripping giving rise to a patch in excess of D


75mm diameter in 5 minutes (See Note 2)

Otherwise than above IN

Fuel pipe damaged/ chafed/ insecure Likely to fracture or leak D

Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 83


IM 46 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Exhaust Systems and PSV Waste Systems and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Exhaust System (See Note 2) 1. When considering a fire hazard, the


nature of the load carried could make

1
Exhaust system Fumes likely to enter vehicle interior, I more lenient action appropriate.
incomplete/ insecure/ leaking detachment imminent or likely to create a
fire hazard (See Note 1) 2. The term "exhaust system" in this
context includes the exhaust
Significant deterioration D arrangements of combustion heaters,
particulate traps and catalysts.
Leak from exhaust system likely to Brake or fuel pipe likely to fail I
cause damage to brake or fuel lines

Exhaust silencer holed or missing Does not reduce as far as is reasonable the D
noise level

Exhaust system contaminated by grease Constitutes a fire risk or shield likely to I


or oil etc. PSV grease shields detach
inadequate/ missing/ insecure
Otherwise than above IN

PSV toilet waste outlet depositing waste - D


onto road

84 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 48
and Agricultural Vehicles Suspension
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Suspension Location NOTE: AGRICULTURAL VEHICLES

1
A suspension anchor bracket insecure/ Detachment or failure imminent I • DRIVEN AT NOT MORE THAN 20
fractured or otherwise defective MPH, AND
Fractured or relative movement between D
bracket and chassis • WEIGHING NO MORE THAN
4070KG UNLADEN WEIGHT
Any one nut, bolt or rivet missing/ insecure IN
(See Note 1) ARE NOT REQUIRED TO HAVE A
SUSPENSION SYSTEM.
A suspension shackle bracket Detachment or failure imminent I
insecure/ fractured or otherwise 1. When some tyres of suspension
defective Slight movement between bracket and IN attachment bracket are fitted, there
chassis or any one nut, bolt or rivet could be more holes in the bracket
missing/ insecure (See Note 1) than holes in the chassis. This would
not be a reason for action.
Suspension holding down bolts/ nuts Axle moving relative to suspension unit I
insecure/ missing. Saddle fractured (See Note 3) 2. When rubber suspension retainers
are fitted and/ or bonded composite
Otherwise than above D bushes and/ or mountings, these
must be in such a condition as to
Sub-frame insecure to chassis or body, Detachment or failure imminent I adequately locate the suspension
fractured or otherwise defective unit.
Otherwise than above D
3. Examiners will need to take into
A suspension anchor/ shackle pin - I account the method of axle location
missing/ sheared (See Note 4) and whether the movement affects
the directional control of the vehicle.
A suspension anchor/ shackle pin and or Diametric clearance in excess of one third I
bush excessively worn (See Notes 4 diameter of pin 4. Also applicable to the pins and
and 4a) bushes locating independent
Clearly worn in excess of the annual test D suspension arms/ balance beam and
standard linkage pivots.

Otherwise than above IN


Categorisation of Defects April 08 85
IM 48 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Suspension and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

A suspension retaining rubber Suspension unit detachment imminent I 4a. The maximum permissible wear in a
missing/ deteriorated (See Note 2) pin and/ or bush is 2mm for a 12mm

1
Excessive relative movement between D diameter pin and 1/ 8th of the
suspension unit and bracket diameter for larger assemblies. If the
degree of wear cannot be confirmed
A suspension anchor/ shackle pin Pin displaced I by measurement, advisory action on
insecure in its bracket (See Note 4) an Inspection Notice will be
Significantly insecure D appropriate.

Otherwise than above IN 5. Delayed action only where a slipper is


worn to the extent that it could, at the
A suspension anchor/ shackle pin locking Missing or ineffective I time of the inspection, clearly affect
device missing/ ineffective/ insecurely the movement or correct location of
fitted (See Note 4) Insecurely fitted D the road spring or has allowed the
spring leaf to damage the chassis.

A suspension slipper bracket excessively Spring displaced from slipper bracket I


worn/ fractured/ not securely fixed or
rebound pin missing Otherwise than above (See Note 5) D

Radius arm or linkage bracket insecure Detachment or failure imminent I


or otherwise defective
Otherwise than above D

Radius arm or linkage bracket fractured/ Fracture, displacement or distortion I


displaced/ distorted adversely affecting directional control

Otherwise than above D

86 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 48
and Agricultural Vehicles Suspension
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Suspension Units and Location

1
A suspension unit weak/ insecure Bodywork fouling (or likely to foul road I
wheels if vehicle were laden) or seriously
affecting the vehicle’s stability/ control or
detachment imminent

Otherwise than above IN

A suspension unit incorrectly fitted Directional or braking control affected or I


likely to be affected

Otherwise than above IN

A suspension component displaced/ Control of vehicle affected, likely to be I


insecure affected, failure of the suspension imminent
or component likely to become detached

Otherwise than above IN

Leaf Suspension

Spring leaf fractured/ defective Main leaf fractured or more than half of the I
intermediate leaves broken

Insecure spring leaf, likely to fall away from I


vehicle

Otherwise than as above D

Spring clips loose/ missing/ broken - IN

Spring centre bolt broken/ missing - I

Categorisation of Defects April 08 87


IM 48 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Suspension and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes
Coil Suspension
Coil Spring fractured Detachment imminent/ safe control of vehicle I 6. The term "Bonded Suspension" does
likely to be affected not include bump stops.

1 Torsion Bar Suspension


Otherwise than above D 6a. Some manufacturers of HGVs with
air suspension have elected to fit
Torsion bar fractured/ distorted Fractured, displacement or distortion I heavy duty shock absorbers which
adversely affecting directional control also fulfil the purpose of check straps.
Some of these vehicles will have the
Otherwise than above D brackets and mounting points for
check straps. Action only if there is
Bonded Suspension evidence of check straps having been
Bonded suspension unit Failed or seriously deteriorated I fitted and are missing.
failed/ deteriorated (See Note 6)
Otherwise than as above IN 6b. Superficial damage should be
ignored. ‘Damage’ means the cord
Air or Fluid Suspension structure is damaged.
Suspension unit leaking or deflated. Adversely affecting system or vehicle control I
(Specify Component)
Otherwise than above D

Air/ fluid suspension unit or fluid Damage obvious and failure imminent I
accumulator fouling or otherwise defective
(See Note 6b) Otherwise than as above IN

Levelling valve inoperative/ excessively Adversely affecting vehicle stability/ control I


worn/ damaged / missing/ leaking
Otherwise than above D

Suspension piping insecure/ chafing/ Damage obvious and failure imminent I


corroded/ excessively damaged
Otherwise than above IN

Air suspension pedestal excessively Failure imminent I


corroded/damaged distorted or incomplete
Otherwise than above D
88 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 48
and Agricultural Vehicles Suspension
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Air or Fluid Suspension (continued) 7. Action here only if the stability of the
vehicle is adversely affected.

1
Check strap defective Missing or failure likely (See Note 6a) D
8. The significance of defective shock
Otherwise than above IN absorbers will vary according to the
suspension type. Prohibition action
Anti-roll Bars will be appropriate only when it is
clear that the handling of the vehicle
An anti-roll bar, pivot, linkage or Missing, detachment imminent or likely to I will be severely affected. e.g. in the
mounting missing/ insecure/ fractured/ affect steering case of multi-leaf steel springs the
malfunctioning effect of a missing stock absorber will
Otherwise than above IN be less significant than with other
road spring types.
An anti-roll bar missing If fitted as standard (See Note 7) I
9. Only where originally required/ fitted.
Shock Absorbers

Missing shock absorber, pivot, linkage or Missing, detachment imminent or likely to I


mounting insecure/ fractured/ affect steering (See Note 9)
malfunctioning (See Note 8)
Otherwise than above D

Shock absorber leaking - IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 89


IM 53 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Axles, Stub Axles and Wheel Bearings and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Stub Axles and Wheel Bearings 1. As a general guide, the lift in a stub
(See Note 2) axle would normally be considered

1
excessive if greater than 1.6mm.
Excessive wear of king pins and/ or Likely to affect steering or fail prematurely I
bushes or swivel joints 2. During roadside checks, it is not
Otherwise than above IN normally possible to raise the wheels
of a vehicle off the ground.
Excessive free play in wheel bearings Likely to collapse I

Play in excess of vehicle manufacturer’s IN


recommendations

Excessive lift in stub axle or at swivel Evidence of collapse of bearings or loss of I


joint shims

Otherwise than above (See Note 1) D

King pin loose in axle beam or swivel Pin displaced or displacement likely I
joint excessively worn or insecure
Otherwise than above D

King pin or swivel joint retaining device Retaining device missing or detached I
missing/ insecure
Retaining device insecure D

Axle or stub axle cracked - I

90 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 54
and Agricultural Vehicles Steering Mechanism
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Steering Box/ Rack 1. During roadside checks, it is not


normally possible to raise the wheels

1
Steering stiff or rough in operation Restricting operation I off the ground.
(See Note 1)
Obvious roughness D 2. This item applies only to vehicles
fitted with gaiters as original
Steering box noisy/ knocking - IN equipment.

Steering box sector shaft cracked or Shaft cracked or visibly twisted I


twisted

Excessive lift/ end float/ wear on sector - D


shaft, bushes or splines

Excessive wear in steering rack - D

Steering gear housing Any restriction/ failure or detachment I


fractured/ insecure/ damaged imminent

Otherwise than above D

Rack gaiter split/ damaged/ displaced or - D


missing (See Note 2)

Categorisation of Defects April 08 91


IM 54 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Steering Mechanism and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Steering Linkage 3. Some steering joints are spring


loaded. The designed amount of

1
Steering drop arm insecure If movement is such that failure is likely I movement must not be confused with
abnormal movement.
Excessive abnormal movement D

Steering ball pin insecure Any insecurity I

Steering ball pin grooved Diameter substantially reduced I

Otherwise than above IN

Track rod/ drag link insecure Excessive movement between mating parts I

Slight movement D

Excessive movement in steering joint If joint in danger of separation I


(See Note 3)
Excessive abnormal movement D

Otherwise than above IN

Steering relay arm pivot excessively Failure imminent I


worn
Otherwise than above D

Steering linkage misaligned Steering function impaired I

Otherwise than above IN

92 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 54
and Agricultural Vehicles Steering Mechanism
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Steering Linkage

1
Steering relay arm pivot housing/ Failure or detachment imminent I
bracket fractured/ insecure
Otherwise than above D

Steering arm insecure Detachment imminent I

Otherwise than above D

Steering component fractured/ deformed Failure imminent I


or otherwise defective (Specify
component) Otherwise than above D

Steering component fouling, or road Steering function impaired I


wheels/ tyres restricted in travel (Specify
component) Otherwise than above D

Steering retaining/ locking device Retaining device missing or ineffective I


missing / insecure
Retaining device insecure or any locking D
device missing or insecure

Lock stop or other steering component Likely to become detached I


missing/ insecure
Otherwise than above IN

Power Steering

Pump insecure or it’s drive system Failure or detachment imminent I


missing or defective
Otherwise than above D

Categorisation of Defects April 08 93


IM 54 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Steering Mechanism and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Power Steering (See Note 4) 4. Power steering components must be


checked with the engine running.

1
Power steering malfunctioning/ Disconnected, inoperative or failure I Inspection will include power steering
inoperative or otherwise defective imminent (See Note 5) drive mechanisms.

Otherwise than above D 5. If power steering equipment is


optional and has been removed with
Power steering ram, anchor bracket or Failure or detachment imminent I no adverse effect on the steering, no
pump mounting fractured/ insecure or action must be taken.
otherwise defective. Otherwise than above D

Power steering ram fluid pipes damaged If steering function impaired I

Otherwise than above IN

Power steering pipes fouling (Specify Pipes damaged and likely to fail I
component being fouled)
Otherwise than above IN

Excessive fluid/ air leakage from power Fluid/ air leaking continuously, failure of I
steering (specify component) power steering imminent

Contamination of materials so as to I
constitute a risk of fire

Fluid leakage in excess of 75mm diameter D


patch in 5 minutes

Otherwise than above IN

Power steering ram joint excessively If joint in danger of separation, or I


worn/ spring weak/ spring broken detachment of ram imminent

Otherwise than above D

94 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 57
and Agricultural Vehicles Transmission
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Propeller Shafts & Drive Shafts 1. Prohibition action for excessive wear
of universal joint is only justified when

1
Propeller shaft damaged Bent, fouling or fractured and failure I radial movement indicates that
imminent needle roller bearings are missing
from one or more cups.
Other significant damage D

Otherwise than above IN

Universal joint excessively worn/ flange Failure or detachment likely I


cracked or insecure on the propeller shaft
(See Note 1) Significantly defective D

Otherwise than above IN

Propeller shaft flange bolts Shaft likely to become detached I


loose/ missing
Other significant insecurity D

Otherwise than above IN

Propeller shaft carrier bearing badly Failed or failure imminent I


worn/ damaged/ mounting loose
Other significant defect D

Otherwise than above IN


Front Wheel Drive Shafts

CV joint and or shaft coupling Bearings collapsed or excessively worn, I


excessively worn. CV gaiter split, splines excessively worn or coupling/ joint
seriously deteriorated and failure imminent
missing or insecure
Significantly deteriorated component D

Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 95


IM 58 Additional Braking Devices Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
(including Retarders) and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Additional Braking Devices 1. Where legally required to be fitted


(including Retarders) (refer to vehicle technical record).

1 Device not working/ missing (See Note 1) - D

Otherwise than above IN

Retarder insecure Likely to become detached I

Heat shield missing/ defective where - D


required

Retarder contaminated with oil/ with Constitutes a fire hazard I


inadequate clearance from other
components

Oil leakage from retarder Continuous leak I

Leakage in excess of 75mm diameter patch D


in 5 minutes

Otherwise than above IN

Retarder wiring chafed/ insecure Fire hazard I

Otherwise than above IN

96 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 59
and Agricultural Vehicles Brake Systems and Components
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Mechanical Components 1. A locking device:


• Might not be obvious from a visual

1
Any brake component excessively Failed or likely to fail I examination
worn/ corroded/ fractured/ reduced in • Might not be mandatory.
diameter/ number of strands reduced (Specify Serious reduction of strength/ excessively worn or D
component) displaced 2. Automatic slack adjusters must be
fitted to HGV and PSV motor vehicles
Otherwise than above IN first used from 1 April 1995 and trailers
manufactured from 1 April 1995.
Any retaining/ locking device missing/ insecure Retaining device missing or detached I
(Specify component) 3. As a guide when automatic slack
Retaining device insecure or locking device D adjusters are fitted the total travel
missing or insecure (See Note 1) should not exceed 2/3rd of the total
actuator travel. Movement obviously
Brake backplate/dust cover loose Brake efficiency impaired or detachment imminent I in excess of this, particularly if unequal
Otherwise than above IN across an axle, can be taken as
evidence that the adjuster is
Abnormal movement of levers indicating Brake efficiency impaired I inoperative. This guidance does not
maladjustment (See Notes 3 and 4) apply to arrangements, particularly
Otherwise than above D disc brakes, where the adjustment
Automatic brake slack adjuster and/ or Brake efficiency impaired I may take place within the caliper or
component missing/disconnected/ insecure or elsewhere and 'Automatic Slack
inoperative (See notes 2, 3, 4 and 5) Otherwise than above D Adjusters' are not fitted.

