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be about to = собираться сделать break through = наступление

be after = пытаться поймать, (несмотря на сопротивление),


преследовать пробиваться, прорываться
be down with / go down with = break to = сообщить плохие
болеть новости в мягкой форме
be for = быть за (be against = быть break up = 1) остановка работы на
против) время каникул (о школе и т.д.); 2)
be in for = находиться в ожидании прекратить отношения
чего-то неприятного bring about = быть причиной,
be off = отсутствовать в школе/ на вызывать что-л
работе bring back = вызывать
be on = быть показаным в кино, на воспоминания
ТВ bring down = привести к
be out = 1) быть не модным 2) падению/провалу
перестать гореть bring forward = переносить (дату и
be over = окончиться время события на более ранний
be through with = покончить с (с срок)
отношениями, работой) bring in = приносить прибыль
be up to = 1) быть в состоянии что-л bring on = вызывать что-л
сделать 2) затевать что-л неприятное, навлекать
break down = 1) сломать, разбить bring out = выпускать (на рынок)
(о механизмах) 2) потерять bring round = 1) приводить в
контроль над чувствами 3) чувства = bring to ; 2) убеждать =
провалиться 4) разделить на bring over (to)
(главы, категории) bring up = 1) воспитывать детей; 2)
break in = вломиться упомянуть, начать тему
break into = 1) вломиться 2) call for = требовать, нуждаться
прервать call in = прийти, заглянуть
break off = завершить отношения / call off = отменять
соглашение call on sb = нанести оффициальный
break out = внезапно начать визит
(войну) call out = вызывать, призывать на
помощь
call up = призывать в армию
be carried away = быть увлечённым cut into =перебивать
carry off = вынести трудности cut off = 1) разъединять, отключать
carry on (with) = продолжать (электричество); 2) изолировать
carry out = проводить эксперимент (местность)
carry through = довести до конца cut out =пропускать,не вкл во что-л
come across = случайно встретить, be cut out for/to be = подходить
наткнуться (на профессию/должность)
come by = получать, доставать cut up = нарезать на мелкие
come down to = быть переданным кусочки
по наследству do away with = отменять,
come down with/go down with = упразднять (страны отменили
заболеть смертную казнь - capital
come into = унаследовать abolishment)
come off = иметь успех do down = унижать оскорблять
come out = 1) начинать цвести; 2) do in = убить
быть напечатанным; 3) выводить do up = застёгивать (куртку)
(пятна) do with = хотеть
come round = 1) навестить; 2) do without = обходиться без
прийти в сознание draw back = 1) брать слово назад,
come to = составлять сумму (счёт не желать выполнять обещание =
составил ..) pull back; 2) отступить назад
come up = 1) быть упомянутым; 2) draw in = pull in = прибыть на
возникать, случаться (такая станцию (о поезде..)
возможность случается редко) draw out = 1) подбадривать; 2)
come up to = 1) подходить, снять деньги с банковского счёта
приближаться; 2) соответствовать draw up = 1) остановиться (о
come up with = найти машине); 2) написать, составить
ответ/решение (список, завещание will)
cut across = срезать путь fall apart = разваливаться
cut back (on) = cut down on = fall back on = обратиться к чему-
сокращать (расходы, л/кому-л за помощью, если другие
производство) планы провалились
cut in = 1) подрезать другой fall behind = отстать
автомобиль; 2) перебивать
fall for = 1) влюбиться; 2) быть get round to = найти время, чтобы
обманутым что-л сделать
fall in = разрушаться get through = 1) закончить; 2)
fall in with = согласиться с переживать трудные времена
fall into = 1) делиться на get through to = дозвониться
(категории); 2) начать, войти в get up = вставать с постели
состояние (в поезде я give away = 1) раскрыть секрет; 2)
разговорился с ..) отдать бесплатно
fall on = 1) атаковать; 2) есть с give back = вернуть
жадностью give in = сдаться
fall out (with) = ссориться give off = выделять/испускать
fall through = провалиться (планы (запах, тепло)
провалились) give out = 1) закончиться; 2)
get across = чётко изложить, распространять, раздавать
донести, передавать give up = 1) отказаться от
get along = продолжать, несмотря привычки; 2) сдаваться
на трудности go after = преследовать
get along with = get on with = быть go ahead = позволено случиться
в дружеских отношениях (хотя несколько членов
get at = иметь в виду, отсутствовали, заседание совета
подразумевать прошло по плану)
get away with = легко отделаться, go away = пройти, утихнуть
оставаться безнаказанным go back on = нарушить
get back = вернуть что-л себе обещание/договор
get down = 1) глотать с трудом; 2) go by = основывать свои идеи на
приводить в уныние, угнетать go for = 1) атаковать; 2) подать
get down to = приняться, заявку (на работу)
приступить к чему-л go in for = принять участие
get on = 1) садиться в трансп ср-во; go off = 1) взорваться (о бомбе); 2)
2) добиться успехов зазвонить (о бомбе); 3)
get out = (о новости) стать испортиться (о пище)
известной go on = 1) продолжать = carry on; 2)
get over = оправиться от случаться
get round = bring round = убедить go out = погаснуть (про огонь)
go over = 1) изучить детально = go keep off = держаться подальше,
through;2) повторить избегать
go round = 1) быть в достаточном keep on = продолжать несмотря на
кол-ве для всех; 2) распространять трудности
(идеи, болезни) keep out = не допускать
go through = 1) пережить; 2) keep up (with) = не отставать от
успешно завершиться; 3) обсудить keep up with = продолжать
подробно получать инф, оставаться в теме
go up = расти (о цене) let down = 1) удлинить (take up =
go with = подходить (про одежду) укоротить) про одежду; 2)
go without = обходиться без разочаровать
hold back = 1) сдерживать (слёзы, let in (to) = позволить войти
смех); 2) сомневаться let off = не наказывать
hold in = сдерживать (гнев) let on = раскрыть секрет
hold off = держать на расстоянии let out = 1) выпустить, освободить;
(полиции сдерживала толпу)hold 2) сделать больше (take in =
on = ждать (висеть на проводе) уменьшить) про одежду
hold out = 1) длиться, let up = ослабеть (ветер)
продержаться; 2) упорствовать, look after = заботиться о
