Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 226

УДК 373.167.1:811.

111
ББК 81.2Англ я7
И 48

Ильченко, Валерия Витальевна.


И 48 Английский язык / В. В. Ильченко. — Москва : Экс-
мо, 2014. — 224 с. — (Весь школьный курс в схемах и
таблицах).
ISBN 978-5-699-71202-1
Весь школьный курс по английскому языку представлен в виде
логических схем и информативных таблиц. Наглядное, четкое и схема-
тичное изложение материала позволяет быстро усвоить большой объ-
ем информации, облегчить понимание грамматики английского языка,
обобщить и систематизировать знания.
Издание поможет учащимся эффективно подготовиться к сдаче ЕГЭ
по английскому языку.
УДК 373.167.1:811.111
ББК 81.2Англ я7

© Ильченко В.В., 2014


© Оформление. ООО «Издательство
ISBN 978-5-699-71202-1 «Эксмо», 2014
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
ЧАСТИ РЕЧИ
Имя существительное . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Îáùàÿ õàðàêòåðèñòèêà èì¸í ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ. . . . . . . . . 13
Îáùèå ñâîéñòâà èì¸í ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Ôóíêöèè èìåíè ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîãî â ïðåäëîæåíèè. . . . 14
Êëàññèôèêàöèÿ èì¸í ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ ïî ñîñòàâó . . . 14
Êëàññèôèêàöèÿ èì¸í ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ
ïî çíà÷åíèþ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Êëàññèôèêàöèÿ íàðèöàòåëüíûõ èì¸í
ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
×èñëî (The Category of Number) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Îáðàçîâàíèå ìíîæåñòâåííîãî ÷èñëà èì¸í
ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ (the Plural Number)
è ïðàâîïèñàíèå èõ îêîí÷àíèé . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Ïðîèçíîøåíèå îêîí÷àíèÿ -s â èìåíàõ
ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Ïàäåæ (The Case) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Îáðàçîâàíèå ôîðì ïðèòÿæàòåëüíîãî ïàäåæà . . . . . . . . 19
Ïðèòÿæàòåëüíûé ïàäåæ â ëåêñè÷åñêèõ
êàòåãîðèÿõ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Âûðàæåíèå ïàäåæíûõ ñîãëàñîâàíèé ñ ïîìîùüþ
ïðåäëîãîâ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Ðîä (The Gender) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Îïðåäåëåíèå ðîäà èì¸í ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ
â ìåñòîèìåííûõ ñîîòâåòñòâèÿõ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Àðòèêëü (The Article) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Óïîòðåáëåíèå íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî àðòèêëÿ
(the Indefinite Article) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Óïîòðåáëåíèå îïðåäåë¸ííîãî àðòèêëÿ
(the Definite Article) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Îòñóòñòâèå àðòèêëÿ ïåðåä èìåíàìè
ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûìè . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Имя прилагательное. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Âèäû èì¸í ïðèëàãàòåëüíûõ ïî ñòðóêòóðå . . . . . . . . . . 30
Ðàçðÿäû èì¸í ïðèëàãàòåëüíûõ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Ñòåïåíè ñðàâíåíèÿ èì¸í ïðèëàãàòåëüíûõ
(The Degrees of Comparison) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Ñïîñîáû îáðàçîâàíèÿ ñòåïåíåé ñðàâíåíèÿ
èì¸í ïðèëàãàòåëüíûõ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4 Содержание

Âèäû èì¸í ïðèëàãàòåëüíûõ è îáðàçîâàíèå


ñòåïåíåé èõ ñðàâíåíèÿ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Ôîðìû ñðàâíèòåëüíîé è ïðåâîñõîäíîé
ñòåïåíåé ïðèëàãàòåëüíûõ, îòëè÷àþùèåñÿ
ïî ñâîåìó çíà÷åíèþ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Ïðàâîïèñàíèå îêîí÷àíèé ñòåïåíåé
ñðàâíåíèÿ ïðèëàãàòåëüíûõ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Ñðàâíèòåëüíûå êîíñòðóêöèè ñ ïðèëàãàòåëüíûìè . . . . . 35
Äðóãèå ñðàâíèòåëüíûå êîíñòðóêöèè
ñ ïðèëàãàòåëüíûìè. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Ïîðÿäîê ñëåäîâàíèÿ ïðèëàãàòåëüíûõ
â ôóíêöèè îïðåäåëåíèÿ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Ïîðÿäîê ñëåäîâàíèÿ îïðåäåëÿþùèõ ñëîâ ïåðåä
ïðèëàãàòåëüíûìè . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Ïîðÿäîê ñëåäîâàíèÿ êà÷åñòâåííûõ
ïðèëàãàòåëüíûõ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Наречие. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Âèäû íàðå÷èé ïî ñòðóêòóðå. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Âèäû íàðå÷èé ïî çíà÷åíèþ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Îáðàçîâàíèå ïðîèçâîäíûõ íàðå÷èé. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Ñòåïåíè ñðàâíåíèÿ íàðå÷èé . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Ñïîñîáû îáðàçîâàíèÿ ñòåïåíåé ñðàâíåíèÿ íàðå÷èé . . . . 41
Âèäû íàðå÷èé è îáðàçîâàíèå ñòåïåíåé èõ ñðàâíåíèÿ . . 42
Çíà÷åíèÿ íàðå÷èé, èìåþùèõ äâå ôîðìû. . . . . . . . . . . 43
Âèäû íàðå÷èé è èõ ïîçèöèÿ â ïðåäëîæåíèè . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Имя числительное . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Âèäû èì¸í ÷èñëèòåëüíûõ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Êîëè÷åñòâåííûå ÷èñëèòåëüíûå . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Ïîðÿäêîâûå ÷èñëèòåëüíûå . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Íåêîòîðûå îñîáåííîñòè óïîòðåáëåíèÿ èì¸í
÷èñëèòåëüíûõ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Óïîòðåáëåíèå è íàïèñàíèå íåêîòîðûõ èì¸í
÷èñëèòåëüíûõ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Местоимение . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Òèïû ìåñòîèìåíèé . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Óïîòðåáëåíèå ìåñòîèìåíèé âìåñòî äðóãèõ ÷àñòåé
ðå÷è . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Ôóíêöèè ìåñòîèìåíèÿ â ïðåäëîæåíèè . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Ëè÷íûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ (Personal Pronouns) . . . . . . . . . . 53
Cêëîíåíèÿ ëè÷íûõ ìåñòîèìåíèé . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Ïðèòÿæàòåëüíûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ (Possessive Pronouns) . . 54
Íåîïðåäåë¸ííûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ (Indefinite Pronouns) . . . 55
Содержание 5

Ñîãëàñîâàíèå ìåñòîèìåíèé ñ ôîðìàìè ãëàãîëà-


ñêàçóåìîãî. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Óïîòðåáëåíèå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ some è åãî ïðîèçâîäíûõ . . . 57
Óïîòðåáëåíèå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ any è åãî ïðîèçâîäíûõ . . . 57
Óïîòðåáëåíèå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Óïîòðåáëåíèå ìåñòîèìåíèé no è none . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Óïîòðåáëåíèå ìåñòîèìåíèé nobody, nothing è no one . . . 59
Óïîòðåáëåíèå ìåñòîèìåíèé each è every
(è åãî ïðîèçâîäíûõ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Óïîòðåáëåíèå ìåñòîèìåíèé either è neither . . . . . . . . . 60
Óïîòðåáëåíèå ìåñòîèìåíèé all è both . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Óïîòðåáëåíèå ìåñòîèìåíèé other è another . . . . . . . . . 62
Óïîòðåáëåíèå ìåñòîèìåíèé little è few . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Óïîòðåáëåíèå ìåñòîèìåíèé much è many . . . . . . . . . . 63
Âîçâðàòíûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ (Reflexive Pronouns) . . . . . . . . . 64
Ñîîòâåòñòâèÿ àíãëèéñêèõ âîçâðàòíûõ ìåñòîèìåíèé
â ðóññêîì ÿçûêå. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Óêàçàòåëüíûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ (Demonstrative Pronouns) . . . . 65
Âîïðîñèòåëüíûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ (Interrogative Pronouns) . . . 66
Ôóíêöèè âîïðîñèòåëüíûõ ìåñòîèìåíèé
â ïðåäëîæåíèè. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Îòíîñèòåëüíûå è ñîþçíûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ
(Relative and Conjunctive Pronouns). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Òèïû ïðèäàòî÷íûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé, ââîäèìûõ
îòíîñèòåëüíûìè è ñîþçíûìè ìåñòîèìåíèÿìè . . . . . . . 68
Ñëó÷àè îòñóòñòâèÿ îòíîñèòåëüíûõ ìåñòîèìåíèé . . . . . 69
Ñëó÷àè îáÿçàòåëüíîãî óïîòðåáëåíèÿ
îòíîñèòåëüíûõ ìåñòîèìåíèé . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Âçàèìíûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ (Reciprocal Pronouns) . . . . . . . . . 70
Глагол . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Îáùàÿ õàðàêòåðèñòèêà ãëàãîëîâ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Êëàññèôèêàöèÿ ãëàãîëîâ (Classification of Verbs). . . . . 70
Òèïû ãëàãîëîâ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Îñíîâíûå ôîðìû ãëàãîëà (The Main Forms of Verbs) . . . . . 71
Ëè÷íûå ôîðìû ãëàãîëà (Finite Forms) . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Íåëè÷íûå ôîðìû (Non-Finite Forms) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Ïðàâèëüíûå è íåïðàâèëüíûå ãëàãîëû (Regular
and Irregular Verbs). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Ïðàâèëüíûå ãëàãîëû . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Ïðàâîïèñàíèå îêîí÷àíèé ïðàâèëüíûõ ãëàãîëîâ . . . . . . 73
Íåïðàâèëüíûå ãëàãîëû . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Ëè÷íûå ôîðìû ãëàãîëà . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Ãðóïïà íåîïðåäåë¸ííûõ âðåì¸í (Indefinite Tenses) . . . . 74
6 Содержание

Ñâîäíàÿ ñõåìà ïåðåâîäà âðåì¸í ãðóïïû Simple


(Indefinite). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Ñâîäíàÿ òàáëèöà âðåì¸í ãðóïïû Indefinite . . . . . . . . . 75
Íàñòîÿùåå íåîïðåäåë¸ííîå âðåìÿ (the Present Simple
(Indefinite) Tense) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Îáðàçîâàíèå íàñòîÿùåãî íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî âðåìåíè
(the Present Simple (Indefinite) Tense) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Ïðàâîïèñàíèå îêîí÷àíèé ïðàâèëüíûõ ãëàãîëîâ
íàñòîÿùåãî íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî âðåìåíè
(the Present Simple (Indefinite) Tense) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Îáðàçîâàíèå íàñòîÿùåãî íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî âðåìåíè
(the Present Simple (Indefinite) Tense) ãëàãîëà to be . . . 78
Ôóíêöèè ãëàãîëà to be . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Îáðàçîâàíèå íàñòîÿùåãî íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî âðåìåíè
(the Present Simple (Indefinite) Tense) ãëàãîëà
to have . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Ôóíêöèè ãëàãîëà to have. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Îáðàçîâàíèå íàñòîÿùåãî íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî âðåìåíè
(Present Simple (Indefinite) Tense) ãëàãîëà to do . . . . . . 81
Ôóíêöèè ãëàãîëà to do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Óïîòðåáëåíèå íàñòîÿùåãî íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî âðåìåíè
(Present Simple (Indefinite) Tense) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Ïðîøåäøåå íåîïðåäåë¸ííîå âðåìÿ
(the Past Simple (Indefinite) Tense) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Îáðàçîâàíèå ïðîøåäøåãî íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî âðåìåíè
(Past Simple (Indefinite) Tense) ïðàâèëüíûõ
ãëàãîëîâ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Îáðàçîâàíèå ïðîøåäøåãî íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî âðåìåíè
(Past Simple (Indefinite) Tense) íåïðàâèëüíûõ
ãëàãîëîâ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Óïîòðåáëåíèå ãëàãîëà to be â ïðîøåäøåì
íåîïðåäåë¸ííîì âðåìåíè (Past Simple (Indefinite)
Tense) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Óïîòðåáëåíèå ïðîøåäøåãî íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî
âðåìåíè (Past Simple (Indefinite) Tense) . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Êîíñòðóêöèÿ used to. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Áóäóùåå íåîïðåäåë¸ííîå âðåìÿ (the Future Simple
(Indefinite) Tense) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Îáðàçîâàíèå áóäóùåãî íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî âðåìåíè
(Future Simple (Indefinite) Tense) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Óïîòðåáëåíèå áóäóùåãî íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî âðåìåíè
Future Simple (Indefinite) Tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Содержание 7

Äðóãèå ñïîñîáû âûðàæåíèÿ


äåéñòâèé â áóäóùåì . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Äëèòåëüíûå âðåìåíà (Continuous Tenses) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Ñâîäíàÿ ñõåìà ïåðåâîäà âðåì¸í ãðóïïû Continuous . . . 93
Ñâîäíàÿ òàáëèöà âðåì¸í ãðóïïû Continuous . . . . . . . . 94
Îáðàçîâàíèå íàñòîÿùåãî äëèòåëüíîãî âðåìåíè
(Present Continuous Tense). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Óïîòðåáëåíèå íàñòîÿùåãî äëèòåëüíîãî âðåìåíè
(Present Continuous Tense). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Îáðàçîâàíèå ïðîøåäøåãî äëèòåëüíîãî âðåìåíè
(Past Continuous Tense) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Óïîòðåáëåíèå ïðîøåäøåãî äëèòåëüíîãî âðåìåíè
(Past Continuous Tense) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Îáðàçîâàíèå áóäóùåãî äëèòåëüíîãî âðåìåíè
(Future Continuous Tense) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Óïîòðåáëåíèå áóäóùåãî äëèòåëüíîãî âðåìåíè
(Future Continuous Tense) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
Ñîâåðøåííûå âðåìåíà (Perfect Tenses). . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101
Ñâîäíàÿ òàáëèöà âðåì¸í ãðóïïû Perfect . . . . . . . . . . .101
Ñâîäíàÿ ñõåìà ïåðåâîäà âðåì¸í ãðóïïû Perfect . . . . . . . .102
Îáðàçîâàíèå íàñòîÿùåãî âðåìåíè ãðóïïû Perfect
(Present Perfect Tense) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102
Óïîòðåáëåíèå íàñòîÿùåãî âðåìåíè ãðóïïû Perfect
(Present Perfect Tense) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
Îáðàçîâàíèå ïðîøåäøåãî âðåìåíè ãðóïïû Perfect
(Past Perfect Tense). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
Óïîòðåáëåíèå ïðîøåäøåãî âðåìåíè ãðóïïû Perfect
(Past Perfect Tense). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106
Îáðàçîâàíèå áóäóùåãî âðåìåíè ãðóïïû Perfect
(Future Perfect Tense) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
Óïîòðåáëåíèå áóäóùåãî âðåìåíè ãðóïïû Perfect
(Future Perfect Tense) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
Ïåðôåêòíûå äëèòåëüíûå âðåìåíà (Perfect
Continuous Tenses) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
Îáðàçîâàíèå íàñòîÿùåãî ïåðôåêòíîãî äëèòåëüíîãî
âðåìåíè (Present Perfect Continuous Tense) . . . . . . . . .109
Óïîòðåáëåíèå íàñòîÿùåãî ïåðôåêòíîãî äëèòåëüíîãî
âðåìåíè (Present Perfect Continuous Tense) . . . . . . . . .110
Îáðàçîâàíèå ïðîøåäøåãî ïåðôåêòíîãî äëèòåëüíîãî
âðåìåíè (Past Perfect Continuous Tense) . . . . . . . . . . .110
Óïîòðåáëåíèå ïðîøåäøåãî ïåðôåêòíîãî äëèòåëüíîãî
âðåìåíè (Past Perfect Continuous Tense) . . . . . . . . . . .112
Îáðàçîâàíèå áóäóùåãî ïåðôåêòíîãî äëèòåëüíîãî
âðåìåíè (Future Perfect Continuous Tense) . . . . . . . . .112
8 Содержание

Óïîòðåáëåíèå áóäóùåãî ïåðôåêòíîãî äëèòåëüíîãî


âðåìåíè (Future Perfect Continuous Tense) . . . . . . . . .113
Çàëîã (Voice). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114
Òèïû çàëîãîâ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114
Îáðàçîâàíèå âðåì¸í ñòðàäàòåëüíîãî çàëîãà
(The Passive Voice) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114
Ñâîäíàÿ òàáëèöà âðåì¸í ñòðàäàòåëüíîãî çàëîãà . . . . . .115
Ñîãëàñîâàíèå âðåì¸í (Sequence of Tenses) . . . . . . . . . . . .117
Ñîãëàñîâàíèå âðåì¸í (Sequence of Tenses).
Âàðèàíò 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
Ñîãëàñîâàíèå âðåì¸í (Sequence of Tenses).
Âàðèàíò 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118
Çíà÷åíèå âðåìåííûõ ôîðì â ïðèäàòî÷íûõ
äîïîëíèòåëüíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ ïðè ñîãëàñîâàíèè
âðåì¸í . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118
Èñêëþ÷åíèÿ èç ïðàâèëà ñîãëàñîâàíèÿ âðåì¸í . . . . . . .119
Áóäóùåå â ïðîøåäøåì (Future-in-the-Past) . . . . . . . . . . .120
Îáðàçîâàíèå áóäóùåãî íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî âðåìåíè
â ïðîøåäøåì (Future Indefinite in the Past Tense) . . . .120
Âèäîâðåìåííûå ôîðìû ãëàãîëà â Future-in-the-Past . . .121
Óïîòðåáëåíèå Future-in-the-Past . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
Áóäóùåå íåîïðåäåë¸ííîå âðåìÿ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123
Íàêëîíåíèe (Mood) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124
Cîñëàãàòåëüíîå íàêëîíåíèå (the Subjunctive Mood). . . .124
Ôîðìû ñîñëàãàòåëüíîãî íàêëîíåíèÿ
â ñòðàäàòåëüíîì çàëîãå
(the Subjunctive Mood — the Passive Voice) . . . . . . . . .125
Óïîòðåáëåíèå ôîðìû Present Subjunctive . . . . . . . . . .126
Óïîòðåáëåíèå ôîðìû Past Subjunctive . . . . . . . . . . . .126
Îáðàçîâàíèå ïîâåëèòåëüíîãî íàêëîíåíèÿ
(the Imperative Mood) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127
Âûðàæåíèå ïîáóæäåíèÿ ê äåéñòâèþ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127
Ñâîäíàÿ òàáëèöà îáðàçîâàíèÿ ïîâåëèòåëüíîãî
íàêëîíåíèÿ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Íåëè÷íûå ôîðìû ãëàãîëà (The Verbals) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129
Ïðè÷àñòèå (The Participle) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130
Ôîðìû ïðè÷àñòèÿ ïåðåõîäíûõ ãëàãîëîâ . . . . . . . . . . .130
Ôîðìû ïðè÷àñòèÿ íåïåðåõîäíûõ ãëàãîëîâ. . . . . . . . . .130
Îáðàçîâàíèå ôîðì ïðè÷àñòèÿ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130
Ïðàâîïèñàíèå îêîí÷àíèé ïðè÷àñòèÿ íàñòîÿùåãî
âðåìåíè äåéñòâèòåëüíîãî çàëîãà (Present Participle
Active) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132
Çíà÷åíèå ïðè÷àñòèé . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132
Содержание 9

Ôóíêöèè ïðè÷àñòèÿ â ïðåäëîæåíèè . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134


Èíôèíèòèâ (The Infinitive) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136
Èíôèíèòèâ áåç ÷àñòèöû to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136
Ôîðìû èíôèíèòèâà è èõ ïåðåâîä. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137
Çíà÷åíèå ôîðì èíôèíèòèâà. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138
Ôóíêöèè èíôèíèòèâà â ïðåäëîæåíèè è åãî
ïåðåâîä . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138
Cëîæíîå äîïîëíåíèå (Complex Object). . . . . . . . . . . . .140
Óïîòðåáëåíèå êîíñòðóêöèè Complex Object ïîñëå
ãëàãîëîâ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141
Ñëîæíîå ïîäëåæàùåå (Complex Subject) . . . . . . . . . . .142
Ñòðóêòóðà è ïåðåâîä êîíñòðóêöèè Complex Subject . . .143
Óïîòðåáëåíèå êîíñòðóêöèè Complex Subject
ñ ãëàãîëàìè . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143
Ãåðóíäèé (The Gerund) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144
Çíà÷åíèÿ ôîðì ãåðóíäèÿ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144
Ôîðìû âðåìåíè è çàëîãà ãåðóíäèÿ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145
Ôóíêöèè ãåðóíäèÿ â ïðåäëîæåíèè . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145
Óïîòðåáëåíèå ãåðóíäèÿ ïîñëå ãëàãîëîâ, èì¸í
ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ è ïðèëàãàòåëüíûõ, ïðè÷àñòèé
ñ ïðåäëîãîì â ðàçíûõ ôóíêöèÿõ â ïðåäëîæåíèè . . . . .147
Ïðåäëîæíîå êîñâåííîå äîïîëíåíèå. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147
Ãåðóíäèàëüíûé îáîðîò . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149
Ïåðåâîä ãåðóíäèàëüíîãî îáîðîòà . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149
Ìîäàëüíûå ãëàãîëû (Modal Verbs). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150
Íåêîòîðûå îñîáåííîñòè ìîäàëüíûõ ãëàãîëîâ . . . . . . . .150
Çíà÷åíèÿ ìîäàëüíûõ ãëàãîëîâ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151
Äðóãèå ñïîñîáû âûðàæåíèÿ ìîäàëüíîñòè . . . . . . . . . .156
Предлог . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157
Ôîðìû ïðåäëîãîâ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157
Ïðåäëîãè ìåñòà (Prepositions of Place) . . . . . . . . . . . .157
Ïðåäëîãè íàïðàâëåíèÿ (Prepositions of Direction). . . . .159
Óïîòðåáëåíèå ïðåäëîãîâ âðåìåíè (Prepositions
of Time). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161
Ìíîãîçíà÷íîñòü íåêîòîðûõ ïðåäëîãîâ. . . . . . . . . . . . .161

СИНТАКСИС
Предложение . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164
Òèïû ïðåäëîæåíèé
â çàâèñèìîñòè îò ñòðóêòóðû . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164
Âèäû ïðåäëîæåíèé â çàâèñèìîñòè îò öåëè
âûñêàçûâàíèÿ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165
10 Содержание

Ïîâåñòâîâàòåëüíûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ (Declarative


Sentences). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165
Ïîðÿäîê ñëîâ â ïîâåñòâîâàòåëüíîì ïðåäëîæåíèè . . . . .165
Ïîðÿäîê ñëåäîâàíèÿ
ðàçëè÷íûõ âèäîâ îáñòîÿòåëüñòâ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166
Âîïðîñèòåëüíûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ
(Interrogative Sentences). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166
Òèïû âîïðîñèòåëüíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé. . . . . . . . . . . . . .166
Ñòðóêòóðà îáùåãî âîïðîñà (General Questions) . . . . . . .167
Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà îáùèõ âîïðîñîâ . . . . . . . . . . . .168
Ðàçäåëèòåëüíûå âîïðîñû (Disjunctive Questions) . . . . .169
Ñïåöèàëüíûå âîïðîñû (Special Questions) . . . . . . . . . .170
Âîïðîñû ê ïîäëåæàùåìó. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170
Âîïðîñû ê îïðåäåëåíèþ ïîäëåæàùåãî . . . . . . . . . . . .171
Îòâåòû íà âîïðîñû ê ïîäëåæàùåìó
è îïðåäåëåíèþ ïîäëåæàùåãî . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172
Âîïðîñû ê äîïîëíåíèþ è îáñòîÿòåëüñòâó. . . . . . . . . . .172
Àëüòåðíàòèâíûå âîïðîñû (Alternative Questions) . . . . .173
Ïîâåëèòåëüíûå (ïîáóäèòåëüíûå) ïðåäëîæåíèÿ
(Imperative Sentences) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173
Ïîíÿòèå î ïîâåëèòåëüíîì ïðåäëîæåíèè . . . . . . . . . . .173
Âîñêëèöàòåëüíûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ (Exclamatory
Sentences). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174
Ïîíÿòèå î âîñêëèöàòåëüíîì ïðåäëîæåíèè. . . . . . . . . .174
Îòðèöàòåëüíûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ (Negative Sentences) . . . . . .175
Ïîíÿòèå îá îòðèöàòåëüíîì ïðåäëîæåíèè . . . . . . . . . .175
Ñòðóêòóðà îòðèöàòåëüíîãî ïðåäëîæåíèÿ . . . . . . . . . . .175
Простое предложение . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Òèïû ïðîñòîãî ïðåäëîæåíèÿ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
Ïîäëåæàùåå (The Subject) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
Âèäû íåïîëíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178
Áåçëè÷íûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ (Impersonal Sentences) . . . . . . . .179
Óïîòðåáëåíèå áåçëè÷íûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé . . . . . . . . . . . .179
Òèïû ñêàçóåìûõ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179
Ïðåäèêàòèâ (èìåííàÿ ÷àñòü ñîñòàâíîãî ñêàçóåìîãî) . . .180
Ñòðóêòóðà ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ñ êîíñòðóêöèåé
there is/there are . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181
Îáùèå ñâåäåíèÿ î ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ ñ êîíñòðóêöèåé
there is/are . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182
Îáðàçîâàíèå ïðåäëîæåíèé ðàçëè÷íîãî òèïà
ñ êîíñòðóêöèåé there is/there are . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183
Îòðèöàòåëüíûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ñ êîíñòðóêöèåé
there is/there are. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
Содержание 11

Âòîðîñòåïåííûå ÷ëåíû ïðåäëîæåíèÿ


(The Secondary Parts of the Sentences) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
Äîïîëíåíèå (the Object). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
Ñïîñîáû âûðàæåíèÿ ïðÿìîãî äîïîëíåíèÿ
(the Direct Object). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
Ìåñòî ïðÿìîãî äîïîëíåíèÿ â ïîâåñòâîâàòåëüíûõ
è ïîâåëèòåëüíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185
Ñïîñîáû âûðàæåíèÿ êîñâåííîãî äîïîëíåíèÿ
(the Indirect Object) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185
Ìåñòî êîñâåííîãî äîïîëíåíèÿ â ïðåäëîæåíèè . . . . . . .186
Ñïîñîáû âûðàæåíèÿ ïðåäëîæíîãî äîïîëíåíèÿ
(the Prepositional Object) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186
Ìåñòî ïðåäëîæíîãî äîïîëíåíèÿ â ïðåäëîæåíèè. . . . . .186
Îïðåäåëåíèå (the Attribute) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187
Ñïîñîáû âûðàæåíèÿ îïðåäåëåíèÿ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187
Îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî (the Adverbial) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188
Ñïîñîáû âûðàæåíèÿ îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà . . . . . . . . . . . . .188
Ìåñòî ðàçëè÷íûõ âèäîâ îáñòîÿòåëüñòâ
â ïðåäëîæåíèè. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189
Ââîäíûå ÷ëåíû ïðåäëîæåíèÿ (Parentheses) . . . . . . . . .191
Сложное предложение . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192
Ñïîñîáû ñâÿçè ÷àñòåé
ñëîæíîñî÷èíåííîãî ïðåäëîæåíèÿ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192
Òèïû ïðèäàòî÷íûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192
Ñïîñîáû ñâÿçè ïðèäàòî÷íûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé
ñ ãëàâíûì . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193
Ñïîñîáû ñâÿçè ïðèäàòî÷íûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé
ïîäëåæàùèõ (Subject Clauses) ñ ãëàâíûì
ïðåäëîæåíèåì . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193
Ñïîñîáû ñâÿçè ïðèäàòî÷íûõ ïðåäèêàòèâíûõ
ïðåäëîæåíèé (Predicative Clauses) ñ ãëàâíûì
ïðåäëîæåíèåì . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194
Ñïîñîáû ñâÿçè äîïîëíèòåëüíûõ ïðèäàòî÷íûõ
ïðåäëîæåíèé (Object Clauses). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194
Ñïîñîáû ñâÿçè îïðåäåëèòåëüíûõ ïðèäàòî÷íûõ
ïðåäëîæåíèé (Attributive Clause) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195
Âèäû ïðèäàòî÷íûõ îáñòîÿòåëüñòâåííûõ
ïðåäëîæåíèé . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195
Ïðèäàòî÷íûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ óñëîâèÿ (Conditional
Clauses) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
Òèïû óñëîâíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
Ïåðåâîä óñëîâíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé ïåðâîãî òèïà . . . . . . .199
12 Содержание

Ïåðåâîä óñëîâíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé âòîðîãî òèïà . . . . . . .200


Ïåðåâîä óñëîâíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé òðåòüåãî òèïà . . . . . .201
Ïåðåâîä óñëîâíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé ñìåøàííîãî òèïà . . . .202
Ñâîäíàÿ òàáëèöà äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ óñëîâèÿ . . . . . . . . . .203
Ïðÿìàÿ è êîñâåííàÿ ðå÷ü (Direct and Indirect Speech) . . . .204
Ïðÿìàÿ è êîñâåííàÿ ðå÷ü . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204
Ñïîñîáû ïåðåäà÷è ïîâåñòâîâàòåëüíûõ
ïðåäëîæåíèé (Affirmative Sentences) â êîñâåííîé
ðå÷è . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205
Ñïîñîáû ïåðåäà÷è âîïðîñèòåëüíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé
(Interrogative Sentences) â êîñâåííîé ðå÷è. . . . . . . . . .206
Ñïîñîáû ïåðåäà÷è ïîáóäèòåëüíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé
(Imperative Sentences) â êîñâåííîé ðå÷è . . . . . . . . . . .207

СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЕ
Ïîíÿòèå î ñïîñîáàõ ñëîâîîáðàçîâàíèÿ. . . . . . . . . . . . .209
Ñïîñîáû îáðàçîâàíèÿ èì¸í ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ . . . . . . .210
Ñïîñîáû îáðàçîâàíèÿ èì¸í ïðèëàãàòåëüíûõ . . . . . . . .211
Ñïîñîáû îáðàçîâàíèÿ ãëàãîëîâ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .212
Ñïîñîáû îáðàçîâàíèÿ íàðå÷èé . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213

ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ
Таблица неправильных глаголов . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214
Группы неправильных глаголов . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220
Ôîðìà ïðîøåäøåãî âðåìåíè (the Past Simple)
è ôîðìà ïðè÷àñòèÿ ïðîøåäøåãî âðåìåíè
(the Past Participle) ñîâïàäàþò . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220
Ôîðìà ïðîøåäøåãî âðåìåíè (the Past Simple)
è ôîðìà ïðè÷àñòèÿ ïðîøåäøåãî âðåìåíè
(the Past Participle) íå ñîâïàäàþò . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .221
Ñâîäíàÿ òàáëèöà ïðàâîïèñàíèÿ îêîí÷àíèé . . . . . . . . .221
Раздел 1. Части речи

ЧАСТИ РЕЧИ 1
Имя существительное
The Noun

Общая характеристика имён существительных

Имя существительное — ÷àñòü ðå÷è, êîòîðàÿ îçíà÷àåò


ïðåäìåòû, âåùåñòâà, æèâûå ñóùåñòâà, ÿâëåíèÿ è àáñò-
ðàêòíûå ïîíÿòèÿ.