Actuator/Brake Cylinder Travel 4. All automatic slack adjusters must


Excess or restricted travel of brake actuator or Brake efficiency impaired (see Note 6) I return fully on release of the brakes. If
cylinder they do not, they will not be sensing
Excess amount of travel (see Note 7) D the correct state of adjustment and
therefore be incapable as operating as
Otherwise than above IN intended.
Brake Actuators
Air/vacuum actuator missing/ insecure/ Missing/ Inoperative or about to fail I
damaged/ fractured/excessively corroded/
incorrectly fitted Otherwise than above D

Categorisation of Defects April 08 97


IM 59 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Brake Systems and Components and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Loss of air/vacuum Pressure/vacuum cannot be sustained with I 5. Particular attention should be paid to
the engine running just above idling speed the control arm and anchor bracket if

1
and brakes applied so equipped. These will fracture
and/or detach if not correctly fitted.
Otherwise than above D
Brake Travel Indicators 6. When immediate action is taken this
must be reinforced with evidence that
Brake piston/diaphragm travel indicator (See Note 8) IN the efficiency is impaired, eg. brake
missing/inoperative test results or, in the case of
adjustment, clearly no reserve travel.
Brake adjustment indicator shows that Brake efficiency impaired (See Note 9) I
brake adjustment is necessary 7. Excess travel means when there is
Otherwise than above IN too little reserve travel left in the
actuator which clearly demonstrates
Servos that the point at which adjustment
was necessary has been exceeded.
Brake servo insecure Detached or detachment imminent I
8. Brake actuators or servos in which
Otherwise than above D the travel cannot be visually assessed
are often fitted with a device that
Brake servo damaged/incorrectly fitted/ Failed or failure imminent I indicates the extent of travel of the
fractured/excessively corroded piston or diaphragm.
Otherwise than above D

Excessive travel of brake servo Brake efficiency impaired I

Otherwise than above (See Note 8) IN

Servo losing vacuum Vacuum cannot be sustained with engine I


running above idling speed and brakes
applied

Otherwise than above D

98 April 08 VOSA
Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 59
and Agricultural Vehicles Brake Systems and Components
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Brake Discs and Drums 9. When immediate action is taken this


Brake disc missing/ loose/ fractured/ Brake efficiency impaired (See Note 9) I must be reinforced with evidence that

1
excessively worn/ friction surface the efficiency is impaired, e.g. brake
excessively corroded/ pitted (See Note 10) Failed or failure imminent I test results or, in the case of
adjustment, clearly no reserve travel.
A fracture extending through the surface D
into the ventilation cavity of a disc 10. Surface cracks on brake discs and
drums are a normal feature that
Disc friction surface excessively/ D should be ignored.
deteriorated/ pitted to the extent that the
pad is not contacting areas of the surface 11. This would normally be a lining less
than 1.5mm (1/16") thick at any point.
Otherwise than above IN

Brake drum fractured/ missing/ Missing or failure imminent I


excessively worn (See Note 10)
Drum fractured through I

Otherwise than above IN

Brake friction lining/ pad missing/ Missing/ detached not contacting and/or I
excessively worn/ insecure/ friction pad braking efficiency impaired
or lining not contacting drum or disc
Linings worn to excess (See Note 11) D

Otherwise than above IN

Severely contaminated pad/lining Braking efficiency impaired (See Note 9) I


material
Where contamination is clearly evident and D
likely to affect performance but brake test
equipment is not available to confirm

Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 99


IM 59 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Brake Systems and Components and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Vehicle Electronic (EBS) or Anti-lock 12. Some Public Service Vehicles are
Braking Systems (ABS) manufactured without ABS but may

1
Any component forming part of an anti-lock Such that the ABS system is rendered inoperative D have ABS valves fitted as standard.
braking system missing/ damaged/ or the warning light sequence indicates there is If no action is taken under IM 38
disconnected (See Note 12) a fault then the fitment of these
components is not to be considered
Trailer Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS) a defect.
(See Note 13)
Any component forming part of an anti-lock Such that the ABS system is rendered inoperative D 13. A five pin ISO7638 plug on the
braking system missing/damaged/ or the warning light sequence indicates there is a ‘headboard’ is reliable evidence that
disconnected (See Notes 16 and 21) fault a trailer is not EBS equipped.

Disconnected or damaged, likely to be affecting D 14. A EBS pictogram from the system
the correct function manufacture or the presence of a
seven pin ISO7638 plug on the
Otherwise than above IN trailer 'headboard' are reliable
indicators that EBS is fitted.
ISO7638 cable missing (See Note 16) - D
15. Acceptable evidence will normally
Trailer Electronic Braking Systems (EBS) be the noise made by electro-
(See Note 14) pneumatic valves as the system
Any component forming part of an electronic Such that the EBS system is rendered inoperative I goes through its self-check cycle.
braking system missing/ damaged/ or the warning light sequence indicates there is a
disconnected fault and no evidence of operation (See Note 15) 16. Vehicles towing trailers, where both
are equipped with ISO7638
Otherwise than above but evidence of operation D connectors, must have these
connected with an appropriate cable
ISO7638 cable missing (See Note 16) No evidence of operation (See Note 15) I regardless of any alternative method
available on the vehicle to provide
Otherwise than above D power. (This came into effect from 2
Air Compressor Drive May 2002).
Drive belt(s) missing/ badly deteriorated/ Air build-up seriously affected or failure imminent I
loose
Otherwise than above D

100 April 08 VOSA


Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 59
and Agricultural Vehicles Brake Systems and Components
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Air/Vacuum Reservoir 17. Minor valves might not be supported.


Brake air/ vacuum reservoir damaged/ Detachment or failure imminent I 18. Damp patches around valves are not to be

1
excessively corroded/insecure considered as necessarily indicating a
Otherwise than above D defect.
19. Faults, particularly those concerning the
Brake Valves free movement of valves, are often difficult
Brake valve inoperative (specify component) - I to positively detect. If examiners are in
doubt about the existence of a defect the
Brake valve insecure (specify component) Detached or detachment imminent and or likely to I IN option must be used.
(See Note 17) cause leakage at connections 20. This inspection applies to all types of load
sensing valves.
Insecurity due to weakness or failure of supporting D 21. Goods vehicles first used after 1 April 1983
structure require either a Load Sensing Valve (LSV)
or Anti-Lock Braking (ABS) to comply with
Brake valve damaged/ fractured/ Fractured or damaged to an extent that renders I EEC Braking Directives. There are
excessively corroded (Specify component) the valve inoperative or failure imminent exemptions.
a. Public Works Vehicles, examples are
Otherwise than above IN mobile libraries and door to door domestic
refuse collection vehicles.
Brake valve leaking Leakage such that pressure or vacuum cannot be I Note:- "Domestic refuse" vehicles used for the
sustained with engine running just above idle collection of industrial waste for which a
speed charge is made are not exempt.
b. Vehicles with high unladen weights (where
Other significant leak D the ratio between laden and unladen
weight is small) may meet the requirements
Otherwise than above IN without a load sensing valve.
c. Trailers with a Gross Vehicle Weight
Load sensing valve missing/ seized/ Clearly not able to function as intended (See Note 19) I exceeding 3500kg, manufactured on or
bypassed, linkage defective/ disconnected or after 1 October 1982 are required to be
out of adjustment (See Notes 19 and 20) Otherwise than above IN fitted with either a Load Sensing Valve
(LSV) or Anti-lock Braking (ABS) or an
Excessive oil/ contaminant discharge from (See Note 18) D Electronic Braking System (EBS).
brake valves

Categorisation of Defects April 08 101


IM 59 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Brake Systems and Components and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Brake Pipes and Hoses

1
Brake pipe excessively chafed/ damaged Failed or failure imminent I d. Drawbar trailers with a Gross Vehicle
Weight exceeding 10000kg and semi
Otherwise than above (See Note 22) D trailers with a total axle summation
exceeding 10000kg manufactured on
Brake pipe corroded Failed or failure imminent I or after 1 October 1991 must be fitted
with either ABS or EBS.
Deeply pitted, weakened D
e. Any trailer with a Gross Vehicle
Brake pipe inadequately clipped/ Failed or failure imminent I Weight exceeding 3500kg
supported/ repaired manufactured after 1 January 1968
Significantly insecure D with an EEC two line or two plus three
line trailer braking system, must be
Otherwise than above IN fitted with either an LSV, ABS or EBS.

Brake pipe fouling (Specify component Failed or failure imminent I In any of the above cases more than
fouled) one system may be fitted.
Otherwise than above D
Note: A trailer manufactured after 1
Brake hose chafed/ deteriorated/ Failed or failure imminent I January 1968 and before 1 October
stretched/ bulging/ kinked/ twisted/ 1991 may be exempt the fitment of a
fouling/ exposed to excessive heat Otherwise than above (See Note 22) D Load Sensing Valve where the
unladen weight is 60% or greater than
Brake pipe/ hose/ coupling/ connection Any positive hydraulic leak I the Gross Vehicle Weight.
leaking (Specify component)
Leakage such that pressure or vacuum I 22. Minor damage that is unlikely to get
cannot be sustained with engine running worse may be ignored.
just above idle speed

Otherwise than above D

102 April 08 VOSA


Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 59
and Agricultural Vehicles Brake Systems and Components
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Hydraulic Systems

1
Brake master cylinder/ reservoir/ wheel Detached or detachment imminent I 23. Hydraulic brake master and wheel
cylinder/ caliper insecure cylinders may show dampness
Otherwise than above D around the vent and dust covers due
to the brake fluid acting as a seal
Brake master cylinder/ wheel cylinder/ Failed or failure imminent I lubricant. Care must be taken to
caliper damaged/ disconnected/ ensure that any dampness is not
missing/ incorrectly fitted/ fractured Otherwise than above D confused with seal failure which
would result in a positive leak.
Brake fluid leaking from (Specify source) Obvious leak leading to brake failure or I
presenting a risk of fire (See Note 23) 24. "Fully floating" cylinders must not be
confused with insecure cylinders.
Otherwise than above IN

Absence of or low fluid level in hydraulic Reservoir empty I


brake fluid reservoir
Fluid level clearly below the minimum level D
indication

Otherwise than above IN


Hydraulic Brake Cylinders

A hydraulic cylinder mounting Detached or detachment/ failure imminent I


insecure/ cracked/ fractured/ damaged or
a stop pin or locking device missing or Otherwise than above (See Note 24) D
insecure

A hydraulic cylinder leaking Brake pedal creeps to floor or obvious leak I


(See Note 23)

Categorisation of Defects April 08 103


IM 62 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Rear Markings and Reflectors and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Rear Markings 1. No reflectors are required to be fitted


to vehicles not fitted with front or rear

1
Insecure, partially or completely missing, Detachment imminent I position lamps. No side reflectors are
incorrectly located or not clearly visible required on buses.
from the rear Otherwise than as above IN
2. Side reflectors are required on:-
Incorrect rear marking fitted - IN
• Motor vehicles first used before 1
Obligatory Reflectors (See Note 1) April 1986 and longer than 8 metres
overall.
Obligatory reflector Detachment imminent I
missing/ deteriorated/ incorrectly • Motor vehicles first used from 1 April
fitted/ obscured/ Otherwise than above IN 1986 and longer than 6 metres
insecure overall.

HGV side reflector missing, deteriorated (See Notes 2 and 3) IN • Trailers longer than 5 metres
or of incorrect colour overall, excluding any drawbar.

HGV side reflector incorrectly fitted or (See Note 2) IN 3. HGV side reflectors must be amber,
not plainly visible from the side unless they are within 1 metre of the
rear of the vehicle, in which case they
can be red.

104 April 08 VOSA


Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 63
and Agricultural Vehicles Lamps
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

All lamps 1. No lamps are required to be fitted to


vehicles only used on roads between

1
A lamp or lens insecure or damaged Likely to cause injury or detachment I sunrise and sunset. Trailers
imminent manufactured before 1 October 1985
are not required to be fitted with front
Otherwise than above IN position lamps while being drawn by a
passenger vehicle.
Obligatory Front Position Lamps
(See Note 1) 2. When visibility is seriously reduced
(to less than 100 metres), the use of
Obligatory front position lamp insecure Lamp so insecure that detachment is I dipped headlamps and side lamps is
imminent required by Regulation.

Otherwise than above IN

Obligatory front position lamp (See Note 2) IN


inoperative/ missing/ dim/ obscured/
affected by the operation of another
lamp/ lens broken or missing

Obligatory front position lamp has - IN


intermittent operation, flickers when
tapped or does not face to front.

Categorisation of Defects April 08 105


IM 63 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Lamps and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Obligatory Headlamps (See Note 3) 3. For agricultural vehicles see


paragraph 3 of the introduction.

1
Obligatory dipped headlamp inoperative/ When use of headlamps is compulsory I
missing/ obscured/ dim/ flickers when 4. Where the defective headlamp is part
tapped by hand (See Note 4) When use of headlamps is not compulsory IN of a grouped system, consideration
must be given to the capability of
Obligatory headlamp insecure or lens Detachment imminent I other headlamps in that group.
broken or missing
Otherwise than above IN 5. End marker lamps are required on
vehicles first used on or after 1 April
The dipped beam and/ or main beam Likely to cause dazzle when headlamp use I 1991 that have an overall width
emitted from a matched pair of is compulsory greater than 2100mm and a
obligatory headlamps cannot be maximum speed exceeding 25mph.
switched on or off together Otherwise than above IN

In any grouped obligatory headlamp Likely to cause dazzle when headlamp use I
system (ie. more than one matched pair) is compulsory
they cannot either be dipped in unison
or when one matched pair (the outer pair Otherwise than above IN
if not vertically in line) is dipped the
other pairs are extinguished

Obligatory End-Outline Marker Lamps


(See Notes 1, 5 and 6)

Obligatory marker lamp missing/ Detachment imminent I


insecure/ obscured/ inoperative/
incorrectly positioned Otherwise than above IN

106 April 08 VOSA


Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 63
and Agricultural Vehicles Lamps
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Obligatory Rear Position Lamps 6. No lamps are required to be fitted to


(See Note 6) vehicles only used on roads between

1
sunrise and sunset. Motor vehicles
Obligatory rear lamp insecure Lamp so insecure that detachment is I first used before 1 April 1986 are not
imminent required to be fitted with any rear
lamps while drawing a trailer fitted
Otherwise than above IN with lamps.

Obligatory rear lamp inoperative/ Likely to prevent width and presence of the I 7. This action is appropriate only
missing/ dim/ obscured/ affected by the vehicle being indicated adequately during between sunset and sunrise or in
operation of another lamp/ lens broken compulsory use (See Note 7) conditions of seriously reduced
or missing visibility.
Otherwise than above IN
8. Rear fog lamps are required on
vehicles first used on or after 1 April
Obligatory rear lamp has intermittent - IN 1980 (or 1 April 1986 in the case of
operation, flickers when tapped or does agricultural vehicles or works trucks)
not face the rear, lens broken or missing with an overall width greater than
1300mm and a maximum speed
Rear Fog Lamps (See Note 6) exceeding 25mph.

Rear fog lamps insecure Detachment imminent I 9. Where one rear fog lamp is fitted, it
must be positioned on the centre-line
Otherwise than above IN or offside of the vehicle.