продолжать look back (on) = оглядываться
hold to = придерживаться, назад, вспоминать
соблюдать look down on = презирать (look up
hold up = 1) задерживаться; 2) to = равняться на, восхищаться)
использовать насилие с целью look forward to = предвкушать,
грабежа ждать с нетерпением
keep after = продолжать look in on sb = нанеси короткий
преследование визит
keep away (from) = держаться look into = изучать, расследовать
подальше look on = наблюдать
keep back = скрывать, утаивать look out = быть осторожным
keep down = сдерживать рост (цен) (Осторожно!)
keep in = выгнать из помещения look out for = высматривать,
(как наказание) разыскивать
look over = тщательно изучить
look round = осматривать pull through =преуспеть, несмотря
местность на трудности
look through = быстро просмотреть pull up = остановить(ся)
look up = отыскивать (информ) put aside/by = откладывать
be made for = идеально подходить (деньги)
make for = направляться/идти put across = чётко изложить,
куда-л донести
make out = 1) разобрать, put away = 1) складывать (игрушки
разглядеть; 2) выписать (чек), в шкаф); 2) посадить в тюрьму/псих
заполнить больницу
make over = передать владение put down = 1) записать = take
make up = 1) сочинить, выдумать; down; 2) подавить насильственно
2) краситься; 3) помириться (восстание rebellion)
make up for = компенсировать put down to = приписывать,
make up one's mind = принимать связывать, объяснять
решение put forward = предложить
pass away = умереть put off = откладывать
pass off as = притвориться кем- put on = 1) одеться; 2) набрать вес;
л/чем-л 3) ставить (представление)
pass out = потерять сознание put out = 1) тушить огонь; 2)
pay back = 1) вернуть деньги; 2) причинить неприятности
отомстить be put out = быть раздраженной
pay down = оплатить часть цены, а put through = соединить с (по
остальное потом телефону)
pay for = получить наказание put up = 1) возвести, построить; 2)
pay off = расплатиться перед предложение гостеприимства; 3)
увольнением показать/представить в
pay up = рассчитаться, выплатить общественном месте (развесить
(долг) плакаты)
pull down = снести put up with = терпеть, мириться
pull in = прибыть (pull out = run across/into = случайно
отправляться) о поезде наткнуться
pull oneself together = взять чувства run after = преследовать, догонять,
под контроль охотиться
run away with = украсть set off/out = начать путешествие,
run down = 1) сбить транспортным отправиться
ср-вом = run over; 2) говорить set on = атаковать, натравить
плохо о (собак)
run in = I can't go any faster; I’m set sb up = подставить
running the car in. set to = начать усердно работать
run off = делать копии / set up = 1) начать бизнес; 2)
ксерокопировать установить рекорд
run out of = ничего не осталось (о stand by = 1) поддерживать = stand
припасах) up for; 2) быть готовым к действию
run through = 1) израсходовать; 2) stand for = 1) представлять,
прорепетировать, быстро означать; 2) терпеть
проверить/повторить stand in for = временно кого-л
run up = накапливать заменять
run up against = столкнуться (с stand out = выделяться
трудностями) stand up = 1) встать, подняться на
see about = позаботиться о чём-л ноги; 2) продинамить, не
see off = провести (на встретиться
поезд/самолёт) stand up to = противостоять
see out = проводить (к двери) (землетрясению)
see over = осмотреть местность take after = быть похожим на
see through = не быть обманутым take away = удалять (забрать
(He was such a poor liar that they грязную посуду)
saw through him at once) take back = извиниться
set about = приступить к, начать take for = Sorry, I took you for your
set aside = 1) save for a special brother. I always mix you up.
purpose; 2)отложить на некоторое take in = 1) дать жильё; 2) сузить
время = set by (одежду); 3) понять
set back = 1) переводить стрелки take off = 1) снять одежду (put on =
часов назад; 2) препятствовать, одеться); 2) взлетать (о самолёте)
мешать (come down = садиться); 3)
set in = (of weather) start and seem имитировать, подражать; 4) взять
likely to continue выходные
take on = 1) взять на себя turn out = 1) производить,
работу/ответственность; 2) нанять выпускать; 2) He turned out to be
на работу the one who had stolen the money
take out = 1) удалить The dentist turn over = turn to a new page;
took out my bad tooth; 2) очистить change the TV channel
от пятен turn to = 1) прийти за
take over = взять контроль на, помощью/советом; 2) begin (a way
возглавить of life or doing sth)
take to = 1) взять в привычку; 2) turn up = 1) неожиданно
любить, привязаться к появиться; 2) возникнуть
take up = 1) заняться (хобби, спорт, (возможность)
работа); 2) занимать wear away = постепенно исчезать
(пространство, время) wear down = ослабить
be taken aback = сильно удивиться сопротивление
be taken in = быть обманутым wear off = постепенно пройдёт
wear out = 1) вымотаться; 2)
turn away = не впускать использовать до полного износа
turn down = 1) отклонить work on = производить эффект
предложение; 2) уменьшите work out = 1) найти решение
громкость (turn up = увеличить проблемы путем рассуждения или
громкость) расчета; 2) успешно развиваться I
turn in = 1) ложитесь спать; 2) hope things will work out well for
передать полиции you in your new job
turn off = выкл (turn on = вкл) work up = развиваться I’ve been
walking all day so I’ve worked up a
really good appetite
1.Sentence- a grammatical unit of one or more words that expresses an
independent statement, question, request, command, exclamation, etc.
According to their structure, S can be:
 compound and complex Honesty is the best policy. You never know what
you can do till you try
 complete or incomplete When did you arrive? Ready?
 two-member or one-member We are going to the cinema. An old park.
According to their role in the process of communication S are divided into:
declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamatory S. They express
statements, questions, commands and exclamations respectively.
There are utterances which do not constitute S - non-sentence utterances.
They are: vocatives Charles? “yes-no” utterances, interjections Hi!, different
conversational formulas Thanks.