Îáùèå ñâîéñòâà èì¸í ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ

Ñâîéñòâà Ïðèìåðû

Èìåíà ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå I am a doctor.


îáû÷íî ñîïðîâîæäàþòñÿ She is an actress.
àðòèêëÿìè — a (an), the Open the window, please.

Èìåíà ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå ÷à- Where are you going


ñòî ñî÷åòàþòñÿ ñ ïðåäëîãàìè after lunch?
What is there under the
table?

Èìåíà ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå èìå- a girl — girls;


þò äâà ÷èñëà: åäèíñòâåííîå a table — tables
è ìíîæåñòâåííîå

Èìåíà ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå èìå- father — father’s;


þò äâà ïàäåæà: îáùèé è ïðè- workers — workers’
òÿæàòåëüíûé

Îäóøåâë¸ííûå ñóùåñòâèòåëü- a man (ìóæñêîé ðîä) —


íûå áûâàþò ìóæñêîãî èëè a woman (æåíñêèé ðîä);
æåíñêîãî ðîäà; íåîäóøåâë¸í- a chair, water, a window
íûå ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå îòíî- (ñðåäíèé ðîä)
ñÿòñÿ ê ñðåäíåìó ðîäó
14 Раздел 1. Части речи

Ôóíêöèè èìåíè ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîãî â ïðåäëîæåíèè

Ôóíêöèè Ïðèìåðû

Ïîäëåæàùåå The boy put the ball in the


box.

Äîïîëíåíèå I’ll speak to the manager.

Îïðåäåëåíèå We want to visit the village


museum.

Èìåííàÿ ÷àñòü ñîñòàâíîãî Nina is my sister, she is


ñêàçóåìîãî a student.

Îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî There is a hospital in the


village.

Êëàññèôèêàöèÿ èì¸í ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ ïî ñîñòàâó

Âèä ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîãî Ïðèìåðû

Ïðîñòûå èìåíà ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå a table, a door,


(Simple Nouns) ñîñòîÿò òîëüêî èç îäíî- a chair, water
ãî êîðíÿ áåç ïðèñòàâîê è ñóôôèêñîâ

Ïðîèçâîäíûå èìåíà ñóùåñòâèòåëü- an engineer,


íûå (Derivative Nouns) â ñâîåì ñîñòà- a misprint,
âå, êðîìå êîðíÿ, èìåþò åù¸ ïðèñòàâêè darkness
èëè ñóôôèêñû

Ñîñòàâíûå èìåíà ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå


(Compound Nouns) ñîñòîÿò èç:

äâóõ ñëîâ, ñîñòàâëÿþùèõ îäíî ïîíÿòèå a postman,


a schoolboy,
an airplane

äâóõ ñëîâ ñ ïðåäëîãîì ìåæäó íèìè, mother-in-law,


óäàðåíèå ïàäàåò íà ïåðâóþ îñíîâó commander-in-
chief
Имя существительное 15

Êëàññèôèêàöèÿ èì¸í ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ ïî çíà÷åíèþ

Ñîáñòâåííûå Íàðèöàòåëüíûå

Èìåíà, ôàìèëèè, ïðîçâè- Èìåíà ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå,


ùà îòäåëüíûõ ëèö è æè- îáîçíà÷àþùèå îòäåëüíûå
âîòíûõ: Jack, Mark Twain, ïðåäìåòû: a book, books,
Pussy (êëè÷êà) a tree, trees
Ãåîãðàôè÷åñêèå íàçâà- Ñîáèðàòåëüíûå èìåíà
íèÿ: London, France, the ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå (íàçâàíèÿ
Thames ãðóïï ëèö èëè æèâîòíûõ,
ðàññìàòðèâàåìûõ êàê îäíî
öåëîå): a family, families,
a crowd, crowds
Íàçâàíèÿ óëèö, çäàíèé, Èìåíà ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå,
ìîñòîâ è ò. ï.: Trafalgar îáîçíà÷àþùèå ðàçëè÷íûå
Square, Hyde Park, Tower âåùåñòâà: water, sand, salt
of London, Waterloo Bridge
Íàçâàíèÿ êîðàáëåé, Èìåíà ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå,
ãîñòèíèö, êëóáîâ è ò. ï.: îáîçíà÷àþùèå ïðèçíàêè,
“Titanic”, “Savoy” Hotel, äåéñòâèÿ, ñîñòîÿíèÿ, ÷óâ-
Rotary Club ñòâà, ÿâëåíèÿ, íàóêè, èñêóñ-
ñòâà è ò. ï.: darkness, love,
work, winter
Íàçâàíèÿ ãàçåò è æóðíà-
ëîâ: the Morning Star,
Moscow News
Íàçâàíèÿ ìåñÿöåâ è äíåé
íåäåëè: January, Monday
Íàöèîíàëüíîñòè è íàçâà-
íèÿ íàöèîíàëüíûõ ÿçû-
êîâ: the Chinese, Chinese
Ⱥɫɬɪɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɹ
the Sun, the Milky Way,
the Earth

Íàçâàíèÿ äíåé íåäåëè, ìåñÿöåâ è íàöèîíàëüíîñòåé ïè-


øóòñÿ ñ áîëüøîé áóêâû: Sunday, June, Russian.
16 Раздел 1. Части речи

Êëàññèôèêàöèÿ íàðèöàòåëüíûõ
èì¸í ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ

Íàðèöàòåëüíûå èìåíà ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå

Èñ÷èñëÿåìûå Íåèñ÷èñëÿåìûå
(íàçâàíèÿ ïðåäìåòîâ, êîòî- (íàçâàíèÿ ïðåäìåòîâ, êîòî-
ðûå ìîæíî ïåðåñ÷èòàòü) ðûå íåëüçÿ ïåðåñ÷èòàòü)

êîíêðåòíûå àáñòðàêòíûå êîíêðåòíûå àáñòðàêòíûå

a tree, trees an idea, salt, snow information,


ideas knowledge

Число (The Category of Number)

 àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå äâà ÷èñëà: åäèíñòâåííîå è ìíîæå-


ñòâåííîå. Ôîðìà åäèíñòâåííîãî ÷èñëà ñëóæèò äëÿ îáîçíà-
÷åíèÿ îäíîãî ïðåäìåòà: a book — êíèãà, à hat — øëÿ-
ïà. Ôîðìà ìíîæåñòâåííîãî ÷èñëà ñëóæèò äëÿ îáîçíà÷åíèÿ
äâóõ èëè áîëåå ïðåäìåòîâ: books — êíèãè, hats — øëÿïû.

Îáðàçîâàíèå ìíîæåñòâåííîãî ÷èñëà


èì¸í ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ
(the Plural Number)
è ïðàâîïèñàíèå èõ îêîí÷àíèé

Îêîí÷àíèå Ïðàâèëà Ïðèìåðû

-s ïðèáàâëÿåòñÿ ê ôîðìå a girl — girls,


åäèíñòâåííîãî ÷èñëà a dog — dogs

ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå, çà- a boy — boys,


êàí÷èâàþùèåñÿ íà -y, a day — days,
åñëè ïåðåä êîíå÷íîé y a toy — toys,
ñòîèò ãëàñíàÿ áóêâà (a, a play — plays
e, i, o, u)

ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå, çà- a path — paths,


êàí÷èâàþùèåñÿ íà -th a month — months
Имя существительное 17

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Îêîí÷àíèå Ïðàâèëà Ïðèìåðû

-s ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå, çà-
êàí÷èâàþùèåñÿ íà -o,
åñëè:
x êîíå÷íîé -î ïðåäøå- a radio — radios,
ñòâóåò ãëàñíàÿ áóêâà; a video — videos,
x ýòî ñëîâî èíîñòðàí- a kimono —
íîãî ïðîèñõîæäåíèÿ; kimonos,
x ýòî ñëîâî ÿâëÿåòñÿ a dynamo —
ñîêðàùåíèåì dynamos,
a piano — pianos,
a kilo — kilos,
a photo — photos

-es ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå, çà- an army — armies,


êàí÷èâàþùèåñÿ íà -y, a party — parties,
åñëè ïåðåä êîíå÷íîé y a lady — ladies,
ñòîèò ñîãëàñíàÿ áóêâà, a fly — flies
ïðè÷åì áóêâà y ìåíÿ-
åòñÿ íà i

-es ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå, çà- a bush — bushes,


êàí÷èâàþùèåñÿ íà a box — boxes,
-ch, -tch, -sh, -s, -ss, -x, a bus — buses,
-z, -o (åñëè -î ïðåäøå- a watch — watches,
ñòâóåò ñîãëàñíàÿ) a hero — heroes

ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå, çà- a knife — knives,


êàí÷èâàþùèåñÿ íà -f, a sheaf — sheaves,
-fe, -ff, ïðè÷åì êîíå÷- -self — -selves,
íàÿ áóêâà f ìåíÿåò- a wife — wives,
ñÿ íà v an elf — elves,
a calf — calves,
a half — halves,
a leaf — leaves,
a loaf — loaves,
a life — lives,
a thief — thieves,
a shelf — shelves,
a wolf — wolves
18 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ïðàâèëà Ïðèìåðû

Èñêëþ÷åíèÿ a child — children, a foot — feet,


a goose — geese, a louse — lice,
a man — men, a mouse — mice,
a tooth — teeth, an ox — oxen,
a woman — women
Ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå datum — data, thesis — theses,
ãðå÷åñêîãî addendum — addenda, basis —
è ëàòèíñêîãî ïðî- bases, erratum — errata, crisis —
èñõîæäåíèÿ crises, memorandum — memoranda,
radius — radii, curriculum —
curricula, nucleus — nuclei,
phenomenon — phenomena,
stimulus — stimuli, index — indices
Ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå, a carp — many carp, a cod —
èìåþùèå îäíó è òó many cod, a duck — many duck,
æå ôîðìó äëÿ åäèí- a swine — many swine, a sheep —
ñòâåííîãî è ìíîæå- many sheep, a deer — many deer,
ñòâåííîãî ÷èñëà a means — means
Ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå, advice, assistance, bliss, breeding,
èìåþùèå òîëüêî cunning, control, evidence,
ôîðìó åäèíñòâåííî- guidance, health, fun, information,
ãî ÷èñëà luck, money, nature, news,
nonsense, permission, progress,
trade, weather, work
Ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå, clothes, pants, pyjamas, trousers,
èìåþùèå òîëüêî binoculars, glasses, scales, scissors,
ôîðìó ìíîæåñòâåí- spectacles, greens, premises, riches,
íîãî ÷èñëà savings, spirits, stairs, surroundings,
arms, earnings, greens
Ñîñòàâíûå èìåíà custom-house — custom-houses,
ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå man-of-war — men-of-war, hotel-
keeper — hotel-keepers, mother-
in-law — mothers-in-law,
passer-by — passers-by, forget-me-
not — forget-me-nots
Имя существительное 19

Ïðîèçíîøåíèå îêîí÷àíèÿ -s
â èìåíàõ ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ

Ïðàâèëà Ïðèìåðû

ɉɨɫɥɟɝɥɭɯɢɯɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɵɯ a desk — desks, a map — maps,


ɩɪɨɢɡɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ[s] a path — paths, a month — months
ɉɨɫɥɟɡɜɨɧɤɢɯɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɵɯ a wall — walls, a ball — balls,
ɢɝɥɚɫɧɵɯɩɪɨɢɡɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ[z] a sea — seas
ɉɨɫɥɟɫɟɯVVVVH a box — boxes, a bus — buses,
VKFKJHɩɪɨɢɡɧɨɫɢɬ a family — families, a place —
ɫɹ>ķ]@ places

Падеж (The Case)

ɂɦɹɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɢɦɟɟɬɞɜɚɩɚɞɟɠɚɨɛɳɢɣ WKH&RPPRQ&DVH 
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɜ ɨɛɳɟɦ ɩɚɞɟɠɟ ɧɟ ɢɦɟɟɬ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɚɞɟɠ
ɧɵɯ ɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɣ  ɢ ɩɪɢɬɹɠɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ WKH 3RVVHVVLYH &DVH  ɋɭɳɟ
ɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɜ ɩɪɢɬɹɠɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɦ ɩɚɞɟɠɟ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹɢɫɬɨɢɬɩɟɪɟɞɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɦɵɦɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ.

Îáðàçîâàíèå ôîðì ïðèòÿæàòåëüíîãî ïàäåæà

Ïðèáàâëåíèå
Ïðèáàâëåíèå ê ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîìó ê ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîìó
îêîí÷àíèÿ -’s òîëüêî
àïîñòðîôà (’)
Ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå â åäèíñòâåííîì Ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå,
÷èñëå: îêàí÷èâàþùèåñÿ
my sister’s doll — êóêëà ìîåé âî ìíîæåñòâåííîì
ñåñòðû, the girl’s hat — øëÿïà ÷èñëå íà -s (-es):
äåâóøêè my sisters’ dolls —
êóêëû ìîèõ
Ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå, íå èìåþùèå
ñåñòåð, the boys’
âî ìíîæåñòâåííîì ÷èñëå îêîí÷à-
books — êíèãè
íèÿ -s (-es):
ìàëü÷èêîâ
the children’s toys — èãðóøêè äåòåé,
the women’s shoes — òóôëè æåíùèí
20 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ïðèáàâëåíèå
Ïðèáàâëåíèå ê ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîìó ê ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîìó
îêîí÷àíèÿ -’s òîëüêî
àïîñòðîôà (’)
Ñîñòàâíûå ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå:
the Commander-in-chief’s order —
ïðèêàç ãëàâíîêîìàíäóþùåãî,
my brother-in-law’s library — áèáëè-
îòåêà ìîåãî çÿòÿ
Êîãäà äâà ëèöà èëè áîëåå ÿâëÿþò-
ñÿ îáëàäàòåëÿìè îäíîãî è òîãî æå
ïðåäìåòà, îêîí÷àíèå ïðèòÿæàòåëü-
íîãî ïàäåæà ïðèáàâëÿåòñÿ ê ïîñëåä-
íåìó ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîìó:
Peter and Helen’s flat is large. —
Êâàðòèðà Ïåòðà è Åëåíû áîëüøàÿ.

Ïðèòÿæàòåëüíûé ïàäåæ â ëåêñè÷åñêèõ êàòåãîðèÿõ

Êëàññû ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ Ïðèìåðû

Ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå, îáî- Jack’s car — ìàøèíà Äæåêà,


çíà÷àþùèå æèâûå ñóùå- the dog’s eyes — ãëàçà ñîáàêè
ñòâà — ÷åëîâåêà è æèâîò-
íûõ
Ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå, îáîçíà- an hour’s drive — ÷àñîâàÿ ïî-
÷àþùèå âðåìÿ è ðàññòî- åçäêà, a five minutes’ walk —
ÿíèå ïÿòèìèíóòíàÿ ïðîãóëêà,
a kilometer’s distance — ðàñ-
ñòîÿíèå â îäèí êèëîìåòð
Ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå, îáîçíà- Canada’s population — íà-
÷àþùèå íàçâàíèÿ ñåëåíèå Êàíàäû, Europe’s
êîíòèíåíòîâ, ñòðàí, future — áóäóùåå Åâðîïû,
ãîðîäîâ, óíèâåðñèòåòîâ, London’s museums — ìóçåè
ñóäîâ, îêåàíîâ, çâ¸çä, Ëîíäîíà, the ship’s crew —
ïëàíåò, à òàêæå ñëîâà êîìàíäà êîðàáëÿ,
world, country, city, ship the sun’s rays — ëó÷è ñîëíöà
Имя существительное 21

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Êëàññû ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ Ïðèìåðû

Ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå, îáî- a doctor’s degree — ñòåïåíü


çíà÷àþùèå êëàññû ïðåä- äîêòîðà, cow's milk — êîðî-
ìåòîâ âüå ìîëîêî, a women’s
college — êîëëåäæ äëÿ äåâó-
øåê
Ñîáèðàòåëüíûå ñóùåñò- the government’s decision —
âèòåëüíûå ðåøåíèå ïðàâèòåëüñòâà,
the family’s tradition —
ñåìåéíàÿ òðàäèöèÿ
Ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå, the plane’s engine — äâèãà-
îáîçíà÷àþùèå òðàíñ- òåëü ñàìîëåòà, the steamer’s
ïîðòíûå ñðåäñòâà name — íàçâàíèå ïàðîõîäà
Ñóáñòàíòèâèðîâàííûå today’s newspaper — ñåãîä-
íàðå÷èÿ íÿøíÿÿ ãàçåòà, yesterday’s
meeting — â÷åðàøíåå ñîáðàíèå
Ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå, îáî- the baker’s — áóëî÷íàÿ,
çíà÷àþùèå íàçâàíèÿ ó÷- the chemist’s — àïòåêà, at
ðåæäåíèé, ìàãàçèíîâ èëè Tommy’s — ó Òîììè (äîìà),
äîìîâ (ãäå æèâóò ðîä- at my uncle’s — ó ìîåãî äÿäè
ñòâåííèêè èëè äðóçüÿ) (äîìà);
â ïðåäëîæíûõ îáîðîòàõ, They were married at St.
âûðàæàþùèõ îáñòîÿòåëü- Paul’s. — Îíè ïîæåíèëèñü
ñòâî ìåñòà â ñîáîðå Ñâÿòîãî Ïàâëà.
Ãðóïïû ñëîâ, ïðåäñòàâëÿ- the man we saw yesterday’s
þùèå îäíî ñìûñëîâîå öå- son — ñûí ìóæ÷èíû, êîòîðî-
ëîå ãî ìû âèäåëè â÷åðà
Óñòîé÷èâûå âûðàæåíèÿ to one’s heart’s content — ââîëþ;
at one’s wit’s end — â ðàñòå-
ðÿííîñòè;
out of harm’s way — â íàäåæ-
íîì ìåñòå;
a needle’s point — îñòðèå
èãëû;
at a stone’s throw — â äâóõ
øàãàõ;
for goodness’ sake — ðàäè áîãà!
22 Раздел 1. Части речи

Âûðàæåíèå ïàäåæíûõ ñîãëàñîâàíèé


ñ ïîìîùüþ ïðåäëîãîâ

ɋɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ ɜ ɨɛɳɟɦ ɩɚɞɟɠɟ ɫ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɝɚɦɢ RI WR E\ ZLWK


ɜɵɪɚɠɚɸɬɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɩɟɪɟɞɚɜɚɟɦɵɟɜɪɭɫɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟɤɨɫɜɟɧɧɵɦɢ
ɩɚɞɟɠɚɦɢ ɛɟɡ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɝɨɜ ɗɬɢ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɝɢ ɧɟ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɜ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ
ɫɚɦɨɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɧɟ ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɹɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɪɭɫɫɤɢɣ ɹɡɵɤ
ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɦɢɫɥɨɜɚɦɢ

Ïàäåæ Ïðåäëîã
(â ðóññêîì (â àíãëèéñêîì Ïðèìåðû
ÿçûêå) ÿçûêå)

Èìåíèòåëü- My brother likes tea. —


íûé (êòî? — Ìîé áðàò ëþáèò ÷àé.
÷òî?)

Ðîäèòåëüíûé The leg of the table is


(êîãî? ÷åãî?) of broken. — Íîæêà ñòî-
ëà ñëîìàíà.

Äàòåëüíûé I showed the book to


(êîìó? ÷åìó?) to my sister. — ß ïîêàçàë
êíèãó ñâîåé ñåñòðå.

I showed my sister the


— book. — ß ïîêàçàë êíè-
ãó ñâîåé ñåñòðå.

Âèíèòåëüíûé We met our friends


(êîãî? ÷òî?) at the theatre. — Ìû

âñòðåòèëè äðóçåé
â òåàòðå.

Òâîðèòåëü- The cup was broken by


íûé (êåì? by Tom. — ×àøêà áûëà
÷åì?) ðàçáèòà Òîìîì.

I cannot write with this


with ðån. — ß íå ìîãó ïè-
ñàòü ýòîé ðó÷êîé.
Имя существительное 23

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ïàäåæ Ïðåäëîã
(â ðóññêîì (â àíãëèéñêîì Ïðèìåðû
ÿçûêå) ÿçûêå)

Ïðåäëîæ- ïðåäëîãè I’m thinking about


íûé (î êîì? ïî ñìûñëó you. — ß äóìàþ î òåáå.
î ÷åì?) The pen is on the table. —
Ðó÷êà íà ñòîëå.

Род (The Gender)

ɍɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɜɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟɧɟɬɝɪɚɦɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɤɚɬɟ
ɝɨɪɢɢɪɨɞɚ

Îïðåäåëåíèå ðîäà èì¸í ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ


â ìåñòîèìåííûõ ñîîòâåòñòâèÿõ
Èìåíà ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå, êîòî- knife — íîæ — îí,
ðûå îçíà÷àþò íåîäóøåâë¸ííûå box — êîðîáêà —
ïðåäìåòû è æèâîòíûõ, çàìåíÿ- îíà, it
þòñÿ ìåñòîèìåíèåì it â åä. ÷èñ- window — îêíî —
ëå è they — âî ìí. ÷èñëå.1 îíî
Èìåíà ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå, êî- a boy,
òîðûå îçíà÷àþò ëèö ìóæñêîãî a man,
he
ïîëà, çàìåíÿþòñÿ ìåñòîèìåíè- a father
åì he — îí
Èìåíà ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå, êî- a girl,
òîðûå îçíà÷àþò ëèö æåíñêîãî a woman,
she
ïîëà, çàìåíÿþòñÿ ìåñòîèìåíè- a mother
åì she — îíà.2

1
Èíîãäà íàçâàíèÿ æèâîòíûõ çàìåíÿþòñÿ ìåñòîèìåíèÿìè
he èëè she (â ñêàçêàõ, êëè÷êè äîìàøíèõ æèâîòíûõ):
She has a cat. Her name is Pussy. Ñëîâî baby (ìëàäåíåö)
çàìåíÿåòñÿ ìåñòîèìåíèåì it: The baby was crying. It was
two weeks old.
2
Ñëîâà ship, boat, íàçâàíèÿ ñòðàí çàìåíÿþòñÿ ìåñòîèìå-
íèÿìè æåíñêîãî ðîäà: she (her). Where is our ship? —
She isn’t at the seaport. Ukraine sent her delegation to the
conference.
24 Раздел 1. Части речи

Артикль (The Article)

Артикль²ɫɥɭɠɟɛɧɨɟɫɥɨɜɨɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɚɸɳɟɟɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ
ɢɹɜɥɹɸɳɟɟɫɹɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɦɟɝɨɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɨɫɬɢɢɥɢɧɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧ
ɧɨɫɬɢɚɬɚɤɠɟɪɨɞɚɱɢɫɥɚɩɚɞɟɠɚȼɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟɫɭɳɟɫɬ
ɜɭɟɬɞɜɚɚɪɬɢɤɥɹ²ɧɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɵɣa an  WKH,QGH¿QLWH$UWLFOH 
ɢɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɵɣWKH WKH'H¿QLWH$UWLFOH Ɏɨɪɦɚɧɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɨɝɨ
ɚɪɬɢɤɥɹ ɚ ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɩɟɪɟɞ ɫɥɨɜɚɦɢ ɧɚɱɢɧɚɸɳɢɦɢɫɹ ɫ ɫɨ
ɝɥɚɫɧɨɝɨɡɜɭɤɚDWDEOHDERRNɎɨɪɦɚɧɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɨɝɨɚɪɬɢɤɥɹɚQ
ɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɩɟɪɟɞ ɫɥɨɜɚɦɢ ɧɚɱɢɧɚɸɳɢɦɢɫɹ ɫ ɝɥɚɫɧɨɝɨ ɡɜɭɤɚ
DQDXWKRUDQDUP

Óïîòðåáëåíèå íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî àðòèêëÿ


(the Indefinite Article)
Íåîïðåäåë¸ííûé àðòèêëü à (àn) óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ òîëüêî ñ èñ-
÷èñëÿåìûìè ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûìè â åäèíñòâåííîì ÷èñëå.

Ïðàâèëà Ïðèìåðû

C ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì, îáî- He bought a car yesterday.


çíà÷àþùèì êàêîå-íèáóäü He was born in a small town
ëèöî èëè ïðåäìåò, óïîìè- in Italy.
íàåìûì âïåðâûå
Êîãäà èìååòñÿ â âèäó ëþ- A child needs love and care.
áîé ïðåäñòàâèòåëü äàííîãî A cat has four paws.
êëàññà ëèö èëè ïðåäìåòîâ
C ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì My father is an engineer.
â ôóíêöèè ïðèëîæåíèÿ Tom, a friend of mine, has
èëè ïðåäèêàòèâà got married.
 çíà÷åíèè ÷èñëèòåëüíî- He didn’t say a word.
ãî îäèí I’ll come back in an hour.
Ïåðåä ÷èñëèòåëüíûìè He has won a million dollars.
hundred, thousand, million The case weighs a hundred
kilos.
 âûðàæåíèÿõ, îáîçíà÷àþ- He comes here four times
ùèõ ñêîðîñòü, ñòîèìîñòü, a week. The apples are 5p
ñîîòíîøåíèå (a/an = per) a kilo. He never drives more
than sixty kilometers an hour.
Имя существительное 25

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ïðàâèëà Ïðèìåðû

Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ êîëè÷åñòâà When I entered, I saw a lot


â âûðàæåíèÿõ of people in the room.
a dozen, a score, a lot of, He spends a great deal of
a great many, a great deal money on his car.
of, a couple of

 âîñêëèöàòåëüíûõ ïðåä- What a big house they’ve


ëîæåíèÿõ, íà÷èíàþùèõñÿ got!
ñ ìåñòîèìåíèÿ what (êà- What a nice day!
êîé, ÷òî çà)

Ñ èìåíàìè ëþäåé â çíà÷å- There is a Mr Smith to see


íèè íåêèé, åù¸ îäèí, íî- you.
âûé You are just a James Bond!
He is not an Einstein!

Åñëè ïåðåä ñóùåñòâèòåëü- There came a knock on the


íûì ñòîèò îïðåäåëåíèå, door, then a second and
âûðàæåííîå ïîðÿäêîâûì a third.
÷èñëèòåëüíûì â çíà÷åíèè
äðóãîé, åù¸ îäèí

Åñëè ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå, We were invited to a dinner


îçíà÷àþùåå ïðè¸ì åäû, given to welcome our new
îáîçíà÷àåò òîðæåñòâåí- director.
íîå ìåðîïðèÿòèå, èëè ïå- He gave us a good breakfast.
ðåä íèì ñòîèò îïèñàòåëü-
íîå îïðåäåëåíèå

Ïåðåä èñ÷èñëÿåìûì She is such a nice woman.


ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì, ñòîÿ- This is rather a long story.
ùèì â åäèíñòâåííîì That was quite a nourishing
÷èñëå ïîñëå such, quite breakfast.
è rather

 óñòîé÷èâûõ âûðàæå- as a rule, to be in a hurry,


íèÿõ to be at a loss, in a low/loud
voice, at a glance
26 Раздел 1. Части речи

Óïîòðåáëåíèå îïðåäåë¸ííîãî àðòèêëÿ


(the Definite Article)

Îïðåäåë¸ííûé àðòèêëü the óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ ñ ñóùåñòâè-


òåëüíûìè âñåõ êëàññîâ êàê â åäèíñòâåííîì, òàê è âî ìíî-
æåñòâåííîì ÷èñëå.