Rear fog lamp missing/ obscured/ (See Notes 8 and 9) IN


inoperative/ incorrectly positioned

Rear fog lamp emits light of a colour - IN


other than red or comes on with brake
light

Categorisation of Defects April 08 107


IM 63 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Lamps and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Stop Lamps (See Note 10) 10. Stop lamps are not required on
vehicles not fitted with front or rear

1
Stop lamp inoperative/ obscured/ missing/ No stop lamp shows a steady red light I position lamps or to vehicles with a
dim/ otherwise defective in operation when the brake is applied maximum speed not exceeding
25mph or to agricultural vehicles
Stop lamp(s) remain on when all brakes are I first used before 1 April 1986 or to
released (See Note 12) any other vehicle first used before 1
January 1936.
Otherwise than above (See Note 11) IN
11. Vehicles first used on or after 1
January 1936 and before 1 January
Stop lamp insecure Detachment imminent I 1971 need only one stop lamp. This
lamp must be fitted on the centre-
Otherwise than above IN line or offside of the vehicle.
Reversing Lamps
12. On vehicles with an air brake
Reversing lamp insecure Detachment imminent I system, care must be taken to
ensure the brake lights are not on
Otherwise than above IN due to low air pressure.

Reversing lamp indicator inoperative - IN

Rear Registration Plate Lamps

Missing or not in good working order - IN

108 April 08 VOSA


Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 66 Direction Indicators
and Agricultural Vehicles and Hazard Warning Lamps
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Direction Indicators (See Note 1) 1. No direction indicators are required to


be fitted to vehicles not fitted with

1
Direction indicator insecure Detachment imminent I front or rear position lamps.

Otherwise than above IN 2. The criteria must be the inability of


the driver to signal the intention to
Direction indicator missing/ inoperative/ Indicator cannot be used to clearly show the I change direction by whatever means.
not functioning correctly/ damaged/ driver’s intention (See Note 2) If remaining indicator lamps or
obscured/ lens broken or missing repeaters fulfil this purpose then
Otherwise than above IN Inspection Notice action only will be
appropriate. It is unlikely that hand
Indicator warning lamp inoperative/ not If the warning lamp is inoperative or not IN signals will be acceptable for most
fitted fitted and the driver cannot see that each vehicles covered by this Part of the
indicator is functioning and there is no guide.
audible tell-tale device
3. Vehicles first used before 1 April 1986
Hazard Warning Lamps are not required to have hazard
warning lamps or side repeater
Hazard warning lamp inoperative/ not (See Note 3) IN indicators.
functioning correctly

Side Repeater Indicators

Side repeater indicator inoperative/ not (See Note 3) IN


functioning correctly

Categorisation of Defects April 08 109


IM 67 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Aim of Headlamps and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Aim of Headlamps (See Note 3) 1. An immediate prohibition will normally


only be appropriate for such a defect

1
Headlamp aim too high or too far to the Likely to cause dazzle when use of dipped I in conditions of seriously reduced
right headlamps is compulsory visibility or at night.

Otherwise than above (See Notes 1 and 2) IN 2. If the degree of misalignment of the
headlamp aim does not warrant an
Headlamp aim too low or too far to the Likely to prevent the driver from being able I immediate prohibition, but an
left to drive safely when use of dipped instrumented check shows that the
headlamps is compulsory headlamp aim falls outside the
statutory test limits, an Inspection
Otherwise than above (See Notes 1 and 2) IN Notice should be issued.

3. For agricultural vehicles see


paragraph 3 of the introduction.

110 April 08 VOSA


Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 71
and Agricultural Vehicles Service Brake Performance
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Service Brake Operation and BRAKE PERFORMANCE


Performance (See Note 5)

1
1. When testing brakes, examiners
Service brake does not operate on every - I should have no difficulty in
road wheel where originally designed to establishing the performance of the
do so (See Note 6) service brake and, where the
secondary brake is also the parking
Service brake efficiency low (See Notes Performance does not meet prescribed I brake, the assessment of their
1, 2 and 4) C&U requirements (specify) performance should create no
problems.
A malfunction indicated by abnormally low D
effort (specify) in excess of the annual test 2. Particularly when using a roller brake
imbalance criteria (See Note 3) tester to determine brake
performance, examiners should,
Overall performance below normal IN where possible, take into account the
expectation maximum design weight of the vehicle
(or calculated laden weight in the
Service brake unbalanced, evidence of Marked deviation from straight path when I case of a PSV).
oval brake drum or distorted disc brakes applied
(See Note 3) This will usually only be possible if the
Otherwise than above IN vehicle is at or near to maximum
weight and the examiner is sure that
Service brake binding excessively Severely overheated and either failure or I all brake modulating valves (eg load
(See Note 3) fire likely sensing valves) are delivering
maximum pressure.
Otherwise than above IN
In the case of a vehicle at a lower
weight, the examiner might only be
able to judge brake performance
against presented weight where this
is known.

Categorisation of Defects April 08 111


IM 71 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Service Brake Performance and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

3. Where vehicles are tested on a roller


brake tester for imbalance/ ovality/

1
bind the appropriate Inspection
Manual criteria must be used.

4. There is no performance laid down for


agricultural motor vehicles driven at
not more than 20mph if first used
before 1 June 1986 or agricultural
trailers manufactured before 1
December 1985. After these dates,
they are required to achieve 25% of
the total designed maximum axle
weights.

5. When measuring brake performance,


percentage efficiencies and type of
equipment should be recorded.

6. Some vehicles, perhaps the most


common being rear steer tractor units,
are designed so that the second steer
brakes do not operate until the drive
axle is heavily loaded (e.g. between
60% and the maximum permitted
weight at which point the axle is
deployed and air is fed to the
actuators). These axles will normally
be “supplementary axles” with single
wheels positioned immediately in front
of, or behind drive axles. However,
other configurations may be
encountered.

112 April 08 VOSA


Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 72
and Agricultural Vehicles Secondary Brake Performance
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Secondary Brake Operation and BRAKE PERFORMANCE


Performance (See Note 2)

1
1. When testing brakes, examiners
Secondary brake efficiency low Performance does not meet prescribed I should have no difficulty in
(See Notes 1, 3 and 4) C&U requirements (specify) establishing the performance of the
service brake and, where the
Little or no braking effort at any wheel D secondary brake is also the parking
equipped with a brake operated by the brake, the assessment of their
secondary brake system performance should create no
problems.
Overall performance below normal IN
expectation Where the secondary brake can be
represented by each constituent part
of a split or dual brake system, the
performance can be difficult to
ascertain.

In such circumstances, if the parking


brake can produce the secondary
brake performance, the Regulations
can be regarded as satisfied.

Where this is not possible, the


examiner can only use discretion,
having regard to the general condition
of the brakes and the service brake
performance.

2. When measuring brake performance,


percentage efficiencies and type of
equipment should be recorded.

Categorisation of Defects April 08 113


IM 72 Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods
Secondary Brake Performance and Agricultural Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

3. Particularly when using a roller brake


tester to determine brake

1
performance, examiners must, where
possible, take into account the
maximum design weight of the vehicle
(or calculated laden weight in the
case of a PSV).

This will usually only be possible if


the vehicle is at or near to maximum
weight and the examiner is sure that
all brake modulating valves (eg load
sensing valves) are delivering
maximum pressure.

In the case of a vehicle at a lower


weight, the examiner might only be
able to judge brake performance
against presented weight, where this
is known.

4. There is no performance laid down for


agricultural motor vehicles driven at
not more than 20mph if first used
before 1 June 1986 or agricultural
trailers manufactured before 1
December 1985. After these dates,
they are required to achieve 25% of
the total designed maximum axle
weights.

114 April 08 VOSA


Part 1: Public Service, Heavy Goods IM 73
and Agricultural Vehicles Parking Brake Performance
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Parking Brake Performance 1. Particularly when using a roller brake


(See Note 5) tester to determine brake

1
performance, examiners must, where
Parking brake inefficient (See Notes 1, Does not meet prescribed C&U I possible, take into account the
2, 3 and 4) requirements (specify) maximum design weight of the vehicle
(or calculated laden weight in the
Little or no braking effort on a roadwheel D case of a PSV). This will usually only
equipped with a brake operated by the be possible if the vehicle is at or near
parking brake system to maximum weight. In the case of a
vehicle at a lower weight, the
Overall performance below normal IN examiner might only be able to judge
expectation brake performance against presented
weight, where this is known.

2. For the purpose of this test, the


vehicle can be brought to rest prior to
applying the parking brake (Gradient
and Static Test only).

3. If the minimum efficiency prescribed


in C&U is met, but performance is
less than would be expected, an
Inspection Notice must be issued if
action has not been taken under any
other heading.

4. There is no specified performance for


parking brakes on agricultural
vehicles driven at not more than 20
mph and first used before 1 January
1968.

5. When measuring brake performance,


percentage efficiencies and type of
equipment should be recorded.

Categorisation of Defects April 08 115


VOSA Categorisation of Defects

Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private


Buses and Light Goods Vehicles 2
VOSA Categorisation of Defects Contents
Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses and Light Goods Vehicles
1. ENGINE AND ASSOCIATED Suspension Arms/ Linkages/ 6. STEERING
EQUIPMENT Sub-frames............................15 Steering Wheel and Doors..................................44
Engine Security.......................1 Shock Absorbers...................15 Column..................................30 Bonnet................................44
Oil Leaks.................................1 Anti-roll Bars......................... 16 Steering Box/ Rack &
Fuel Tank and System.............1 Displacers..............................16 Pinion....................................31 10. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
Exhaust System......................2 General..................................16 Steering Linkage...................32 Battery.................................45
Exhaust Emission.................. 2 Power Steering .....................33 Switchgear and Wiring.......45
Speed Limiter..........................3 5. BRAKES King Pins...............................34
Controls.................................17 11. LAMPS AND REFLECTORS
2. TRANSMISSION Warning Systems..................18 7. CHASSIS Front Position Lamps..........46
Drive/ Propeller Shafts.............5 Air/ Vacuum Assistance.........18 Chassis and Attachments......35 Rear Position Lamps...........47
Actuators...............................19 Trailer Coupling.....................35
Servos...................................20 Rear Fog Lamps..................47
Coupling on Trailer................37

2
3. RUNNING GEAR BrakeTravel/ Adjustment Reflectors............................48
Road Wheels and Hubs......... 6 Indicators...............................20 Direction Indicators..............48
Spare Wheel...........................7 Brake Valves..........................21 8. VEHICLE INTERIOR Hazard Warning Lamps.......48
Tyres.......................................7 Air/ Vacuum Reservoir...........21 Driving controls......................38 Side Repeater Indicators.....48
Axles, Stub Axles and Hydraulic Systems.................22 Driver’s Area and Fittings......38 Headlamps..........................49
Wheel Bearings.....................10 Mechanical Components.......23 Passenger Seats...................39 Stop Lamps.........................50
ABS Components..................25 Seat Belts..............................40 Reversing Lamps................51
4. SUSPENSION Brake Pipes and Hoses........25 Rear Registration Plate
Springs...................................12 Additional Braking Devices/ 9. BODYWORK Lamps.................................51
Anchor/ Shackle Pins.............13 Retarders/ Exhaust Brakes...27 Body Panelling......................41
Spring Brackets..................... 14 Service Brake Operation and Bumpers............................... 41
Torsion Bars...........................14 Performance..........................28 Wings and Wheel Arches..... 42
Bonded Units.........................14 Parking Brake Operation and Registration Plates and VIN
Air Suspension......................15 Performance..........................29 Details...................................42
General..................................29 Windscreen and Windows....43
Washers and Wipers............43

Categorisation of Defects
Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses Section 1
and Light Goods Vehicles Engine and Associated Equipment
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Engine Security 1. When considering several leaks, due


regard must be given to the
Engine mounting fractured, deteriorated Engine detachment imminent I cumulative effect which could justify
or insecure prohibition action.
Otherwise than above IN
Oil Leaks 2. If any fuel leak or spillage is likely to
constitute a fire risk, or present a
Oil leak from engine/ assemblies Continuous flow I hazard to other road users, an
immediate prohibition must be issued.
Dripping giving rise to a patch in excess of D
75mm diameter in 5 minutes (See Note 1) 3. Fabricated and ‘emergency’ caps are
acceptable provided they function
Fuel Tank and System Otherwise than above IN effectively. Use of rags etc in place of
a fuel cap must be regarded as a

2
Fuel tank or other system components Detachment imminent I defect.
insecure
Significantly insecure D 4. In the case of diesel fuel only a
significant leak is dripping giving rise
Otherwise than above IN to a patch in excess of 75mm in 5
minutes. When considering several
Fuel leakage from (specify source) Continuous fuel leak or a leak constituting a I leaks, due regard must be given to
fire risk or a hazard to other road users the cumulative effect, which could
justify prohibition action.
Significant leak (See Note 4) D

Otherwise than above IN

Fuel tank filler cap and/ or sealing Such as to permit fuel spillage and cause a I
arrangement missing/ defective hazard to the vehicle and/ or other road
users (See Notes 2 and 3)
Otherwise than above IN

Fuel pipe damaged/ chafed/ insecure Likely to fracture or leak D

Otherwise than above IN


Categorisation of Defects April 08 1
Section 1 Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses
Engine and Associated Equipment and Light Goods Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Exhaust System 5. Petrol Engines: A visual assessment


of exhaust smoke can be made on all
Exhaust system Fumes likely to enter vehicle interior or I vehicles. The prescribed limits for the
incomplete/ insecure/ leaking detachment imminent various exhaust emission
components, requiring an exhaust
Significant deterioration D gas analyser to measure, are to be
applied to vehicles first used on or
Exhaust silencer holed, missing or Does not reduce the noise emitted to a D after 1 August 1975.
modified reasonable level
The appropriate procedures and
Exhaust Emission standards as set out in the relevant
Inspection Manual will be applied
Exhaust emitting excessive smoke Sufficient to obscure vision or likely to I according to the age and class of
(see Notes 5 and 6) cause danger to other road users vehicle. For prohibition issue, where

2
an analyser is used, a margin of 10%
Smoke levels exceed annual test standard D will be added to all prescribed limits.
by more than 10%, or continuous haze
which tends to obscure vision 6. Diesel Engines: A visual
assessment of exhaust smoke can be
Exceeding the annual test limits by 10% or IN made on all vehicles. As with
less or continuous haze, any colour vehicles with petrol engines, a 10%
margin will also be allowed above the
Exhaust emitting excessive levels of Sufficient to obscure vision or likely to I statutory limits. The Light Absorption
pollutants (see Notes 5 and 6) cause danger to other road users Coefficient Scale used for diesel
exhaust smoke, being logarithmic,
Emission levels exceed the annual test D results in the standards for delayed
standard by more than 10%, or tends to prohibition of >3.7m-1 for
obscure vision turbocharged, and >3.0m-1 for
naturally aspirated engines.
Exceeding the annual test limits by 10% or IN
less or continuous haze, any colour

Continuous emission of dense blue or D


clearly visible black smoke at idle

2 April 08 VOSA
Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses Section 1
and Light Goods Vehicles Engine and Associated Equipment
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Speed Limiter (see Note 7) 7. *If applicable to vehicle type and


when first used.
Speed limiter missing/ disconnected Evidence of intent to circumvent the speed I
restrictions a) Unintentional non-compliance will
include those instances provided for
Unintentional non-compliance D in regulation where the speed limiter
has become defective during it’s
Speed limiter not restricting the vehicle Evidence of intent to circumvent the speed I current journey even if the driver is
to its legal maximum restrictions aware. Providing the available
evidence indicates the driver is
Unintentional non-compliance but applicable I generally complying with the
restricted speeds clearly exceeded (>10kph) applicable speed within 10 kph
delayed prohibition action will be
Unintentional non-compliance but evidence D appropriate.