1.1.The infinitive is a verbal form (a non-finite verb form) which consists of


the base form of the verb with the particle "to".
Syntactic functions:
1. Subject
2. Predicative
3. Object
4. Attribute
5. Am of purpose, of result, of attendant circumstances, of comparison
etc
6. Parenthesis
Predicative constructions:
1. The objective-with-the-infinitive construction (has the function of a
complex object; used after verbs denoting sense perception, mental
activity, declaring, wish, feeling, permision).
2. The subjective infinitive construction (used in Passive voice) He was
thought to be a good man.
3. The for-to-infinitive construction (infinitive is in predicative relation to
a noun/pronoun preceded by the preposition for) He waited for her to
speak.
2.Negation – a grammatical category expressing with the help of various
linguistic means; the fact that the connection between two elements of an
utterance is considered as non-existence. N is act of denying for it indicates
the absence of any form N is a word or a statement that denies refuses,
disagrees.
Types of N:
1. A S is negative when the predicate is negated
2. Particular negation (applying to any other part of the S)
Means of expressing N: negative affixes (less, in), negative words (no one),
broad-negatives (words negative in meaning, but can’t appear negative in
formal –barely, hardly)
Double negatives are sometime possible in standard English, but only if
both negative words have their full meaning and this serves for the sake of
emphasis You’ve no reason not to trust me