Ïðàâèëà Ïðèìåðû
Êîãäà ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå Show me the books you
èìååò ïðè ñåáå îïðåäåëå- bought yesterday.
íèå, âûäåëÿþùåå åãî èç I want to see the Mr Brown
âñåõ ëèö èëè ïðåäìåòîâ who signed this letter.
äàííîãî êëàññà è îáîçíà- The girl in blue is beautiful.
÷åííîå ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì It was the Monday of his
departure.
I met him in the summer of
1991.
I don’t like the wine here.
The Christmas dinner was
perfect.
Åñëè èç ñèòóàöèè èëè êîí- Please pass the salt.
òåêñòà ÿñíî, êàêîå èìåííî Jane is in the garden.
ëèöî èëè ïðåäìåò èìååò- Put your books on the table.
ñÿ â âèäó
Åñëè ðàíåå íàçâàííîå ëèöî John was born in a small
èëè ïðåäìåò ñíîâà óïîìè- seaside town.
íàåòñÿ â áåñåäå èëè òåêñòå The town was beautiful.
Ïåðåä ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì, the earth, the sun, the
îáîçíà÷àþùèì ëèöî èëè moon, the sky, the world,
ïðåäìåò, åäèíñòâåííûì the ground, the air, the
â ñâîåì ðîäå èëè â äàííîé stars.
îáñòàíîâêå Give me a list of the
managers.
Åñëè ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå The whale is an endangered
â åäèíñòâåííîì ÷èñëå îáî- species.
çíà÷àåò öåëûé êëàññ æè- The difference in wealth
âîòíûõ èëè ïðåäìåòîâ, between the bourgeoisie and
ãðóïïó ëþäåé the proletariat is obvious.
Ïåðåä ÷àñòè÷íî ñóáñòàíòè- Fortune favours the brave.
âèðîâàííûìè ïðèëàãàòåëü- We ought to take care of
íûìè the old and sick.
Имя существительное 27

Ïðîäîëæåíèå òàáëèöû

Ïðàâèëà Ïðèìåðû

Ïåðåä ôàìèëèÿìè, óïîòðåá- The Browns have lived here


ë¸ííûìè âî ìíîæåñòâåí- since 2009.
íîì ÷èñëå äëÿ îáîçíà÷åíèÿ
÷ëåíîâ îäíîé è òîé æå ñåìüè

Ïåðåä íàçâàíèÿìè îêå- the Atlantic (Ocean),


àíîâ, ìîðåé, ðåê, îç¸ð1, the Black Sea, the Thames,
ïðîëèâîâ, êàíàëîâ, ìåñò- the Volga, the Ontario,
íîñòåé, ïóñòûíü, ãîðíûõ the Bering Strait, the
õðåáòîâ è ïåðåâàëîâ, ãðóïï Suez Canal, the Ruhr, the
îñòðîâîâ Sahara, the Alps, the Saint
Gotthard Pass, the Hawaii

Ïåðåä ãåîãðàôè÷åñêèìè the Midlands, the


íàçâàíèÿìè âî ìíîæåñòâåí- Netherlands, the Yorkshire
íîì ÷èñëå Forests

Ïåðåä èìåíàìè ñîáñòâåí- the Gulf of Mexico, the


íûìè, îáðàçîâàííûìè ïî Tower of London, the
ìîäåëÿì: ïðèëàãàòåëü- Arabian Gulf, the High
íîå + ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå èëè Street, the National Gallery
ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå + ñóùå-
ñòâèòåëüíîå

Ïåðåä íàçâàíèÿìè ñóäîâ, the Titanic, the Hilton, the


ãîñòèíèö, ìóçååâ, êëóáîâ, Louvre, the National Tennis
ãàçåò, ïîï-ãðóïï, ïàìÿòíè- Club, the Morning Star, the
êîâ, ðåñòîðàíîâ, êèíîòåàò- Beatles, the Lincoln Memorial,
ðîâ, ïîëèòè÷åñêèõ ïàðòèé the Conservative Party

Åñëè ïåðåä ñóùåñòâèòåëü- He is the best friend I’ve


íûì ñòîèò îïðåäåëåíèå, ever had.
âûðàæåííîå ïðèëàãàòåëü- This is the most interesting
íûì â ïðåâîñõîäíîé ñòåïå- book I’ve ever read.
íè2, ïîðÿäêîâûì ÷èñëè- His office is on the third
òåëüíûì èëè ñëîâàìè, floor.
îãðàíè÷èâàþùèìè
îïðåäåëåíèå: same, only,
very, main, left, right, cen-
tral, following, present, for-
mer, latter, last3, next3
28 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ïðàâèëà Ïðèìåðû

Ñ íåèñ÷èñëÿåìûìè ñóùå- It is a very good wine. Simon


ñòâèòåëüíûìè, êîãäà ðå÷ü ordered a coke and an ice for
èä¸ò î ðàçíîâèäíîñòè ïî- Kit.
íÿòèÿ, ÿâëåíèÿ èëè âåùå- He was filled with a happiness
ñòâà èëè åäèíèöå âåùåñòâà he had never known.

 óñòîé÷èâûõ âûðàæåíèÿõ in the morning (afternoon,


evening), in the original,
on the whole, the other day,
on the one hand/on the
other hand, to tell the truth

1
Åñëè ïåðåä íàçâàíèåì îçåðà ñòîèò ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå lake,
òî íàçâàíèå óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ áåç àðòèêëÿ: lake Baikal, lake
Huron.
2
A most = very
This is the most interesting book I’ve ever read. — Ýòî ñà-
ìàÿ èíòåðåñíàÿ êíèãà, êîòîðóþ ÿ êîãäà-ëèáî ÷èòàë.
This is a most interesting book. — Ýòî ÷ðåçâû÷àéíî (î÷åíü)
èíòåðåñíàÿ êíèãà.
3
Next â çíà÷åíèè «áóäóùèé» è last â çíà÷åíèè «ïðîø-
ëûé» óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ áåç àðòèêëÿ â ñî÷åòàíèÿõ next
week, next month, next year, last week, last month, last
year è ò. ä.

Îòñóòñòâèå àðòèêëÿ ïåðåä èìåíàìè


ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûìè

Ïðàâèëà Ïðèìåðû

Ïåðåä èìåíàìè ñîáñòâåííûìè John is a very nice lad.

Ïåðåä ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûìè “Father wants us to move


mother, father, aunt, uncle, into a smaller place,”
sister, brother, cousin, baby Mike said.
â çíà÷åíèè ÷ëåíîâ ñåìüè
Имя существительное 29

Ïðîäîëæåíèå òàáëèöû

Ïðàâèëà Ïðèìåðû

Ïåðåä íàçâàíèÿìè êîíòèíåí- Africa, Antarctica, France,


òîâ, ñòðàí1, ãîðîäîâ2 è íàñå- Argentina, London, Elbrus,
ëåííûõ ïóíêòîâ, ãîð, îñòðî- Cyprus, Niagara Falls,
âîâ, âîäîïàäîâ, çàëèâîâ, Hudson Bay, Labrador,
ïîëóîñòðîâîâ, ìûñîâ3 Cape Horn

Ïåðåä íàçâàíèÿìè äíåé We’ll see you on Sunday.


íåäåëè, ìåñÿöåâ è âðåì¸í He’ll be 18 in May.
ãîäà Spring comes after winter.

Íàðèöàòåëüíîå ñóùåñòâè- Good morning, doctor!


òåëüíîå, ñëóæàùåå îáðàùå- May I ask you
íèåì, ðàññìàòðèâàåòñÿ êàê a question, professor?
ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå ñîáñòâåííîå
è óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ áåç àðòèêëÿ

Åñëè ïåðåä ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì My room is large.


ñòîèò îïðåäåëåíèå, âûðàæåí- This magazine is very
íîå ïðèòÿæàòåëüíûì, óêà- interesting.
çàòåëüíûì, âîïðîñèòåëüíûì His arrival caused some
ìåñòîèìåíèåì èëè íåîïðå- excitement.
äåë¸ííûìè ìåñòîèìåíèÿìè
some, any, no, each, every

Ïåðåä ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì âî Big hotels are very much


ìíîæåñòâåííîì ÷èñëå, îáî- the same.
çíà÷àþùèì âñÿêèõ, ëþáûõ Girls are expected to like
ïðåäñòàâèòåëåé äàííîãî êëàñ- chocolate.
ñà ëèö èëè ïðåäìåòîâ

Ïåðåä íåèñ÷èñëÿåìûì ñóùå- Knowledge is very


ñòâèòåëüíûì, îáîçíà÷àþùèì important nowadays.
âåùåñòâî èëè îòâëå÷åííîå I don’t like wine.
ïîíÿòèå â îáùåì ñìûñëå

Ïåðåä íàçâàíèÿìè èãð He plays golf.

Ïåðåä èìåíàìè ñóùåñòâè- I have breakfast at eight.


òåëüíûìè, êîòîðûå îçíà÷àþò
ïðèåì åäû
30 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ïðàâèëà Ïðèìåðû

Åñëè ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå ñòî- Have you read Chapter Ten?


èò ïîñëå ïîðÿäêîâîãî ÷èñëè- Open the book at page
òåëüíîãî twenty-five.
 óñòîé÷èâûõ âûðàæåíèÿõ to take to heart, to take
offence, to give/get/ask
permission, to lose heart,
to keep house, bare truth

1
Èñêëþ÷åíèÿ: the Argentine, the Sudan, the Yemen, the
Cameroon, (the) Congo, (the) Lebanon, (the) Senegal.
2
Ñ íàçâàíèÿìè ñòðàí, â ñîñòàâ êîòîðûõ âõîäÿò ñëîâà
republic, union, kingdom, state, èñïîëüçóåòñÿ îïðåäåë¸í-
íûé àðòèêëü: the United States of America (the USA), the
Republic of Ireland.
Èñêëþ÷åíèå: the Hague — Ãààãà (ãîðîä â Íèäåðëàíäàõ).
3
Åñëè â íàçâàíèå ïîëóîñòðîâà âõîäèò ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå
peninsula, èñïîëüçóåòñÿ îïðåäåë¸ííûé àðòèêëü: the
Hindustan peninsula, the Balkan peninsula.

Имя прилагательное
The Adjective

Имя прилагательное — ÷àñòü ðå÷è, îáîçíà÷àþùàÿ ïðèçíàê


ïðåäìåòà.

Âèäû èì¸í ïðèëàãàòåëüíûõ ïî ñòðóêòóðå

Ïðîñòûå Ïðîèçâîäíûå
Ñîñòàâíûå
(Simple (Derived
(Compound Adjectives)
Adjectives) Adjectives)

Íå èìåþò íè Ñ ñóôôèêñà- Îáðàçóþòñÿ èç äâóõ


ñóôôèêñîâ, ìè èëè ñëîâ, ñîñòàâëÿþùèõ
íè ïðåôèêñîâ: ïðåôèêñàìè: îäíî ïîíÿòèå:
Имя прилагательное 31

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ïðîñòûå Ïðîèçâîäíûå
Ñîñòàâíûå
(Simple (Derived
(Compound Adjectives)
Adjectives) Adjectives)

red, nice, big, childish, light-yellow, well-known,


bad friendly, use- brown-eyed, long-legged,
ful, unknown absent-minded

Ðàçðÿäû èì¸í ïðèëàãàòåëüíûõ

Êà÷åñòâåííûå Îòíîñèòåëüíûå
ïðèëàãàòåëüíûå ïðèëàãàòåëüíûå
(Qualitative Adjectives) (Relative Adjectives)
Îáîçíà÷àþò òàêèå ïðèçíàêè Îáîçíà÷àþò òàêèå ïðèçíàêè
ïðåäìåòà, êîòîðûå îòëè- ïðåäìåòà, êîòîðûå íå ìîãóò
÷àþò îäèí ïðåäìåò îò áûòü â ïðåäìåòå â áîëüøåé
äðóãîãî: large, red, difficult, èëè ìåíüøåé ñòåïåíè:
light, round, sweet wooden, rural, mathematical,
medieval
Èìåþò ñòåïåíè ñðàâíåíèÿ: Íå èìåþò ñòåïåíåé
large — larger — the largest, ñðàâíåíèÿ
difficult — more difficult —
the most difficult
Ìîãóò ñî÷åòàòüñÿ ñ íàðå÷è- Íå ìîãóò ñî÷åòàòüñÿ
ÿìè ñòåïåíè very, so, too, ñ íàðå÷èÿìè ñòåïåíè
quite, fairly: very small,
so beautiful, too expensive,
quite loud, fairly difficult

Степени сравнения имён прилагательных


(The Degrees of Comparison)

 àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå êà÷åñòâåííûå èìåíà ïðèëàãàòåëü-


íûå èçìåíÿþòñÿ ïî ñòåïåíÿì ñðàâíåíèÿ. Îíè èìåþò ïîëî-
æèòåëüíóþ ñòåïåíü (the Positive Degree), ñðàâíèòåëüíóþ
ñòåïåíü (the Comparative Degree) è ïðåâîñõîäíóþ ñòåïåíü
ñðàâíåíèÿ (the Superlative Degree).
32 Раздел 1. Части речи

Ñïîñîáû îáðàçîâàíèÿ ñòåïåíåé ñðàâíåíèÿ


èì¸í ïðèëàãàòåëüíûõ

Ñïîñîáû îáðàçîâàíèÿ Ïðèìåðû

Ïðè ïîìîùè äîáàâëåíèÿ fat — fatter — the fattest,


ñóôôèêñîâ -er è -est ê îñíîâ- cold — colder — the
íîé ôîðìå coldest
Ïðè ïîìîùè óïîòðåáëåíèÿ active — more active —
ñëîâ more è most ïåðåä îñ- the most active,
íîâíîé ôîðìîé áåç å¸ èçìå- famous — more famous —
íåíèÿ the most famous
Ïóòåì îáðàçîâàíèÿ ñòåïåíåé good — better — the best,
ñðàâíåíèÿ îò ðàçíûõ êîðíåé bad — worse — the worst

Âèäû èì¸í ïðèëàãàòåëüíûõ


è îáðàçîâàíèå ñòåïåíåé èõ ñðàâíåíèÿ

Âèäû èì¸í Ïîëîæè- Ñðàâíè- Ïðåâîñ-


ïðèëàãà- òåëüíàÿ òåëüíàÿ õîäíàÿ
òåëüíûõ ñòåïåíü ñòåïåíü ñòåïåíü
Îäíîñëîæ- long longer the longest
íûå ïðèëàãà- big bigger the biggest
òåëüíûå hot hotter the hottest

Äâóñëîæíûå ïðèëàãàòåëüíûå:

êîòîðûå çà- easy easier the easiest


êàí÷èâàþòñÿ clever cleverer the cleverest
íà -y, -år, -lå, simple simpler the simplest
-ly, -ow silly sillier the silliest
narrow narrower the narrowest

ñ óäàðåíè- polite politer the politest


åì íà âòîðîì severe severer the severest
ñëîãå

Ìíîãîñëîæ- beautiful more the most


íûå ïðèëàãà- important beautiful, beautiful,
òåëüíûå more the most
important important
Имя прилагательное 33

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Âèäû èì¸í Ïîëîæè- Ñðàâíè- Ïðåâîñ-


ïðèëàãà- òåëüíàÿ òåëüíàÿ õîäíàÿ
òåëüíûõ ñòåïåíü ñòåïåíü ñòåïåíü
Ïðèëàãàòåëü- boring more the most
íûå, îáðàçî- tired boring, boring,
âàííûå îò ãëà- more tired the most tired
ãîëîâ è îêàí-
÷èâàþùèåñÿ
íà -ing è -ed
Ïðèëàãàòåëü- afraid more the most
íûå, èñïîëü- upset afraid, afraid,
çóþùèåñÿ êàê more upset the most upset
ïðåäèêàòû
Íåêîòîðûå common commoner/ the
äâóñëîæíûå more commonest/
ïðèëàãàòåëü- handsome common, the most
íûå ìîãóò îá- handsomer/ common,
ðàçîâûâàòü more the
ñòåïåíè ñðàâ- quiet handsome, handsomest/
íåíèÿ äâóìÿ quieter/ the most
ñïîñîáàìè wicked more quiet, handsome,
wickeder/ the quietest/
pleasant more the most quiet,
wicked, the wickedest/
cruel pleasanter/ the most
more wicked,
pleasant, the
crueler/ pleasantest/
more cruel the most
pleasant,
the cruelest/
the most cruel
Èñêëþ÷åíèÿ good better the best
bad worse the worst
little less the least
much/ more the most
many
far farther/ the farthest/
further the furthest
34 Раздел 1. Части речи

Ôîðìû ñðàâíèòåëüíîé è ïðåâîñõîäíîé


ñòåïåíåé ïðèëàãàòåëüíûõ, îòëè÷àþùèåñÿ
ïî ñâîåìó çíà÷åíèþ

Ïîëîæè-
Ñðàâíèòåëüíàÿ Ïðåâîñõîäíàÿ
òåëüíàÿ
ñòåïåíü ñòåïåíü
ñòåïåíü
old — older — ñòàðøå, the oldest — ñàìûé
ñòàðûé elder — ñòàðøèé ñòàðûé,
â ñåìüå the eldest — ñàìûé
ñòàðøèé
late — later — ïîçäíåå, the latest — ñàìûé
ïîçäíèé latter — ïîçäíèé (ïî âðåìåíè),
ïîñëåäíèé èç äâóõ the last — ñàìûé ïî-
(ïî ïîðÿäêó) ñëåäíèé (ïî ïîðÿäêó)
far — farther — áîëåå the farthest —
äàëåêèé äàëåêèé (î ðàñ- ñàìûé äàëåêèé
ñòîÿíèè), (î ðàññòîÿíèè),
further — áîëåå the furthest — ñàìûé
äàëåêèé (ïî ïîðÿä- äàëåêèé (ïî ïîðÿäêó,
êó, ïî âðåìåíè) ïî âðåìåíè)
near — nearer — áîëåå the nearest — ñàìûé
áëèçêèé áëèçêèé áëèçêèé,
the next — ñàìûé
áëèçêèé (ïî ïîðÿäêó),
ñëåäóþùèé
little — smaller — ìåíüøå the smallest —
ìàëåíüêèé (ïî ðàçìåðó), ñàìûé ìàëåíüêèé
less — ìåíüøå, (ïî ðàçìåðó),
lesser — ìåíüøèé the least —
íàèìåíüøèé

Ïðàâîïèñàíèå îêîí÷àíèé ñòåïåíåé


ñðàâíåíèÿ ïðèëàãàòåëüíûõ

Ïðàâèëà Ïðèìåðû
Åñëè ïðèëàãàòåëüíîå çàêàí÷èâàåòñÿ lazy — lazier —
íà áóêâó y ñ ïðåäûäóùèì ñîãëàñíûì, the laziest
òî ó ïåðåä -er, -est èçìåíÿåòñÿ íà i
Имя прилагательное 35

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ïðàâèëà Ïðèìåðû
 îäíîñëîæíûõ ïðèëàãàòåëüíûõ ïå- hot — hotter —
ðåä îêîí÷àíèÿìè -er, -est êîíå÷íûé the hottest,
ñîãëàñíûé óäâàèâàåòñÿ, åñëè ïåðåä thin — thinner —
íèì ñòîèò êîðîòêèé ãëàñíûé çâóê the thinnest
Åñëè ïðèëàãàòåëüíîå çàêàí÷èâàåòñÿ nice — nicer —
íà íåìîå -å, òî ïåðåä îêîí÷àíèÿìè the nicest,
-er, -est ýòà áóêâà âûïàäàåò pale — paler —
the palest

Ñðàâíèòåëüíûå êîíñòðóêöèè ñ ïðèëàãàòåëüíûìè

Êîíñòðóêöèÿ Îïèñàíèå Ïðèìåðû

as + + as Òàêîé æå + This girl is as tall


ïðèëàãàòåëü- as that one. —
íîå + êàê Ýòà äåâóøêà
è… òàêàÿ æå âûñî-
êàÿ, êàê è òà.
twice + as Âäâîå + ïðè- This medicine is
as + ëàãàòåëü- twice as effective
íîå â ñðàâ- as that one. —
Èìÿ ïðèëàãàòåëüíîå

íèòåëüíîé Ýòî ëåêàðñòâî


ñòåïåíè + âäâîéíå ýôôåê-
÷åì … òèâíåå, ÷åì òî.
as + + as Êàê ìîæíî + The translation
possible ïðèëàãàòåëü- of this book must
íîå â ñðàâíè- be as good as
òåëüíîé ñòå- possible. — Ïåðå-
ïåíè âîä ýòîé êíèãè
äîëæåí áûòü êàê
ìîæíî ëó÷øå.
not + as Íå òàêîé + This way is not so
so + ïðèëàãàòåëü- long as the way
íîå + êàê … to the West. —
Ýòîò ïóòü íå
òàêîé äëèííûé,
êàê íà çàïàä.
36 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Êîíñòðóêöèÿ Îïèñàíèå Ïðèìåðû

the + the ×åì + ïðè- The higher


Èìÿ ïðèëàãàòåëüíîå

+ + èìÿ ëàãàòåëü- they rise, the


ïðèëà- íîå â ñðàâ- thinner the air
ãàòåëü- íèòåëüíîé becomes. — ×åì
íîå ñòåïåíè, âûøå ïîäíèìà-
òåì + ïðè- åøüñÿ, òåì ðàç-
ëàãàòåëü- ðåæåííåå ñòàíî-
íîå â ñðàâ- âèòñÿ âîçäóõ.
íèòåëüíîé
ñòåïåíè

Äðóãèå ñðàâíèòåëüíûå êîíñòðóêöèè


ñ ïðèëàãàòåëüíûìè

Ñðàâíèòåëü-
Óïîòðåá-
íàÿ êîíñò- Ïðèìåðû
ëåíèå
ðóêöèÿ

Ïðèëàãàòåëü- Ïðè ñðàâ- He is older than I am. —


íîå â ñðàâíè- íåíèè äâóõ Îí ñòàðøå ìåíÿ.
òåëüíîé ñòå- ëèö èëè The dress is more expensive
ïåíè + ñîþç ïðåäìåòîâ than I expected. — Ïëà-
than òüå äîðîæå, ÷åì ÿ ïðåäïî-
ëàãàëà.

Ïðèëàãàòåëü- Ïðè ñðàâ- This is the most beautiful


íîå â ïðå- íåíèè îäíî- park in the city. — Ýòî
âîñõîäíîé ãî ïðåäìå- ñàìûé êðàñèâûé ïàðê
ñòåïåíè + òà èëè ëèöà â ãîðîäå.
ñëîâîñî÷åòà- ñ äâóìÿ èëè This is the worst song
íèå ñ ïðåä- áîëåå äðó- I’ve ever heard. — Ýòî ñà-
ëîãîì in/of ãèìè ìàÿ ïëîõàÿ ïåñíÿ, êîòî-
èëè íàðå÷è- ðóþ ÿ êîãäà-ëèáî ñëû-
åì ever øàë.
The happiest day of his
life was his wedding. —
Ñàìûì ñ÷àñòëèâûì äíåì
åãî æèçíè áûëà åãî
ñâàäüáà.
Имя прилагательное 37

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ñðàâíèòåëü-
Óïîòðåá-
íàÿ êîíñò- Ïðèìåðû
ëåíèå
ðóêöèÿ

Ïðèëàãàòåëü- Ïðè îïèñà- The temperature is


íîå â ñðàâíè- íèè èçìåíÿ- becoming lower and
òåëüíîé ñòå- þùåéñÿ ñè- lower. — Òåìïåðàòó-
ïåíè + and + òóàöèè ðà ñòàíîâèòñÿ âñ¸ íèæå
ïðèëàãàòåëü- è íèæå.
íîå â ñðàâíè- The children were
òåëüíîé ñòå- getting more and more
ïåíè interested. — Äåòÿì ñòà-
íîâèëîñü âñ¸ èíòåðåñíåå
è èíòåðåñíåå.

Ïîðÿäîê ñëåäîâàíèÿ ïðèëàãàòåëüíûõ


â ôóíêöèè îïðåäåëåíèÿ

Ïðè íàëè÷èè íåñêîëüêèõ ïðèëàãàòåëüíûõ â ôóíêöèè


îïðåäåëåíèÿ ïåðåä ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì îíè ðàñïîëàãàþòñÿ
â ñëåäóþùåì ïîðÿäêå.

1 2 3 4

Îïðåäå- Ïðèëàãàòåëüíîå, âû- Êà÷åñòâåí- Ñóùå-


ëÿþùåå ðàæàþùåå ñóáúåê- íîå ïðèëà- ñòâè-
ñëîâî òèâíîå ìíåíèå ãàòåëüíîå òåëü-
î ïðåäìåòå (ýïèòåò) íîå

a handsome tall boy

lovely old castles

Åñëè ïåðåä ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ íåñêîëüêî êà-


÷åñòâåííûõ ïðèëàãàòåëüíûõ, òî îíè ðàñïîëàãàþòñÿ â ñëå-
äóþùåì ïîðÿäêå.
Ïîðÿäîê ñëåäîâàíèÿ îïðåäåëÿþùèõ ñëîâ ïåðåä ïðèëàãàòåëüíûìè 38

1 2 3 4 5 6
Íåîïðåäå- Àðòèêëü/óêàçàòåëüíîå Ïîðÿäêîâîå ÷èñëè- Êîëè÷åñò- Ïðèëàãà- Ñóùåñòâè-
ë¸ííîå ìåñ- ìåñòîèìåíèå/ïðèòÿ- òåëüíîå/íàðå÷èå ïî- âåííîå ÷èñ- òåëüíîå òåëüíîå
òîèìåíèå æàòåëüíîå ìåñòîèìåíèå ðÿäêà ñëåäîâàíèÿ ëèòåëüíîå
most/some/ the/this/my first/last/next one/two/
all/few three
most of her next five interesting shows
the last three unused copies

Ïîðÿäîê ñëåäîâàíèÿ êà÷åñòâåííûõ ïðèëàãàòåëüíûõ

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Àð- Ðàç- Âîçðàñò Ôîðìà Öâåò Ïðîèñõîæ- Ìàòåðè- Ïðåäíàçíà- Ñóùåñòâè-
òèêëü ìåð äåíèå àë ÷åíèå òåëüíîå
a big square brown English table
an ancient red silk carpet
a small Indian oak kitchen cupboard
a large old oval red Persian cotton bathroom carpet
Раздел 1. Части речи
Наречие 39

Наречие
The Adverb

Наречие²ɷɬɨɱɚɫɬɶɪɟɱɢɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ
ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ  ɢɥɢ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɦɟɫɬɨ ɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ
ɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹɢɥɢɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚ

Âèäû íàðå÷èé ïî ñòðóêòóðå

Ïðîñòûå here/there òóò, òàì, òóäà very î÷åíü


(êîðíåâûå) now ñåé÷àñ, òåïåðü soon ñêîðî,
late ïîçäíî âñêîðå

Ïðîèçâîäíûå badly ïëîõî quickly áûñòðî


(ñ ñóôôèê- slowly ìåäëåííî
ñàìè è ïðè-
ñòàâêàìè)

Ñëîæíûå (èç somewhere, ãäå-íèáóäü, nowhere íèãäå,


äâóõ îñíîâ) anywhere êóäà-íèáóäü íèêóäà

Ñîñòàâíûå till now äî ýòîãî âðå- since ñ òåõ


(ñîñòîÿùèå ìåíè, äî ñèõ then ïîð
èç äâóõ ñëîâ) ïîð

Âèäû íàðå÷èé ïî çíà÷åíèþ

Íàðå÷èÿ Ïðèìåðû

Îáðàçà äåéñòâèÿ (Adverbs of Manner) badly, well, slowly,


Îòâå÷àþò íà âîïðîñû: êàê? êàêèì îá- quickly
ðàçîì?