2
that applicable speed limit is being generally
complied with (margin <10kph) b) Some speed limiters do not require
the fitting of external tamperproof
Speed limiter plate missing/ defective - IN devices. Action must only be taken
where there is clear evidence that a
Speed limiter tamperproof device - D device has been disturbed/ removed
missing/ defective/ showing evidence of or is defective.
disturbance

Any interrupter device fitted to the vehicle - I


in contravention of the requirements

Categorisation of Defects April 08 3


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INTENTIONALLY BLANK

4 April 08 VOSA
Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses Section 2
and Light Goods Vehicles Transmission
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Drive/ Propeller Shafts 1. Prohibition action for excessive wear


of universal joint is only justified when
Drive/ propeller shaft damaged Bent, fouling or fractured and failure I radial movement indicates that needle
imminent roller bearings are missing from one or
Other significant damage D more cups.

Otherwise than above IN

Universal joint excessively worn, flange Failure or detachment likely I


cracked or insecure on the drive/
propeller shaft (See Note 1) Significantly defective D

Otherwise than above IN

Drive/ propeller shaft flange bolts Shaft likely to become detached I


loose/ missing

2
Other significant insecurity D

Otherwise than above IN

Drive/ propeller shaft carrier bearing Failed or failure imminent I


badly worn, damaged or mounting
insecure Other significant defect D

Otherwise than above IN


Front Wheel Drive Shafts Only

CV joint or shaft coupling excessively Bearings collapsed or excessively worn, I


worn. CV gaiter split, missing or splines excessively worn or coupling/ joint
insecure. seriously deteriorated and failure imminent

Significantly deteriorated component D

Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 5


Section 3 Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses
Running Gear and Light Goods Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Road Wheels and Hubs (See Note 2a) 1. Fracture at the bridge over the valve
is not considered a reason for action.
Missing wheel(s) - I
2. On certain wheels, abutting with slight
Wheel fractured or welding breaking Failure imminent (see Note 1) I displacement is acceptable.
away
Otherwise than above D 2a. For spigot mounted wheels see IM6
Part I.
Wheel hub fractured Failure or detachment imminent I

Otherwise than above D

Wheel stud holes elongated/ damaged If visible with wheel nuts in place or I
detachment likely

2 Wheel stud or nut missing/ loose/


Any stud hole severely worn/ elongated

More than one wheel nut/ stud is missing,


D

I
fractured/ not clamping or fully locating loose, fractured or obviously not clamping
in taper or locating in road wheel taper

Otherwise than above D

Tyre retaining ring abutting/ fractured The ring is visibly displaced from its seating I
(see Note 2) and total displacement is imminent

Wheel seriously distorted Affecting steering or vehicle stability I

Otherwise than above IN

Wheel embellisher protruding or Sharp edges/points exposed, likely to cause I


insecure injury or detachment imminent

Otherwise than above IN

6 April 08 VOSA
Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses Section 3
and Light Goods Vehicles Running Gear
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes
Road Wheels and Hubs
3. Manufacturer supplied ‘temporary
Half shaft bolt/ nuts/ studs loose or Loss of drive likely I use’ spares (‘Space-Savers’) are
missing acceptable.
Otherwise than above IN

Incompatible wheel fitted Fouling other components where failure of I 4. Private buses/ restricted speed
the wheel or affected component is likely vehicles are permitted ‘J’ or ‘K’ rated
tyres provided they are of suitable
Otherwise than above IN capacity following deduction of any
Spare wheel load penalty.
Spare wheel fractured/ badly distorted/ - IN
stud holes elongated 4a. For example tyres with a directional
tread pattern incorrectly fitted.
Tyres
5. It cannot be assumed that, because
Tyre obviously overloaded I

2
The nominal size, ply rating or load either tyre on a twin wheel is not in
index/ speed rating of any tyre is below contact with the ground when the
that appropriate for the vehicle. A tyre Otherwise than above D vehicle is stationary on a level
marked with a speed rating letter within surface, there is a difference in
the range A to K (See Notes 3 and 4) nominal size.

Tyres of different types/ nominal Tyres of different type (ie crossply or radial) I Unless marked otherwise, "standard"
sizes/ aspect ratio fitted on the same fitted car tyres have a nominal aspect ratio
axle of 82%. These can be safely mixed
One tyre is of a different nominal size or D
aspect ratio from those on the same axle with tyres with an aspect ratio of
(See Notes 3 and 4) 80%.

Radial ply tyres fitted to front axle and (See Note 6) I 6. This does not apply to vehicles with
crossply or bias belted to rear axle or twin or extra wide tyres on the rear
bias belted to front axle and crossply to axle, or to tyres manufactured for
rear axle (and fitted to) engineering plant. It
also does not apply to vehicles with a
A tyre not fitted in accordance with the (See Note 4a) IN maximum speed not exceeding
manufacturers instructions 30mph.

Categorisation of Defects April 08 7


Section 3 Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses
Running Gear and Light Goods Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes
7. Recut tyres are permitted on
Tyres
• motor vehicles of unladen weight
Tyre walls in contact Caused by under inflation or incorrect wheel IN exceeding 3050kg, between 2540kg
fitting and 3050kg if fitted to wheel rims
exceeding 405mm (16") diameter,
and
Tyre bulging Caused by separation or partial failure of its I • trailers of unladen weight exceeding
structure (See Note 8) 1020kg (2290kg total weight for
fixed plant carriers).
Tyre has a break in the fabric or deep Body cords damaged I
8. Bulging includes any lifting of the
cut (See Notes 9a and 9b) tread rubber and must not be
Cut 25mm or longer exposing body cords D confused with undulations which
could be present due to
Breaker cords damaged in the tread area D manufacturing imperfections.

9. The body cords are those extending

2
Breaker cords exposed in the tread area IN
from bead to bead.
Otherwise than above (See Note 9) IN Although damage to such cords has a
different effect on tyres of radial and
Tyre seriously under inflated or Likely to affect steering or, if laden, overload I cross ply construction, the problems
incorrectly seated on the wheel rim the other tyre on a twin fitment of differentiation are very complex
and the stated standards must be
applied.
Otherwise than above IN
Body cords must not be confused
with the breaker cords in the tread
area. The consequence of damage
to breaker cords is not generally so
severe. For this reason the different
action is recommended.
9a. Cuts which are deep enough to
reach the body cords or ply but are
less than 25mm or 10% of the
section width, whichever is the
greater, and have not damaged or
exposed the body cords or ply do
not breach the legal requirements
for tyres.
8 April 08 VOSA
Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses Section 3
and Light Goods Vehicles Running Gear
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Tyres 9b. “Exposed” for this purpose means


the cords are visible or it can be
Tyre tread worn beyond legal limit Depth of tread is not at least 1.6mm I established that they are exposed
(See Note 10) throughout a continuous band (excluding with the use of a probe.
tie-bars) situated in the central three-
quarters of the breadth of tread, around the 10. For tyre tread requirements for
entire circumference on vehicles with more than 8
passenger seats and goods vehicles
• any tyre on a steered axle, or with a gross vehicle weight
exceeding 3500kg GDW consult
• 50% or more of the total number of Part 1 of this document.
tyres fitted to non-steered axles
11. "Original tread pattern" means
Otherwise than above D a. in the case of a retreaded tyre, the

2
tread pattern immediately after the
The base of any groove of the original tread IN tyre was retreaded
pattern is not clearly visible (see Note 11)
b. in the case of a wholly recut tyre, the
manufacturer’s recut tread pattern.
Tyre fouling Tyre damaged and / or likely to fail I
c. in the case of a partially recut tyre,
Otherwise than above IN on the part that has been recut, the
manufacturer’s recut tread pattern,
Recut tyre fitted to a vehicle which Fitted to a vehicle on which recut tyres are IN and on the other part, the tread
should not have a recut tyre not permitted (See Note 7) pattern when the tyre was new.

d. in the case of any other tyre, the


Spare Tyre tread pattern when the tyre was new.

Spare tyre bulging/ fabric cut/ fabric - IN Note: Grooves which wear out before the
exposed/ tread worn below the legal limit main grooves and other minor features
such as sipes, small lateral extensions to
the circumferential grooves and minor
lateral grooving on the shoulders are to
be disregarded when considering
whether the “original tread pattern” is
visible.

Categorisation of Defects April 08 9


Section 3 Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses
Running Gear and Light Goods Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Axles, Stub Axles and Wheel 12. As a general guide, the lift in a stub
Bearings axle would normally be considered
excessive if greater than 1.6mm.
Excessive lift in stub axles or swivel Evidence of collapse of bearings/ joints or I
joints loss of shims

Otherwise than above (See Note 12) D

Axle or Stub axle fractured or distorted Fractured I

Otherwise than above D

Excessive free play or roughness in Likely to collapse I


wheel bearings (See also ‘King Pins’,

2
Section 6) Otherwise than above IN

10 April 08 VOSA
THIS PAGE HAS BEEN LEFT
INTENTIONALLY BLANK

Categorisation of Defects April 08 11


Section 4 Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses
Suspension and Light Goods Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Springs

Spring leaf fractured Main leaf fractured or more than half of the I
intermediate leaves broken

Otherwise than above D

Spring weak Bodywork fouling or is likely to foul road I


wheels if vehicle were laden or seriously
affecting vehicle’s stability and/ or control

Otherwise than above IN

Spring leaves displaced/ distorted/ Control of vehicle likely to be affected or I

2
damaged/ repaired by welding failure of the spring imminent

Otherwise than above IN

Spring centre bolt broken or missing - I

Spring clips loose, missing or broken - IN

Spring holding down bolts loose or Axle moving relative to spring I


missing
Otherwise than above D

Coil spring incorrectly located, spring Detachment imminent/ safe control of I


fractured or mounting loose vehicle likely to be affected

Otherwise than above D

12 April 08 VOSA
Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses Section 4
and Light Goods Vehicles Suspension
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Anchor/ Shackle Pins 1. This inspection is also applicable to


the pins and bushes locating
A suspension anchor/ shackle pin (See Note 1) I independent suspension arms and
missing/ sheared balance beam and linkage pivots.

Anchor/ shackle pin and/ or bush Diametric clearance in excess of one third I
excessively worn of pin diameter

Significantly worn D

Otherwise than above (See Note 1) IN

A suspension anchor/ shackle pin Pin displaced I


insecure in its bracket

2
Significantly loose D

Otherwise than above (See Note 1) IN

A suspension anchor/ shackle pin locking Missing or ineffective I


device missing/ ineffective/
insecurely fitted Insecurely fitted (See Note 1) D

Categorisation of Defects April 08 13


Section 4 Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses
Suspension and Light Goods Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Spring Brackets 2. When some types of spring


attachment bracket or suspension
Spring slipper bracket excessively worn/ Spring displaced from slipper bracket I bracket are fitted there could be more
fractured/ not securely fixed/ rebound pin holes in the bracket than holes in the
missing Otherwise than above (See Note 3) D chassis. This would not be a reason
for action.
Spring anchor bracket insecure/ Detachment or failure imminent I
fractured or otherwise defective 3. Delayed action only where a slipper is
Fractured or relative movement between D worn to the extent that it could, at the
bracket and chassis time of the inspection, clearly affect
the movement or correct location of
Any one nut, bolt or rivet missing/ insecure IN the road spring or has allowed the
(See Note 2) spring leaf to damage the chassis.

2
Spring bracket or mounting loose/ Detachment imminent I
fractured/ seriously weakened by
damage or corrosion Otherwise than above (See Note 2) D

Torsion Bars

Torsion bar fractured/ distorted Fracture, displacement or distortion I


adversely affecting directional control

Otherwise than above D

Torsion bar anchorage loose Detachment imminent or affecting vehicle I


control or axle location

Otherwise than above D


Bonded Units

A bonded attachment Failure imminent I


insecure/ fractured/ seriously weakened
due to damage/ corrosion or failure of Otherwise than above D
bonding element

14 April 08 VOSA
Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses Section 4
and Light Goods Vehicles Suspension
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Air Suspension

An air suspension unit or pipes Failure imminent I


displaced/ damaged/ fouling other
components/ seriously Otherwise than above D
deteriorated/ leaking air

Suspension Arms/ Linkages/


Sub-frames

An arm, linkage or subframe Fracture, displacement or distortion I


fractured/ displaced/ insecure/ distorted/ adversely affecting directional control or
seriously weakened by corrosion failure imminent

2
damage or wear/ is adjustable and has a
loose adjustment or its locking device is Otherwise than above D
insecure or missing.

Radius arm insecure Detachment imminent or likely to affect I


steering

Otherwise than above D


Shock Absorbers

Shock absorber missing/ loose/ fractured/ Missing, detachment imminent or likely to I


malfunctioning affect steering

Otherwise than above D

Shock absorber leaking - IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 15


Section 4 Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses
Suspension and Light Goods Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Anti-roll bars

Anti-roll bar/ stabiliser missing Missing (if a standard fitting) I

Anti-roll bar/ stabiliser insecure Detachment imminent I

Otherwise than above IN


Suspension Displacers

Any hydro-pneumatic suspension Excessive leakage indicating failure, or I


displacer unit, pipes or hoses leaking failure imminent

Otherwise than above D

2
Displacers, pipes or mountings Failure imminent I
weakened by corrosion
Otherwise than above D
General

Fracture, serious distortion or excessive Failure or detachment imminent I


corrosion in a load bearing member
within 30cm of any suspension Otherwise than above D
component mounting

16 April 08 VOSA
Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses Section 5
and Light Goods Vehicles Brakes
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Controls 1. The provision of a pedal rubber which


is itself of an anti-slip material is not
Hand brake lever/ foot brake pedal Fails to fulfil its function or failure imminent I to be regarded as defective if its
fractured/ incomplete/ seized/ design pattern is worn smooth.
insecure Otherwise than above D
2. Defect might not apply to vehicles
Hand brake lever/ foot brake pedal travel Cannot be operated satisfactorily I equipped with full air/ vacuum or
impeded/cannot be readily operated continuous flow hydraulic braking
Otherwise than above D systems.

Excessive side play in hand brake lever Failure imminent or could inadvertently I For power assisted systems the
disengage engine might need to be running to
do these checks.
Otherwise than above IN

Insufficient reserve travel on hand brake


lever/ foot brake pedal
Brake efficiency impaired

Otherwise than above


I

D
2
Hand brake lever pawl and/ or ratchet Lever cannot be set or could inadvertently I
worn disengage

Otherwise than above IN

Foot brake pedal antislip provision/ Pad about to become detached or level of D
missing/ loose/ deteriorated/ worn grip offered affected
smooth (See Note 1)
Otherwise than above IN
Foot brake pedal "creeps" to floor (See - I
Note 2)

Foot brake pedal excessively "spongy" Brake efficiency impaired I


indicating a fault in the system (See
Note 2)
Otherwise than above D

Categorisation of Defects April 08 17


Section 5 Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses
Brakes and Light Goods Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Controls 3. If a vehicle has a reservoir that is


integral with the servo unit and has no
Brake hand valve fractured/ damaged/ If not functional I other reservoir and no warning device
insecure is fitted, this is not automatically a
Otherwise than above D reason for action since some systems
need not have a warning device.
Brake hand control valve cannot be - I
moved over its original full travel or 4. Vehicles used from 1 April 1983 can
cannot be retained in the on or off be fitted with either a visual warning
positions device or an audible device. If both
are fitted only one need work.
Parking brake hand valve lever cannot - I Vehicles first used before 1 April 1983
be set must be fitted with a visual warning
device. If an audible warning device is

2
Warning Systems also fitted this is considered to be an
addition to the mandatory
Warning gauge/ flag/ light missing/ not Where only one such device is fitted I requirement.
functioning/ not visible
Otherwise than above IN 5. Items under Warning Systems apply
(See Notes 3, 4 and 5) to all vehicles registered on or after 1
October 1937, except vehicles under
Warning gauge not illuminated Function not readily visible during the hours IN 3,050kg unladen and
of darkness (See Notes 3, 4 and 5)
• fitted with a vacuum reservoir
Warning buzzer inoperative (See Notes 3, 4 and 5) IN coupled direct to the induction
manifold of the engine or
Anti lock brake warning light sequence - D
inoperative/ incorrect • a reservoir in a servo unit.