2.1.Gerund - a non-finite form of the verb with some noun features. It’s
formed by adding the suffix -ing to the stem of the verb.
Syntactic functions:
1. Subject
2. Part of predicate
3. Object
4. Attribute
5. Am of time, of time, of reason, of attendant circumstances, of purpose
Predicative constructions - constructions in which the verbal element
expressed by the gerund is in predicate relation to the nominal element
expressed by a noun or pronoun. The nominal element can be expressed in
different ways:
1.If it denotes a living being it may be expressed (a) by a noun in the genitive
case or by a possessive pronoun Do you mind my smoking? (b) a noun in the
common case.
2. If it denotes a lifeless thing, it is expressed by a noun in the common
case or by a possessive pronoun I said sth about me clock being slow
3. It also can be expressed by a pronoun which has no case distinctions,
such as all, this, that, both, each, something I insist on both of
them coming in time
3.The subject - one of the two main parts of the sentence. It is
independent and usually comes before the predicate.
The subject is expressed by:
A noun in the common case or a nominal phrase with a noun The fog is
thinning A personal pronoun in the nominative case She is very beautiful
Any other noun-pronoun Nothing can be done about it A numeral or a
nominal phrase with a numeral The third was a young man with a dog An
infinitive or an infinitive phrase To understand is to forgive A gerund or a
gerundial phrase Talking mends no holes An infinitive or a gerundial
predicative complex For her to fall asleep in broad daylight was not at all
usual Any word or words used as quotations “And” is a conjunction A
subject clause which makes the whole sentence a complex one What girls of
her sort want is just a wedding ring
According to its grammatical value the Subject is divided into notional
(denotes a person or a non-person) and formal (only a structural element of
the sentence filling the position of the subject). The formal subject it is
impersonal when it is used in sentences describing various states of nature,
things in general, characteristics of the environment, time, distance etc It’s
spring. The formal subject it is introductory if it introduces the notional
subject expressed by an infinitive, a gerund, an infinitive/gerundial phrase, a
predicative complex, or a clause. It was no good coming there again

3.1.Participle I - a non-finite form of the verb with some adjectival and


adverbial features; formed by adding the suffix -ing to the stem of the verb.
Syntactical functions:
1.Attribute
2. Am of time, of reason, of attendant circumstances, of comparison
3. Part of a compound verbal predicate
4. Predicative
5.parenthesis
Predicative constructions:
1.The objective participial construction (a noun in the common
case/pronoun in the objective case + PI) I saw John playing tennis
2.The nominative absolute participial construction (consists of two
interdependent elements, nominal and adverbial, which are in a predicative
relation) The work being finished, the two girls went into the shop
3.Prepositional absolute participial construction with PI(introduced by the
preposition with) He went into the house with his heart beating fast
4.The predicate - the second main part of the sentence and its organizing
center, as the object and nearly all adverbial modifiers are connected with,
and dependent on. . According to the structure the P can be divided into
simple and compound. Both these types may be either nominal or verbal.
The simple verbal P is expressed by: a) a verb in a synthetic or analytical
form John runs quickly, b) a verb phrase (to have a look, to change one's
mind) Did you have a sleep? The simple nominal P is expressed by a noun,
or an adjective, or a verbal, it does not contain a link verb, as it shows the
incompatibility of the idea expressed by the S and that expressed by the P
He a gentleman! The compound P consists of two parts: (a) a finite verb and
(b) some other part of speech.
Mixed Types :
The compound modal P Don’t think I mean to be unkind
The compound aspect nominal P I began to feel rather hungry
The compound modal aspect P He ought to stop doing nothing