Âðåìåíè (Adverbs of Time) today, yesterday,


Îòâå÷àþò íà âîïðîñ: êîãäà? soon, now, late, then,
when, since, before

×àñòîòû (Adverbs of Frequency) often, never, ever,


Îòâå÷àþò íà âîïðîñ: êàê ÷àñòî? always, sometimes
40 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Íàðå÷èÿ Ïðèìåðû
Ìåñòà è íàïðàâëåíèÿ (Adverbs of here, there, above,
Place and Direstion) downstairs,
Îòâå÷àþò íà âîïðîñû: ãäå? êóäà? outside, where
îòêóäà?
Ñòåïåíè (Adverbs of Degree) little, much, quite,
Îòâå÷àþò íà âîïðîñû: íàñêîëüêî very, too
ìíîãî/ìàëî? â êàêîé ñòåïåíè?
Ââîäíûå (Sentence Adverbs) certainly, probably,
Âûðàæàþò ñòåïåíü óâåðåííîñòè. maybe, perhops

Îáðàçîâàíèå ïðîèçâîäíûõ íàðå÷èé

Ñïîñîáû îáðàçîâàíèÿ Ïðèìåðû

Îò ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ a day —daily (äåíü — åæåäíåâ-


ñ ïîìîùüþ ñóôôèêñà íî), a week — weekly (íåäå-
-ly (êîíå÷íàÿ -y èçìå- ëÿ — åæåíåäåëüíî), a month —
íÿåòñÿ íà -i) monthly (ìåñÿö — åæåìåñÿ÷íî)

Îò ïðèëàãàòåëüíîãî
ñ ïîìîùüþ ñóôôèêñà
-ly, ïðè ýòîì:

êîíå÷íàÿ -y èçìåíÿåò- happy — happily, busy — busily


ñÿ íà -i;

êîíå÷íàÿ -e íå èçìå- extreme — extremely,


íÿåòñÿ; complete — completely
íî: true — truly, due — duly,
whole — wholly

êîíå÷íàÿ -l óäâàèâà- final — finally, beautiful —


åòñÿ; beautifully

ïðèëàãàòåëüíûå, sensible — sensibly, capable —


çàêàí÷èâàþùèåñÿ íà capably
-able/-ible, òåðÿþò êî-
íå÷íóþ -e è äîáàâëÿþò
òîëüêî -y
Наречие 41

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ñïîñîáû îáðàçîâàíèÿ Ïðèìåðû

Îò ïðèëàãàòåëüíûõ friendly — in a friendly way,


ñ ñóôôèêñîì -ly íàðå- silly — in a silly manner
÷èÿ íå îáðàçîâûâàþò-
ñÿ. Íàðå÷íàÿ ôðàçà
îáðàçîâûâàåòñÿ ïî ìî-
äåëè: in a + ïðèëàãà-
òåëüíîå + way/manner
Ïðè ïîìîùè ñóôôèê- sideways — â ñòîðîíó,
ñîâ -ways, -wise, clockwise — ïî ÷àñîâîé ñòðåë-
-ward(s), -like, -fold êå, forward — âïåðåä,
warlike — âîèíñòâåííî,
twofold — âäâîå

Íåêîòîðûå íàðå÷èÿ (far, fast, loud, long, little, late, much,


daily, weekly, monthly, early, straight) ñîâïàäàþò ïî ôîð-
ìå ñ èìåíàìè ïðèëàãàòåëüíûìè. Îíè îòëè÷àþòñÿ îò íèõ
òîëüêî ôóíêöèåé, êîòîðóþ âûïîëíÿþò â ïðåäëîæåíèè.
Íàðå÷èÿ îòíîñÿòñÿ ê ãëàãîëó, ïðèëàãàòåëüíîìó èëè äðó-
ãîìó íàðå÷èþ; ïðèëàãàòåëüíûå — ê èìåíè ñóùåñòâèòåëü-
íîìó.
We went home fast. — Ìû ïîøëè äîìîé áûñòðî.
I don’t like fast food. — ß íå ëþáëþ åäó áûñòðîãî ïðèãî-
òîâëåíèÿ.

Степени сравнения наречий

Íàðå÷èÿ îáðàçà äåéñòâèÿ, ìåðû è ÷àñòîòû îáðàçóþò ñòåïå-


íè cpàâíåíèÿ òðåìÿ ñïîñîáàìè.

Ñïîñîáû îáðàçîâàíèÿ ñòåïåíåé ñðàâíåíèÿ íàðå÷èé

ɋɩɨɫɨɛɵɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɉɪɢɦɟɪɵ
Ïðè ïîìîùè äîáàâëåíèÿ hard — harder — hardest
ñóôôèêñîâ -er è -est ê îñíîâ- early — earlier — earliest
íîé ôîðìå
42 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

ɋɩɨɫɨɛɵɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɉɪɢɦɟɪɵ
Ïðè ïîìîùè óïîòðåáëåíèÿ active — more active —
ñëîâ more è most ïåðåä îñ- the most active
íîâíîé ôîðìîé áåç å¸ èçìå- famous — more famous —
íåíèÿ the most famous
Ïóòåì îáðàçîâàíèÿ ñòåïåíåé well — better — best,
ñðàâíåíèÿ îò ðàçíûõ êîðíåé badly — worse — worst

Âèäû íàðå÷èé è îáðàçîâàíèå ñòåïåíåé èõ ñðàâíåíèÿ

Ïîëîæè- Ñðàâíè- Ïðåâîñ-


Âèäû
òåëüíàÿ òåëüíàÿ õîäíàÿ
íàðå÷èé
ñòåïåíü ñòåïåíü ñòåïåíü
Îäíîñëîæíûå, fast, faster, fastest,
ñîâïàäàþùèå soon, sooner, soonest,
ïî ôîðìå early earlier earliest
ñ ïðèëàãàòåëü-
íûìè, è íàðå-
÷èå early
Íàðå÷èÿ, easily, more easily, most easily,
îáðàçîâàííûå quickly, more most
îò ïðèëàãà- fortunately quickly, quickly,
òåëüíûõ ñ ïî- more most
ìîùüþ ñóô- fortunately fortunately
ôèêñà -ly
Íàðå÷èÿ, badly — worse — worst —
îáðàçîâûâà- ïëîõî, õóæå, õóæå âñåãî,
þùèå ñòåïåíè well — better — best — ëó÷-
ñðàâíåíèÿ îò õîðîøî, ëó÷øå, øå âñåãî,
ðàçíûõ êîðíåé little — less — least —
ìàëî, ìåíüøå, ìåíüøå âñåãî,
much — more — most — áîëü-
ìíîãî, áîëüøå, øå âñåãî,
far — father — farthest —
äàëåêî äàëüøå äàëüøå âñå-
(î ðàññòîÿ- ãî (î ðàñ-
íèè) ñòîÿíèè)
Наречие 43

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ïîëîæè- Ñðàâíè- Ïðåâîñ-


Âèäû
òåëüíàÿ òåëüíàÿ õîäíàÿ
íàðå÷èé
ñòåïåíü ñòåïåíü ñòåïåíü
Íàðå÷èÿ, further — furthest —
îáðàçîâûâà- äàëüøå äàëüøå âñå-
þùèå ñòåïåíè (î âðåìåíè ãî (î âðåìå-
ñðàâíåíèÿ îò è ïîðÿäêå íè è ïîðÿä-
ðàçíûõ êîðíåé ñëåäîâàíèÿ) êå ñëåäîâà-
íèÿ)
Íàðå÷èÿ often, often oftener/ oftenest/
quickly è slowly more often, most often.
ìîãóò îáðàçî- quickly quicker/ quickest/
âûâàòü ñòåïåíè more quickly, most quickly,
ñðàâíåíèÿ äâó- slowly slower/more slowest/
ìÿ ñïîñîáàìè slowly most slowly

Çíà÷åíèÿ íàðå÷èé, èìåþùèõ äâå ôîðìû

Ðÿä íàðå÷èé â àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå èìååò ôîðìó, ñîâïàäà-


þùóþ ñ îñíîâîé ïðèëàãàòåëüíîãî, è ôîðìó, îáðàçîâàííóþ
îò ïðèëàãàòåëüíîãî ñ ñóôôèêñîì -ly.

Ôîðìà íàðå÷èÿ,
Ôîðìà íàðå÷èÿ
ñîâïàäàþùàÿ
ñ ñóôôèêñîì -ly
ñ ïðèëàãàòåëüíûì

late — ïîçäíî lately — íåäàâíî


He came late. — Îí ïðè- He has been ill lately. —
ø¸ë ïîçäíî. Îí íåäàâíî áîëåë.

near — áëèçêî nearly — ïî÷òè


He lives near her. — He nearly fell down. —
Îí æèâ¸ò ðÿäîì ñ íåé. Îí ïî÷òè óïàë.

pretty — î÷åíü prettily — íàðÿäíî


He speaks pretty fast. — She always dresses prettily. —
Îí ãîâîðèò î÷åíü Îíà âñåãäà íàðÿäíî îäåòà.
áûñòðî.
44 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ôîðìà íàðå÷èÿ,
Ôîðìà íàðå÷èÿ
ñîâïàäàþùàÿ
ñ ñóôôèêñîì -ly
ñ ïðèëàãàòåëüíûì

high — âûñîêî (â ïðÿ- highly — âûñîêî (â ïåðåíîñ-


ìîì ñìûñëå) íîì ñìûñëå)
The plane flew high in They spoke highly of him. —
the sky. — Ñàìîë¸ò ëå- Îíè î÷åíü õîðîøî î íåì îò-
òåë âûñîêî â íåáå. çûâàëèñü.

hard — óïîðíî hardly — åäâà

cheap — áåç ñåðü¸çíûõ cheaply — ïðåíåáðåæèòåëüíî


ïîñëåäñòâèé

clean — ëîâêî cleanly — ÷èñòî

close — áëèçêî closely — âíèìàòåëüíî

short — ðåçêî shortly — âñêîðå

easy — ñïîêîéíî easily — áåç òðóäà

free — áåñïëàòíî freely — ñâîáîäíî

wide — øèðîêî widely — â ðàçëè÷íûõ ìåñòàõ

Виды наречий и их позиция в предложении

Íàðå÷èÿ ìîãóò îòíîñèòüñÿ êàê ê ðàçëè÷íûì ÷ëåíàì


ïðåäëîæåíèÿ, òàê è ê ïðåäëîæåíèþ öåëèêîì. Åñëè íà-
ðå÷èå õàðàêòåðèçóåò êîíêðåòíûé ÷ëåí ïðåäëîæåíèÿ, òî
îíî îáû÷íî ñòîèò íåïîñðåäñòâåííî ïåðåä ýòèì ÷ëåíîì
ïðåäëîæåíèÿ. Åñëè íàðå÷èå õàðàêòåðèçóåò äåéñòâèå
â öåëîì, òî îíî ìîæåò çàíèìàòü òðè îñíîâíûå ïîçèöèè:
íà÷àëüíóþ, ñðåäíþþ è êîíå÷íóþ. Âûáîð ïîçèöèè çàâèñèò,
êàê ïðàâèëî, îò òèïà íàðå÷èÿ.
Наречие 45

Âèäû Íà÷àëüíàÿ Ñðåäíÿÿ Êîíå÷íàÿ


íàðå÷èé ïîçèöèÿ ïîçèöèÿ ïîçèöèÿ

Íàðå÷èÿ Èíîãäà: Îáû÷íî:


îáðàçà Her books “Perhaps,”
äåéñòâèÿ are always he remarked
(well, well written. quietly, “you

badly, are already
slowly, married?”
happily,
etc.)

Íàðå÷èÿ Îáû÷íî Îáû÷íî:


ìåñòà è íà- (íàðå÷èÿ What made
ïðàâëåíèÿ here è there): you run

(upstairs, There he away?
around, goes. — Âîí
abroad, etc.) îí èä¸ò.

Íàðå÷èÿ Èíîãäà, Èíîãäà Îáû÷íî:


âðåìåíè åñëè íå íà- íàðå÷èÿ Are things
(today, õîäèòñÿ finally, just as you
afterwards, â ôîêóñå eventually, left them
already, âíèìàíèÿ: already, yesterday?
etc.) Afterwards soon, last:
he rubbed They will
his fingers soon be in
slowly Yorkshire.
together.

Íàðå÷èÿ Èíîãäà Îáû÷íî: Èíîãäà:


÷àñòîòû usually, In summer usually,
äåéñòâèÿ normally, the normally,
(always, frequently, temperature frequently,
usually, sometimes, often rises sometimes,
normally, occasionally: to one occasionally:
often, etc.) Frequently, hundred This under-
he was taken degrees. standing may
along with easily make
the family. us friends
sometimes.
46 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Âèäû Íà÷àëüíàÿ Ñðåäíÿÿ Êîíå÷íàÿ


íàðå÷èé ïîçèöèÿ ïîçèöèÿ ïîçèöèÿ
Íàðå÷èÿ Îáû÷íî:
ñòåïåíè But they ba-
çàêîí÷åí- sically have
íîñòè äåé- no informa-
ñòâèÿ — tion. —
(almost,
hardly,
more or
less, etc.)
Íàðå- maybe, Îáû÷íî:
÷èÿ ñòå- perhaps He’s ob-
ïåíè óâå- Maybe he is viously in
ðåííîñòè already back. love with

(certainly, Catherine.
definitely,
probably,
etc.)

Имя числительное
The Numeral

Имя числительное  — ÷àñòü ðå÷è, êîòîðàÿ îáîçíà÷àåò êî-


ëè÷åñòâî ïðåäìåòîâ, ÷èñëî, à òàêæå ïîðÿäîê ïðåäìåòîâ
ïðè ñ÷¸òå.

Виды имён числительных

Èìåíà ÷èñëèòåëüíûå äåëÿòñÿ íà êîëè÷åñòâåííûå (Cardinal


Numerals) è ïîðÿäêîâûå (Ordinal Numerals).

Êîëè÷åñòâåííûå ÷èñëèòåëüíûå

1 — one îäèí
2 — two äâà
Имя числительное 47

Ïðîäîëæåíèå òàáëèöû

3 — three òðè

4 — four ÷åòûðå

5 — five ïÿòü

6 — six øåñòü

7 — seven ñåìü

8 — eight âîñåìü

9 — nine äåâÿòü

10 — ten äåñÿòü

11 — eleven îäèííàäöàòü

12 — twelve äâåíàäöàòü

13 — thirteen òðèíàäöàòü

14 — fourteen ÷åòûðíàäöàòü

15 — fifteen ïÿòíàäöàòü

16 — sixteen øåñòíàäöàòü

17 — seventeen ñåìíàäöàòü

18 — eighteen âîñåìíàäöàòü

19 — nineteen äåâÿòíàäöàòü

20 — twenty äâàäöàòü

21 — twenty-one äâàäöàòü îäèí

30 — thirty òðèäöàòü

33 — thirty-three òðèäöàòü òðè

40 — forty ñîðîê

44 — forty-four ñîðîê ÷åòûðå

50 — fifty ïÿòüäåñÿò
48 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

60 — sixty øåñòüäåñÿò

65 — sixty-five øåñòüäåñÿò ïÿòü

70 — seventy ñåìüäåñÿò

80 — eighty âîñåìüäåñÿò

90 — ninety äåâÿíîñòî

100 — a (one) hundred ñòî

107 — one hundred and seven ñòî ñåìü

122 — one hundred and twenty two ñòî äâàäöàòü äâà

200 — two hundred äâåñòè

1,000 — a (one) thousand (îäíà) òûñÿ÷à

1,000,000 — a (one) million (îäèí) ìèëëèîí

1,000,000,000 — a (one) milliard (îäèí) ìèëëèàðä


(BE)

1,000,000,000,000 — a (one) (îäèí) òðèëëèîí


billion (AE)

3,045,328 — three million forty- òðè ìèëëèîíà ñîðîê


five thousand three hundred and ïÿòü òûñÿ÷ òðèñòà
twenty eight äâàäöàòü âîñåìü

Ïîðÿäêîâûå ÷èñëèòåëüíûå

1st the first ïåðâûé

2nd the second âòîðîé

3rd the third òðåòèé

4th the fourth ÷åòâ¸ðòûé

5th the fifth ïÿòûé

6th the sixth øåñòîé


Имя числительное 49

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

7th the seventh ñåäüìîé

8th the eighth âîñüìîé

9th the ninth äåâÿòûé

10th the tenth äåñÿòûé

11th the eleventh îäèííàäöàòûé

12th the twelfth äâåíàäöàòûé

13th the thirteenth òðèíàäöàòûé

14th the fourteenth ÷åòûðíàäöàòûé

15th the fifteenth ïÿòíàäöàòûé

16th the sixteenth øåñòíàäöàòûé

17th the seventeenth ñåìíàäöàòûé

18th the eighteenth âîñåìíàäöàòûé

19th the nineteenth äåâÿòíàäöàòûé

20th the twentieth äâàäöàòûé

25th the twenty-fifth äâàäöàòü ïÿòûé

30th the thirtieth òðèäöàòûé

33rd the thirty-third òðèäöàòü òðåòèé

40th the fortieth ñîðîêîâîé

50th the fiftieth ïÿòèäåñÿòûé

60th the sixtieth øåñòèäåñÿòûé

70th the seventieth ñåìèäåñÿòûé

80th the eightieth âîñüìèäåñÿòûé

90th the ninetieth äåâÿíîñòûé

100th the one hundredth ñîòûé


50 Раздел 1. Части речи

Некоторые особенности употребления


имён числительных

Óïîòðåáëåíèå è íàïèñàíèå íåêîòîðûõ èì¸í ÷èñëèòåëüíûõ

Óïîòðåáëåíèå Ïðèìåðû
×èñëèòåëüíûå hundred, three hundred, six
thousand, million íå èìåþò thousand, nine million
îêîí÷àíèÿ -s1, êîãäà ïåðåä
íèìè ñòîèò äðóãîå êîëè÷å-
ñòâåííîå ÷èñëèòåëüíîå
Ïðè îáîçíà÷åíèè êîëè÷å- 2,045,328
ñòâåííûõ ÷èñëèòåëüíûõ ïðè
ïîìîùè öèôð êàæäûå òðè
ðàçðÿäà (ñïðàâà íàëåâî) îòäå-
ëÿþòñÿ çàïÿòîé
Ãîäû îáîçíà÷àþòñÿ êîëè÷å- 1945 — nineteen forty-five
ñòâåííûìè ÷èñëèòåëüíûìè. (èëè áîëåå îôèöèàëüíî —
Èìÿ ÷èñëèòåëüíîå, êîòîðîå nineteen hundred and forty-
îáîçíà÷àåò ãîä, ðàçáèâàåò- five)
ñÿ íà äâå ÷àñòè: ÷èñëî ñîòåí 1900 — nineteen hundred
è ÷èñëî äåñÿòêîâ è åäèíèö 1905 — nineteen î [ou] five
2000 — two thousand
Äàòû îáîçíà÷àþòñÿ ïîðÿäêî- 16th March, March 16th,
âûìè ÷èñëèòåëüíûìè March 16
the sixteenth of May
èëè: May the sixteenth
Äëÿ îáîçíà÷åíèÿ âîçðàñòà He is sixteen years old.
óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ êîëè÷åñòâåí- He is sixteen.
íûå ÷èñëèòåëüíûå
Äëÿ îáîçíà÷åíèÿ àðèôìåòè- 7 + 5 = 12
÷åñêèõ äåéñòâèé óïîòðåáëÿ- Seven and five is twelve.
þòñÿ êîëè÷åñòâåííûå ÷èñëè- Seven plus five is twelve.
òåëüíûå 10 – 2 = 8
Ten less two is eight.
Ten minus two is eight.
20 : 2 = 10
Twenty divided by two
is ten.
Имя числительное 51

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Óïîòðåáëåíèå Ïðèìåðû
Äëÿ îáîçíà÷åíèÿ àðèôìåòè- ™!
÷åñêèõ äåéñòâèé óïîòðåáëÿ- Five times three is fifteen.
þòñÿ êîëè÷åñòâåííûå ÷èñëè- Five multiplied by three is
òåëüíûå fifteen.
Ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå, îïðåäåëÿ- March in the third month
åìîå ïîðÿäêîâûì ÷èñëèòåëü- of the year.
íûì, óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ ñ îïðå-
äåë¸ííûì àðòèêëåì
Ïðè îáîçíà÷åíèè íîìåðîâ page twenty-five — ñòðà-
ãëàâ, ñòðàíèö, ÷àñòåé êíèã, íèöà äâàäöàòü ïÿòàÿ,
íîìåðîâ äîìîâ, êîìíàò, àâ- part three — ÷àñòü òðå-
òîáóñîâ, ðàçìåðîâ îáóâè òüÿ, chapter six — ãëàâà
è ïðåäìåòîâ îäåæäû óïî- øåñòàÿ, room ten — êîì-
òðåáëÿþòñÿ êîëè÷åñòâåííûå íàòà äåñÿòàÿ, size thirty-
÷èñëèòåëüíûå áåç àðòèêëÿ seven — ðàçìåð òðèäöàòü
ñåäüìîé
 ïðîñòûõ äðîáÿõ ÷èñëèòå- 1/3 — à (one) third
ëåì ÿâëÿåòñÿ êîëè÷åñòâåí- 2/3 — two thirds
íîå ÷èñëèòåëüíîå, à çíàìå- íî: 1/2 — a (one) half
íàòåëåì — ïîðÿäêîâîå. Åñëè 1/4 — a (one) quater
÷èñëèòåëü áîëüøå åäèíè- 5/6 — five sixths
öû, çíàìåíàòåëü ïðèíèìàåò 3/5 ton — three fifths of
îêîí÷àíèå -s. Ñóùåñòâèòåëü- a ton
íîå, ñëåäóþùåå çà äðîáüþ, 1/2 ton — half a ton
ñòîèò â åäèíñòâåííîì ÷èñëå 4 1/3 — four and a third
tons
Ìåæäó öåëîé è äðîáíîé ÷à- 2 3/7 — two and three
ñòüþ óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ ñîþç and sevenths
 äåñÿòè÷íûõ äðîáÿõ öåëàÿ 0.5 — (o [RX]) point five
÷àñòü îòäåëÿåòñÿ îò äðîáíîé 1.2 — one point two
òî÷êîé, êîòîðàÿ ÷èòàåòñÿ
point. Íóëü ÷èòàåòñÿ nought,
o [ǨX] èëè zero

1
Åñëè èìåíà ÷èñëèòåëüíûå óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ êàê èìåíà ñó-
ùåñòâèòåëüíûå, îíè èìåþò ôîðìó ìíîæåñòâåííîãî ÷èñëà
ñ îêîí÷àíèåì -s: thousands of flowers — òûñÿ÷è öâåòîâ,
millions of stars — ìèëëèîíû çâ¸çä.
52 Раздел 1. Части речи

Местоимение
The Pronoun
Местоимение — ýòî ÷àñòü ðå÷è, êîòîðàÿ óêàçûâàåò íà
ëèöî, ïðåäìåòû, íà èõ ïðèçíàêè, êîëè÷åñòâà, íî íå íà-
çûâàåò èõ. Ìåñòîèìåíèÿ óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ â ïðåäëîæåíè-
ÿõ âìåñòî èìåíè ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîãî èëè ïðèëàãàòåëüíîãî,
èíîãäà — âìåñòî ÷èñëèòåëüíîãî.

Òèïû ìåñòîèìåíèé

Òèïû Ìåñòîèìåíèÿ
Ëè÷íûå I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they
Ïðèòÿæàòåëüíûå my, your, his, her, its, our, your,
their, mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours,
theirs
Íåîïðåäåë¸ííûå some, any, each, every, other, another,
one, much, many, few, little, no, none,
all, either
Âîçâðàòíûå myself, yourself, himself, herself,
itself, ourselves, yourselves,
themselves
Óêàçàòåëüíûå this (these), that (those), the same, such
Âîïðîñèòåëüíûå who, whom, whose, what, which
Ñîþçíûå who (whom), whose, which, that
Âçàèìíûå each other, one another
Îòíîñèòåëüíûå who (whom), what, whose, which

Óïîòðåáëåíèå ìåñòîèìåíèé âìåñòî äðóãèõ ÷àñòåé ðå÷è

×àñòè ðå÷è Ïðèìåðû


Ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå Tom learns Spanish. He likes it.
Ïðèëàãàòåëüíîå The night was cold. Such nights are
rare in August.
×èñëèòåëüíîå I have ten German magazines. I have
some German magazines.
Местоимение 53

Ôóíêöèè ìåñòîèìåíèÿ â ïðåäëîæåíèè

Ôóíêöèÿ â ïðåäëîæåíèè Ïðèìåðû


ɉɨɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɟ1 He is a teacher.
ɂɦɟɧɧɚɹɱɚɫɬɶɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɝɨ 1
The dog is mine.
Ⱦɨɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɹɦɨɟ I have not met him.
ɤɨɫɜɟɧɧɨɟɢɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɧɨɟ 1 Show me the book.
I didn’t speak to her.
Ɉɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟ2 Have you seen my glasses?

1
Ìåñòîèìåíèÿ, óïîòðåáëÿþùèåñÿ â ôóíêöèè ïîäëåæàùå-
ãî, èìåííîé ÷àñòè ñêàçóåìîãî è äîïîëíåíèÿ, ÿâëÿþòñÿ
ìåñòîèìåíèÿìè-ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûìè. Â ïðåäëîæåíèè îíè
âûïîëíÿþò ôóíêöèè ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîãî.
2
Ìåñòîèìåíèÿ, óïîòðåáëÿþùèåñÿ â ôóíêöèè îïðåäåëåíèÿ,
ÿâëÿþòñÿ ìåñòîèìåíèÿìè-ïðèëàãàòåëüíûìè. Â ïðåäëî-
æåíèè îíè âûïîëíÿþò ôóíêöèè ïðèëàãàòåëüíîãî.

Ëè÷íûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ (Personal Pronouns)

Ëè÷íûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ èìåþò äâà ïàäåæà: èìåíèòåëüíûé


(the Nominative case) (I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they)
è îáúåêòíûé (the Objective case) (me, you, him, her, it, us,
you, them).

Ìíîæåñò-
Ìåñòî- Åäèíñòâåí- Ìåñòî-
Ëèöî âåííîå
èìåíèå íîå ÷èñëî èìåíèå
÷èñëî
I—ÿ I read we — We read
1-å
a book. ìû a book.
you — òû You read you — You read
2-å
a book. âû a book.
he — îí; He reads they — They read
she — a book. îíè a book.
3-å1 îíà; it2 — She reads
îí, îíà, a book.
îíî
54 Раздел 1. Части речи

1
Èíîãäà íàçâàíèÿ æèâîòíûõ çàìåíÿþòñÿ ìåñòîèìåíèÿìè
he èëè she (â ñêàçêàõ, ïðè óïîòðåáëåíèè êëè÷åê äîìàø-
íèõ æèâîòíûõ): I have a dog. His name is Spork. He plays
with a ball.
2
Ìåñòîèìåíèå it óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ âìåñòî íàçâàíèé æèâîò-
íûõ, åñëè èõ ïîë íåèçâåñòåí èëè íå èìååò çíà÷åíèÿ: The
cat is in the house. It is sleeping. — Êîøêà â äîìå. Îíà
ñïèò. Ñëîâî baby (ìëàäåíåö) òàêæå çàìåíÿåòñÿ ìåñòîè-
ìåíèåì it: The baby was crying. It was hungry. — Ìëàäå-
íåö ïëàêàë. Îí áûë ãîëîäåí.

Cêëîíåíèÿ ëè÷íûõ ìåñòîèìåíèé

Èìåíèòåëüíûé ïàäåæ Îáúåêòíûé ïàäåæ

I—ÿ må — ìåíÿ, ìíå

you — òû you — òåáÿ, òåáå

he — îí him — åãî, åìó

she — îíà her — å¸, åé

it — îíî (îí, îíà) it — åãî, åìó, å¸, åé

we — ìû us — íàñ, íàì

you — âû you — âàñ, âàì

they — îíè them — èõ, èì

Ïðèòÿæàòåëüíûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ (Possessive Pronouns)

Ëè÷íûì ìåñòîèìåíèÿì ñîîòâåòñòâóþò ïðèòÿæàòåëüíûå


ìåñòîèìåíèÿ, âûðàæàþùèå ïðèíàäëåæíîñòü.
Ïðèòÿæàòåëüíûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ èìåþò äâå ôîðìû: çàâèñè-
ìóþ (conjoint) è íåçàâèñèìóþ (absolute).
Çàâèñèìàÿ ôîðìà óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ êàê îïðåäåëåíèå ê ñóùå-
ñòâèòåëüíîìó: It is my book. — Ýòî ìîÿ êíèãà.
Íåçàâèñèìàÿ ôîðìà óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ áåç èìåíè ñóùåñòâè-
òåëüíîãî, ñàìîñòîÿòåëüíî: This book is mine. — Ýòà êíè-
ãà ìîÿ.
Местоимение 55

Çàâèñèìàÿ ôîðìà Íåçàâèñèìàÿ ôîðìà

mó — ìîé, ìîÿ, ìî¸, ìîè mine — ìîé, ìîÿ, ìî¸, ìîè

your — òâîé, òâîÿ, òâî¸, yours — òâîé, òâîÿ, òâî¸,


òâîè òâîè

his — åãî his — åãî

her — å¸ hers — å¸

its — åãî, å¸ its — åãî, å¸

our — íàø, íàøà, íàøå, ours — íàø, íàøà, íàøå,


íàøè íàøè

your — âàø, âàøà, âàøå, yours — âàø, âàøà, âàøå,


âàøè âàøè

their — èõ theirs — èõ

Íåîïðåäåë¸ííûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ (Indefinite Pronouns)

Íåîïðåäåë¸ííûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ (Indefinite Pronouns) óêà-


çûâàþò íà íåîïðåäåë¸ííûå ïðåäìåòû, ïðèçíàêè, êîëè÷å-
ñòâà. Ê íåîïðåäåë¸ííûì ìåñòîèìåíèÿì îòíîñÿòñÿ ìåñòî-
èìåíèÿ some, any, no (è èõ ïðîèçâîäíûå), one, none, much,
many, little, few, all, every (è åãî ïðîèçâîäíûå), each, other,
both, either, neither.