Air/ Vacuum Assistance

Air/ vacuum assistance not working. - I


Compressor or vacuum pump insecure
or drive system missing or defective

18 April 08 VOSA
Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses Section 5
and Light Goods Vehicles Brakes
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Air/ Vacuum Assistance 6. If the vacuum gauge has no warning


mark, take the 25 to 30cm mark as
Insufficient reserve of air/ vacuum Insufficient pressure or vacuum to give IN the warning mark. Some vehicles do
assistance for two or more applications of not have gauges or warning devices.
the brakes after the warning device has
operated (See Note 6)

Loss of air/ vacuum Pressure/ vacuum cannot be sustained with I


engine running just above idling speed with
or without brakes applied

Otherwise than above D

Air/ vacuum build up slow Warning device fails to cease operating or I

2
gauge does not reach 3.1kg/ sq cm (45
psi/ 3 bar/ 310 kPa) within 6 minutes or 25 to
30cm vacuum in 2 minutes

Warning device fails to cease operating or D


gauge does not reach 3.1kg/ sq cm (45
psi/ 3 bar/ 310 kPa) within 3 minutes or 25 to
30cm vacuum in 1 minute (See Note 6)
Actuators

Air/ vacuum actuator insecure/ Failed or failure imminent I


damaged/ fractured/ excessively
corroded/ incorrectly fitted Otherwise than above D

Excess travel of brake actuator Brake efficiency impaired I

Excess amount of travel D

Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 19


Section 5 Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses
Brakes and Light Goods Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Servos 7. Only applicable to vehicles equipped


with a brake servo-system powered
Brake servo insecure Detached or detachment imminent I from the engine inlet manifold.

Otherwise than above D 8. Brake actuators or servos in which


the travel cannot be visually assessed
Brake servo damaged/ incorrectly Failed or failure imminent I are often fitted with a device that
fitted/ fractured/ excessively corroded indicates the extent of travel of the
Otherwise than above D piston or diaphragm.

Excessive travel of brake servo Brake efficiency impaired I

Otherwise than above IN

2
Servo losing vacuum Vacuum cannot be sustained with engine I
running above idling speed and brake
applied

Otherwise than above D

Inlet manifold vacuum servo assistance Brake efficiency impaired I


inoperative/ vacuum pipe defective
Otherwise than above (See Note 7) D

Brake Travel/ Adjustment Indicators

Brake piston/ diaphragm travel indicator (See Note 8) IN


missing/ inoperative

Brake adjustment indicator shows that Brake efficiency impaired I


brake adjustment is necessary
Otherwise than above D

20 April 08 VOSA
Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses Section 5
and Light Goods Vehicles Brakes
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Brake Valves 9. Minor valves may not be supported.

Brake valve inoperative (specify - I 10. Faults, particularly those concerning


component) the free movement of valves, are
often difficult to positively detect. If
Brake valve insecure (specify Detached or detachment imminent and/ or I examiners are in any doubt about
component) likely to cause leakage at connection the existence of a defect the IN
option must be used.
Insecurity due to weakness or failure of D
supporting structure (See Note 9)

Brake valve damaged/ fractured/ To an extent that renders the valve I


excessively corroded (specify inoperative or failure imminent
component)

2
Otherwise than above IN

Brake valve leaking Leakage such that pressure or vacuum I


cannot be sustained with engine running
just above idling speed

Otherwise than above D

Load sensing valve seized, linkage Clearly not able to function as intended I
defective, missing or out of adjustment (See Note 10)
Otherwise than above IN
Excessive oil/ contaminant discharge - D
from brake valves

Air/ Vacuum Reservoir

Brake air/ vacuum reservoir About to become detached or failure I


damaged/ excessively corroded/ insecure imminent

Otherwise than above D

Categorisation of Defects April 08 21


Section 5 Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses
Brakes and Light Goods Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Hydraulic Systems 11. Defects apply to continuous flow


hydraulic braking systems.
Brake master cylinder/ reservoir/ wheel Detached or detachment imminent I
cylinder/ caliper insecure 12. Fully floating cylinders must not be
Otherwise than above D confused with insecure cylinders.

Brake master cylinder/ wheel cylinder/ Failed or failure imminent I


caliper damaged/ incorrectly fitted/
fractured/ severely corroded/ Otherwise than above D
reservoir cap missing

Brake fluid leaking from ... (specify Obvious leak leading to brake failure or I
source) presenting risk of fire

2
Otherwise than above IN

Warning/ light missing/ not functioning. If only means of warning I


Brake warning buzzer inoperative (See
Note 11) Otherwise than above IN

Hydraulic pressure build-up slow Warning device fails to cease operating I


(See Note 11) within 6 minutes

Warning device fails to cease operating D


within 4 minutes

Hydraulic cylinder mounting insecure Detached or detachment imminent I

(See Notes 9, 10 and 12) Otherwise than above D

22 April 08 VOSA
Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses Section 5
and Light Goods Vehicles Brakes
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Hydraulic Systems

Absence of hydraulic brake fluid from Reservoir empty I


reservoir or fluid level dangerously low
Fluid level clearly below the minimum level D
indication

Otherwise than above IN


Mechanical Components

Any brake component excessively Failed or failure imminent I


worn/ corroded/ fractured/ reduced in
diameter/ number of strands reduced Serious reduction of strength / excessively D
(specify component) worn or displaced

Any retaining/ locking device missing/


Otherwise than above

Retaining device missing or detached


IN

I
2
loose (specify component)
Retaining device insecure or locking device D
missing or insecure

Brake lining/ pad missing/ excessively Missing, detached or braking efficiency I


worn/ insecure impaired

Linings worn to excess D

Brake wear warning device activated IN

Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 23


Section 5 Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses
Brakes and Light Goods Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Mechanical Components 13. When immediate action is taken this


must be reinforced with evidence
Severely contaminated pad/ lining Braking efficiency impaired (See Note 13) I that the efficiency is impaired, ie.
material brake test result or, in the case of
Where contamination is clearly evident and D adjustment, clearly no reserve
likely to effect performance but brake test travel.
equipment not available to confirm
13a. Surface cracks on brake discs and
Otherwise than above IN drums are a normal feature which
should be ignored.
Brake disc fractured/ excessively worn/ Failed or failure imminent I
pitted/ insert insecure (See Note 13a) 14. Excess travel means when there
A fracture extending through the surface D is no reserve travel left or the
into the ventilation cavity amount of movement clearly

2
demonstrates that the point at
Otherwise than above IN which adjustment was necessary
has been exceeded.
Brake drum fractured/ excessively worn Failed or failure imminent I
(See Note 13a)
Drum fractured through D

Otherwise than above IN

Any component seized/ restricted/ Brake efficiency impaired I


fouling/ excessive travel (specify
component) Otherwise than above D

Brake backplate/ disc loose Brake efficiency impaired I

Otherwise than above D

Abnormal movement of levers indicating Brake efficiency impaired I


maladjustment (See Note 14)
Otherwise than above D

24 April 08 VOSA
Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses Section 5
and Light Goods Vehicles Brakes
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

ABS Components 14a. Minor damage that is unlikely to


get worse can be ignored.
Any component forming part of an anti- Such that the ABS system is rendered D
lock braking system missing/ damaged/ inoperative or spurious signals are given
disconnected/ malfunctioning
Otherwise than above IN
Brake Pipes and Hoses

Brake pipe excessively chafed or Failed or failure imminent I


damaged
Otherwise than above (See Note 14a) D

Brake pipe corroded Failed or failure imminent I

2
Deeply pitted and weakened D

Otherwise than above IN

Brake pipe inadequately clipped/ Failed or failure imminent I


supported
Significantly insecure D

Otherwise than above IN

Brake pipe fouling (specify component Failed or failure imminent I


fouled)
Otherwise than above D

Categorisation of Defects April 08 25


THIS PAGE HAS BEEN LEFT
INTENTIONALLY BLANK

26 April 08 VOSA
Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses Section 5
and Light Goods Vehicles Brakes
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Brake Pipes and Hoses 15. Where legally required to be fitted


(see vehicle technical record if
Brake hose chafed/ deteriorated/ Failed or failure imminent I appropriate).
stretched/ bulging/ kinked/ twisted/ fouling
/ exposed to excessive heat Otherwise than above (See Note 14a) D

Brake pipe/ hose/ coupling/ connection Any positive hydraulic leak I


leaking (specify component)
Leakage such that pressure or vacuum I
cannot be sustained with engine running
just above idling speed

Otherwise than above D

Additional Braking
Devices/ Retarders/
Exhaust Brakes
2
Not working/ missing (See Note 15) D

A device or component insecure/ Likely to become detached, fire hazard or I


damaged/ contaminated/ leaking gas or continuous oil leak
oil
Oil leakage in excess of 75mm diameter D
patch in 5 minutes

Wiring chafed/ insecure/ poor condition Fire hazard I

Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 27


Section 5 Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses
Brakes and Light Goods Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Service Brake Operation and 16. Examiners must, where possible,


Performance take into account the design or kerb
weight of the vehicle as appropriate.
Service brake does not operate on every - I Where vehicles are tested on a
road wheel roller brake tester, the appropriate
Inspection Manual criteria must be
Service brake efficiency low Performance does not meet prescribed I used.
C&U requirements (specify)
17. Action under this section is confined
A malfunction indicated by abnormally low D to cases where the minimum
effort in excess of the annual test imbalance efficiency prescribed in C&U is met
criteria (See Note 17) but abnormally low effort is identified
indicating a serious brake
Performance below normal expectation IN malfunction.

2
(See Note 16)

Service brake unbalanced Marked deviation from straight path when I


brakes applied

Otherwise than above IN

Service brake binding excessively Severely overheated and either failure or I


fire likely

Otherwise than above IN

Service brake ‘grabbing’ or ‘juddering’ Such as to affect directional control I

Otherwise than above IN

28 April 08 VOSA
Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses Section 5
and Light Goods Vehicles Brakes
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Parking Brake Operation and 18. On a three-wheeled vehicle, the


Performance parking brake needs to operate on
only one wheel.
Parking brake does not operate on at - I
least two road wheels (See Note 18) 19. Action under this section is confined
to cases where the minimum
Parking brake inefficient Does not meet prescribed C&U I efficiency prescribed in C&U is met
requirements (specify) but abnormally low effort is identified
indicating a serious brake
Little or no braking effort on a roadwheel on D malfunction.
which the brake is designed to operate
(See Note 19)

Performance below normal expectation IN

2
(See Note 19)

Parking brake binding excessively Severely overheated and either failure or I


fire likely

Otherwise than above IN


General

Fracture, serious distortion or excessive Failure or detachment imminent I


corrosion in main chassis, crossmember
or load bearing panel within 30cm of a Otherwise than above D
brake control mounting.

Categorisation of Defects April 08 29


Section 6 Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses
Steering and Light Goods Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Steering Wheel and Column 1. The maximum permissible ‘free’ play


on a steering wheel is as follows:
Excessive ‘free’ play at steering wheel Likely to impair directional control of the I
vehicle If a point on the rim of the steering
wheel moves without the road wheels
Otherwise than above (See Notes 1 and 2) D moving for a distance of

Steering wheel hub, rim or spokes Detachment imminent I • (except on rack and pinion steering)
1/ 5 of diameter of steering wheel,
insecure eg 76mm on a 380mm diameter
Otherwise than above D wheel.

Steering wheel hub, rim or spokes Failed or failure imminent or jagged edges I • (on rack and pinion steering) 1/ 30
fractured likely to cut driver’s hand of diameter, eg 13mm on a 380mm
diameter wheel. Free play of up to
1/ 8 of diameter, eg 48mm on a

2
Otherwise than above (See Note 3) D 380mm diameter wheel is
acceptable where the steering wheel
Steering wheel loose to column shaft - I
- is placed forward from rack and
Steering wheel retaining device missing - I pinion steering, and
(specify device) - has a number of joints to the rack.

2. Power steering must be checked with


the engine running. While the power
steering pump is working but not
providing hydraulic assistance, the
steering wheel play is slightly greater
than with manual steering systems.

3. Cracks in the plastic covering of a


spoke do not necessarily indicate that
the spoke is fractured. Jagged edges
on the rim of a steering wheel (eg due
to cracks in plastic covering) are a
reason for action only if they are likely
to cut the driver’s hand.

30 April 08 VOSA
Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses Section 6
and Light Goods Vehicles Steering
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Steering Wheel and Column 4. Some vehicles have flexible top


bearings for the steering column, in
Excessive lift or movement of steering Abnormal movement indicating failure of I which case more than average
column component parts movement is permissible.

Otherwise than above (See Notes 4 and 5) D 5. In certain types of steering eg: those
fitted with universal joints or flexible
Steering column flexible coupling or Failure imminent I couplings, there could be a certain
universal joint deteriorated/worn/insecure amount of movement present that is
Otherwise than above (See Notes 4 and 5) D not due to wear.

Steering wheel column adjuster defective Steering wheel column cannot be secured I 6. If the vehicle is fitted with power
as required steering the engine must be running
Steering Box/Rack & Pinion (See Note 6) when the steering is operated.

Steering stiff

Steering box/ rack noisy/ knocking


Restricting operation

Obvious roughness
I

D
2
Otherwise than above IN

Steering box sector shaft twisted Shaft visibly twisted I

Excessive lift/ end float on sector shaft, - D


bushes or splines

Excessive lift in steering rack - D

Steering gear housing Any restriction, failure or detachment I


fractured/ insecure/ damaged imminent

Otherwise than above D

Steering rack gaiter - D


missing/ split/ damaged or displaced

Categorisation of Defects April 08 31


Section 6 Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses
Steering and Light Goods Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Steering Linkage 7. Some steering joints are spring


loaded. The designed amount of
Steering drop arm loose If movement is such that failure is likely I movement must not be confused with
abnormal movement.
Excessive abnormal movement D

Steering ball pin insecure Any insecurity I

Steering ball pin grooved Diameter substantially reduced I

Otherwise than above IN

Track rod/ drag link loose/ misaligned Excessive movement between mating parts I
(See Note 7)

2 Slight movement (See Note 7)

Misaligned only
D

IN
Excessive movement in steering joint If joint in danger of separation I
Excessive abnormal movement D
(See Note 7)

Otherwise than above IN


Steering relay arm pivot excessively Failure imminent I
worn
Otherwise than above D
Steering relay arm pivot housing/ bracket Failure or detachment imminent I
fractured/ insecure
Otherwise than above D
Steering arm loose Detachment imminent I

Otherwise than above D

32 April 08 VOSA
Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses Section 6
and Light Goods Vehicles Steering
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Steering Linkage 8. If power steering is optional and


removal has no adverse effect on the
Steering component fractured/ deformed/ Failure or detachment imminent I steering, no action should be taken.
insecure/ excessively corroded/ repaired
by welding/ fracture, serious distortion or Otherwise than above D
excessive corrosion in a load bearing
member within 30cm of mounting
(specify component)

Steering component fouling, or road Steering function impaired I


wheels or tyres fouling/ restricted in
travel (specify component) Otherwise than above D

Steering retaining/ locking device Retaining device missing or ineffective I

2
missing/ insecure (specify component)
Retaining device insecure or any locking D
device missing or insecure
Power Steering

Power steering inoperative Disconnected, inoperative or failure I


(malfuctioning or otherwise defective) imminent (See Note 8)

Pump insecure or it’s drive system Failure or detachment imminent I


missing or defective
Otherwise than above D

Power steering, ram anchor bracket or Failure or detachment imminent I


pump mounting fractured/ insecure or
otherwise defective Otherwise than above D

Power steering ram fluid pipes damaged Steering function impaired I

Otherwise than above IN

Power steering pipes fouling (specify Pipes damaged and likely to fail I
part of vehicle being fouled)
Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 33


Section 6 Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses
Steering and Light Goods Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Power Steering 9. It is not practicable to lay down


precise limits, but the following is a
Excessive fluid/ air leakage from power Fluid/ air leaking continuously, failure of I guide to determine acceptable wear
steering (specify component) power steering imminent at king pins.