4.1. Participle II - a non-finite form of the verb with verbal and adjectival
features.
Syntactical functions:
1. Attribute He answered through the locked door
2. Predicative You seem surprized
3. Am of time He won’t stop arguing until interrupted, of reason, of
condition, of comparison
Predicative constructions:
The objective Participial Construction I heard my wife coming
The Subjective Participial Construction They were heard talking together
The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction He sat on the sofa, his legs
crossed
The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction He went out with his
back towards the door
5.Agreement of the Predicative with the Subject
Agreement implies that the use of one form necessitates the use of the other,
for example: a singular S requires a P in the singular, a plural S requires a P
in the plural. But in Modern English there is often a conflict between form
and meaning; in these cases the P does not agree with the S. Rules of
agreement of the P with the S:
1.The P is used in the plural:
a) when there are two or more homogeneous Ss connected by the
conjunction and or asyndetically; b) if the S is expressed by a collective noun
denoting the individuals of the group taken separately (people).
2. The P is used in the singular:
a) when the P-verb precedes a number of S, especially if the sentence begins
with here or there; b) when two homogeneous Ss in the singular are
connected by the conjunctions not only... but (also), neither... nor; either... or,
or, nor; c) when two Ss in the singular are connected by the conjunction as
well as; if a S expressed by a noun is modified by two or more attributes
connected by and, one person/thing/idea is meant; if the S is expressed by a
defining, indefinite, or negative pronoun (each, either; everybody, everyone,
everything, sb, sth, nobody, no one, nothing, neither; etc.); if the S is expressed
by an interrogative pronoun (who, what); if the S is expressed by the
emphatic it; if the S is expressed by a noun in the plural which is the title of a
book, or the name of a newspaper/magazine; if the S is expressed by a noun
in the plural denoting time/measure/distance and represents the amount or
mass as a whole; if the S is expressed by a collective noun denoting a group
or collection of similar individuals taken as a whole (humanity).
3.If the S is expressed by a relative pronoun (who, which, that) the P agrees
with its antecedent.
5.1.Absolute participial constructions
It may be introduced by the preposition with She was siting silent, with her
eyes fixed on the ground
Without a participle:
1.The nominative absolute construction (Breakfast over, he went out)
2.The prepositional Absolute construction (I found him writing ,with his
stick in his hands)
6.The predicative – the notional part of the compound nominal predicate.
Ways of expressing the predicative
A noun in the common case or in the genitive case Miss Sedly’s father was a
merchant. An adjective or an adjective phrase Ellen’s eyes grew angry. A
pronoun It was he. A numeral He was sixty last year. An infinitive (or an
infinitive phrase/construction) His first thought was to run away. A gerund
(or a gerundial phrase or construction) My hobby is dancing and his is
collecting. A participle or a participial phrase The subject seemed strangely
chosen. A prepositional phrase She is on our side. A stative I was wide awake
by this time.
An indivisible group of words It is nine o’clock already. A clause That’s what
has happened.
Semantic characteristics:
According to their semantic characteristics link verbs fall into three groups:
l. Link verbs of being: to be, to feel, to sound, to smell, to taste, to look, to
appear, to seem
2. Link verbs of becoming: to become, to grow, to turn, to get, to make
3. Link verbs of remaining: to remain, to continue, to keep, to stay.
The objective predicative construction functions as a complex object. It
consists of a nominal part and a part which stands in subject-predicate
relations to the first part I saw Nick take your book.