Ñîáñòâåííî Ðàçäåëèòåëüíûå
Êîëè÷åñòâåííûå
íåîïðåäåë¸ííûå íåîïðåäåë¸ííûå
ìåñòîèìåíèÿ
ìåñòîèìåíèÿ ìåñòîèìåíèÿ
(Quantitative
(Indefinite (Distributive
Pronouns)
Pronouns Proper) Pronouns)

some, any, no all, every, each, much, many,


other, both, little, few
either, neither
56 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ñîáñòâåííî Ðàçäåëèòåëüíûå
Êîëè÷åñòâåííûå
íåîïðåäåë¸ííûå íåîïðåäåë¸ííûå
ìåñòîèìåíèÿ
ìåñòîèìåíèÿ ìåñòîèìåíèÿ
(Quantitative
(Indefinite (Distributive
Pronouns)
Pronouns Proper) Pronouns)

somebody, everybody,
anybody, nobody everyone,
someone, anyone, everything
no one
something,
anything,
nothing
one, none

Ñîãëàñîâàíèå ìåñòîèìåíèé ñ ôîðìàìè ãëàãîëà-ñêàçóåìîãî

Åäèíñòâåííîå
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåí- èëè ìíî-
÷èñëî íîå ÷èñëî æåñòâåííîå
÷èñëî

anybody nobody several all

anything nothing both more

anyone no one others some

everybody each few most

everything either many none

everyone neither any

somebody one

something other

someone much
Местоимение 57

Óïîòðåáëåíèå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ some è åãî ïðîèçâîäíûõ

Some, someone, somebody, something

 óòâåðäèòåëüíûõ He showed me some interesting


ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ pictures. — Îí ïîêàçàë ìíå íåñêîëü-
êî èíòåðåñíûõ êàðòèí.
Somebody is waiting for you. — Âàñ
êòî-òî æäåò.

 ñïåöèàëüíûõ Why didn’t you buy some milk? —


âîïðîñàõ Ïî÷åìó òû íå êóïèë ìîëîêà?

 îáùèõ âîïðî- Would you like some milk? — Õîòè-


ñàõ, â êîòîðûõ òå ìîëîêà?
÷òî-íèáóäü ïðåä- Would you like something to drink? —
ëàãàåòñÿ èëè âû- Íå õîòèòå ëè ÷òî-íèáóäü âûïèòü?
ðàæàåòñÿ êàêàÿ- Can I have something to drink? —
íèáóäü ïðîñüáà Ìîæíî ìíå ÷òî-íèáóäü âûïèòü?

Óïîòðåáëåíèå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ any è åãî ïðîèçâîäíûõ

Any, anyone, anybody, anything

 îòðèöàòåëü- There isn’t any water in the kettle. —


íûõ ïðåäëî-  ÷àéíèêå íåò âîäû.
æåíèÿõ There isn’t anybody in the room. —
 êîìíàòå íèêîãî íåò.
 îáùèõ Have you got any books in Spanish? —
âîïðîñàõ Ó âàñ åñòü (êàêèå-íèáóäü) êíèãè íà
èñïàíñêîì?
Have you got anything interesting to
read? — Ó âàñ åñòü ÷òî-íèáóäü èíòå-
ðåñíîå ïî÷èòàòü?
 óñëîâíûõ If anything happens, call me at once. —
ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ Åñëè ÷òî-íèáóäü ñëó÷èòñÿ, ñðàçó æå
ïîçâîíè ìíå.
If you see any apples, please buy some. —
Åñëè óâèäèøü ÿáëîêè, ïîæàëóéñòà,
êóïè íåìíîãî.
58 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Any, anyone, anybody, anything

 óòâåðäèòåëü- You may come at any time you like. —


íûõ è âîïðîñè- Òû ìîæåøü ïðèéòè â ëþáîå âðåìÿ.
òåëüíûõ ïðåä- May I do anything I like? — ß ìîãó
ëîæåíèÿõ ñî äåëàòü âñ¸, ÷òî õî÷ó?
çíà÷åíèåì
«âñÿêèé, ëþ-
áîé»

Óïîòðåáëåíèå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ one

Óïîòðåáëåíèå Ïðèìåðû

Äëÿ îáîçíà÷åíèÿ íåîïðå- One should be careful when


äåë¸ííîãî ëèöà â ïðåäëî- driving a car. — Ñëåäóåò
æåíèÿõ, ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèõ áûòü îñòîðîæíûì, êîãäà
íåîïðåäåë¸ííî-ëè÷íûì âåäåøü ìàøèíó.
ïðåäëîæåíèÿì â ðóññêîì
ÿçûêå

Âìåñòî ðàíåå óïîìÿíóòîãî This dress is more beautiful


èñ÷èñëÿåìîãî ñóùåñòâè- than the one (= the dress)
òåëüíîãî, ÷òîáû èçáåæàòü bought last week. — Ýòî
åãî ïîâòîðåíèÿ ïëàòüå êðàñèâåå ÷åì òî,
êîòîðîå ÿ êóïèëà íà ïðî-
øëîé íåäåëå.

Óïîòðåáëåíèå ìåñòîèìåíèé no è none

No None

Óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ â êà- Óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ â êà÷åñòâå


÷åñòâå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ- ìåñòîèìåíèÿ-ñóùåñòâèòåëü-
ïðèëàãàòåëüíîãî ïå- íîãî è çàìåíÿåò êàê èñ÷èñëÿå-
ðåä ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûìè ìûå, òàê è íåèñ÷èñëÿåìûå ñó-
â åäèíñòâåííîì è ìíî- ùåñòâèòåëüíûå
æåñòâåííîì ÷èñëå
Местоимение 59

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

No None

I have no English I wanted some more coffee but


books. — Ó ìåíÿ íåò none was left. — ß õîòåëà
àíãëèéñêèõ êíèã. âûïèòü åù¸ êîôå, íî åãî íå
No information has been îñòàëîñü.
received yet. — Ïîêà Is there any milk in the
÷òî íå áûëî ïîëó÷åíî fridge? — No, there is none. —
íèêàêîé èíôîðìàöèè. Åñòü ëè â õîëîäèëüíèêå ìîëî-
êî? — Íåò.

Óïîòðåáëåíèå ìåñòîèìåíèé nobody, nothing è no one

Óïîòðåáëåíèå Ïðèìåðû

Ñ ãëàãîëîì â óòâåðäèòåëü- I know nothing about the


íîé ôîðìå accident. — ß íè÷åãî íå
çíàþ ïðî íåñ÷àñòíûé ñëó-
÷àé.
Êîãäà nobody è nothing Nobody has told me about
ñëóæàò ïîäëåæàùèì, it. — Íèêòî íå ãîâîðèë
òî ãëàãîë óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ ìíå îá ýòîì.
â åäèíñòâåííîì ÷èñëå
Ïîñëå ìåñòîèìåíèé nobody Nobody knows John. — Íè-
è no one íå óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ êòî íå çíàåò Äæîíà.
ïðåäëîã of

Óïîòðåáëåíèå ìåñòîèìåíèé each è every (è åãî ïðîèçâîäíûõ)

Everyone,
Each Every everything,
everybody

Ñîîòíîñèòñÿ Ñîîòíîñèòñÿ Èìåþò çíà÷åíèÿ


ñ îãðàíè÷åííûì ñ íåîãðàíè÷åí- «êàæäûé, âñÿ-
êðóãîì ëèö èëè íûì êðóãîì ëèö êèé, âñå»
ïðåäìåòîâ èëè ïðåäìåòîâ
60 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Everyone,
Each Every everything,
everybody

Each student in Every student Everyone


our group knows knows this (everybody)
this rule. — Êàæ- rule. — Êàæ- knows this
äûé ñòóäåíò â íà- äûé ñòóäåíò rule. — Êàæäûé
øåé ãðóïïå çíàåò çíàåò ýòî ïðà- çíàåò ýòî ïðà-
ýòî ïðàâèëî. âèëî. âèëî.
Óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ
Óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ â ôóíêöèè îïðåäåëå-
â ôóíêöèè ïîä-
íèÿ ïåðåä ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì â åäèí-
ëåæàùåãî èëè
ñòâåííîì ÷èñëå
äîïîëíåíèÿ
Trees line each Every street has Everyone is
side of the two sides. — happy. — Âñå
street. — Íà êà- Ó êàæäîé óëè- ñ÷àñòëèâû.
æäîé ñòîðîíå öû äâå ñòîðî- I saw everyone
óëèöû ðàñòóò äå- íû. there. — ß âè-
ðåâüÿ. äåë âñåõ òàì.

Óïîòðåáëåíèå ìåñòîèìåíèé either è neither

Either Neither

Îòíîñèòñÿ ê äâóì ëèöàì Îòíîñèòñÿ ê äâóì ëèöàì èëè


èëè ïðåäìåòàì ïðåäìåòàì. ßâëÿåòñÿ îòðèöà-
òåëüíîé ôîðìîé either
You may take either We accepted neither offer. —
book. — Ìîæåøü âçÿòü Ìû íå ïðèíÿëè íè òîãî, íè
ëþáóþ êíèãó. äðóãîãî ïðåäëîæåíèÿ.
 ñî÷åòàíèè ñ ïðåäëîãîì of óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ â ôóíêöèè
ïîäëåæàùåãî
Either of the examples is Neither of the examples is
correct. — È òîò, è äðó- correct. — Íè òîò, íè äðó-
ãîé ïðèìåð âåðåí. (Îáà ãîé ïðèìåð íå âåðåí. (Îáà
ïðèìåðà âåðíû). ïðèìåðà íåâåðíû).
Местоимение 61

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Either Neither

Óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ â ôóíêöèè îïðåäåëåíèÿ

You can talk with either Neither sister has been


sister. — Òû ìîæåøü ïîãî- abroad. — Íè îäíà èç ñåñ-
âîðèòü ñ ëþáîé èç ñåñò¸ð. ò¸ð íå áûëà çà ãðàíèöåé.

Óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ ñàìîñòîÿòåëüíî

Which book can I take? — Which book did you like? —


Either. Neither.
Êàêóþ êíèãó ÿ ìîãó Êàêàÿ êíèãà òåáå ïîíðàâè-
âçÿòü? — Ëþáóþ. ëàñü? — Íè òà, íè äðóãàÿ.

Óïîòðåáëåíèå ìåñòîèìåíèé all è both

All Both

Óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ â ôóíêöèè îïðåäåëåíèÿ ê ñóùåñòâèòåëü-


íîìó è ëè÷íîìó ìåñòîèìåíèþ

All plants need water. — Both (the) brothers live in


Âñå ðàñòåíèÿ íóæäàþòñÿ London. — Îáà áðàòà æè-
â âîäå. âóò â Ëîíäîíå.
They all come here every We both took part in the
Sunday. — Âñå îíè ïðèõî- concert. — Ìû îáà ó÷à-
äÿò ñþäà êàæäîå âîñêðå- ñòâîâàëè â êîíöåðòå.
ñåíüå.

Óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ â ôóíêöèè ïîäëåæàùåãî

All is well that ends well. — You have given two examples;
Âñ¸ õîðîøî, ÷òî õîðîøî both are incorrect. — Âû
êîí÷àåòñÿ. ïðèâåëè äâà ïðèìåðà; îáà
íåïðàâèëüíû.

Óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ â ôóíêöèè
äîïîëíåíèÿ.

I know all. — ß çíàþ âñ¸.
62 Раздел 1. Части речи

Óïîòðåáëåíèå ìåñòîèìåíèé other è another

Other Another

Óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ â ôóíêöèè Óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ â ôóíê-


îïðåäåëåíèÿ ê ñóùåñòâèòåëü- öèè îïðåäåëåíèÿ
íîìó êàê â åäèíñòâåííîì, òàê ê ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîìó
è âî ìíîæåñòâåííîì ÷èñëå â åäèíñòâåííîì ÷èñëå
Íe’s got other plans. — Ó íåãî This apple is sour; give
äðóãèå ïëàíû. me another one. — Ýòî
The shop is on the other side of ÿáëîêî êèñëîå; äàé
the street. — Ìàãàçèí íà äðó- ìíå äðóãîå.
ãîé ñòîðîíå óëèöû.

Óïîòðåáëåíèå ìåñòîèìåíèé little è few

Little Few

Óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ ïåðåä íå- Óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ ïåðåä èñ-


èñ÷èñëÿåìûìè ñóùåñòâè- ÷èñëÿåìûìè ñóùåñòâèòåëü-
òåëüíûìè íûìè
I have little money. — I have few relatives here. —
Ó ìåíÿ ìàëî äåíåã. Ó ìåíÿ çäåñü ìàëî ðîä-
ñòâåííèêîâ.
Óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ â ôóíêöèè îïðåäåëåíèÿ
I have very little time. — There were very few people
Ó ìåíÿ ìàëî âðåìåíè. there. — Òàì áûëî î÷åíü
ìàëî íàðîäó.
Óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ â ôóíêöèè ïîäëåæàùåãî
Little has been said about Few have been found to
it. — Îá ýòîì ñêàçàíî deny his genius. — Ìàëî
ìàëî. íàøëîñü òàêèõ, êòî îòðè-
öàë åãî ãåíèàëüíîñòü.
Ìîãóò óïîòðåáëÿòüñÿ ñ íåîïðåäåë¸ííûì àðòèêëåì
I’ve got little time. — Ó ìå- Íe’s got few friends. —
íÿ ìàëî (íåäîñòàòî÷íî) Ó íåãî ìàëî (ïî÷òè íåò)
âðåìåíè. äðóçåé.
I’ve got a little time. — Ó ìå- Íå’s got a few friends. — Ó íå-
íÿ åñòü íåìíîãî âðåìåíè. ãî åñòü íåñêîëüêî äðóçåé.
Местоимение 63

Óïîòðåáëåíèå ìåñòîèìåíèé much è many

Much Many

Óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ ïåðåä íåèñ÷èñ- Óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ ïåðåä


ëÿåìûìè ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûìè èñ÷èñëÿåìûìè ñóùå-
ñòâèòåëüíûìè
I haven’t got much work to do You haven’t made many
today. — Ó ìåíÿ ñåãîäíÿ íå- mistakes this time. —
ìíîãî ðàáîòû. Â ýòî ðàç âû íå äîïó-
ñòèëè ìíîãî îøèáîê.
Óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ â ôóíêöèè ïîäëåæàùåãî
Much depends on what answer Many think that the
he will give. — Ìíîãî çàâèñèò situation will improve. —
îò îòâåòà, êîòîðûé îí äàñò. Ìíîãèå äóìàþò, ÷òî
ñèòóàöèÿ óëó÷øèòñÿ.
 óòâåðäèòåëüíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ òîëüêî
â òåõ ñëó÷àÿõ, êîãäà îíè îïðåäåëÿþòñÿ íàðå÷èÿìè ñòåïå-
íè very, rather, too, so, as, how èëè êîãäà îíè ñëóæàò ïîä-
ëåæàùèì èëè îïðåäåëåíèåì ê ïîäëåæàùåìó1
You spent too much time on He’s got so many friends
this translation. — Âû ïîòðà- in Paris! — Ó íåãî
òèëè ñëèøêîì ìíîãî âðåìåíè ñòîëüêî ìíîãî äðóçåé
íà ýòîò ïåðåâîä. â Ïàðèæå!
Óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ â ôóíêöèè
äîïîëíåíèÿ
Our friendship means much to —
me. — Íàøà äðóæáà ìíîãî
äëÿ ìåíÿ çíà÷èò.

1
 äðóãèõ ñëó÷àÿõ â óòâåðäèòåëüíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ âìå-
ñòî much óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ a lot (of), lots (of), plenty (of),
a good deal (of), a great deal (of): We have plenty of
time. — Ó íàñ ìíîãî âðåìåíè. Âìåñòî many óïîòðåáëÿ-
þòñÿ a lot (of), lots (of), plenty (of), a great many, a good
many: We saw a lot of people there. — Ìû âèäåëè òàì
ìíîãî íàðîäó.
64 Раздел 1. Части речи

Возвратные местоимения (Reflexive Pronouns)

Âîçâðàòíûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ (Reflexive Pronouns) îáðàçóþòñÿ


ïóòåì ïðèáàâëåíèÿ ê ïðèòÿæàòåëüíûì ìåñòîèìåíèÿì my,
our, your, ëè÷íûì ìåñòîèìåíèÿì him, her, it, them è íå-
îïðåäåë¸ííîìó ìåñòîèìåíèþ one îêîí÷àíèé -self (ê ìåñòî-
èìåíèÿì åäèíñòâåííîãî ÷èñëà) è -selves (ê ìåñòîèìåíèÿì
ìíîæåñòâåííîãî ÷èñëà).

Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå
Ëèöî
÷èñëî ÷èñëî
1-å myself ourselves
2-å yourself yourselves
himself
3-å herself themselves
itself
Íåîïðåäåë¸ííî-
oneself —
ëè÷íàÿ ôîðìà

Ñîîòâåòñòâèÿ àíãëèéñêèõ âîçâðàòíûõ ìåñòîèìåíèé


â ðóññêîì ÿçûêå

Ñîîòâåòñòâèÿ Ïðèìåðû

×àñòèöà -ñÿ (-ñü), She hurt


êîòîðàÿ ïðèñîåäè- herself. — Îíà
íÿåòñÿ ê ãëàãîëàì óøèáëàñü.
Âîçâðàòíîå ìåñòî- She bought herself
èìåíèå ñåáÿ (ñåáå, a new mink
Âîçâðàòíûå ñîáîé) coat. — Îíà êó-
ìåñòîèìåíèÿ ïèëà ñåáå íîâóþ
íîðêîâóþ øóáó.
Ìåñòîèìåíèå I did it myself. —
ñàì (ñàìà, ñàìî, ß ñàìà ýòî ñäå-
ñàìè) — ïðè óñè- ëàëà./
ëåíèè çíà÷åíèÿ ñó- ß ñäåëàëà ýòî
ùåñòâèòåëüíîãî ñàìà.
èëè ìåñòîèìåíèÿ
Местоимение 65

Указательные местоимения (Demonstrative


Pronouns)

Óêàçàòåëüíûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ (Demonstrative Pronouns) óêà-


çûâàþò íà ëèöî èëè ïðåäìåò, à òàêæå íà èõ ïðèçíàêè
è ñëóæàò äëÿ èõ âûäåëåíèÿ ñðåäè äðóãèõ ëèö, ïðåäìåòîâ,
ïðèçíàêîâ.

Ìåñòîèìåíèÿ this è these óêàçûâàþò íà ïðåäìåòû, íà-


õîäÿùèåñÿ â íåïîñðåäñòâåííîé áëèçîñòè ê ãîâîðÿùåìó,
à òàêæå îòíîñÿòñÿ ê ìîìåíòó ðàçãîâîðà èëè ê òåêóùåìó
ïåðèîäó âðåìåíè

Åäèíñòâåííîå ÷èñëî Ìíîæåñòâåííîå ÷èñëî


this — ýòîò, this book, these — these books,
ýòà, ýòî this year ýòè these days
Ìåñòîèìåíèÿ that è those óêàçûâàþò íà áîëåå îòäàë¸ííûå
ïðåäìåòû, à òàêæå îòíîñÿòñÿ ê ìîìåíòó èëè ïåðèîäó âðå-
ìåíè â ïðîøëîì èëè áóäóùåì

Åäèíñòâåííîå ÷èñëî Ìíîæåñòâåííîå ÷èñëî


that — òîò, that book, those — those books,
òà, òî that year òå those days
Êîãäà óêàçàòåëüíîå ìåñòîèìåíèå such îïðåäåëÿåò èñ÷èñëÿ-
åìîå ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå â åäèíñòâåííîì ÷èñëå, òî ñóùåñòâè-
òåëüíîå óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ ñ íåîïðåäåë¸ííûì àðòèêëåì a (an),
êîòîðûé ñòàâèòñÿ ïîñëå such. Êîãäà óêàçàòåëüíîå ìåñòî-
èìåíèå such îïðåäåëÿåò íåèñ÷èñëÿåìîå ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå
èëè èñ÷èñëÿåìîå ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå âî ìíîæåñòâåííîì ÷èñ-
ëå, òî ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ áåç àðòèêëÿ

Ìåñòîèìåíèå- Ìåñòîèìåíèå-
ïðèëàãàòåëüíîå ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå
such — òà- such an such — Such was the
êîé, òàêàÿ, interesting òàêîâà, agreement. —
òàêîå, òàêèå book, such òàêîâ, Òàêîâî áûëî
interesting òàêîâî, ñîãëàøåíèå.
books, such òàêîâû Such were our
deep snow plans. — Òà-
êîâû áûëè
íàøè ïëàíû.
66 Раздел 1. Части речи

Вопросительные местоимения
(Interrogative Pronouns)

Âîïðîñèòåëüíûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ (Interrogative Pronouns)


óêàçûâàþò íà ëèöî, ïðåäìåò, ïðèçíàê è ÷èñëî, î êîòîðûõ
çàäàåòñÿ âîïðîñ, è óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ äëÿ ïîñòðîåíèÿ âîïðî-
ñèòåëüíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé.

 àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå âîïðîñèòåëü- What is your


íûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ What? Which? surname?
Who? Whom? Whose? íåèçìåííû, Whose pencil is it?
îíè óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ äëÿ îáðàçîâàíèÿ What has
ñïåöèàëüíûõ âîïðîñîâ happened?

Èñêëþ÷åíèå: who èìååò ôîðìó èìå- Who is present?


íèòåëüíîãî ïàäåæà (who) è îáúåêò- Whom did you
íîãî ïàäåæà (whom) meet?

Ôóíêöèè âîïðîñèòåëüíûõ ìåñòîèìåíèé


â ïðåäëîæåíèè

Ìåñòî-
Ôóíêöèè Ïåðåâîä Ïðèìåðû
èìåíèÿ
ïîäëåæà- êòî Who wrote the
ùåå book? — Êòî íàïè-
ñàë ýòó êíèãó?
Who
èìåííàÿ êòî Who are these
÷àñòü ñêà- girls? — Êòî ýòè äå-
çóåìîãî âî÷êè?
ïðÿìîå êîãî Who (whom) did you
äîïîëíå- see there? — Êîãî âû
íèå òàì âèäåëè?

Who ïðåäëîæ- êòî Who did you write the


(whom) íîå äî- (â êîñâåí- letter to?
ïîëíåíèå íûõ ïà- íî: To whom did you
äåæàõ write the letter? —
ñ ïðåäëî- Êîìó âû íàïèñàëè
ãàìè) ïèñüìî?
Местоимение 67

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ìåñòî-
Ôóíêöèè Ïåðåâîä Ïðèìåðû
èìåíèÿ
ïîäëåæà- ÷òî What has happened? —
ùåå ×òî ñëó÷èëîñü?
ïðÿìîå ÷òî What have you
äîïîëíå- seen? — ×òî âû âè-
íèå äåëè?
ïðåäëîæ- ÷òî (â êîñ- About what are you
íîå äî- âåííûõ speaking?
ïîëíåíèå ïàäåæàõ èëè: What are you
ñ ïðåäëî- speaking about? —
What
ãàìè) Î ÷åì âû ãîâîðèòå?
èìåííàÿ êàêîé What newspapers did
÷àñòü ñêà- you buy? — Êàêèå ãà-
çóåìîãî çåòû âû êóïèëè?
â âîñêëè- êàêîé, What a fine house! —
öàòåëü- ÷òî çà Êàêîé êðàñèâûé äîì!
íûõ
ïðåäëî-
æåíèÿõ
îïðåäåëå- êòî èç Which of you speaks
íèå (êîòîðûé English? — Êòî (êî-
èç), êàêàÿ òîðûé) èç âàñ ãîâî-
(êîòîðàÿ), ðèò ïî-àíãëèéñêè?
÷òî Which dress did you
like best? — Êàêîå (êî-
òîðîå) ïëàòüå âàì
Which1
áîëüøå âñåãî ïîíðà-
âèëîñü? Which do you
prefer to learn: German
or English? — Êàêîé
ÿçûê âû ïðåäïî÷èòàå-
òå èçó÷àòü: íåìåöêèé
èëè àíãëèéñêèé?
îïðåäåëå- ÷åé Whose book is this? —
Whose
íèå ×üÿ ýòî êíèãà?
68 Раздел 1. Части речи

1
Âîïðîñèòåëüíîå ìåñòîèìåíèå which óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ, êîã-
äà ðå÷ü èä¸ò î âûáîðå èç îãðàíè÷åííîãî ÷èñëà ëèö èëè
ïðåäìåòîâ: Which of you will do the task? — Êòî èç âàñ
âûïîëíèò ýòî çàäàíèå?  äðóãèõ ñëó÷àÿõ óïîòðåá-
ëÿþòñÿ ìåñòîèìåíèÿ what èëè who: What books did you
buy? — Êàêèå êíèãè âû êóïèëè? Who knows John? —
Êòî çíàåò Äæîíà?

Относительные и союзные местоимения


(Relative and Conjunctive Pronouns)

Îòíîñèòåëüíûå è ñîþçíûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ who (whom), whose,


which, that, what ñëóæàò äëÿ ñâÿçè ïðèäàòî÷íûõ ïðåäëî-
æåíèé ñ ãëàâíûì.

Òèïû ïðèäàòî÷íûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé,


ââîäèìûõ îòíîñèòåëüíûìè è ñîþçíûìè
ìåñòîèìåíèÿìè

Ìåñòî- Ïðèäàòî÷íûå
Ïðèìåðû
èìåíèÿ ïðåäëîæåíèÿ

Who äîïîëíèòåëü- Who has said it is


(whom)1, íîå a mystery. — Êòî ýòî ñêà-
whose2, çàë — çàãàäêà. He doesn’t
what, know what he loses. — Îí íå
which3 çíàåò, ÷òî òåðÿåò. I don’t
know which of them speaks
English. — ß íå çíàþ, êòî
èç íèõ ãîâîðèò ïî-àíãëèéñêè.
Who îïðåäåëè- The man who is speaking
(whom)1, òåëüíîå to Tom is my neighbour. —
whose2, Ìóæ÷èíà, êîòîðûé ãîâî-
which3, ðèò ñ Òîìîì, ìîé ñîñåä. The
that4 cell phone that I lost was
a good one. — Ñîòîâûé òå-
ëåôîí, êîòîðûé ÿ ïîòåðÿë,
áûë õîðîøèì.
Местоимение 69

1
Ìåñòîèìåíèÿ who (whom) óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ ïî îòíîøåíèþ
ê æèâûì ñóùåñòâàì: The woman who sits near me is my
mother.
2
Ìåñòîèìåíèå whose óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ ïî îòíîøåíèþ ê æè-
âûì ñóùåñòâàì: This is the woman whose children live
next to me.
3
Ìåñòîèìåíèå which óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ ïî îòíîøåíèþ ê íåî-
äóøåâë¸ííûì ïðåäìåòàì è ê æèâîòíûì: The books which
are on the table are mine.
4
Ìåñòîèìåíèå that óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ ïî îòíîøåíèþ êàê
ê æèâûì ñóùåñòâàì, òàê è ê íåîäóøåâë¸ííûì ïðåäìå-
òàì: The article that (which) I read was very interesting.
The man that (whom) I met on the train is a famous writer.

Ñëó÷àè îòñóòñòâèÿ îòíîñèòåëüíûõ ìåñòîèìåíèé

Îòíîñèòåëüíûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ, ÿâëÿþùèåñÿ äîïîëíåíèåì


èíäèâèäóàëèçèðóþùèõ îïðåäåëèòåëüíûõ ïðèäàòî÷íûõ
ïðåäëîæåíèé, îáû÷íî îïóñêàþòñÿ
That, which, This is the woman that (whom) I met
who (whom) yesterday. = This is the woman I met
yesterday. — Âîò òà æåíùèíà, êîòîðóþ
ÿ âñòðåòèë â÷åðà.

Ñëó÷àè îáÿçàòåëüíîãî óïîòðåáëåíèÿ


îòíîñèòåëüíûõ ìåñòîèìåíèé

Îòíîñèòåëüíûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ íå îïóñêàþòñÿ:


â îïèñàòåëüíûõ îïðå- Tom, whom I met at the theatrå
äåëèòåëüíûõ ïðåäëî- yesterday, asked you to give him
æåíèÿõ a ring. — Òîì, êîòîðîãî ÿ â÷å-
ðà âñòðåòèë â òåàòðå, ïðîñèë
òåáÿ ïîçâîíèòü åìó.
åñëè îíè ñëóæàò ïîä- The girl who is playing over there
ëåæàùèì ïðèäàòî÷- is my sister. — Äåâî÷êà, êîòîðàÿ
íîãî îïðåäåëèòåëüíî- èãðàåò âîí òàì, ìîÿ ñåñòðà.
ãî ïðåäëîæåíèÿ
whose This is the woman whose parents
live next to us. — Âîò òà æåí-
ùèíà, ÷üè ðîäèòåëè æèâóò ðÿ-
äîì ñ íàìè.
70 Раздел 1. Части речи

Взаимные местоимения (Reciprocal Pronouns)

Âçàèìíûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ each other è one another èìåþò


îäèíàêîâîå çíà÷åíèå — äðóã äðóãà, îäèí äðóãîãî. Each
other îáû÷íî îòíîñèòñÿ ê äâóì ëèöàì èëè ïðåäìåòàì, one
another — ê íåñêîëüêèì. Îíè ÿâëÿþòñÿ ìåñòîèìåíèÿìè
â ôóíêöèè ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ è èìåþò äâà ïàäåæà.