Contamination of materials so as to I With the wheel braked and off the


constitute a fire risk ground, note the total measured
movement at the outer wall of the tyre
Fluid leak in excess of 75mm diameter D when the wheel is rocked.
patch in 5 minutes
For 355mm wheels this must not
Otherwise than above IN exceed 6mm.

Power steering ram joint excessively Joint in danger of separation, or detachment I The maximum permissible movement

2
worn/ spring very weak/ spring broken of ram imminent for wheels of other diameters must be
in proportion to this.
Otherwise than above D
King Pins

Excessive wear of king pin and/ or Likely to affect steering or fail prematurely I
bushes or swivel joint or MacPherson
strut assembly Otherwise than above (See Note 9) D

King pin loose in axle beam or swivel Pin displaced or displacement or failure I
joint worn/ insecure likely

Otherwise than above D

King pin or swivel joint retaining device Retaining device missing or detached I
missing/ insecure
Retaining device insecure D

34 April 08 VOSA
Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses Section 7
and Light Goods Vehicles Chassis
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Chassis and Attachments 1. For components normally fixed to the


chassis e.g. fuel tanks, brake
Chassis main member/ body structure/ Likely to affect control of the vehicle, safe I reservoirs etc, see other sections.
cross member/ outrigger severely carriage of load or detachment of
corroded/ seriously deformed/ component imminent 2. This item includes the condition of
fractured/ displaced/ insecure/ missing any flitch plates that are fitted.
Otherwise than above (See Notes 1 and 2) IN
3. Only applicable to vehicles with
Excessive corrosion, cracks or damage Detachment imminent I separate carriers or wheels mounted
of a load bearing member within 30cm on the underbody.
of a body mounting. Otherwise than above IN
4. For information regarding fifth wheel
Spare wheel carrier or wheel insecure Detachment imminent and likely to fall from I defects refer to Part I of this
(See Note 3) vehicle document.

Trailer Coupling (See Note 4)


Otherwise than above IN
2
Coupling on vehicle

Deformed or cracked pin, jaw, hook or Trailer security adversely affected I


ball

Mounting of jaw, hook or ball to chassis Failure or detachment imminent I


insecure

Locking device missing, inadequate, Locking device ineffective I


damaged or ill-fitting
Otherwise than above D

Worn pin, jaw, hook or ball Thickness of metal at any point reduced to I
2/3 or less of its original thickness and
trailer attached

No trailer attached D
Categorisation of Defects April 08 35
Section 7 Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses
Chassis and Light Goods Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

5. Some couplings do not require a


Ball excessively worn Worn to such an extent that the safe I safety locking device. Action must
coupling of the trailer is unlikely to be only be taken where there is clear
achieved evidence that a device is, or has
been, fitted.
Otherwise than above D

Safety locking device missing/ not (See Note 5) D


operating

Excessive wear in or insecurity of any Failure or detachment imminent (Trailer I


member or securing device attached)

Otherwise than above D

2 Security spring weak or broken Broken and trailer attached

Weak or otherwise than above


I

IN

A load bearing part of coupling cracked Failure or detachment likely (Trailer I


attached)

Otherwise than above D

36 April 08 VOSA
Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses Section 7
and Light Goods Vehicles Chassis
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Coupling on Trailer 6. Applies to trailers exceeding 750kg


total design axle weight,
Draw bar cracked or deformed Seriously cracked or fractured I manufactured on or after 1 April 1995
and all trailers manufactured on or
So seriously deformed that use would I after 1 January 1997.
cause danger

Otherwise than above IN

Mounting or draw bar to trailer insecure Failure or detachment imminent I

Otherwise than above D

Draw bar eye or ball socket deformed, Trailer security affected I

2
cracked or excessively worn
Otherwise than above D

Locking device missing, inadequate, Locking device ineffective I


damaged or ill-fitting
Otherwise than above D

King pin attachment excessively worn, - I


cracked or insecure

Worn operating member Detachment imminent I

Otherwise than above IN

Worn draw bar attachment pins and The thickness of metal at any point reduced I
brackets to 2/3 or less of its original thickness

Significant reduction in thickness D

‘Breakaway’ cable/ chain missing/ (See Note 6) D


damaged/ defective

Categorisation of Defects April 08 37


Section 8 Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses
Vehicle Interior and Light Goods Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Driving Controls

Driving control missing/ incomplete/ Control so defective or impeded in its travel I


fractured/ damaged/ excessively that it fails to fulfil its function
corroded/ impeded in its travel/
incorrectly positioned/ insecure (specify Otherwise than above IN
component)

Clutch pedal anti-slip pad loose/ If originally fitted IN


deteriorated

Driver’s Area and Fittings

Floor around driver insecure/ badly Affects driving control or safety of driver I

2
weakened
Otherwise than above IN

Driver’s seat loose on its mounting or Seat so loose or weakened that it could I
frame fractured or seriously weakened cause the driver to lose control of the
vehicle

Otherwise than above IN

Driver’s seat adjustment inoperative/ Seat likely to move inadvertently or cannot I


badly worn be located

Seat cannot be adjusted IN

Component/ fitting in driver’s area Damaged or installed in such a way as I


damaged likely to cause injury

Otherwise than above IN

38 April 08 VOSA
Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses Section 8
and Light Goods Vehicles Vehicle Interior
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Driver’s Area and Fittings 1. Vehicles first registered on or after 1


October 1937 are required to be fitted
Obligatory rear view mirror and/ or glass If view to the rear is inadequate I with a speedometer unless the
missing/ insecure/ damaged vehicle is legally limited to a speed
External mirror likely to become detached I not exceeding 25mph or is one which
is incapable by reason of its
Otherwise than above IN construction of exceeding 25mph.

Driver’s view to the front impaired having Any object seriously impairing driver’s view I
regard to the original design of the throughout the area swept by the
vehicle windscreen wipers

Otherwise than above IN

2
Speedometer not fitted/ incomplete/ (See Note 1) IN
cannot be
illuminated/ inoperative/ cannot be readily
seen by driver

Horn missing/ insecure/ inoperative Detachment imminent I

Otherwise than above IN

Driver’s area littered with Liable to interfere with proper control of the I
rubbish/ ancillary equipment vehicle

Otherwise than above IN


Passenger Seats

Passenger seat insecure Likely to become displaced I

Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 39


Section 8 Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses
Vehicle Interior and Light Goods Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Passenger Seats 2. The legal requirements for the fitment


of seat belts are complex and are not
Passenger seat frame fractured or seat Likely to cause injury I included in this Guide. For further
damaged details please refer to the appropriate
Likely to tear clothing D Inspection Manual for the class of
vehicle being examined.
Otherwise than above IN
Seat Belts

Any obligatory seat belt not fitted where - D


legally required or wrong type of belt
fitted (See Note 2)

Any obligatory or non-obligatory seat - D

2
belt not securely fixed to the seat or to
the structure of the vehicle

Any obligatory or non-obligatory seat A cut or serious deterioration in any part of D


belt webbing damaged or deteriorated. A the seat belt webbing or a seat belt stalk
seat belt stalk deteriorated.

Any obligatory or non-obligatory seat Mechanism does not secure or release the D
belt locking mechanism or retraction belt as intended when the webbing is
mechanism faulty pulled, webbing does not retract

Excessive corrosion, serious distortion - D


or a fracture in any load bearing part of
the vehicle structure within 30cm of a
seat belt anchorage.

40 April 08 VOSA
Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses Section 9
and Light Goods Vehicles Bodywork
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Body Panelling

Exterior body panel damaged/ missing Likely to become detached or to cause I


/ protruding/ insecure/ corroded injury or permit the load to be shed or
leaked

Otherwise than above IN

Interior side panel/ damaged/ missing/ Likely to become detached or to cause I


protruding/ insecure injury

Otherwise than above IN

Any embellishment protruding/ damaged Likely to become detached or to cause I

2
/ insecure (specify component) injury

Otherwise than above IN


Bumpers

Bumper insecure or damaged Detachment likely either partially or I


completely or having projections or jagged
edges likely to cause injury

Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 41


Section 9 Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses
Bodywork and Light Goods Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Wings and Wheel Arches

Wing missing Presenting a risk of injury I

Otherwise than above IN

Wing insecure Detachment likely or rubbing on a tyre I

Otherwise than above IN

Wing badly holed/ corroded/ damaged Holed/ corroded/ damaged such that edges I
are likely to cause injury

Otherwise than above IN

2 Insufficient clearance between wing and


tyre
Wing rubbing or likely to rub on tyre,
particularly when laden, and thereby cause
damage to the tyre or a danger of injury e.g.
I

fire risk, steering affected etc.

Otherwise than above IN


Registration Plates and VIN Details

Registration mark letters or numbers Likely to be misread D


incorrectly formed

A registration plate missing/ broken/ - IN


incomplete/ insecure/ faded/ dirty/
deteriorated/ obscured. Letters or figures
incorrectly spaced or formed

A vehicle identification number not - IN


displayed/ illegible

42 April 08 VOSA
Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses Section 9
and Light Goods Vehicles Bodywork
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Windscreen and Windows 1. In the case of goods vehicles first


used on or after 1 January 1959, the
Windscreen or window cracked/ Driver’s view of the road seriously I glass of windscreens and all windows
scratched/ damaged/ discoloured/ impaired/ presents a danger to occupants of in front of and on either side of the
obscured or vision obstructed/ insecure the vehicle/ detachment likely driver’s seat must be of safety glass.

Otherwise than above IN 2. In the case of passenger or dual-


purpose vehicles first used on or after
Windscreen not of safety glass (See Notes 1, 2 and 3) I 1 January 1959, if glass is fitted to the
windscreen or any outside windows it
Window not of safety glass (See Notes 1, 2 and 3) D must be safety glass.

Window glazing insecure/ cracked Missing, detachment likely and/ or presents I 3. In the case of vehicles first used on or
a risk of injury after 1 June 1978, windscreens and

2
windows wholly or partly on either
Otherwise than above IN side of the driver’s seat must be of
specified safety glass. All other
Windscreen and/ or front side windows Average light transmission <30% I windows must be specified safety
excessively tinted Average light transmission >30%, <45% D glass or safety glazing.
Average light transmission >45%, <65% IN
4. If the windscreen can be opened or
Washers and Wipers (See Note 4) by some other means an adequate
view can be obtained from the driving
Windscreen wiper missing/ inoperative/ Any wiper missing or inoperative such as to I seat, the vehicle need not be
blades worn/ does not operate over an impair driver’s view provided with wipers or washers.
adequate area
Subject to prevailing weather conditions (i.e. D
weather fine)

Otherwise than above IN

Windscreen washer not fitted/ Vision seriously impaired I


inoperative/ system incomplete/
inadequate Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 43


Section 9 Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses
Bodywork and Light Goods Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Doors 5. This applies to the driver’s and front


passenger doors on a car, or any
Door jammed/ obstructed/ cannot be Jammed, obstructed or deliberately secured I door on a bus, but if the door
opened from inside or outside so that it cannot be opened from inside or opposite to the driving side of a goods
outside (See Note 5) vehicle is rendered inoperative
deliberately, it must be considered to
Door, boot lid, tailgate, loading door, - I be an integral part of the cab.
tailboard, dropside cannot be retained in
the closed position 6. Most bonnets are fitted with two
securing methods and due regard
Door hinges/ catches/ pillars worn/ Door is very difficult to shut or could fly I must be taken of the effectiveness of
loose/ insecure/ weakened open inadvertently both where fitted.

Otherwise than above IN

2 Door stiff to operate Unable to fully open or close

Otherwise than above


I

IN

Sliding door jammed/ cannot be secured Jammed or cannot be secured I


in the open or closed positions/ cannot
be opened and closed without excessive Otherwise than above IN
effort (See Note 5)

Bonnet

Bonnet catches missing/ damaged/ Bonnet could inadvertently open obscuring I


defective (See Note 6) driver’s view

Otherwise than above IN

44 April 08 VOSA
Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses Section 10
and Light Goods Vehicles Electrical Equipment
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Battery

Battery insecure Likely to fall from vehicle or displacement I


constitutes risk of fire

Otherwise than above IN

Battery leaking or cell closures Electrolyte likely to cause imminent failure I


loose/ missing of items which could affect vehicle safety or
entering passenger compartment

Otherwise than above IN


Switchgear and Wiring

2
Wiring insecure/ inadequately Constitutes a fire risk I
insulated/ insulation is or will become
ineffective due to chafing or heat Otherwise than above IN

Lighting switch insecure/ malfunctioning - IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 45


Section 11 Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses
Lamps and Reflectors and Light Goods Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

All lamps 1. No lamps or reflectors are required to


be fitted to vehicles only used on
A lamp lens insecure or damaged Likely to cause injury or detachment I roads between sunrise and sunset.
imminent
Obligatory Front Position Lamps
(See Note 1)

Obligatory front position lamp insecure Lamp so insecure that detachment is I


imminent

Otherwise than above IN

Obligatory front position lamp - IN


inoperative/ missing/ dim/ obscured/

2
shows light of wrong colour/ otherwise
not in good working order

Obligatory front position lamp has - IN


intermittent operation, flickers when
tapped, is affected by the operation of
another lamp, does not face the front or
is incorrectly positioned

46 April 08 VOSA
Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses Section 11
and Light Goods Vehicles Lamps and Reflectors
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Obligatory Rear Position Lamps 2. This action is appropriate only


(See Note 1) between sunset and sunrise or in
conditions of seriously reduced
Obligatory rear lamp insecure Lamp so insecure that detachment is I visibility.
imminent
3. Rear fog lamps are required by
Otherwise than above IN vehicles first used on or after 1 April
1980 which have a width greater than
Obligatory rear lamp inoperative/ Likely to prevent width and presence of I 1300mm and a maximum speed
missing/ dim/ obscured/ shows light of vehicle being indicated adequately during exceeding 25mph.
wrong colour/ otherwise not in good compulsory use (See Note 2)
working order 4. Where only one rear fog lamp is fitted
Otherwise than above IN it must be positioned on the centre-
line or offside of the vehicle.

2
Obligatory rear lamp has intermittent - IN
operation, flickers when tapped, is
affected by the operation of another
lamp, does not face the rear or is
incorrectly positioned

Obligatory Rear Fog Lamps


(See Note 1)

Obligatory rear fog lamp insecure Detachment imminent I

Otherwise than above IN

Obligatory rear fog lamp inoperative/ (See Notes 3 and 4) IN


missing/ flickers when tapped/
obscured/ incorrectly positioned/ emits
light of a colour other than red/ comes
on with brake light

Categorisation of Defects April 08 47


Section 11 Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses
Lamps and Reflectors and Light Goods Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Obligatory Reflectors (See Note 1) 5. The criteria must be the inability of


the driver to signal intention to
Obligatory reflector Detachment imminent I change direction. If remaining
missing/ deteriorated/ incorrectly indicator lamps or repeaters fulfil this
fitted/ obscured/ Otherwise than above IN purpose then Inspection Notice action
insecure only will be appropriate.