6.1.The Suppositional Mood denotes connection which is supposed to take


place. It’s used after expressions of suggestion, offer, demand, importance,
necessity, etc. I suggest that we should go to the cinema. After the same
expressions we can also use the Present Subjunctive Mood I suggested
that he go to the cinema. The SM is also used in set-phrases How should I
know? After the conjunction lest (=как бы ни) if anxiety, apprehension are
in the main clause I fear lest he should fall ill. In if-clauses which will
correspond to the Rus «если вдруг, случись так, что».
7. The object is a secondary part of the sentence referring to some other
part of the sentence and expressed by a verb, an adj, an adv, a stative
Ways of expressing:
A noun in the common case or a nominal phrase, a substantivized
adjective or participle I saw the boys two hours ago. A noun-pronoun
(personal pronouns are in the objective case, other pronouns are in the
common case, or in the only form they have) I don’t know anybody here. A
numeral or a phrase with a numeral At last he found three of them high up in
the hills. A gerund or a gerundial phrase He insists on coming. An infinitive or
an infinitive phrase She was glad to be walking with him. Various predicative
complexes She felt the child trembling all over. An object clause which makes
the whole sentence a complex one I don’t know what it was.
Types of object:
The direct object is a non-prepositional one that follows transitive verbs,
adj, and completes their meaning I wrote a poem
The indirect object also follows verbs, adj and it may be attached to
intransitive verbs as well as to transitive ones She did not tell anything to
anyone
Complex object. This structure consists of a noun in the common case or
pronouns in the objective case and infinitive I saw them walk along the road.
Position: after the predicate.
7.1.
Clauses of purpose are introduced by the conjunction so that
(sometimes that or in order that)
The predicate in these clauses is expressed by may or can + infinitive and
the rules of the sequence of tenses are to be observed in this case. He opened
the door so that he could hear what the women were saying.
Sometimes the clauses of purpose are introduced by the conjunction lest
(чтобы... не). In this case should +infinitive is used: I closed the door lest
he should come in.
In adverbial clauses of comparison
In clauses of comparison introduced by the conjunctions as if or as though
we find: the form of the Present Subjunctive II (or Past Continuous) including
the form were for all the persons to introduce a simultaneous action: She
gazed at him as if he were a stranger.
In Complex Sentences with a Subordinate Clause of Condition
In sentences of real condition we find the Indicative Mood.
They usually refer to the future, so the Future tense is used in
the principal clause and the present tense in the if-clause. If you
continue in this way you'll break your mother's heart.
When a sentence of unreal condition refers to the present or future, the form
of the Past Indefinite is used in the if-clause and the Present Conditional
Mood in the principal clause. If he were here I would speak to him.
When a sentence of unreal condition refers to the past, we find the form of
the Past Perfect in the if-clause and the Past Conditional Mood in the
principal clause.If you had invited him he would have already come.
in Complex Sentences with Adverbial Clauses of Concession
Complex sentences with a clause of concession introduced by the
conjunction even if or even though are built up on the same pattern as
sentences of unreal condition — the form of the Past Indefinite or the Past
Perfect is used in the subordinate clause and the Conditional Mood, Present
or Past, in the principal clause.
Even if she were here now, she wouldn’t be able to help him.
8. Attribute- a secondary part of the sentence sentence which
characterizes smth
Ways of expressing:
B y ( a ) a d j e c t i v e s or ( b ) a d j e c t i v a l p h r a s e s
By p r o n o u n s or p r o n o m i n a l p h r a s e Here’s some money for you.
By n u m e r a l s , o r d i n a l or c a r d i n a l , which state the number or
order, or serve to identify persons or non-persons, as in:He arrived just
three weeks ago.
By ( a ) n o u n s i n t h e c o m m o n c a s e s i n g u l a r o r ( b )
p r e p o s i t i o n a l n o m i n a l p h r a s e s It happened on a December
evening (декабрьский вечер).
B y n o u n s o r p r o n o u n s i n t h e g e n i t i v e c a s e . He caught the
sound of the children’s voices.
By statives, although these are rarely used as attributes. No man alive would
ever think of such cruelty.
By (a) participles I and II and (b) participial
p h r a s e s .The mild day died in a darkening flush of twilight.
By (a) gerunds, (b) gerundial phrases, or (c)
g e r u n d i a l c o m p l e x e s . Her walking shoes were elegant (shoes which
she wore when walking).
By (a) infinitives, (b) infinitivel phrases, or (c)
c o m p l e x e s ,a) You are the one to blame (who is to blame). b) He looked
around for a weapon to strike his insulter with.c) This is a problem for you to
solve. (which you could/must solve).
B y ( a ) a d v e r b s o r ( b ) a d v e r b i a l p h r a s e s a) No sounds came
from the quarters above.b) Most people living in out of the way places expect
the latest news from home with impatience.
By sentences used as a whole (the so-called
“ q u o t a t i o n n o u n s ” ) . She looked at me with a kind of don’t-touch-me-
or-I’ll-slap-you air.
B y a c l a u s e (then called an attributive clause) which makes the whole
sentence a complex one. Some called me by the name which no one here
knew.
An apposition is a part of the sentence expressed by a noun or nominal
phrase and referring to another noun or nominal phrase (the headword), or
sometimes to a clause
Non-detached appositions
Non-detached appositions form one sense group with their headword and
very often enter into such close relation with it that the two words form one
whole. This is especially true in the case of titles, military ranks, professions,
kinship terms, geographical denotations, etc., used as apposition.Sir Peter,
Mr Brown
Detached appositions
Detached, or loose appositions form separate sense groups and are wider in
their meaning than close appositions: they may give identification,
explanation, etc., especially when referring to pronouns. They may follow
the headword immediately or be separated from it.He actually envied Jolyon
the reputation of succeeding where he, Soames, had failed.
8.1. the use of forms expressing unreality in subj, obj, appositive, predicative
clauses
In subject clauses
1. with expressions of necessity and recommendation it is necessary
(important,
vital, imperative, essential, urgent, advisable, desirable) and expressions of
suggestion, order or decision it is suggested (proposed, re-
quired, demanded, requested, recommended, decided, agreed, deter-
mined, arranged) should + infinitive or the Subjunctive I are used.
"It is necessary that they be careful in the lab," he added
In Object clauses
1. In object clauses after the verb to wish we find the form
of the Present Subjunctive II (or the form were) (it shows that the action of
the subordinate clause is simultaneous with that of the principal clause, or
the Past Subjunctive II (it shows that the action of the subordinate clause
precedes that of the principal clause) to express a wish which cannot be
fulfilled or a hardly realizable wish.
e.g. I wish I deserved your compliments. I don't.
2. should + infinitive or the Subjunctive I is used after
expressions of suggestion, order or decision such as to decide, to
demand, to give instructions, to give orders, to insist, to make up
one's mind, to move, to order, to propose, to recommend, to re
quest, to require, to suggest, to urge and also after to arrange, to
be anxious, to be determined, to prefer and to take care.
e.g. Con demanded that Andrew should return to the house with
him to tea.