Ïðèòÿæàòåëüíûé
Îáùèé ïàäåæ
ïàäåæ
Each other, one another âûïîëíÿþò Each other’s, one
ôóíêöèþ: another’s âûïîëíÿ-
x ïðÿìîãî äîïîëíåíèÿ þò ôóíêöèþ îïðåäå-
They saw each other every week. ëåíèÿ:
x êîñâåííîãî äîïîëíåíèÿ Pupils looked through
They always help each other to do one another’s
their homework. compositions and
x ïðåäëîæíîãî äîïîëíåíèÿ found the same
We often speak English to one another. mistakes.

Глагол
The Verb

Глагол — ÷àñòü ðå÷è, êîòîðàÿ îáîçíà÷àåò äåéñòâèå èëè ñî-


ñòîÿíèå ëèöà èëè ïðåäìåòà.

Общая характеристика глаголов


Êëàññèôèêàöèÿ ãëàãîëîâ (Classification of Verbs)

Âèäû Ïðèìåðû
Ñìûñëîâûå ãëàãî- He works much. I wrote a letter
ëû (Notional Verbs) yesterday.
Ãëàãîëû-ñâÿçêè to be, to become, to seem, to remain, to
(Link Verbs) get, to turn, to book, to feel, to grow:
It was a fine day. She got angry.
Глагол 71

Âèäû Ïðèìåðû
Âñïîìîãàòåëüíûå to do, to have, to be, shall (should),
ãëàãîëû (Auxiliary will (would):
Verbs) I don’t know him. Íå has travelled
much.
Ìîäàëüíûå ãëàãî- can, may, must, should, ought, to have
ëû (Modal Verbs) to, to be to:
He can play football. May I go out?
She must get there before five. They
have to go now. We are to do our
homework. You ought to start at once.

Òèïû ãëàãîëîâ

Òèïû ãëàãîëîâ Ïðèìåðû


Ïðîñòûå ãëàãîëû ñîñòîÿò èç to run, to go, to try, to
îäíîé îñíîâû speak
Ïðîèçâîäíûå ãëàãîëû èìåþò to rewrite, to organize, to
ñóôôèêñû èëè ïðèñòàâêè discover, to mispronounce
Ñîñòàâíûå ãëàãîëû:
ñîñòîÿò èç äâóõ ÷àñòåé (ãëà- to sit down, to go away,
ãîë + ïðåäëîã èëè íàðå÷èå) to stand up, to put on
ñîñòîÿò èç äâóõ ñëîâ, ñîñòàâ- to machinegun, to
ëÿþùèõ îäíî ïîíÿòèå whitewash

Основные формы глагола (The Main Forms of Verbs)

Ôîðìà ãëàãîëà
Ïåðâàÿ Âòîðàÿ ôîð- Òðåòüÿ ôîðìà: Ïðè÷àñòèå
ôîðìà: ìà: Ïðîøåä- (the Participle)
Èíôèíè- øåå íåîïðå-
ïðè÷àñòèå ïðè÷àñòèå
òèâ (the äåë¸ííîå
íàñòîÿùå- ïðîøåäøå-
Infinitive) âðåìÿ (Past
ãî âðåìåíè ãî âðåìåíè
Indefinite)
(Present (Past
Participle/ Participle/
Participle I) Participle II)
72 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ôîðìà ãëàãîëà
to go, went, going, gone,
to work worked working worked

Ëè÷íûå ôîðìû ãëàãîëà (Finite Forms)

Îïèñàíèå Ïðèìåðû

Ëè÷íûå ôîðìû ãëàãîëà èìå- We live in Russia.


þò êàòåãîðèè ëèöà è ÷èñëà, íà- What is he doing?
êëîíåíèÿ, âðåìåíè è çàëîãà. She knows English well.
 ïðåäëîæåíèè îíè âûïîëíÿ-
þò ðîëü ñêàçóåìîãî è óïîòðåá-
ëÿþòñÿ âñåãäà âìåñòå ñ ïîä-
ëåæàùèì, ñ êîòîðûì îíè
ñîãëàñóþòñÿ â ëèöå è ÷èñëå

Íåëè÷íûå ôîðìû (Non-Finite Forms)

Íåëè÷íûå ôîðìû ãëàãîëà íå èìåþò êàòåãîðèè ëèöà, ÷èñëà


è íàêëîíåíèÿ; âûðàæàþò òîëüêî âðåìÿ è ñîñòîÿíèå; íè-
êîãäà íå ÿâëÿþòñÿ â ïðåäëîæåíèè ñêàçóåìûì.

Èíôèíèòèâ Ïðè÷àñòèå Ãåðóíäèé


(the Infinitive) (the Participle) (the Gerund)

What are you going When he came Jumping is my


to do after classes? home he found the favourite kind
door opened. of sport.

Правильные и неправильные глаголы


(Regular and Irregular Verbs)

Ãëàãîëû ïî ñïîñîáó îáðàçîâàíèÿ ôîðì ïðîøåäøåãî íåîïðå-


äåë¸ííîãî âðåìåíè (Past Simple (Indefinite) Tense) è ïðè-
÷àñòèÿ ïðîøåäøåãî âðåìåíè (Past Participle — Participle
II) äåëÿòñÿ íà ïðàâèëüíûå (Regular Verbs) è íåïðàâèëüíûå
(Irregular Verbs)
Глагол 73

Ïðàâèëüíûå ãëàãîëû

Ïðàâèëüíûå ãëàãîëû îáðàçóþò ôîðìû ïðîøåäøåãî íåîïðå-


äåë¸ííîãî âðåìåíè è ïðè÷àñòèÿ ïðîøåäøåãî âðåìåíè ïðè-
áàâëåíèåì îêîí÷àíèÿ -ed ê èíôèíèòèâó.

Past Simple
Infinitive Participle II
(Indefinite)

to work worked worked


to play played played
to dry dried dried

Ïðàâîïèñàíèå îêîí÷àíèé ïðàâèëüíûõ ãëàãîëîâ

Ïðàâèëà Ïðèìåðû

Ãëàãîëû, êîòîðûå îêàí÷èâà- to like — liked


þòñÿ â èíôèíèòèâå áóêâîé -å,
óòðà÷èâàþò å¸ ïåðåä îêîí÷àíè-
åì -ed

 ãëàãîëàõ, êîòîðûå îêàí÷èâà- to try — tried


þòñÿ â èíôèíèòèâå áóêâîé -ó,
êîòîðîé ïðåäøåñòâóåò ñîãëàñ-
íûé, çàìåíÿþò -ó íà -i

 îäíîñëîæíûõ ãëàãîëàõ, êî- to stop — stopped,


òîðûå îêàí÷èâàþòñÿ â èí- to nod — nodded
ôèíèòèâå íà îäíó ñîãëàñíóþ
ñ ïðåäøåñòâóþùèì êðàòêèì
ãëàñíûì, êîíå÷íàÿ ñîãëàñíàÿ
óäâàèâàåòñÿ

 äâóñëîæíûõ è ìíîãîñëîæ- to refer — referred,


íûõ ãëàãîëàõ, êîòîðûå îêàí÷è- to permit — permitted
âàþòñÿ â èíôèíèòèâå íà îäíó
ñîãëàñíóþ ñ ïðåäøåñòâóþùåé
êðàòêîé óäàðíîé ãëàñíîé, êî-
íå÷íàÿ ñîãëàñíàÿ óäâàèâàåòñÿ
74 Раздел 1. Части речи

Íåïðàâèëüíûå ãëàãîëû

Íåïðàâèëüíûå ãëàãîëû îáðàçóþò ôîðìû ïðîøåäøåãî íå-


îïðåäåë¸ííîãî âðåìåíè (Past Simple (Indefinite) Tense)
è äååïðè÷àñòèÿ ïðîøåäøåãî âðåìåíè (Past Participle)
ïî-ðàçíîìó, èõ íåîáõîäèìî çàïîìíèòü.

Past Simple
Infinitive Participle II
(Indefinite)

to become became become


to draw drew drawn
to get got got

Личные формы глагола

Значение неопределённых времён


Âðåìåíà ãðóïïû Simple (Indefinite) óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ äëÿ
âûðàæåíèÿ äåéñòâèé, êîòîðûå ïðîèñõîäÿò â íàñòîÿùåì,
ïðîøåäøåì èëè áóäóùåì âðåìåíàõ, áåç óêàçàíèÿ èõ õà-
ðàêòåðà, ïðîäîëæèòåëüíîñòè, çàâåðø¸ííîñòè, ñîîòíåñ¸í-
íîñòè ñ äðóãèì äåéñòâèåì.
Ãðóïïà íåîïðåäåë¸ííûõ âðåì¸í âêëþ÷àåò íàñòîÿùåå íåî-
ïðåäåë¸ííîå âðåìÿ (Present Indefinite Tense), ïðîøåäøåå
íåîïðåäåë¸ííîå âðåìÿ (Past Indefinite Tense) è áóäóùåå
íåîïðåäåë¸ííîå âðåìÿ (Future Indefinite Tense).

Ãðóïïà íåîïðåäåë¸ííûõ âðåì¸í


(Indefinite Tenses)

Present
Past Indefinite Future Indefinite
Indefinite

I read books I read a book I shall read a book


every day. — yesterday. — tomorrow. —
ß ÷èòàþ êíèãè ß ÷èòàë (ïðî÷è- ß áóäó ÷èòàòü
êàæäûé äåíü. òàë) êíèãó â÷åðà. (ïðî÷òó) êíèãó
çàâòðà.
Глагол 75

Ñâîäíàÿ ñõåìà ïåðåâîäà âðåì¸í


ãðóïïû Simple (Indefinite)

Äåéñòâèå, îáû÷íî
èíôèíèòèâ ïîâòîðÿþùååñÿ â íà-
áåç to 3-å ëè- ñòîÿùåì âðåìåíè:
Present öî åäèíñòâåí- I usually get up at
íîãî ÷èñëà seven o’clock. —
+ -s ß îáû÷íî âñòàþ
â 7 ÷àñîâ.

èíôèíèòèâ Äåéñòâèå, êîòîðîå


áåç to + -ed ïðîèçîøëî â ïðîøëîì:
äëÿ ïðàâèëü- I played with my dog
S IMPLE

íûõ ãëàãîëîâ, yesterday. — ß â÷å-


Past
íåïðàâèëü- ðà èãðàë ñî ñâîåé ñî-
íûå ãëàãîëû áàêîé. We went to the
ñì. ïðèëî- cinema. — Ìû õîäèëè
æåíèå â êèíî.

Äåéñòâèå, êîòîðîå
shall (will) + ïðîèçîéäåò â áóäóùåì:
Future èíôèíèòèâ He will play football. —
áåç to Îí áóäåò èãðàòü
â ôóòáîë.

Ñâîäíàÿ òàáëèöà âðåì¸í ãðóïïû Indefinite


Âðåìÿ

Óòâåðäèòåëüíàÿ Âîïðîñèòåëüíàÿ Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ


ôîðìà ôîðìà ôîðìà

I I I
We we We do not
work. Do
You you You (don’t)
Present

They they work? They work.


Íå he He
does not
She works. Does she She
(doesn’t)
It it It
76 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû
Âðåìÿ

Óòâåðäèòåëüíàÿ Âîïðîñèòåëüíàÿ Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ


ôîðìà ôîðìà ôîðìà

I I I
We we We
You you You
Past

did not
They worked. Did they work? They work.
(didn’t)
He he He
She she She
It it It
shall
shall

I I I
Shall not
We we We
(shan’t)
Future

You work. he work? You work.


They she They
will not
will

He Will it He
(won’t)
She you She
It they It

Настоящее неопределённое время


(the Present Simple (Indefinite) Tense)
Îáðàçîâàíèå íàñòîÿùåãî íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî âðåìåíè
(the Present Simple (Indefinite) Tense)

Îáðàçîâàíèå Ïðèìåðû
Óòâåðäèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
Óòâåðäèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
ãëàãîëà â Present Simple
You
(Indefinite) âî âñåõ ëèöàõ read newspapers
We
åäèíñòâåííîãî è ìíîæå- every morning.
They
ñòâåííîãî ÷èñëà — èíôè-
íèòèâ áåç ÷àñòèöû to
 3-ì ëèöå åäèíñòâåííîãî reads newspapers
÷èñëà ê ôîðìå èíôèíèòè- He every morning.
âà äîáàâëÿåòñÿ îêîí÷àíèå She usually goes to the
-s èëè -es cinema with friends.
Глагол 77

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Îáðàçîâàíèå Ïðèìåðû
Âîïðîñèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
Âîïðîñèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà I read?
Present Simple (Indefinite) you read?
îáðàçóåòñÿ ñ ïîìîùüþ Do we read?
ãëàãîëà to do â Present you read?
Simple (Indefinite) è èí- they read?
ôèíèòèâà ñìûñëîâîãî
ãëàãîëà áåç ÷àñòèöû to.
Âñïîìîãàòåëüíûé ãëàãîë Does he (she) read?
do (does) ñòàâèòñÿ ïåðåä
ïîäëåæàùèì
Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà You
do not (don’t) write.
Present Simple (Indefinite) We
îáðàçóåòñÿ ñ ïîìîùüþ
ãëàãîëà to do â Present
Simple (Indefinite), îòðè- He does not (doesn’t)
öàòåëüíîé ÷àñòèöû not She write.
è èíôèíèòèâà ñìûñëîâîãî
ãëàãîëà áåç ÷àñòèöû to

Ïðàâîïèñàíèå îêîí÷àíèé ïðàâèëüíûõ ãëàãîëîâ


íàñòîÿùåãî íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî âðåìåíè
(the Present Simple (Indefinite) Tense)

Ïðàâèëà Ïðèìåðû
 ãëàãîëàõ, êîòîðûå îêàí÷èâàþòñÿ íà -ó to try —
ñ ïðåäûäóùåé ñîãëàñíîé, ïåðåä îêîí÷à- tries
íèåì -es áóêâà ó ìåíÿåòñÿ íà i
Åñëè ïåðåä -ó ñòîèò ãëàñíàÿ, òî ê ãëàãî- to play —
ëàì äîáàâëÿåòñÿ òîëüêî îêîí÷àíèå -s plays
Åñëè ãëàãîëû îêàí÷èâàþòñÿ íà -s, -sh, -ss, to watch —
-ch, -tch, -x, -z, -zz, -o, òî â 3-ì ëèöå åäèí- watches,
ñòâåííîãî ÷èñëà ê íèì äîáàâëÿåòñÿ îêîí- go — goes
÷àíèå -es
78 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ïðàâèëà Ïðèìåðû
Åñëè ãëàãîë îêàí÷èâàåòñÿ íà -å, òî to take —
â 3-ì ëèöå åäèíñòâåííîãî ÷èñëà ê íåìó takes
äîáàâëÿåòñÿ îêîí÷àíèå -s

Îáðàçîâàíèå íàñòîÿùåãî íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî


âðåìåíè (the Present Simple (Indefinite) Tense)
ãëàãîëà to be

×èñëî
Ëèöî
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå

Óòâåðäèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà

1-å I am (I’m) we are (we’re)

2-å you are (you’re) you are (you’re)

he (he’s) they are (they’re)


3-å she is (she’s)
it (it’s)

Âîïðîñèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà

1-å Am I? Are we?

2-å Are you? Are you?

he? Are they?


3-å Is she?
it?

Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà

1-å I am not (I’m not) we are not (aren’t)

you are not (aren’t) you are not


2-å
(aren’t)

he they are not


3-å she is not (isn’t) (aren’t)
it
Глагол 79

Ôóíêöèè ãëàãîëà to be

Óïîòðåáëåíèå Ïðèìåðû
Ñìûñëîâîé ãëàãîë (â çíà÷å- The shop is next to the post
íèè «áûòü, íàõîäèòüñÿ») office. — Ìàãàçèí íàõî-
äèòñÿ ðÿäîì ñ ïî÷òîé.
Ãëàãîë-ñâÿçêà â ñîñòàâíîì My sister will be
ñêàçóåìîì a doctor. — Ìîÿ ñåñòðà
áóäåò äîêòîðîì.
Âñïîìîãàòåëüíûé ãëàãîë:
â ñî÷åòàíèè ñ ôîðìîé Íå is making
Present Participle äëÿ îáðà- an experiment. — Îí ïðîâî-
çîâàíèÿ âñåõ âðåì¸í ãðóï- äèò ýêñïåðèìåíò.
ïû Continuous è Perfect It has been raining since
Continuous morning. — Ñ óòðà èä¸ò
äîæäü.
â ñî÷åòàíèè ñ ôîðìîé Past This book was published
Participle äëÿ îáðàçîâàíèÿ last year. — Ýòà êíèãà
âñåõ âðåì¸í ñòðàäàòåëüíîãî áûëà íàïå÷àòàíà â ïðîø-
çàëîãà (Passive Voice) ëîì ãîäó.
â ñî÷åòàíèè ñ èíôèíèòèâîì We are to do this work
ñìûñëîâîãî ãëàãîëà ñ ÷àñ- by 6. — Ìû äîëæíû ñäå-
òèöåé to èìååò ìîäàëüíîå ëàòü ýòó ðàáîòó ê øåñòè.
çíà÷åíèå è âûðàæàåò íåîá- The train was to arrive
õîäèìîñòü ñîâåðøèòü äåé- at 11. — Ïîåçä äîëæåí
ñòâèå ñîãëàñíî ïðåäâàðè- áûë ïðèáûòü â 11 ÷àñîâ.
òåëüíîé äîãîâîð¸ííîñòè èëè
çàðàíåå íàìå÷åííîìó ïëàíó

Îáðàçîâàíèå íàñòîÿùåãî íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî âðåìåíè


(the Present Simple (Indefinite) Tense) ãëàãîëà to have

×èñëî
Ëèöî
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå
Óòâåðäèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
I have a ball. We have a ball.
1-å I have got (I’ve got) We have got (We’ve
a ball. got) a ball.
80 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

×èñëî
Ëèöî
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå
You have a ball. You have a ball.
2-å You have got (You’ve got) You have got (You’ve
a ball. got) a ball.
has a ball. They have a ball.
He
She has got (’s got) They have got
3-å a ball. (They’ve got) a ball.
has a tail.
It
has got (’s got) a tail.
Âîïðîñèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
Do I have a ball? Do we have a ball?
1-å
Have I got a ball? Have we got a ball?
Do you have a ball? Do you have a ball?
2-å
Have you got a ball? Have you got a ball?
have Do they have a ball?
he
Does a ball? Have they got a ball?
3-å she
Has got
it
a ball?
Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
I don’t have a ball. We don’t have a ball.
1-å I have not (haven’t) got We have not (haven’t)
a ball. got a ball.
You don’t have a ball. You don’t have a ball.
2-å You have not (haven’t) You have not
got a ball. (haven’t) got a ball.
does not They do not (don’t)
He (doesn’t) have have a ball.
3-å She a ball. They have not
It has not (haven’t) (haven’t) got a ball.
got a ball.
Глагол 81

Ôóíêöèè ãëàãîëà to have

Óïîòðåáëåíèå Ïðèìåðû

Ñìûñëîâîé ãëàãîë â çíà÷å- We have a new TV at


íèè «èìåòü, âëàäåòü» home. — Ó íàñ äîìà åñòü
íîâûé òåëåâèçîð.
 ñî÷åòàíèè ñ ôîðìîé Past They have already passed
Participle óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ the examination in
â êà÷åñòâå âñïîìîãàòåëüíî- Physics. — Îíè óæå ñäàëè
ãî ãëàãîëà äëÿ îáðàçîâàíèÿ ýêçàìåí ïî ôèçèêå.
âñåõ âðåì¸í ãðóïïû Perfect
 ñî÷åòàíèè ñ èíôèíèòè- We had to repeat the
âîì ñ ÷àñòèöåé to ñìûñëî- rules. — Ìû áûëè âûíóæ-
âîãî ãëàãîëà èìååò ìîäàëü- äåíû ïîâòîðèòü ïðàâèëà.
íîå çíà÷åíèå è âûðàæàåò
íåîáõîäèìîñòü ñîâåðøèòü
äåéñòâèå â ñèëó îïðåäåë¸í-
íûõ îáñòîÿòåëüñòâ
to have + ñóùåñòâèòåëü- to have dinner (breakfast/
íîå (óòðà÷èâàåò çíà÷åíèå supper) — îáåäàòü (çàâòðà-
«èìåòü») êàòü/óæèíàòü); to have
a rest — îòäûõàòü;
to have a talk — ïîãîâî-
ðèòü; to have a walk — ïî-
ãóëÿòü;
to have a smoke — ïîêóðèòü

Îáðàçîâàíèå íàñòîÿùåãî íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî âðåìåíè


(Present Simple (Indefinite) Tense) ãëàãîëà to do

×èñëî
Ëèöî
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå
Óòâåðäèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
I do morning exercises. We do morning
1-å
exercises.
You do morning You do morning
2-å
exercises. exercises.
82 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

×èñëî
Ëèöî
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå

He They do morning
does morning
3-å She exercises.
exercises.
It

Âîïðîñèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà

Do I do morning Do we do morning
1-å
exercises? exercises?

Do you do morning Do you do morning


2-å
exercises? exercises?

he do Do they do morning
3-å Does she morning exercises?
it exercises?

Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà

,GRQRW GRQ¶W GRPRUQLQJ :HGRQRW GRQ¶W GR


1ɟ
H[HUFLVHV PRUQLQJH[HUFLVHV

<RXGRQRW GRQ¶W GR <RXGRQRW GRQ¶W GR


2ɟ
PRUQLQJH[HUFLVHV PRUQLQJH[HUFLVHV

+H GRHVQRW GRHVQ¶W  7KH\GRQRW GRQ¶W 


3ɟ 6KH GRPRUQLQJ GRPRUQLQJH[HUFLVHV
,W H[HUFLVHV

Ôóíêöèè ãëàãîëà to do

Ôóíêöèè Ïðèìåðû

Ñìûñëîâîé ãëàãîë â çíà- Every man must do his


÷åíèè «äåëàòü, èñïîëíÿòü, duty. — Êàæäûé äîëæåí
ïðîèçâîäèòü» âûïîëíÿòü ñâîè îáÿçàííî-
ñòè.
Глагол 83

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ôóíêöèè Ïðèìåðû
Âñïîìîãàòåëüíûé ãëàãîë:
äëÿ îáðàçîâàíèÿ îòðèöà- Do you want to go for
òåëüíîé è âîïðîñèòåëüíîé a walk with us? — Âû õî-
ôîðì Present è Past Simple òèòå ïîéòè íà ïðîãóëêó
(Indefinite) âñåõ ãëàãîëîâ1 ñ íàìè?
äëÿ îáðàçîâàíèÿ îòðèöà- Don’t be so rude! — Íå
òåëüíîé ôîðìû ïîâåëèòåëü- áóäü òàêèì ãðóáûì!
íîãî íàêëîíåíèÿ
äëÿ óñèëåíèÿ ïðîñüáû ïå- Do have a cup of tea. —
ðåä ôîðìîé ïîâåëèòåëüíî- Ïîæàëóéñòà, âûïåéòå
ãî íàêëîíåíèÿ åù¸ ÷àøêó ÷àÿ.
äëÿ óñèëåíèÿ çíà÷åíèÿ I did tell him about it. —
ãëàãîëà-ñêàçóåìîãî ß æå ãîâîðèë åìó îá ýòîì.
Çàìåíèòåëü ñìûñëîâîãî Do you know how to use this
ãëàãîëà â êîðîòêèõ îòâå- device? — Yes, I do. — Âû
òàõ Present è Past Simple çíàåòå, êàê èñïîëüçóåòñÿ
(Indefinite) ýòîò ïðèáîð? — Äà.
Äëÿ èçáåæàíèÿ ïîâòîðå- Íå knows this rule as well
íèÿ ñìûñëîâîãî ãëàãîëà as you do. — Îí çíàåò ýòî
ïðàâèëî òàê æå õîðîøî,
êàê è âû.

1
Êðîìå âñïîìîãàòåëüíûõ è ìîäàëüíûõ ãëàãîëîâ.

Óïîòðåáëåíèå íàñòîÿùåãî íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî âðåìåíè


(Present Simple (Indefinite) Tense)

Óïîòðåáëåíèå Ïðèìåðû
Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ ïîñòîÿí- I go to school every day. —
íîãî, îáû÷íîãî äåéñòâèÿ ß õîæó â øêîëó êàæäûé
èëè äåéñòâèÿ, ïðèñóùå- äåíü.
ãî ëèöó èëè ïðåäìåòó, êî- We speak English well. —
òîðûì âûðàæåíî ïîäëå- Ìû õîðîøî ãîâîðèì ïî-àíã-
æàùåå ëèéñêè.
84 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Óïîòðåáëåíèå Ïðèìåðû
Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ îáùåèç- Two and two is four. — Äâà
âåñòíûõ èñòèí áåçîòíîñè- ïëþñ äâà áóäåò ÷åòûðå.
òåëüíî êî âðåìåíè Water boils at 100 °C. —
Âîäà êèïèò ïðè 100 °Ñ.
Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ (âìåñòî He will speak English when
Future Indefinite) áóäóùå- he goes to London. — Îí áó-
ãî äåéñòâèÿ â ïðèäàòî÷- äåò ãîâîðèòü ïî-àíãëèéñêè,
íûõ ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ óñëî- êîãäà ïîåäåò â Ëîíäîí.
âèÿ è âðåìåíè, êîòîðûå
ââîäÿòñÿ ñîþçàìè if —
åñëè, after — ïîñëå òîãî
êàê, till, untill — ïîêà íå,
before — ïðåæäå ÷åì
Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ áóäóùå- Íå comes back next
ãî äåéñòâèÿ, êîòîðîå ïðî- Monday. — Îí âåðí¸òñÿ
èçîéäåò â áëèæàéøåì â ñëåäóþùèé ïîíåäåëüíèê.
áóäóùåì, ÷àñòî — ïî ðàñ-
ïèñàíèþ, ñ ãëàãîëàìè to
leave, to come, to return, to
start, to go, to arrive
Ñ Present Simple (Indefinite) ÷àñòî óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ:
íàðå÷èÿ íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî We often go for a walk in the
âðåìåíè: evening. — Ìû ÷àñòî âå÷å-
usually — îáû÷íî, often — ðîì õîäèì íà ïðîãóëêó.
÷àñòî, seldom — ðåäêî, He never comes here in the
always — âñåãäà, never — morning. — Îí íèêîãäà íå
íèêîãäà, sometimes — èíî- ïðèõîäèò ñþäà ïî óòðàì.
ãäà. Îíè ñòàâÿòñÿ ïåðåä
ñìûñëîâûìè ãëàãîëàìè
ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèÿ every She doesn’t watch TV every
day — åæåäíåâíî, every evening. — Îíà íå ñìîòðèò
evening — êàæäûé âå÷åð, òåëåâèçîð êàæäûé âå÷åð.
every morning — êàæäîå
óòðî, êîòîðûå îáû÷íî ñòà-
âÿòñÿ â êîíöå ïðåäëîæå-
íèÿ
Глагол 85

Прошедшее неопределённое время


(the Past Simple (Indefinite) Tense)

Past Simple (Indefinite) â óòâåðäèòåëüíîé ôîðìå ÿâëÿåò-


ñÿ ïðîñòîé ôîðìîé è îáðàçóåòñÿ áåç âñïîìîãàòåëüíîãî ãëà-
ãîëà.

Îáðàçîâàíèå ïðîøåäøåãî íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî âðåìåíè


(Past Simple (Indefinite) Tense) ïðàâèëüíûõ ãëàãîëîâ

Óòâåðäèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà Past Simple (Indefinite) ïðàâèëüíûõ


ãëàãîëîâ îáðàçóåòñÿ ïðèáàâëåíèåì (âî âñåõ ëèöàõ) îêîí÷à-
íèÿ -ed ê èíôèíèòèâó ñìûñëîâîãî ãëàãîëà áåç ÷àñòèöû to.

×èñëî
Ëèöî
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå
Óòâåðäèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
1-å I played yesterday. We played yesterday.
2-å You played yesterday. You played yesterday.
He They played yesterday.
3-å She played yesterday.
It
Âîïðîñèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
1-å Did I play yesterday? Did we play yesterday?
2-å Did you play yesterday? Did you play yesterday?
he Did they play yesterday?
play
3-å Did she
yesterday?
it
Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
I did not (didn’t) play We did not (didn’t) play
1-å
yesterday. yesterday.
You did not (didn’t) play You did not (didn’t) play
2-å
yesterday. yesterday.
86 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

×èñëî
Ëèöî
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå
He They did not (didn’t)
did not (didn’t)
3-å She play yesterday.
play yesterday.
It

Îáðàçîâàíèå ïðîøåäøåãî íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî âðåìåíè


(Past Simple (Indefinite) Tense) íåïðàâèëüíûõ ãëàãîëîâ

Ôîðìó Past Simple (Indefinite) íåïðàâèëüíûõ ãëàãîëîâ


íóæíî çàïîìíèòü èëè ïîñìîòðåòü â òàáëèöå íåïðàâèëüíûõ
ãëàãîëîâ (còð. 214).