6. Vehicles first used before 1 April 1986


Direction Indicators (See Note 1) are not required to have hazard
warning lamps or side repeater
Direction indicator insecure Detachment imminent I indicators.

Otherwise than above IN

2
Direction indicator inoperative/ Indicator cannot be used to clearly show the I
missing/ not functioning correctly/ driver’s intention (See Note 5)
damaged/ obscured/ wrong colour/
adversely affected by the operation of Otherwise than above IN
another lamp

Direction indicator warning lamp If the warning lamp is inoperative or not IN


inoperative/ not fitted fitted and the driver cannot see that each
indicator is functioning and there is no
audible tell-tale device
Hazard Warning Lamps (See Note 1)

Hazard warning lamp inoperative/ not (See Note 6) IN


functioning correctly

Side Repeater Indicators (See Note 1)

Side repeater indicator inoperative/ not (See Note 6) IN


functioning correctly

48 April 08 VOSA
Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses Section 11
and Light Goods Vehicles Lamps and Reflectors
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Obligatory Headlamps (See Note 1) 7. Where a defective headlamp is part of


a grouped system, consideration must
Obligatory dipped headlamp When use of headlamps is compulsory I be given to the capability of other
inoperative/ dim/ missing/ obscured/ not headlamps in that group.
in good working order/ flickers when When use of headlamps is not compulsory IN
tapped (See Note 10) 8. An immediate prohibition will normally
only be appropriate for such a defect
Obligatory headlamp insecure or lens Detachment imminent I in conditions of seriously reduced
broken/ missing visibility or at night.
Otherwise than above IN
9. If the degree of misalignment of the
Headlamp aim too high or too far to the Likely to cause dazzle when use of dipped I headlamp aim does not warrant an
right headlamps is compulsory immediate prohibition, but an
instrumented check shows that the

2
headlamp aim falls outside the
Otherwise than above (See Notes 8 and 9) IN statutory test limits, the driver should
be informed.
Headlamp aim too low or too far to the Likely to prevent the driver from being able I
left to drive safely when use of dipped 10. When visibility is seriously reduced
headlamps is compulsory (to less than 100 metres) the use of
dipped headlamps is required by
Otherwise than above (See Notes 8 and 9) IN Regulation.

Categorisation of Defects April 08 49


Section 11 Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses
Lamps and Reflectors and Light Goods Vehicles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Obligatory Headlamps (See Note 1) 11. Vehicles first used before 1 January
1971 need only one stop lamp. This
lamp must be fitted on the centre-line
The dipped beam and/ or main beam Likely to cause dazzle when headlamp use I or offside of the vehicle.
emitted from a matched pair of is compulsory
obligatory headlamps cannot be
switched on or off together or are not of Otherwise than above IN
the same colour

In any grouped obligatory headlamp Likely to cause dazzle when headlamp use I
system (ie more than one matched pair) is compulsory
they cannot either be dipped in unison
or when one matched pair (the outer pair Otherwise than above IN
if not vertically in line) is dipped the

2
other pair(s) are extinguished

Stop Lamps (See Note 1)

Stop lamp inoperative/ No stop lamps show a steady red light when I
obscured/ missing/ dim/ otherwise the brake is applied
defective in operation
Stop lamp(s) remain on when all brakes are I
released

Otherwise than above (See Note 11) IN

Stop lamp insecure Detachment imminent I

Otherwise than above IN

50 April 08 VOSA
Part 2: Passenger Cars, Private Buses Section 11
and Light Goods Vehicles Lamps and Reflectors
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Reversing Lamps (See Note 1)

Reversing lamp insecure/ otherwise Detachment imminent I


defective
Otherwise then above IN

Reversing lamp indicator inoperative - IN

Rear Registration Plate Lamps

Not fitted/ not working/ flickers when - IN


tapped

Categorisation of Defects April 08 51


VOSA Categorisation of Defects

Part 3: Motorcycles

3
VOSA Categorisation of Defects Contents
Part 3: Motorcycles

1. ENGINE AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT 5. STEERING


Engine and Transmission Security............1 Handlebars................................................14
Transmission..............................................1 Steering Mechanism..................................15
Oil Leaks......................................................2
Exhaust Emission........................................2 6. LAMPS AND REFLECTORS

Fuel Tank and System.................................3 Front Position Lamps.................................16

Exhaust System...........................................4 Rear Position Lamps.................................16


Reflectors ..................................................17

2. ROAD WHEELS AND TYRES Direction Indicators....................................17

Wheels.........................................................5 Headlamps.................................................17

Tyres............................................................6 Stop Lamps................................................18

3. SUSPENSION 7. FRAME AND MISCELLANEOUS PARTS

Fork Assembly.............................................8 Frame........................................................19

Rear Suspension.........................................8 Fairing........................................................19

General........................................................9 Accessories...............................................19
Seat/ Footrests...........................................19

4. BRAKES Registration Plate Details..........................19

Systems.....................................................10 Sidecar.......................................................20

Performance..............................................10

3
Controls.....................................................10 8. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT

Hydraulic Systems.....................................11 Battery........................................................21

Mechanical Components...........................12 Switchgear and Wiring...............................21


Horn...........................................................21
Section 1
Part 3: Motorcycles Engine and Associated Equipment
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Engine and Transmission Security 1. Some machines have engines that


are rubber mounted and which permit
Engine/ gearbox mounting or frame Engine/ gearbox detachment imminent or I some movement at the mounting
around the mounting area control of the machine likely to be affected point.
fractured/ deteriorated/ corroded/ loose
(See Note 1) Otherwise than above IN

Transmission

Chain loose/ worn/ misaligned Failure/ detachment imminent or likely to I


jam the rear wheel

Otherwise than above D

Chain sprocket excessively Failure/ detachment imminent or likely to I


worn/ securing bolts missing/ loose jam the rear wheel

Otherwise than above D

Chain guard insecure Failure/ detachment imminent or likely to I


jam the rear wheel

Otherwise than above D

Drive shaft or shaft casing insecure/ Failure/ detachment imminent or likely to I


drive shaft excessively worn jam the rear wheel

Otherwise than above D

Categorisation of Defects April 08 1


Section 1
Engine and Associated Equipment Part 3: Motorcycles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Oil Leaks 2. When considering several leaks, due


regard must be given to the
Oil leak from engine/ gearbox/ drive shaft Continuous flow or contaminating a tyre I cumulative effect which could justify
casing (See Note 2) prohibition action. Also, some
Dripping giving rise to a patch in excess of D machines have total loss engine
75mm diameter in 5 minutes lubrication systems or direct engine
oil to the drive chain. These are
Otherwise than above IN acceptable.
Exhaust Emission (See Note 3)
3. Some two stroke engines produce
Engine emitting excessive exhaust Sufficient to obscure vision or likely to I smoke due to their design.
smoke cause danger to other road users

Continuous haze which tends to obscure D


vision

Continuous haze, any colour IN

2 April 08 VOSA
Section 1
Part 3: Motorcycles Engine and Associated Equipment
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Fuel Tank and System 4. Most fuel tanks are secured by


flexible rubber mountings. Movement
Fuel tank insecure (See Note 4) Detachment imminent I might not necessarily be an indication
of insecurity.
Otherwise than above D
5. If any fuel leak or spillage is likely to
Fuel leakage Continuous leak or leak constituting a fire I constitute a fire risk or present a
risk or loss of vehicle control hazard to other road users, an
immediate prohibition must be issued.
Otherwise than above D
6. Temporary caps that do not prevent
Fuel filler cap missing/ defective Such as to permit fuel spillage (See Notes 5 I spillage or the use of rags etc, in
and 6) place of a fuel cap must be regarded
as a defect.
Otherwise than above IN

Fuel line damaged/ chafed/ insecure Likely to fracture or leak (See Note 5) D

Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 3


Section 1
Engine and Associated Equipment Part 3: Motorcycles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Exhaust System (See note 7) 7. A silencer marked “Not for road use”,
“Track use only” or similar words are
Exhaust system incomplete/ insecure Detachment imminent I unsuitable.
/ excessively deteriorated/ unsuitable
type Otherwise than above D

Silencer insecure Detachment imminent I

Otherwise than above D

Excessive engine exhaust noise Does not reduce the noise emitted to a D
reasonable level

4 April 08 VOSA
Section 2
Part 3: Motorcycles Road Wheels and Tyres
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Wheels 1. Generally wheels distorted within the


following limits can be regarded as
Wheel fractured or damaged Failure likely I acceptable

Otherwise than above D Lateral (run-out or buckling):

Loose or missing rivets or bolts in built- Failure likely I a. For a steel rim 4mm
up wheels
Otherwise than above D b. For an aluminium alloy rim 2mm
(cast or fabricated)
Wheel distorted/ damaged or spokes Tyre fouling other parts of the machine/ I
missing or loose. An aluminium wheel directional control affected or failure likely Eccentricity:
which has been repaired. (See Note 1)
For all types of rim 3mm
Otherwise than above D

Excessive tightness, free play or Imminent failure likely I


roughness in a wheel bearing
Otherwise than above D

Wheel misaligned or toe out, excessive Likely to seriously affect the handling or I
toe-in or vertical misalignment of a steering of the machine
sidecar wheel
Otherwise than above IN

Road wheel fouling Failure of the wheel or affected component I


likely

3
Otherwise than above D

Road wheel spindle securing nut(s) or Wheel detachment likely or wheel insecure I
locking device missing or loose
Otherwise than above D

Categorisation of Defects April 08 5


Section 2
Road Wheels and Tyres Part 3: Motorcycles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes
2. Examples of unsuitable tyres:
Tyres
a) sidecar tyres or car tyres on a solo
Incorrect tyres fitted (See Note 2) Likely to render the machine dangerously I machine (sidecar outfits might be
unstable fitted with ‘solo’ type tyres on any
wheel);
Tyre fitted with ‘Direction markers’ in the - D b) motocross or similar tyres, ie tyres
wrong direction (See Note 3) where the space between tread
blocks is substantially greater than
Tyre not correctly seated on the wheel Tyre likely to fail or suddenly deflate I the size of the blocks themselves;
rim or valve stem misaligned, insecure c) tyres designated by their
or damaged Otherwise than above IN manufacturer as unsuitable for road
use eg racing tyres or those marked
Tyre has a break in the fabric or deep Body structural cords damaged I ‘NHS’ or NOT FOR HIGHWAY USE
cut (see Note 4 and 5) on the side wall;
Cut 25mm or longer exposing body cords D
d) a tyre specifically designed for front
wheel use fitted to the rear wheel;
Tyre bulging (See Note 6) Caused by separation or partial failure of I
the structure e) a radial ply tyre fitted to the front and
a cross-ply or bias belted tyre fitted
Ply or cord structure exposed Due to wear on the tread area I to the rear wheel;

f) a bias-belted tyre fitted to the front


Otherwise than above D with a cross-ply tyre fitted to the rear
wheel.
Tyre seriously under inflated Likely to affect the handling I
3. Uniquely, this does not apply to
Metzeler 100/ 80 - 17 tyres fitted to
Otherwise than above IN the rear wheels of Aprillia AF50 motor
cycles.

3
4. Cuts which are deep enough to reach
the body cords but less than 25mm or
10% of the section width, whichever
is the greater, and have not damaged
or exposed the body cords or ply do
not breach the legal requirements for
tyres.

6 April 08 VOSA
Section 2
Part 3: Motorcycles Road Wheels and Tyres
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Tyres 5. “Exposed” for this purpose means the


cords are visible or it can be
Tyre tread worn beyond the legal limit or The original tread pattern does not have a I established that they are exposed
a tyre with a recut tread tread depth of at least 1mm (excluding any with the use of a probe.
tie-bar or tread wear indicator) throughout a
continuous circumferential band of the tread 6. Bulging includes any lifting of the
of at least ¾ of the breadth of the tread and tread rubber and must not be
visible tread pattern on the remainder (See confused with undulations.
Notes 7 and 8)
7. Clearly the degree of non-compliance,
Tyre fouling against another part of the Tyre damaged and/ or likely to fail I road and weather conditions are
motorcycle or sidecar factors that will have to be taken into
Otherwise than above IN account, if an exemption is to be
issued.

8. If the motorcycle has an engine


capacity of less than 50cc, the tread
of the tyre can be less than 1mm if
the tread pattern can be clearly seen
over the whole tread area.

Categorisation of Defects April 08 7


Section 3
Suspension Part 3: Motorcycles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Fork Assembly 1. Some fork arrangements rely on the


bracing incorporated in the mudguard
Part of the fork assembly loose/ Failure of the component imminent and/ or I fixings to maintain their alignment. A
cracked/ distorted/ misaligned/ corroded/ likely to render the machine unstable mudguard insecurely fixed to the forks
excessively worn/ excessive free (See Note 1) could therefore adversely affect the
play/ excessive stiffness in movement handling of the machine.
Otherwise than above D
2. Some high performance machines
Road spring broken - I are fitted with anti-dive front forks
which lock when the brake is applied.
Damper inoperative or inadequate Machine likely to be unstable during braking I In these cases the front wheel will
(See Notes 2 and 3) or when otherwise ridden need to be placed against a solid
object when checking the damping.
Fluid leaking from a damper - IN
3. Some smaller machines are not fitted
Rear Suspension with dampers on the front suspension

Suspension component which is Failure of the component imminent and/ or I


loose/ cracked/ distorted/ misaligned/ likely to render the machine unstable
corroded/ excessive free play/ excessive
stiffness in movement

Road spring broken - I

Damper inoperative or inadequate Machine likely to be unstable during braking I


or when otherwise ridden

3
Fluid leaking from a damper - IN

8 April 08 VOSA
Section 3
Part 3: Motorcycles Suspension
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

General

Suspension so modified as to render the Handling likely to be affected and machine I


machine unsafe unstable

Fouling of fixed and moving parts which Handling likely to be affected I


restricts the movement of the
suspension Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 9


Section 4
Brakes Part 3: Motorcycles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Systems 1. Motorcycles first registered before 1


January 1927 must have a braking
The machine does not have the (See Notes 1, 2 & 3) I system that works on at least one
appropriate braking system or systems wheel.

Performance 2. Motorcycles registered on or after 1


January 1927, must have an efficient
Any brake does not operate when the - I braking system with two means of
relevant lever/ pedal is fully applied operation or two braking systems with
separate means of operation.
Brake efficiency low (specify) Performance does not meet prescribed I
C&U requirements (See Note 4) 3. Some motorcycles have both braking
systems operated from the
Performance below normal expectation IN handlebars.