4. After expressions of fear, such as to be afraid, to be fear


ful, to be frightened, to be in terror, to be nervous, to be terrified,
to be troubled, to fear, to have apprehension, to tremble and others,
we commonly find the Indicative Mood in the object clause. Care
should be taken to observe the rules of the sequence of tenses.
e.g. I am afraid nothing has been done ye
in Appositive and Predicative Clauses
in Appositive and which are usually introduced by
the conjunction that But should + infinitive (or rarely the Subjunctive I) is
used after nouns expressing order, suggestion,
wish, agreement and decision, such as agreement, ambition, decision,
demand, desire, order, proposal, recommendation, request, require
ment, suggestion, understanding, wish and some others.
He told me o of his desire that all should be happy as long as it involved
no inconvenience to himself.
In predicative clauses, when the subject of the principal clause is ex-
pressed by one of such nouns as aim, arrangement, condition, de-
cision, idea, plan, proposal, suggestion, wish and some others,
should + infinitive is used in the subordinate clause. The rules of
the sequence of tenses are not observed,
e.g. His desire was that life should fall in with his own limited
but deliberate plans.
His wish was that we should do everything without his help. (predicative
clause)

In predicative clauses after the verbs to sound, to look, to feel Present


Subjunctive II is used to express an action simultaneous with that of the
principle clause, and Past Subjunctive II is used to express an action prior
to that expressed by the main clause.
He sounded as if he were a boss.
He looked as if he had just come back from another country.
9. The adverbial modifier (or the adverbial) is a secondary part of the
sentence which modifies another part of the sentence expressed either by a
verb (in a finite or non-finite form), or an adjective, or a stative, or an
adverb.
Ways of expressing:
A n a d v e r b ( s o m e t i m e s p r e c e d e d b y a p r e p o s i t i o n ) . Jane
sings beautifully.
A n a d v e r b i a l p h r a s e , w i t h a n a d v e r b a s h e a d w o r d . We
met ten years ago and parted two years later.
A noun, pronoun or numeral preceded by a
p r e p o s i t i o n o r p r e p o s i t i o n a l n o m i n a l p h r a s e . We met in
1975.
A noun without a preposition or a non-prepositional
n o u n p h r a s e , the latter usually containing such words as this, that,
every, last, next.Wait a minute!
A non-finite verb form:
a) a gerund or a gerundial phrase.Remember to open the window before
doing your morning exercises.
b) a n i n f i n i t i v e o r a n i n f i n i t i v e p h r a s e . The problem is too
difficult to solve.
c) a p a r t i c i p l e o r a p a r t i c i p i a l p h r a s e . Sighing, Betty returned
to the kitchen.
A predicative complex:
a) a g e r u n d i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n . Are you angry because of my being
late?
b) a f o r - t o - i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n . The problem is too difficult
for a child to solve.
c) a n o n - p r e p o s i t i o n a l o r p r e p o s i t i o n a l a b s o l u t e
c o n s t r u c t i o n . The meal over, they went to the fuel store.
An adjective, an adverb, a participle, a noun, a
prepositional phrase, an infinitive, an infinitive or
p a r t i c i p i a l p h r a s e i n t r o d u c e d b y a c o n j u n c t i o n . I’ll come
earlier if necessary.
A C l a u s e ( a s p a r t o f a c o m p l e x s e n t e n c e ) . We stayed at
home because it rained.
Classification :
The adverbial of place, of time, of manner, of cause (reason), of purpose,
of result (consequence), of condition, of concession, of attendant
circumstances, of comparison, of degree, of measure, of exception

9.1. word order


The words in an English sentence are arranged in a certain order.
Direct word order - is Subject - Predicate - (Object)
Inverted word order .
We distinguish f u l l i n v e r s i o n (when the predicate precedes the
subject, as in Here comes the lady of the house) and p a r t i a l i n v e r s i o n
(when only part of the predicate precedes the subject, as in Happy may you
be!). Some grammarians also distinguish d o u b l e i n v e r s i o n (when
parts of the predicate are placed separately before the subject, as in Hanging
on the wall was a picture).
a) G e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s , p o l i t e r e q u e s t s a n d i n t a g
q u e s t i o n s . Is it really true?
c) T h e r e - s e n t e n c e s w i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y n o n - l o c a l
there, followed by one of the verbs denoting
existence, movement, or change of the
s i t u a t i o n . There has been an accident.
d) E x c l a m a t o r y s e n t e n c e s e x p r e s s i n g wish, despair,
indignation, or other strong emotions.Long live the king!
e) E x c l a m a t o r y s e n t e n c e s w h i c h a r e n e g a t i v e i n f o r m
b u t p o s i t i v e i n m e a n i n g . Have I not watched them! (= I have
watched them.)
f) N e g a t i v e i m p e r a t i v e s e n t e n c e s . Don’t you do it.
2. Inversion is used as a grammatical means of subordination in some
complex sentences joined without connectors:a) I n c o n d i t i o n a l
c l a u s e s . Were you sure of it, you wouldn’t hesitate.
b) I n c o n c e s s i v e c l a u s e s . Proud as he was, he had to consent to our
proposal.
c) I n t h e s e c o n d p a r t o f a s e n t e n c e o f p r o p o r t i o n a l
a g r e e m e n t The more he thought of it, the less clear was the matter.
3. Inversion is used in sentences beginning with adverbs denoting place.
This usage is traditional, going back to OE norms.Here is another example.
4. Inversion is used in stage directions, although this use is limited to
certain verbs.Enter the King, the Queen.
5. Inversion may be used in sentences indicating whose words or
thoughts are given as direct or indirect speech. These sentences may
introduce, interrupt, or follow the words in direct or indirect speech, or may
be given in parenthesis.“That’s him,” said Tom (Tom said).
6. Inversion is used in statements showing that the remark applies
equally to someone or something else.I am tired. - So am I.
10.Ellipsis In English people often omit words rather than repeating them.
This is called Ellipsis. E is most commonly used to avoid repetition.
E dependent on linguistic context
1.In adverbial finite clauses the whole of the predication or part of it can be
omitted I'm happy if you are (happy)
2.Adverbial non-finite and verbless clauses: the subject and an appropriate
form of be are ellipted in: participle clauses Although (he was) told to stop,
he kept on working and verbless clauses While (he was) at Oxford, he was
active in the dramatic society.
3.Postmodifying clauses or phrases can often be considered reduced relative
clauses: postmodifying participle clauses The man owning that car will be
fined for illegal parking. ('who owns that car'), postmodifying adjective
phrases The men (who were) responsible for the administration of the school
refused to consider the matter, postmodifying prepositional phrases He spoke
to the girl (who was) from New York.
E not dependent on linguistic context
Some types of informal ellipsis are not dependent on the linguistic context
Serves you right = It serves you right. In most cases it is the initial word or
words of a sentence that are ellipted.
E in dialogue may take place under three conditions, which can occur in
various combinations: repetition he second speaker repeats what is said by
the first, expansion the second speaker adds to what is said by the first,
replacement the second speaker replaces what is said by the first with new
material. You can often use E in questions when the context makes it clear
what is meant 'There's someone coming.' − 'Who?' − I don't know. It's too
dark.'. E in agreement You often use ellipsis when you want to show that you
agree with something that has just been said ‘I find that amazing.’ − ‘So do I.’
10.1 Detached parts of the sentence are those secondary parts which
assume a certain grammatical and semantic independence.
A detached adverbial modifier He came in, with a large parcel under his arm
A detached attribute It was a wide white building, one storey high
A detached object She does not change — except her hair
The independent elements of the S are words which are not
grammatically dependent on any part of the S: interjections oh, hallo, good
heavens; direct address Good morning, sweet child! Parenthesis - either
shows the speaker’s attitude towards the thought expressed in the sentence
To be sure, Morris had treated her badly of late.

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