Brake binding Severely overheated and failure or fire likely I 4. Where machines are tested on a
roller brake tester the appropriate
Otherwise than above D Inspection Manual criteria must be
used.
Brake grabbing or juddering or Such as to affect control of machine I
fluctuating
Otherwise than above IN
Controls

Brake lever/ pedal or mounting is loose, Failure or detachment of the lever/ pedal I
cracked or the securing bolts are loose likely
or missing

3
Brake lever/ pedal pivots worn to Brake efficiency impaired or control cannot I
excess/ inoperative or so damaged, be satisfactorily applied
positioned, bent or shortened that the
brake cannot be readily applied/ Otherwise than above D
inadequate reserve travel/ cannot be
applied and released smoothly

10 April 08 VOSA
Section 4
Part 3: Motorcycles Brakes
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Hydraulic Systems

Brake master cylinder/ reservoir or Detached or detachment imminent I


caliper insecure
Otherwise than above D

Brake master cylinder or caliper Failed or failure imminent I


damaged/ incorrectly fitted/ fractured/
severely corroded/reservoir cap missing Otherwise than above D

Brake hose/ pipe damaged/ chafed/ Failed or failure imminent I


insecure/ fouling/ trapped/ twisted/ kinked
Otherwise than above D

Brake fluid level low Absence of fluid in reservoir I

Fluid level clearly below the minimum level D


indication

Otherwise than above IN

Brake fluid leak (specify source) Obvious leak leading to brake failure or I
presenting risk of fire

Hydraulic cylinder leaking or sponginess Brake lever or pedal creeps to the stop, or I
indicating air in system obvious leak

Otherwise than above D

Categorisation of Defects April 08 11


Section 4
Brakes Part 3: Motorcycles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Mechanical Components

Severely contaminated pad/ lining Where contamination is clearly evident and D


material likely to affect performance but brake test
equipment not available to confirm (See
Note 5)

Any brake components excessively Failed or failure imminent I


worn/ corroded/ fractured/ cracked/ loose
(specify component) Serious reduction in strength D

Otherwise than above IN

Any brake cable or rod reduced in Failed or failure imminent I


diameter/ excessively corroded/ frayed
or knotted; a significantly damaged outer Serious reduction in strength D
casing
Otherwise than above IN

Any retaining/ locking device Retaining device missing/ loose I


missing/ loose (specify component)
Retaining device insecure or locking device D
missing or insecure

Brake friction lining or pad Missing, detached or braking efficiency I


missing/ excessively worn/ loose impaired (See note 5)

Linings worn to excess D

3 Otherwise than above IN

12 April 08 VOSA
Section 4
Part 3: Motorcycles Brakes
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Mechanical Components 5. When immediate action is taken this


must be reinforced with evidence that
Brake drum /disc/backplate/insert Likely to affect brake performance/ failed or I the efficiency is impaired, i.e. brake
loose/fractured/ excessively failure imminent (See Note 6) test result.
scored/pitted/worn or distorted
Otherwise than above D 6. Some machines are fitted with discs
with a limited amount of sideways
Abnormal movement of lever or pedal Likely to affect brake performance/failed or I float.
indicating maladjustment failure imminent (See Note 5)

Otherwise than above D

Any component seized/ restricted/ fouling Likely to affect brake performance I


(specify component)
Otherwise than above D

Any component forming part of an anti- Such that the ABS system is rendered D
lock braking system missing/ damaged/ inoperative or spurious signals are given
disconnected
Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 13


Section 5
Steering Part 3: Motorcycles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Handlebars 1. Handlebars on some machines are


rubber mounted. Some movement
Handlebar clamps are not tight or Handlebars likely to move in their mounting I might be detected when firm pressure
securing bolts are loose or missing. such that directional control could be is applied to handlebars secured in
Excessively deteriorated handlebar adversely affected (See Note 1) this way.
flexible mounting
Otherwise than above D

Handlebar or fork yoke is deformed, Failure of the handlebar or yoke likely I


fractured, cracked or excessively
corroded

The movement of the handlebars or Likely to affect directional control I


yoke is seriously restricted or impeded in
its movement by any other part of the Otherwise than above D
motorcycle

Loose handgrips Affecting control of the machine or I


detachment likely

14 April 08 VOSA
Section 5
Part 3: Motorcycles Steering
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Steering Mechanism

Steering rough, notchy or stiff Likely to affect directional control of the I


machine

Obvious roughness D

Otherwise than above IN

Excessive free play in steering head Likely to affect directional control of the I
bearings machine

Steering damper ineffective or defective Restricts or impedes the operation of the I


steering or is likely to affect directional
control of the machine

Otherwise than above D

Categorisation of Defects April 08 15


Section 6
Lamps and Reflectors Part 3: Motorcycles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Obligatory Front Position Lamps 1. No lamps or reflectors are required to


(See Note 1) be fitted to vehicles only used on
roads between sunrise and sunset.
Obligatory front position lamp insecure Detachment imminent I
A front position lamp is not required
Otherwise than above IN on a solo motorcycle fitted with a
headlamp.
Obligatory front position lamp - IN
inoperative/ missing/ dim/ obscured/ not Direction indicators are not required
in good working order (See Note 1) on motorcycles which cannot exceed
25mph.
Obligatory front position lamp has - IN
intermittent operation, flickers when When visibility is seriously reduced
tapped or does not face the front, is (to less than 100 metres), the use of
affected by the operation of another dipped headlamps and side lamps is
lamp required by Regulation

Obligatory Rear Position Lamps


(See Note 1)

Obligatory rear lamp insecure Lamp so insecure that detachment is I


imminent

Otherwise than above IN

Obligatory rear lamp inoperative/ Likely to prevent the presence of the vehicle I
missing/ dim/ obscured/ not in good being indicated adequately during
working order compulsory use

3 Obligatory rear lamp has intermittent


Otherwise than above

-
IN

IN
operation, flickers when tapped or does
not face the rear, is affected by the
operation of another lamp

16 April 08 VOSA
Section 6
Part 3: Motorcycles Lamps and Reflectors
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Obligatory Reflectors (See Note 1) 2. The criteria must be the inability of


the driver to signal intention to
Obligatory reflector Detachment imminent I change direction. If remaining
missing/ deteriorated/ incorrectly indicator lamps or repeaters fulfil this
fitted/ obscured/ Otherwise than above IN purpose then Inspection Notice action
insecure only will be appropriate.

Direction Indicators (See Note 1) 3. Where a defective headlamp is part of


a grouped system, consideration must
Direction indicator insecure Detachment imminent I be given to the capability of other
headlamps in that group.
Otherwise than above IN

Direction indicator inoperative/dim/ Indicator cannot be used to clearly show the I


missing/ obscured/ flickers when tapped driver’s intention (See Note 2)

Otherwise than above IN

Direction indicator warning light The warning light is inoperative or not fitted IN
inoperative/ not fitted and the driver cannot see that each
indicator is functioning

Obligatory Headlamps (See Note 1)

Obligatory dipped headlamp inoperative/ When use of headlamps is compulsory I


missing/ obscured
When use of headlamps is not compulsory IN
(See Note 3)

Categorisation of Defects April 08 17


Section 6
Lamps and Reflectors Part 3: Motorcycles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Headlamps (See Note 1) 4. An immediate prohibition will normally


only be appropriate for such a defect
Headlamp insecure/ or lens broken/ Detachment imminent I in conditions of seriously reduced
missing visibility or at night.
Otherwise than above IN
5. If the degree of misalignment of the
Headlamp aim too high or too far to the Likely to cause dazzle when use of dipped I headlamp aim does not warrant an
right headlamps is compulsory immediate prohibition, but an
instrumented check shows that the
Otherwise than above (See Notes 4 and 5) IN headlamp aim falls outside the
statutory test limits, an inspection
Headlamp aim too low or too far to the Likely to prevent the rider from being able to I notice should be issued.
left ride safely when use of dipped headlamps
is compulsory 6. Some motorcycles are not required to
be fitted with stop lamps. These are
Otherwise than above IN as follows:

The dipped beam and/ or main beam Likely to cause dazzle when headlamp use I a. cannot exceed 25mph (see
emitted from a matched pair of is compulsory distinguishing plate on machines
obligatory headlamps cannot be used on or after 1 August 1997).
switched on or off together Otherwise than above IN
b. was first used before 1 January
Stop Lamps (See Note 1) 1936 or

Stop lamp inoperative/ Where required, no stop lamp shows a I c. was first used before 1 April 1986
obscured/ missing/ dim/ otherwise steady red light when the brake is applied which has an engine capacity of
defective in operation (See Notes 6 and 7)
less than 50cc.
Stop lamp(s) remain on when all brakes are I

3
released 7. On motorcycles first used on or after
1 April 1986 the stop lamp must
Otherwise than above IN operate by the application of each
system.
Stop lamp insecure Detachment imminent I

Otherwise than above IN

18 April 08 VOSA
Section 7
Part 3: Motorcycles Frame and Miscellaneous Parts
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Frame

Part of the frame or structure Failure imminent and/ or likely to make the I
loose/ cracked/ distorted/ misaligned/ machine unstable
corroded or fractured
Otherwise than above D
Fairing

Fairing or other bodywork item (eg Detachment or interference with directional I


mudguard) insecure control likely

Otherwise than above IN


Accessories

Mirror or stands etc insecure/ fractured Detachment likely or likely to impede the I
or damaged rotation of a wheel

Otherwise than above IN


Seat/ Footrests

Seat/ footrest insecure/ fractured or Detachment likely or liable to interfere with I


damaged proper control of the machine

Otherwise than above IN

Registration Plate Details

Registration mark letters or numbers Likely to be misread D

3
incorrectly formed

Categorisation of Defects April 08 19


Section 7
Frame and Miscellaneous Parts Part 3: Motorcycles
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Sidecar

Sidecar to motorcycle mountings or Detachment likely or component failure I


mounting areas corroded/ fractured/ imminent which is likely to adversely affect
insecure or in the case of ‘leanable’ the stability of the combination
sidecars, wear/ free play in or otherwise
defective attachment of pivot joint Otherwise than above D

20 April 08 VOSA
Section 8
Part 3: Motorcycles Electrical Equipment
Description of Defect Severity of Defect Action Notes

Battery

Battery insecure Detachment likely or displacement I


constitutes risk of fire

Otherwise than above IN

Battery leaking Electrolyte likely to cause failure of items I


which could affect vehicle safety

Otherwise than above IN


Switchgear and Wiring

Switchgear insecure/ malfunctioning - IN

Wiring/ insecure/ inadequately insulated/ Constitutes a fire risk I


or will become ineffective due to chafing
or heat Otherwise than above IN

Horn

Horn missing/ insecure/ inoperative Detachment imminent I

Otherwise than above IN

Categorisation of Defects April 08 21


Appendix A
VOSA Categorisation of Defects Amendment Record
Amendment Signature and Amendment Signature and Amendment Signature and
Date Date Date
Number Position Number Position Number Position
Jan
1 95 13 25
Sept
2 96
14 26
July
3 97 15 27
Sept
4 98 16 28
Aug
5 00 17 29
Apr
6 08
18 30

7 19 31

8 20 32

9 21 33

10 22 34

11 23 35
12 24 36
Appendix A
Amendment Record
Amendment Signature and Amendment Signature and Amendment Signature and
Date Date Date
Number Position Number Position Number Position

37 49 61

38 50 62
39 51 63
40 52 64
41 53 65

42 54 66

43 55 67

44 56 68

45 57 69

46 58 70

47 59 71
48 60 72
Appendix B
Offence Codes for the Prosecution of Offences

IM Component/ Offence Offence IM Component/ Offence Offence


Number System Code Category Number System Code Category

3 Seat Belts IM3 Seat belts - Not Fitted 10 Spare Wheel and Carrier IM10 Spare Wheel/ Carrier -
Security
5 Exhaust Emissions IM5A Emissions CO 11 Vehicle to Trailer Coupling IM11 Trailer Coupling -
Condition/ Function
IM5B Emissions HC

IM5C Emissions Smoke 12 Trailer Parking Brake IM12 Emergency Trailer


Emergency Brake and Airline Brake - Function
6 Road Wheels and Hubs IM6 Road Wheels - Connections
Condition/ Security
13 Trailer Landing Legs IM13A Trailer Landing Legs -
Security
7 Size and Type of Tyres IM7 Types of Tyres
IM13B Pad/ Wheel - Security
8 Condition of Tyres IM8A Condition of Tyres -
1.6mm 14 Spray Suppression, Wings IM14 Spray Suppression -
and Wheel Arches Condition/ Security
IM8B Condition of Tyres -
IM14B No wing fitted
1.0mm

15 Cab Security IM15A Cab - Security


IM8C Tyres - Under Inflated

IM15B Cab Wind Deflector -


IM8D Tyres - Bulging
Security
IM8E Tyres - Break/ Cut
16 Driver and Passenger Doors IM16 Vehicle Doors - Function
IM8F Tyres - Ply/ Cord
Driver’s Accommodation and IM17 Driver’s Step
Exposed 17 Steps

9 Sideguards, Rear Under-run IM9A Under-run - Condition/ 18 Driver’s Seat IM18A(D) (Driver) Driver’s Seat -
Devices and Bumper Bars Security Condition
(Operator) Driver’s Seat -
IM18A(O)
IM9B Side Guard - Condition Condition
/Security
(Driver) Driver’s Seat
IM18B(D)
Adjustment - Function

Categorisation of Defects April 08 B1


Appendix B
Offence Codes for the Prosecution of Offences

IM Component/ Offence Offence IM Component/ Offence Offence


Number System Code Category Number System Code Category

18 Driver’s Seat IM18B(O) (Operator) Driver’s Seat 42 Electrical Wiring and IM42 Condition of Electrical
Adjustment - Function Equipment Wiring & Equipment

19 Security of Body IM19 Security of Body 43 Engine and Transmission IM43 Engine/ Transmission
Mountings - Security
20 Condition of Body IM20 Condition of Body
44 Oil and Waste Leaks IM44 Oil/ Waste Leaks
21 Interior of Body IM21 Interior of Body -
Condition 45 Fuel Tanks and Systems IM45A Fuel Tank - Security
22 Driver’s Mirrors IM22A Driver’s Mirror - No
IM45B Fuel Tank - Leakage
View

IM22B Driver’s Mirror - IM45C Fuel Filler Cap Missing


Security - Spillage

23 View to Front IM23A View to Front - 46 Exhaust Systems and PSV IM46 Exhaust System - Fumes
Obstructed Waste Systems / Waste/ Security/ Fire

Glass and View of the Road IM23A Windscreen - Condition 48 Suspension IM48A Suspension Pins/ Bushes
(affecting view) - Condition
IM23B Glass - Condition IM48A Road Springs - Condition
IM23C Visual transmission IM48A Attachment of Spring
of light Units - Condition
25 Windscreen Wipers and IM25 Washers/ Wipers - IM48A Shock Absorbers -
Washers Condition/ Function Security

Steering Control Play at Steering Wheel IM48B As any of 48 above but


30 IM30
part of Steering
34 Breaks, vacuum or pressure IM34A Presence
warning device 53 Axles, Stub Axles and Wheel IM53A Axles Wheel Bearings -
IM34B Function Bearings Loose or Worn

IM53B As above but part of


41 Chassis IM41 Condition of chassis Steering
B2 April 08 VOSA
Appendix B
Offence Codes for the Prosecution of Offences

IM Component/ Offence Offence IM Component/ Offence Offence


Number System Code Category Number System Code Category

54 Steering Mechanism IM54 Steering Linkage - IM63B Rear Lamp - Security/


Condition Missing

IM54 Steering Gear - IM63C Headlamp(s) -


Condition Inoperative/ Missing

IM54 Power Steering - IM63D Headlamp(s) - Security


Condition
IM63F Stop Lamps - Function
57 Transmission IM57 Transmission - Condition
IM63G Stop Lamps - Security
58 Additional Braking Devices IM58A Additional Braking
(inc Retarders) Device - Security
66 Direction Indicators and IM66A Indicators - Security
IM58B Additional Braking Hazzard Warning Lamps
Device - Function IM66B Indicators - Function/
Missing
59 Brake Systems and IM59 Mechanical Brake
Components Components - 67 Aim of Headlamps IM67 Headlamps(s) - Aim
Condition/ Function

IM59 Brake Actuators - 71 Service Brake Performance IM71 Service Brake


Condition/ Function Performance
IM59 Braking System and IM72
Components - 72 Secondary Brake Secondary Brake
Performance Performance
Condition/ Function
62 Rear Markings and IM62A Rear Markings - 73 Parking Brake Performance IM73 Parking Brake
Reflectors Security performance
IM62B Reflector - Security

63 Lamps IM63A Front Position/ Outline


Marker Lamp -
Security

Categorisation of Defects April 08 B3