×èñëî
Ëèöî
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå
Óòâåðäèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
1-å I went home. We went home.
2-å You went home. You went home.
He They went home.
3-å She went home.
It
Âîïðîñèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
1-å Did I go home? Did we go home?
2-å Did you go home? Did you go home?
he Did they go home?
3-å Did she go home?
it
Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
I did not (didn’t) go We did not (didn’t)
1-å
home. go home.
You did not (didn’t) go You did not (didn’t)
2-å
home. go home.
Глагол 87

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

×èñëî
Ëèöî
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå
He
did not (didn’t) They did not (didn’t)
3-å She
go home. go home.
It

Óïîòðåáëåíèå ãëàãîëà to be
â ïðîøåäøåì íåîïðåäåë¸ííîì âðåìåíè
(Past Simple (Indefinite) Tense)

×èñëî
Ëèöî
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå
Óòâåðäèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
1-å I was at home. We were at home.
2-å You were at home. You were at home.
He They were at home.
3-å She was at home.
It
Âîïðîñèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
1-å Was I at home? Were we at home?
2-å Were you at home? Were you at home?
he Were they at home?
at
3-å Was she
home?
it
Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
I was not (wasn’t) at We were not (weren’t)
1-å
home. at home.
You were not (weren’t) You were not (weren’t)
2-å
at home. at home.
He was not They were not
3-å She (wasn’t) at (weren’t) at home.
It home.
88 Раздел 1. Части речи

Óïîòðåáëåíèå
ïðîøåäøåãî íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî âðåìåíè
(Past Simple (Indefinite) Tense)

Óïîòðåáëåíèå Ïðèìåðû

Äëÿ îïèñàíèÿ ïðîøåäøèõ ñî- Íå woke up, had dinner


áûòèé, äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ ðÿäà and left for work.
ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíûõ è ïîâòîðÿå- He spoke at the meeting
ìûõ â ïðîøëîì äåéñòâèé; ÷à- yesterday.
ñòî óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ ñî ñëîâà-
ìè yesterday — â÷åðà, last
summer — ïðîøëûì ëåòîì,
last winter — ïðîøëîé çèìîé,
last week — íà ïðîøëîé íå-
äåëå, last year — â ïðîøëîì
ãîäó, the other day — íà äíÿõ
è ò. ä.

Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ äåéñòâèÿ èëè She played the piano


ñâîéñòâà, êîòîðîå õàðàêòåðèçî- very well when she was
âàëî ïîäëåæàùåå â ïðîøëîì a small girl.

Êîíñòðóêöèÿ used to

Êîíñòðóêöèÿ used to + èíôèíèòèâ ñìûñëîâîãî ãëàãîëà


èñïîëüçóåòñÿ äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ ïîâòîðÿþùåãîñÿ äåéñòâèÿ
â ïðîøëîì, êîòîðîå óæå íå ïðîèñõîäèò â íàñòîÿùåì âðå-
ìåíè.

Îáðàçîâàíèå Ïðèìåðû
Óòâåðäèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
I Â ïðîøëîì ãîäó
We go to the ìû îáû÷íî õîäè-
You swimming ëè (èìåëè îáûê-
He used to pool on íîâåíèå õîäèòü/
She Sundays last áûâàëî, õîäèëè)
It year. â áàññåéí ïî âîñ-
They êðåñåíüÿì.
Глагол 89

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Îáðàçîâàíèå Ïðèìåðû
Âîïðîñèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
I Â ïðîøëîì ãîäó
we go to the âû îáû÷íî õîäè-
you swimming ëè (èìåëè îáûê-
use
Did he pool on íîâåíèå õîäèòü)
to
she Sundays last â áàññåéí ïî âîñ-
it year? êðåñåíüÿì?
they
Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
I Â ïðîøëîì ãîäó
We go to the ìû íå èìåëè
You swimming îáûêíîâåíèå õî-
didn’t use
He pool on äèòü â áàññåéí
to
She Sundays last ïî âîñêðåñåíüÿì.
It year.
They

Будущее неопределённое время


(the Future Simple (Indefinite) Tense)

Óòâåðäèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà áóäóùåãî íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî âðåìå-


íè îáðàçóåòñÿ ïðè ïîìîùè âñïîìîãàòåëüíûõ ãëàãîëîâ shall
èëè will è èíôèíèòèâà ñìûñëîâîãî ãëàãîëà. Â ñîâðåìåííîì
ÿçûêå âñïîìîãàòåëüíûé ãëàãîë will ìîæåò óïîòðåáëÿòüñÿ
è ñ ôîðìîé ïåðâîãî ëèöà åäèíñòâåííîãî è ìíîæåñòâåííî-
ãî ÷èñëà: I shall/will write a letter tomorrow. — ß íàïèøó
ïèñüìî çàâòðà.

Îáðàçîâàíèå áóäóùåãî íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî âðåìåíè


(Future Simple (Indefinite) Tense)

×èñëî
Ëèöî
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå
Óòâåðäèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
We shall (we’ll) go to
1-å I shall (I’ll) go to school.
school.
90 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

×èñëî
Ëèöî
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå
You will (you’ll) go to You will (we’ll) go to
2-å
school. school.
He will (’ll) go to They will (they’ll) go to
3-å She school. school.
It will (it’ll) play.
Âîïðîñèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
1-å Shall I go to school? Shall we go to school?
2-å Will you go to school? Will you go to school?
he go to Will they go to school?
3-å Will she school?
it play?
Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
I shall not (shan’t) go to We shall not (shan’t)
1-å
school. go to schoîl.
You will not (won’t) go You will not (won’t) go
2-å
to school. to school.
He will not (won’t) They will not (won’t)
3-å She go to school. go to school.
It will not (won’t) play.

Óïîòðåáëåíèå áóäóùåãî íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî âðåìåíè


Future Simple (Indefinite) Tense

Óïîòðåáëåíèå Ïðèìåðû

Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ îáû÷íîãî I’ll do my best to help him.


äåéñòâèÿ, ïîâòîðÿþùåãîñÿ ß ïîñòàðàëàñü ïîìî÷ü
îáû÷íîãî äåéñòâèÿ èëè ðÿäà åìó.
ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíûõ äåéñòâèé
â áóäóùåì.
Глагол 91

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Óïîòðåáëåíèå Ïðèìåðû

Future Simple (Indefinite) ÷à- We’ll go to the cinema


ñòî óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ ñ îáñòî- next week. — Íà ñëåäó-
ÿòåëüñòâàìè âðåìåíè þùåé íåäåëå ìû ïîéäåì
tomorrow — çàâòðà, next â êèíî.
week — íà ñëåäóþùåé íåäå-
ëå, next month — â ñëåäó-
þùåì ìåñÿöå, next year —
â ñëåäóþùåì ãîäó è äð.

 ïðèäàòî÷íîì ïðåäëîæå- She will go to see her


íèè âðåìåíè è óñëîâèÿ grandmother if she has
Future Simple (Indefinite) a day off. — Îíà íàâå-
íå óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ.  òàêèõ ñòèò áàáóøêó, åñëè ó íå¸
ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ äëÿ âûðà- áóäåò âûõîäíîé.
æåíèÿ áóäóùåãî äåéñòâèÿ When I come, they will sit
óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ ãëàãîëû at the table. — Êîãäà ÿ ïðè-
â Present Simple (Indefinite) äó, îíè áóäóò ñèäåòü çà
ñòîëîì.

Äðóãèå ñïîñîáû âûðàæåíèÿ


äåéñòâèé â áóäóùåì

Âðåìÿ èëè
Çíà÷åíèå Ïðèìåðû
îáîðîòû

Present Indefinite Áóäóùåå äåé- The academic year


ñòâèå, êîòîðîå begins in September. —
ïðîèçîéäåò Ó÷åáíûé ãîä íà÷èíà-
â áóäóùåì, åòñÿ â ñåíòÿáðå.
÷àñòî — ïî
ðàñïèñàíèþ

Present Continuous Çàðàíåå çàïëà- I’m seeing Jane


(ñ íàðå÷èåì, óêà- íèðîâàííîå tonight. — Ñåãîäíÿ âå-
çûâàþùåì íà áó- äåéñòâèå, êîòî- ÷åðîì ÿ âñòðå÷àþñü
äóùåå âðåìÿ: ðîå ñîâåðøèò- ñ Äæåéí.
tomorrow, soon, ñÿ â áëèæàé-
tonight, next week) øåì áóäóùåì
92 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Âðåìÿ èëè
Çíà÷åíèå Ïðèìåðû
îáîðîòû
Present Continuous Íàìåðåíèå ñî- I am going to learn
ãëàãîëà to go + èí- âåðøèòü äåé- Chinese next year. —
ôèíèòèâ ñìûñëî- ñòâèå èëè óâå- ß ñîáèðàþñü (íà-
âîãî ãëàãîëà ðåííîñòü â åãî ìåðåí) èçó÷àòü êè-
ñîâåðøåíèè òàéñêèé ÿçûê
â ñëåäóþùåì ãîäó.
Îáîðîò be to do Äîëæåíñòâîâà- All students are to
something íèå íà îñíîâå assemble in the hall
ïðåäâàðèòåëü- at 9:00. — Âñå ñòó-
íîé äîãîâîð¸í- äåíòû äîëæíû ñî-
íîñòè â áóäó- áðàòüñÿ â çàëå
ùåì âðåìåíè â 9:00.
Îáîðîòû be about Äåéñòâèå, êî- Mary is on the point
to do something; òîðîå ñîâåð- of resigning. — Ìýðè
be on the point of øèòñÿ â ñàìîì âîò-âîò óâîëèòñÿ.
doing something áëèæàéøåì The concert is about
áóäóùåì to start. — Êîíöåðò
âîò-âîò íà÷í¸òñÿ.
Îáîðîòû be due; Áóäóùåå äåé- The flight is due at
be due to do ñòâèå, êîòî- 6:20. — Ñàìîë¸ò âû-
something ðîå ïðîèçîéäåò ëåòàåò (âûëåòèò)
â áëèæàéøåì â 6:20.
áóäóùåì, ÷à- The play is due to start
ñòî — ïî ðàñ- in five minutes. —
ïèñàíèþ Ñïåêòàêëü íà÷èíàåò-
ñÿ (íà÷í¸òñÿ) ÷åðåç
5 ìèíóò.
Îáîðîò be likely Âåðîÿòíîå áó- She is likely (unlikely)
(unlikely) + èíôè- äóùåå äåéñò- to come. — Âåðîÿòíî,
íèòèâ âèå (âðÿä ëè) îíà ïðèä¸ò.

Длительные времена (Continuous Tenses)

Âðåìåíà ãðóïïû Continuous îáðàçóþòñÿ ïðè ïîìîùè âñïî-


ìîãàòåëüíîãî ãëàãîëà to be â ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåé âðåìåííîé
ôîðìå è ôîðìû ïðè÷àñòèÿ íàñòîÿùåãî âðåìåíè (Present
Participle) ñìûñëîâîãî ãëàãîëà.
Глагол 93

 Present Continuons íå óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ ãëàãîëû, âûðà-


æàþùèå ÷óâñòâà, âîñïðèÿòèÿ è óìñòâåííûå ñîñòîÿíèÿ,
òàê êàê íå ìîãóò âûðàæàòü äåéñòâèå èëè ñîñòîÿíèå êàê
ïðîöåññ, ñîâåðøàþùèéñÿ â îïðåäåë¸ííûé ìîìåíò: to see,
to know, to feel, to like, to want, to understand, to believe,
to belong, to forget, to hate, to hear, to like, to love, to need,
to prefer, to realize, to remember, to seem, to suppose.

Ñâîäíàÿ ñõåìà ïåðåâîäà âðåì¸í ãðóïïû Continuous

Äåéñòâèå ñîâïàäàåò
am ñ ìîìåíòîì ðå÷è:
Present is + Participle I We are playing …
are (now) — Ìû èãðàåì …
(ñåé÷àñ)

Äåéñòâèå ïðîèñõîäè-
ëî â îïðåäåë¸ííûé ìî-
CONTINUOUS

ìåíò â ïðîøëîì:
was We were playing …
Past + Participle I (at seven o’clock; when
were she came in) — Ìû
èãðàëè … (â 7 ÷àñîâ
âå÷åðà, êîãäà îíà
âîøëà)

Äåéñòâèå áóäåò ïðî-


èñõîäèòü â îïðåäåë¸í-
íûé ìîìåíò â áóäó-
ùåì:
shall
We shall be playing …
Future + be + Participle I
(at six o’clock; when
will
they return) — Ìû áó-
äåì èãðàòü … (â 6 ÷à-
ñîâ âå÷åðà, êîãäà îíè
âîçâðàòÿòñÿ)
Ñâîäíàÿ òàáëèöà âðåì¸í ãðóïïû Continuous 94

Âðåìÿ Óòâåðäèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà Âîïðîñèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà


I am Am I I am
Íå he He
She is Is she She is
not
It writing. it writing? It
writing.

Present
We we We
You are Are you You are
They they They
I I I
He he He
was Was was
She she She
It it It not
writing. writing?

Past
writing.
We we We
You were Were you You were
They they They
I I I
shall Shall shall
We we We
He be he be He not be
She writing. she writing? She writing.

Future
It will Will it It will
You you You
They they They
Раздел 1. Части речи
Глагол 95

Îáðàçîâàíèå íàñòîÿùåãî äëèòåëüíîãî âðåìåíè


(Present Continuous Tense)

×èñëî
Ëèöî
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå

Óòâåðäèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà

I am (I’m) sitting. We are (We’re)


1-å
sitting.

You are (You’re)


2-å You are (You’re) sitting.
sitting.

He They are (They’re)


3-å She is (’s) sitting. sitting.
It

Âîïðîñèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà

1-å Am I sitting? Are we sitting?

2-å Are you sitting? Are you sitting?

he Are they sitting?


3-å Is she sitting?
it

Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà

We are not (aren’t)


1-å I am (I’m) not sitting.
sitting.

You are not (aren’t) You are not (aren’t)


2-å
sitting. sitting.

Íå They are not (aren’t)


is not (isn’t)
3-å She sitting.
sitting.
It

 êðàòêèõ îòâåòàõ ïîñëå yes èëè nî óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ òîëüêî


âñïîìîãàòåëüíûé ãëàãîë: Is he sitting? — Yes, he is. (No, he
is not.) Are you reading? — Yes, I am. (No, I am not.)
96 Раздел 1. Части речи

Óïîòðåáëåíèå íàñòîÿùåãî äëèòåëüíîãî âðåìåíè


(Present Continuous Tense)

Óïîòðåáëåíèå Ïðèìåðû

Äëÿ îáîçíà÷åíèÿ äëèòåëüíîãî I am watching TV


äåéñòâèÿ, ïðîèñõîäÿùåãî â ìî- now. — Ñåé÷àñ
ìåíò ðå÷è ÿ ñìîòðþ òåëåâèçîð.

Äëÿ îáîçíà÷åíèÿ äëèòåëüíîãî Íå is writing a new


äåéñòâèÿ, ïðîèñõîäÿùåãî â íà- book. — Îí ïèøåò
ñòîÿùèé ïåðèîä âðåìåíè, íî íå íîâóþ êíèãó.
îáÿçàòåëüíî â ìîìåíò ðå÷è

Äëÿ îáîçíà÷åíèÿ çàðàíåå çàïëà- My parents are


íèðîâàííîãî äåéñòâèÿ, êîòîðîå going to the theatre
ñîâåðøèòñÿ â áëèæàéøåì áó- tomorrow. — Çàâòðà
äóùåì (÷àñòî ñ íàðå÷èåì, óêà- ìîè ðîäèòåëè èäóò
çûâàþùåì íà áóäóùåå âðåìÿ: â òåàòð.
tomorrow, soon, tonight, next
week)

Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ áóäóùåãî I shall be doing my


äëèòåëüíîãî äåéñòâèÿ (âìåñòî homework while you
Future Continuous) â ïðèäàòî÷- are cooking dinner. —
íûõ ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ âðåìåíè ß áóäó äåëàòü äîìàø-
è óñëîâèÿ íåå çàäàíèå, â òî âðå-
ìÿ êàê òû áóäåøü
ãîòîâèòü îáåä.

Äëÿ îáîçíà÷åíèÿ ÷àñòî ïîâòîðÿ- He is constantly


þùåãîñÿ äåéñòâèÿ, êîòîðîå âû- talking about his
çûâàåò ðàçäðàæåíèå èëè íåäî- car! — Îí ïîñòîÿí-
âîëüñòâî (ñ íàðå÷èÿìè always, íî ãîâîðèò î ñâîåé ìà-
constantly, continuously) øèíå!

Äëÿ îáîçíà÷åíèÿ èçìåíÿþùåé- It’s getting colder and


ñÿ ñèòóàöèè colder. — Ñòàíîâèò-
ñÿ âñ¸ õîëîäíåå è õî-
ëîäíåå.
Глагол 97

Îáðàçîâàíèå ïðîøåäøåãî äëèòåëüíîãî âðåìåíè


(Past Continuous Tense)

×èñëî
Ëèöî
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå
Óòâåðäèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
1-å I was sitting. We were sitting.
2-å You were sitting. You were sitting.
He They were sitting.
3-å She was sitting.
It
Âîïðîñèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
1-å Was I sitting? Were we sitting?
2-å Were you sitting? Were you sitting?
he Were they sitting?
3-å Was she sitting?
it
Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
We were not
1-å I was not (wasn’t) sitting.
(weren’t) sitting.
You were not (weren’t) You were not
2-å
sitting. (weren’t) sitting.
He They were not
was not (wasn’t)
3-å She (weren’t) sitting.
sitting.
It

Óïîòðåáëåíèå ïðîøåäøåãî äëèòåëüíîãî âðåìåíè


(Past Continuous Tense)

Óïîòðåáëåíèå Ïðèìåðû

Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ äëèòåëüíîãî äåéñòâèÿ, ïðîòåêàâøåãî


â îïðåäåë¸ííûé ìîìåíò â ïðîøëîì, êîòîðûé ìîæåò áûòü
âûðàæåí:
98 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Óïîòðåáëåíèå Ïðèìåðû

h îáñòîÿòåëüñòâîì âðåìåíè I was writing an essay


(at five o'clock, at noon, at at five o’clock. —
midnight, at that moment)  ïÿòü ÷àñîâ ÿ ïèñàë
ñî÷èíåíèå.

h äðóãèì äåéñòâèåì â ïðîøëîì, I was writing an essay


âûðàæåííûì ãëàãîëîì â Past when you came. —
Indefinite ß ïèñàë ñî÷èíåíèå,
êîãäà òû ïðèø¸ë.

Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ äëèòåëüíîãî I was cleaning the


äåéñòâèÿ, ïðîòåêàâøåãî â îïðå- flat from six till eight
äåë¸ííûé ïåðèîä âðåìåíè yesterday. — Â÷åðà
â ïðîøëîì (ñ îáñòîÿòåëü- ñ øåñòè äî âîñüìè
ñòâàìè âðåìåíè from six till ÿ óáèðàëà êâàðòèðó.
eight — ñ øåñòè äî âîñüìè, all She was sleeping
day long — âåñü äåíü, all day the whole evening
yesterday — â÷åðà âåñü äåíü, all yesterday. — Îíà ïðî-
the time — âñ¸ âðåìÿ, the whole ñïàëà â÷åðà âåñü âå÷åð.
evening — âåñü âå÷åð)

Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ îäíîâðåìåííûõ I was doing my


äåéñòâèé â ïðîøëîì homework while mother
was cooking dinner. —
ß äåëàëà äîìàøíåå çà-
äàíèå, â òî âðåìÿ êàê
ìàìà ãîòîâèëà îáåä.

Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ ÷àñòî ïîâòîðÿ- When Jane was at


þùåãîñÿ äåéñòâèÿ â ïðîøëîì, school she was always
êîòîðîå âûçûâàëî ðàçäðàæåíèå losing things. — Êîãäà
èëè íåäîâîëüñòâî (ñ íàðå÷èÿìè Äæåéí ó÷èëàñü â øêî-
always, constantly, continuously) ëå, îíà ïîñòîÿííî âñ¸
òåðÿëà.

Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ èçìåíÿâøåéñÿ The weather was getting


ñèòóàöèè â ïðîøëîì worse and worse. — Ïî-
ãîäà ñòàíîâèëàñü âñ¸
õóæå è õóæå.
Глагол 99

Îáðàçîâàíèå áóäóùåãî äëèòåëüíîãî âðåìåíè


(Future Continuous Tense)

×èñëî
Ëèöî
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå

Óòâåðäèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà

We shall (we’ll) be
1-å I shall (I’ll) be sitting.
sitting.

You will (you’ll) be You will (you’ll) be


2-å
sitting. sitting.

He
will (’ll) be They will (they’ll) be
3-å She
sitting. sitting.
It

Âîïðîñèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà

1-å Shall I be sitting? Shall we be sitting?

2-å Will you be sitting? Will you be sitting?

he be
she sitting?
3-å Will Will they be sitting?
it be raining?

Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà

I shall not (shan’t) be We shall not (shan’t)


1-å
sitting. be sitting.

You will not (won’t) be You will not (won’t)


2-å
sitting. be sitting.

He will not (won’t)


She be sitting.
They will not (won’t)
3-å
be sitting.
It will not (won’t) be
raining.
100 Раздел 1. Части речи

Óïîòðåáëåíèå áóäóùåãî äëèòåëüíîãî âðåìåíè


(Future Continuous Tense)

Óïîòðåáëåíèå Ïðèìåðû

Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ äëèòåëüíîãî äåéñòâèÿ, êîòîðîå íà÷íåòñÿ äî


îïðåäåë¸ííîãî ìîìåíòà â áóäóùåì è âñ¸ åù¸ áóäåò ïðîäîë-
æàòüñÿ â ýòîò ìîìåíò, êîòîðîå ìîæåò áûòü âûðàæåíî:

h îáñòîÿòåëüñòâîì âðåìåíè At eight o’clock I shall be


(at five o'clock, at noon, at having breakfast. —
midnight, at that moment)  âîñåìü ÷àñîâ ÿ áóäó çàâò-
ðàêàòü.

h äðóãèì äåéñòâèåì â áóäó- If you come at eight


ùåì, âûðàæåííûì ãëàãî- o’clock I shall be having
ëîì â Present Indefinite breakfast. — Åñëè òû ïðè-
â ïðèäàòî÷íîì ïðåäëîæå- ä¸øü â âîñåìü ÷àñîâ, ÿ áóäó
íèè âðåìåíè èëè óñëîâèÿ çàâòðàêàòü.

Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ äëèòåëüíîãî Don’t come between six and


äåéñòâèÿ, êîòîðîå áóäåò ñî- eight. I’ll be watching TV. —
âåðøàòüñÿ â îïðåäåë¸ííûé Íå ïðèõîäè ìåæäó 6 è 7 ÷à-
ïåðèîä âðåìåíè â áóäóùåì ñàìè. ß áóäó ñìîòðåòü òå-
(ñ îáñòîÿòåëüñòâàìè âðåìå- ëåâèçîð.
íè all day long — âåñü äåíü,
all day tomorrow/the whole
day tomorrow — çàâòðà âåñü
äåíü, all the time — âñ¸ âðå-
ìÿ, the whole evening — âåñü
âå÷åð, from six till eight/
between six and eight —
ñ ïÿòè äî øåñòè/ìåæäó øå-
ñòüþ è ñåìüþ ÷àñàìè)
Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ íàìåðåíèÿ He will be working tonight. —
ñîâåðøèòü äåéñòâèå â áóäó- Îí ñîáèðàåòñÿ ïîðàáîòàòü
ùåì èëè óâåðåííîñòè â åãî ñåãîäíÿ âå÷åðîì.
ñîâåðøåíèè, òàê êàê ýòî Don’t call him. I’ll be visiting
äåéñòâèå ÿâëÿåòñÿ îáûäåí- him tomorrow, so I’ll invite
íûì, ðóòèííûì èëè ñîñòî- him myself. — Íå çâîíè åìó.
èòñÿ ïî ïðåäâàðèòåëüíîé Çàâòðà ÿ ñîáèðàþñü íàâå-
äîãîâîðåííîñòè ñòèòü åãî, òàê ÷òî ÿ ñàì
ïðèãëàøó åãî.
Совершенные времена (Perfect Tenses)
Ñâîäíàÿ òàáëèöà âðåì¸í ãðóïïû Perfect Глагол

Óòâåðäèòåëüíàÿ Âîïðîñèòåëüíàÿ Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ


Âðåìÿ ôîðìà ôîðìà ôîðìà
have
I have Have I I (haven’t)
Íå he Íå has
She has Has she She not
worked worked? (hasn’t)
It it It worked

Present
We we We have
You have Have you You (haven't)
They they They
I I I
Íå hå Íå
She she She had not (hadn't)
It had worked Had it worked? It worked.

Past
We we We
You you You
They they They
shall
I shall Shall I I (shan't)
Íå hå Íå not
She have she have She have
It worked. it worked? It will worked.

Future
will will
We we We (won't)
You you You
They they They
101
102 Раздел 1. Части речи

Сводная схема перевода времён группы Perfect

Äåéñòâèå çàêîí÷èëîñü
have
äî ìîìåíòà ðå÷è:
Present + Participle II
I have seen the film. —
has
ß ïîñìîòðåë ôèëüì.

Äåéñòâèå çàêîí÷èëîñü
äî êàêîãî-ëèáî ìîìåí-
òà â ïðîøëîì:
We had finished our
PERFECT

work by seven o’clock


Past had + Participle II
(before he came). —
Ìû çàêîí÷èëè ðàáî-
òó ê 7 ÷àñàì (ïðåæäå,
÷åì îí ïðèø¸ë).

Äåéñòâèå çàêîí÷èòñÿ
äî êàêîãî-íèáóäü ìî-
ìåíòà â áóäóùåì:
shall They will have come
Future + have + Participle II by eleven o’clock. —
will Îíè ïðèäóò
ê 11 ÷àñàì.

Образование настоящего времени группы Perfect


(Present Perfect Tense)
Present Perfect îáðàçóåòñÿ ïðè ïîìîùè âñïîìîãàòåëüíîãî
ãëàãîëà to have â ôîðìå Present Simple (Indefinite) è ïðè-
÷àñòèÿ ïðîøåäøåãî âðåìåíè (Past Participle) ñìûñëîâî-
ãî ãëàãîëà.
Present Perfect âûðàæàåò äåéñòâèå, êîòîðîå óæå ïðîèçî-
øëî â òå÷åíèå ïðåäûäóùåãî ïåðèîäà è ñâÿçàíî ñ íàñòî-
ÿùèì ìîìåíòîì ðåçóëüòàòîì ýòîãî äåéñòâèÿ. Ýòó ñâÿçü
îáîçíà÷àþò òàêèå íàðå÷èÿ: seldom — ðåäêî, ever — êîã-
äà-ëèáî, never — íèêîãäà, just — òîëüêî ÷òî, already —
óæå, yet — åù¸ (â îòðèöàòåëüíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ), óæå
(â âîïðîñèòåëüíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ): I have just come
home. — ß òîëüêî ÷òî ïðèø¸ë äîìîé. He has gone to
London. — Îí óåõàë â Ëîíäîí (Îí íàõîäèòñÿ â Ëîíäîíå
ñåé÷àñ èëè íà ïóòè â Ëîíäîí). She hasn’t finished her work
yet. — Îíà åù¸ íå çàêîí÷èëà ñâîþ ðàáîòó.
Глагол 103

×èñëî
Ëèöî
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå

Óòâåðäèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà

I have (I’ve) opened the We have (We’ve)


1-å
window. opened the window.

You have (You’ve) You have (You’ve)


2-å
opened the window. opened the window.

He They have (They’ve)


has (’s) opened
3-å She opened the window.
the window.
It

Âîïðîñèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà

Have I opened the Have we opened the


1-å
window? window?

Have you opened the Have you opened the


2-å
window? window?

he opened Have they opened the


3-å Has she the window?
it window?

Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà

I have not (haven’t) We have not (haven’t)


1-å
opened the window. opened the window.

You have not (haven’t) You have not (haven’t)


2-å
opened the window. opened the window.

He has not (has’t) They have not


3-å She opened the (haven’t) opened the
It window. window.
104 Раздел 1. Части речи

Óïîòðåáëåíèå íàñòîÿùåãî âðåìåíè ãðóïïû Perfect


(Present Perfect Tense)

Óïîòðåáëåíèå Ïðèìåðû

Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ áóäóùåãî äåé- I’ll give you the book as


ñòâèÿ âìåñòî Future Perfect soon as I have read it. —
â ïðèäàòî÷íûõ ïðåäëîæåíè- ß äàì òåáå ýòó êíèãó,
ÿõ âðåìåíè è óñëîâèÿ êàê òîëüêî ïðî÷òó å¸.

Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ äåéñòâèÿ, êî- He has just left. —


òîðîå óæå çàâåðøèëîñü äî ìî- Îí òîëüêî ÷òî óø¸ë.
ìåíòà ðå÷è è ñâÿçàíî ñ íèì I have already seen this
ðåçóëüòàòîì ýòîãî äåéñòâèÿ, film. — ß óæå âèäåëà
ïðè÷åì âðåìÿ äåéñòâèÿ íå ýòîò ôèëüì.
óêàçûâàåòñÿ (óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ I have read many books
ñ íàðå÷èÿìè just, already, yet, of late. —  ïîñëåäíåå
lately, of late, recently) âðåìÿ ÿ ïðî÷ëà ìíîãî
êíèã.

Óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ ñ íàðå÷èÿ- I have always liked


ìè, îáîçíà÷àþùèìè ÷àñòî- you. — Òû ìíå âñåãäà
òó èëè íåîïðåäåë¸ííîñòü âðå- íðàâèëñÿ.
ìåíè äåéñòâèÿ: always, often, I have never been to
seldom, ever, never, hardly Rome. — ß íèêîãäà íå
ever — ïî÷òè íèêîãäà áûâàë â Ðèìå.

Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ äåéñòâèÿ, êî- She has called me twice


òîðîå óæå çàâåðøèëîñü, íî today. — Ñåãîäíÿ îíà
òîò ïåðèîä, â êîòîðûé îíî çâîíèëà ìíå äâà ðàçà.
ïðîèñõîäèëî, åù¸ ïðîäîëæà- I haven’t seen him this
åòñÿ (ñ îáñòîÿòåëüñòâàìè week. — Íà ýòîé íåäåëå
âðåìåíè today, this week, this ÿ åãî íå âèäåë.
month, this year, this century)

Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ äåéñòâèÿ, êî- They have known each


òîðîå íà÷àëîñü â ïðîøëîì, other for ten years. —
ïðîäîëæàëîñü äî íàñòîÿùå- Îíè çíàþò äðóã äðóãà
ãî âðåìåíè è ïðîäîëæàåòñÿ äåñÿòü ëåò.
ñåé÷àñ (÷àñòî ñ ãëàãîëàìè, I have lived here since
êîòîðûå íå óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ 2010. — ß æèâó çäåñü
â Continuous) ñ 2010 ãîäà.
Глагол 105

Îáðàçîâàíèå ïðîøåäøåãî âðåìåíè ãðóïïû Perfect


(Past Perfect Tense)

Past Perfect îáðàçóåòñÿ ïðè ïîìîùè âñïîìîãàòåëüíîãî ãëà-


ãîëà to have â Past Simple (Indefinite) è äååïðè÷àñòèÿ ïðî-
øåäøåãî âðåìåíè (Past Participle) ñìûñëîâîãî ãëàãîëà.

×èñëî
Ëèöî
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå

Óòâåðäèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà

I had (I’d) opened the We had (We’d)


1-å
window. opened the window.

You had (You’d) opened You had (You’d)


2-å
the window. opened the window.

He They had (They’d)


had (’d) opened
3-å She opened the window.
the window.
It

Âîïðîñèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà

Had I opened the Had we opened the


1-å
window? window?

Had you opened the Had you opened the


2-å
window? window?

he Had they opened the


opened the
3-å Had she window?
window?
it

Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà

I had not (hadn’t) opened We had not (hadn’t)


1-å
the window. opened the window.

You had not (hadn’t) You had not (hadn’t)


2-å
opened the window. opened the window.
106 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

×èñëî
Ëèöî
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå

He had not (hadn’t) They had not (hadn’t)


3-å She opened the opened the window.
It window.

Óïîòðåáëåíèå ïðîøåäøåãî âðåìåíè ãðóïïû Perfect


(Past Perfect Tense)

Óïîòðåáëåíèå Ïðèìåðû

Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ ïðîøåäøå- He had done the task by


ãî äåéñòâèÿ, êîòîðîå óæå eleven o’clock. — Ê 11 ÷à-
ñîâåðøèëîñü äî îïðåäåë¸í- ñàì îí âûïîëíèë ýòî çà-
íîãî ìîìåíòà â ïðîøëîì, äàíèå.
êîòîðûé ìîæåò áûòü óêàçàí By that time he had been
îáñòîÿòåëüñòâîì âðåìåíè: by there twice. — Ê òîìó
five o’clock — ê ïÿòè ÷àñàì, âðåìåíè îí äâàæäû áû-
by Sunday — ê âîñêðåñå- âàë òàì.
íüþ, by that time — ê òîìó
âðåìåíè, by the end of the
year — ê êîíöó ãîäà

Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ ïðîøåäøå- I had already finished


ãî äåéñòâèÿ, êîòîðîå óæå çà- reading the book when my
âåðøèëîñü äî äðóãîãî, áîëåå son came in. — ß óæå çà-
ïîçäíåãî ïðîøåäøåãî äåé- êîí÷èë ÷èòàòü êíèãó,
ñòâèÿ, âûðàæåííîãî ãëàãî- êîãäà âîø¸ë ìîé ñûí.
ëîì â Past Indefinite (Simple)

 ñëîæíîïîä÷èí¸ííûõ ïðåä- Íå had hardly entered


ëîæåíèÿõ ñ ñîþçàìè hardly the room, when he heard
… when, scarcely … when, no some noise. (Hardly had he
sooner … than — åäâà … êàê, entered the room, when he
íå óñïåë … êàê heard some noise.) — Åäâà
îí âîø¸ë â êîìíàòó, êàê
óñëûøàë êàêîé-òî øóì.
Глагол 107

Îáðàçîâàíèå áóäóùåãî âðåìåíè ãðóïïû Perfect


(Future Perfect Tense)

Future Perfect îáðàçóåòñÿ ïðè ïîìîùè âñïîìîãàòåëüíîãî


ãëàãîëà to have â ôîðìå áóäóùåãî âðåìåíè è ïðè÷àñòèÿ
ïðîøåäøåãî âðåìåíè (Past Participle) ñìûñëîâîãî ãëàãîëà.

×èñëî
Ëèöî
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå

Óòâåðäèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà

We shall (we’ll) have


1-å I shall (I’ll) have finished.
finished.

You will (you’ll) have You will (we’ll) have


2-å
finished. finished.

He They will (they’ll)


will (’ll) have
3-å She have finished.
finished.
It

Âîïðîñèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà

Shall we have
1-å Shall I have finished?
finished?

Will you have


2-å Will you have finished?
finished?

he Will they have


have
3-å Will she finished?
finished?
it

Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà

I shall not (shan’t) have We shall not (shan’t)


1-å
finished. go to schoîl.

You will not (won’t) have You will not (won’t)


2-å
finished. have finished.

He They will not (won’t)


will not (won’t)
3-å She have finished.
have finished.
It
108 Раздел 1. Части речи

Óïîòðåáëåíèå áóäóùåãî âðåìåíè ãðóïïû Perfect


(Future Perfect Tense)

Óïîòðåáëåíèå Ïðèìåðû

Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ áóäóùåãî äåéñòâèÿ, êîòîðîå çàâåðøèò-


ñÿ äî îïðåäåë¸ííîãî ìîìåíòà â áóäóùåì, êîòîðûé ìîæåò
áûòü âûðàæåí:

h îáñòîÿòåëüñòâîì âðåìåíè I shall have finished the


ñ ïðåäëîãîì by (by six article by the end of the
o’clock — ê øåñòè ÷àñàì, by week. — ß çàêîí÷ó ñòà-
Sunday — ê âîñêðåñåíüþ, òüþ ê êîíöó íåäåëè.
by the 1st of November — She’ll have already
ê 1-ìó íîÿáðÿ, by the end returned by October. —
of the year — ê êîíöó ãîäà, Ê îêòÿáðþ îíà óæå âåð-
by that time — ê òîìó âðå- í¸òñÿ.
ìåíè)

h äðóãèì áóäóùèì äåéñòâè- When we meet next time


åì, âûðàæåííûì Present I shall already have
Indefinite, â ïðèäàòî÷íûõ passed all my exams. —
ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ âðåìåíè Êîãäà ìû âñòðåòèìñÿ
è óñëîâèÿ â ñëåäóþùèé ðàç, ÿ óæå
ñäàì âñå ñâîè ýêçàìåíû.
Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ ïðåäïîëàãàå- You will have heard the
ìîãî äåéñòâèÿ, îòíîñÿùåãîñÿ news. — Âû, äîëæíî
ê ïðîøåäøåìó âðåìåíè áûòü, óæå ñëûøàëè ýòó
íîâîñòü.

Перфектные длительные времена (Perfect Continuous


Tenses)

Ïåðôåêòíûå äëèòåëüíûå âðåìåíà îáðàçóþòñÿ ïðè ïîìî-


ùè âñïîìîãàòåëüíîãî ãëàãîëà to be â ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåì
ïåðôåêòíîì âðåìåíè (íàñòîÿùåì, ïðîøåäøåì èëè áóäó-
ùåì) è ïðè÷àñòèÿ íàñòîÿùåãî âðåìåíè (Present Participle)
ñìûñëîâîãî ãëàãîëà. Ïåðôåêòíûå äëèòåëüíûå âðåìåíà íå
óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ ñ ãëàãîëàìè, âûðàæàþùèìè ÷óâñòâà, âîñ-
ïðèÿòèÿ è óìñòâåííûå ñîñòîÿíèÿ.
Глагол 109

Îáðàçîâàíèå íàñòîÿùåãî ïåðôåêòíîãî äëèòåëüíîãî âðåìåíè


(Present Perfect Continuous Tense)

Íàñòîÿùåå ïåðôåêòíîå äëèòåëüíîå âðåìÿ îáðàçóåòñÿ


ïðè ïîìîùè âñïîìîãàòåëüíîãî ãëàãîëà to be â ôîðìå
Present Perfect è ïðè÷àñòèÿ íàñòîÿùåãî âðåìåíè (Present
Participle) ñìûñëîâîãî ãëàãîëà.

×èñëî
Ëèöî
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå
Óòâåðäèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
We have (We’ve) been
1-å I have (I’ve) been asking.
asking.
You have (You’ve) been You have (You’ve)
2-å
asking. been asking.
He has (’s) been They have (They’ve)
3-å She asking. been asking.
It has (’s) been raining.
Âîïðîñèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
1-å Have I been asking? Have we been asking?

2-å Have you been asking? Have you been asking?


he been Have they been
she asking? asking?
3-å Has
it been
raining?
Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
I have not (haven’t) been We have not (haven’t)
1-å
asking. been asking.
You have not (haven’t) You have not (haven’t)
2-å
been asking. been asking.
He has not (hasn’t) They have not
She been asking. (haven’t) been asking.
3-å
It has not (hasn’t) been
raining.
110 Раздел 1. Части речи

Óïîòðåáëåíèå íàñòîÿùåãî ïåðôåêòíîãî


äëèòåëüíîãî âðåìåíè
(Present Perfect Continuous Tense)

Óïîòðåáëåíèå Ïðèìåðû

Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ äëèòåëüíî- I’ve been waiting for him


ãî äåéñòâèÿ, êîòîðîå íà÷à- for 20 minutes but he is
ëîñü â ïðîøëîì, ïðîäîëæàëîñü still busy. — ß æäó åãî
â ïðîøëîì è åù¸ ïðîäîëæà- óæå 20 ìèíóò, à îí âñ¸
åòñÿ ñåé÷àñ (ñ íàðå÷èÿìè âðå- åù¸ çàíÿò.
ìåíè for an hour — â òå÷åíèå He’s been learning the
÷àñà, for a month — â òå÷å- poem since I came home.
íèå ìåñÿöà, for a long time — Îí ó÷èò ñòèõ ñ òåõ
äàâíî, since yesterday — ñî ïîð, êàê ÿ ïðèø¸ë äî-
â÷åðàøíåãî äíÿ, since six ìîé.
o’clock — ñ øåñòè ÷àñîâ)
Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ äëèòåëüíî- I feel tired as I have
ãî äåéñòâèÿ, êîòîðîå íà÷àëîñü been gardening since
â ïðîøëîì è çàêîí÷èëîñü íå- early morning. — ß ÷óâ-
ïîñðåäñòâåííî ïåðåä ìîìåí- ñòâóþ ñåáÿ óñòàëûì,
òîì ðå÷è, ïðè÷åì ðåçóëüòàò òàê êàê ñ ðàííåãî
ýòîãî äåéñòâèÿ î÷åâèäåí óòðà ÿ ðàáîòàë â ñàäó.

Îáðàçîâàíèå ïðîøåäøåãî ïåðôåêòíîãî


äëèòåëüíîãî âðåìåíè
(Past Perfect Continuous Tense)

Ïðîøåäøåå ïåðôåêòíîå äëèòåëüíîå âðåìÿ (Past Perfect


Continuous Tense) îáðàçóåòñÿ ïðè ïîìîùè âñïîìîãàòåëü-
íîãî ãëàãîëà to be â ôîðìå Past Perfect è ïðè÷àñòèÿ ïðî-
øåäøåãî âðåìåíè (Past Participle) ñìûñëîâîãî ãëàãîëà.

×èñëî
Ëèöî
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå
Óòâåðäèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
1-å I had (I’d) been asking. We had been asking.
Глагол 111

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

×èñëî
Ëèöî
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå

You had (You’d) been You had been


2-å
asking. asking.

He had (’s) been They had been


She asking. asking.
3-å
had (’d) been
It
raining.

Âîïðîñèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà

1-å Had I been asking? Had we been asking?

Had you been


2-å Had you been asking?
asking?

he been Had they been


she asking? asking?
3-å Had
it been
raining?

Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà

I had not (hadn’t) been We had not (hadn’t)


1-å
asking. been asking.

You had not (hadn’t) been You had not (hadn’t)


2-å
asking. been asking.

He had not (hadn’t) They had not


She been asking. (hadn’t) been
3-å asking.
It had not (hadn’t) been
raining.
112 Раздел 1. Части речи

Óïîòðåáëåíèå ïðîøåäøåãî ïåðôåêòíîãî


äëèòåëüíîãî âðåìåíè (Past Perfect Continuous Tense)

Óïîòðåáëåíèå Ïðèìåðû
Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ äëèòåëüíîãî ïðî- I had been gardening
øåäøåãî äåéñòâèÿ, êîòîðîå íà- for two hours when
÷àëîñü ðàíåå äðóãîãî ïðîøåäøå- it started raining. —
ãî äåéñòâèÿ, âûðàæåííîãî Past ß ðàáîòàëà â ñàäó
Simple (Indefinite), è âñ¸ åù¸ ïðî- (óæå) äâà ÷àñà, êîãäà
äîëæàëîñü â ìîìåíò åãî ñîâåðøå- ïîø¸ë äîæäü.
íèÿ â ïðîøëîì (ñ íàðå÷èÿìè âðå-
ìåíè for an hour — â òå÷åíèå ÷àñà,
for a month — â òå÷åíèå ìåñÿ-
öà, for a long time — äàâíî, since
yesterday — ñî â÷åðàøíåãî äíÿ,
since six o’clock — ñ øåñòè ÷àñîâ)
Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ äëèòåëüíîãî ïðî- I felt tired when
øåäøåãî äåéñòâèÿ, êîòîðîå çà- I came home as I had
êîí÷èëîñü íåïîñðåäñòâåííî ïå- been gardening since
ðåä ìîìåíòîì íàñòóïëåíèÿ äðóãîãî early morning. — Êîã-
ïðîøåäøåãî äåéñòâèÿ äà ÿ ïðèø¸ë äîìîé,
òî ÷óâñòâîâàë ñåáÿ
óñòàëûì, òàê êàê
ñ ðàííåãî óòðà ÿ ðà-
áîòàë â ñàäó.

Îáðàçîâàíèå áóäóùåãî ïåðôåêòíîãî äëèòåëüíîãî âðåìåíè


(Future Perfect Continuous Tense)

Áóäóùåå ïåðôåêòíîå äëèòåëüíîå âðåìÿ (Future Perfect


Continuous Tense) îáðàçóåòñÿ ïðè ïîìîùè âñïîìîãàòåëü-
íîãî ãëàãîëà to be â ôîðìå Future Perfect è ïðè÷àñòèÿ íà-
ñòîÿùåãî âðåìåíè (Present Participle) ñìûñëîâîãî ãëàãîëà.

×èñëî
Ëèöî
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå
Óòâåðäèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
I shall (I’ll) have been We shall (We’ll)
1-å
asking. have been asking.
Глагол 113

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

×èñëî
Ëèöî
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå
You will (You’ll) have You will (You’ll)
2-å
been asking. have been asking.
He will (’ll) have been They will (They’ll)
She asking. have been asking.
3-å
will (’ll) have been
It
raining.
Âîïðîñèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
Shall we have been
1-å Shall I have been asking?
asking?
Will you have been Will you have been
2-å
asking? asking?
he have been Will they have been
she asking? asking?
3-å Will
have been
it
raining?
Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
I shall (shan’t) not have We shall (shan’t) not
1-å
been asking. have been asking.
You will not (won’t) have You will not (won’t)
2-å
been asking. have been asking.
He will not have been They will not (won’t)
She asking. have been asking.
3-å
will not (won’t)
It
have been raining.

Óïîòðåáëåíèå áóäóùåãî ïåðôåêòíîãî äëèòåëüíîãî âðåìåíè


(Future Perfect Continuous Tense)

Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ äëèòåëüíîãî áó- By next summer he will


äóùåãî äåéñòâèÿ, êîòîðîå íà÷- have been working here
í¸òñÿ ðàíåå äðóãîãî áóäóùåãî for two years. — Ê ñëå-
äåéñòâèÿ èëè ìîìåíòà è áóäåò äóþùåìó ëåòó îí áóäåò
åù¸ ïðîäîëæàòüñÿ â ýòîò ìîìåíò çäåñü ðàáîòàòü äâà ãîäà.
114 Раздел 1. Части речи

Залог (Voice)

Залог — ãðàììàòè÷åñêàÿ êàòåãîðèÿ ãëàãîëà, âûðàæàþ-


ùàÿ ðàçëè÷íûå îòíîøåíèÿ äåéñòâèÿ è åãî ó÷àñòíèêîâ.
Ôîðìû çàëîãà ïîêàçûâàþò, ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïîäëåæàùåå ëèöîì
(ïðåäìåòîì), ñîâåðøàþùèì äåéñòâèå, èëè ëèöîì (ïðåä-
ìåòîì), ïîäâåðãàþùèìñÿ äåéñòâèþ.

Òèïû çàëîãîâ

Äåéñòâèòåëüíûé çàëîã Ñòðàäàòåëüíûé çàëîã


(the Active Voice) (the Passive Voice)

Ïîäëåæàùåå îáîçíà- Ïîäëåæàùåå îáîçíà÷àåò ëèöî


÷àåò ëèöî èëè ïðåä- èëè ïðåäìåò, êîòîðûå ïîäâåðãà-
ìåò, êîòîðûå ñîâåð- þòñÿ äåéñòâèþ ñî ñòîðîíû äðó-
øàþò äåéñòâèå: ãîãî ëèöà èëè ïðåäìåòà:
Íå wrote the letter The letter was written by me
yesterday. yesterday.

Îáðàçîâàíèå âðåì¸í ñòðàäàòåëüíîãî çàëîãà


(The Passive Voice)

Åñëè ïîäëåæàùåå îáîçíà÷àåò ïðåäìåò èëè ëèöî, íà êîòî-


ðûå íàïðàâëåíî äåéñòâèå äðóãîãî ïðåäìåòà èëè ëèöà, òî
ãëàãîë-ñêàçóåìîå ñòàâèòñÿ â ôîðìå ñòðàäàòåëüíîãî çàëî-
ãà. Ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ñ ãëàãîëîì-ñêàçóåìûì â ôîðìå ñòðàäà-
òåëüíîãî çàëîãà óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ â àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå òîã-
äà, êîãäà ãëàâíûé èíòåðåñ äëÿ ñîáåñåäíèêîâ ïðåäñòàâëÿåò
ëèöî èëè ïðåäìåò, íà êîòîðûå íàïðàâëåíî äåéñòâèå, à íå
òîò, êòî âûïîëíÿåò äåéñòâèå. Âðåìåíà ñòðàäàòåëüíîãî çà-
ëîãà îáðàçóþòñÿ ïðè ïîìîùè âñïîìîãàòåëüíîãî ãëàãîëà to
be â ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåì âðåìåíè è ïðè÷àñòèÿ ïðîøåäøåãî
âðåìåíè (Past Participle) ñìûñëîâîãî ãëàãîëà.
Ñâîäíàÿ òàáëèöà âðåì¸í ñòðàäàòåëüíîãî çàëîãà
Глагол
Simple (Indefinite) Continuous Perfect
, DP , DP , KDYH
+H +H +H
6KH LV 6KH LV 6KH KDV
,W DVNHG ,W EHLQJDVNHG ,W EHHQDVNHG
Present
:H :H :H
<RX DUH <RX DUH <RX KDYH
7KH\ 7KH\ 7KH\
ɫɩɪɚɲɢɜɚɸɬɜɨɨɛɳɟɜɫɟɝɞɚ ɫɩɪɚɲɢɜɚɸɬɫɟɣɱɚɫ ɭɠɟɫɩɪɨɫɢɥɢ
, , ,
+H +H +H
ZDV ZDV
6KH 6KH 6KH
,W DVNHG ,W EHLQJDVNHG ,W KDGEHHQDVNHG
Past :H
:H :H
<RX ZHUH <RX ZHUH <RX
7KH\ 7KH\ 7KH\

ɫɩɪɨɫɢɥɢɤɨɝɞɚɬɨ ɫɩɪɚɲɢɜɚɥɢɜɬɨɬɦɨɦɟɧɬ ɞɨɬɨɝɨɦɨɦɟɧɬɚɭɠɟɫɩɪɨɫɢɥɢ


115
Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû 116

Simple (Indefinite) Continuous Perfect

I I
shall shall
We We

He be He
have been asked.
She asked. She
Future It will — It will
You You
They They

ñïðîñÿò êîãäà-íèáóäü ñïðîñÿò ê îïðåäåë¸ííîìó âðåìåíè


â áóäóùåì

I I
should should
We We

He be He
Future- have been asked.
She asked. She
in-the- —
It would It would
Past
You You
They They

ñïðîñÿò êîãäà-íèáóäü ñïðîñÿò ê îïðåäåë¸ííîìó âðåìåíè â áóäóùåì


Раздел 1. Части речи
Глагол 117

Согласование времён (Sequence of Tenses)

 àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå âðåìÿ ãëàãîëà â ïðèäàòî÷íîì ïðåä-


ëîæåíèè çàâèñèò îò âðåìåíè, â êîòîðîì óïîòðåáë¸í ãëà-
ãîë â ãëàâíîì ïðåäëîæåíèè. Ïðàâèëî ñîãëàñîâàíèÿ âðåì¸í
(Sequence of Tenses) ðàñïðîñòðàíÿåòñÿ â îñíîâíîì íà ïðè-
äàòî÷íûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ.

Ñîãëàñîâàíèå âðåì¸í (Sequence of Tenses). Âàðèàíò 1

Åñëè ñêàçóåìîå ãëàâíîãî ïðåäëîæåíèÿ âûðàæåíî ãëàãîëîì


â îäíîé èç ôîðì íàñòîÿùåãî èëè áóäóùåãî âðåìåíè, òî
ãëàãîë â ïðèäàòî÷íîì ïðåäëîæåíèè óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ â ëþ-
áîì âðåìåíè â çàâèñèìîñòè îò ñìûñëà ïðåäëîæåíèÿ.

Ãëàâíîå Ïðèäàòî÷íîå
Ïåðåâîä
ïðåäëîæåíèå ïðåäëîæåíèå
you are ß çíàþ, ÷òî òû
busy. çàíÿò.
you were ß çíàþ, ÷òî òû
I know that
busy. áûë çàíÿò.
you’ll be ß çíàþ, ÷òî òû
busy. áóäåøü çàíÿò.
she reads Îíà ñêàçàëà, ÷òî
books every ÷èòàåò êíèãè
day. êàæäûé äåíü.
she read Îíà ñêàçàëà, ÷òî
has
She that the book ïðî÷ëà êíèãó
said
yesterday. â÷åðà.
she’ll read Îíà ñêàçàëà, ÷òî
the book ïðî÷ò¸ò êíèãó
tomorrow. çàâòðà.
you do it. Îí ïîäóìàåò, ÷òî
âû ýòî äåëàåòå.
will you did it. Îí ïîäóìàåò, ÷òî
He that
think âû ýòî ñäåëàëè.
you’ll do it. Îí ïîäóìàåò, ÷òî
âû ýòî ñäåëàåòå.
118 Раздел 1. Части речи

Ñîãëàñîâàíèå âðåì¸í (Sequence of Tenses).


Âàðèàíò 2

Åñëè ñêàçóåìîå ãëàâíîãî ïðåäëîæåíèÿ âûðàæåíî ãëàãîëîì


â îäíîé èç ôîðì ïðîøåäøåãî âðåìåíè, òî ãëàãîë â ïðèäà-
òî÷íîì äîïîëíèòåëüíîì ïðåäëîæåíèè óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ òîëü-
êî â îäíîé èç ôîðì ïðîøåäøåãî âðåìåíè.

Ãëàâíîå Ïðèäàòî÷íîå
Ïåðåâîä
ïðåäëîæåíèå ïðåäëîæåíèå
you were busy. ß çíàë, ÷òî òû
çàíÿò.
you were reading ß çíàë, ÷òî òû
in the room. ÷èòàåøü â êîì-
íàòå.
you had been busy. ß çíàë, ÷òî òû
áûë çàíÿò.
had been reading ß çíàë, ÷òî òû
before we came. ÷èòàë äî òîãî,
I knew that
êàê ìû ïðèøëè.
you would be busy. ß çíàë, ÷òî òû
áóäåøü çàíÿò.
you would be ß çíàë, ÷òî òû
reading all day áóäåøü ÷èòàòü
long. âåñü äåíü.
you would have ß çíàë, ÷òî òû
read the book by ïðî÷ò¸øü êíèãó
the end of the week. ê êîíöó íåäåëè.

Çíà÷åíèå âðåìåííûõ ôîðì â ïðèäàòî÷íûõ


äîïîëíèòåëüíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ ïðè ñîãëàñîâàíèè
âðåì¸í

Âðåìåííàÿ ôîðìà Çíà÷åíèå Ïåðåâîä

Äåéñòâèå, îäíîâðå- Ãëàãîëîì


Past Indefinite ìåííîå ñ äåéñòâè- â ôîðìå íà-
åì ãëàãîëà-ñêà- ñòîÿùåãî âðå-
çóåìîãî ãëàâíîãî ìåíè
Past Continuous
ïðåäëîæåíèÿ
Глагол 119

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Âðåìåííàÿ ôîðìà Çíà÷åíèå Ïåðåâîä

Äåéñòâèå, ïðåä- Ãëàãîëîì


Past Perfect øåñòâóþùåå äåé- â ôîðìå ïðî-
ñòâèþ ãëàãîëà-ñêà- øåäøåãî âðå-
Past Perfect çóåìîãî ãëàâíîãî ìåíè
Continuous ïðåäëîæåíèÿ
Äåéñòâèå, ñëåäóþ- Ãëàãîëîì
ùåå çà äåéñòâèåì â ôîðìå áó-
Future-in-the-Past ãëàãîëà-ñêàçóåìî- äóùåãî âðå-
ãî ãëàâíîãî ïðåä- ìåíè
ëîæåíèÿ

Èñêëþ÷åíèÿ èç ïðàâèëà ñîãëàñîâàíèÿ âðåì¸í

Èñêëþ÷åíèÿ Ïðèìåðû

Êîãäà ãëàãîë â äîïîë- The teacher told the pupils


íèòåëüíîì ïðèäàòî÷íîì that water boils at 100 °C. —
ïðåäëîæåíèè âûðàæà- Ó÷èòåëü ñêàçàë ó÷åíèêàì,
åò îáùåèçâåñòíûé ôàêò, ÷òî âîäà êèïèò ïðè 100 °C.
îí ìîæåò áûòü âûðàæåí
â Present Indefinite
Ãëàãîë â îïðåäåëèòåëü- My friend told me about the
íûõ è ñðàâíèòåëüíûõ book which you are writing. —
ïðèäàòî÷íûõ ïðåäëîæå- Ìîé äðóã ãîâîðèë ìíå î êíè-
íèÿõ, à òàêæå â ïðèäà- ãå, êîòîðóþ âû ïèøåòå.
òî÷íûõ ïðè÷èíû ìîæåò The goods were loaded on
óïîòðåáëÿòüñÿ âî âðåìå- the ship which will arrive on
íàõ Present è Future Monday. — Òîâàðû áûëè ïî-
ãðóæåíû íà ïàðîõîä, êîòî-
ðûé ïðèáóäåò â ïîíåäåëüíèê.
Ãëàãîëû must, should I tell (told) him that he
è ought to óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ should see a doctor. — ß ãî-
â ïðèäàòî÷íîì ïðåäëîæå- âîðþ (ñêàçàë) åìó, ÷òî åìó
íèè íåçàâèñèìî îò òîãî, ñëåäóåò ñõîäèòü ê âðà÷ó.
â êàêîì âðåìåíè ñòîèò
ãëàãîë ãëàâíîãî ïðåäëî-
æåíèÿ
120 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Èñêëþ÷åíèÿ Ïðèìåðû

Ôîðìà Present Subjunctive It is (was) necessary that


óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ íåçàâèñè- she sign the documents at
ìî îò òîãî, â êàêîì âðåìå- once. — Íåîáõîäèìî (áûëî
íè ñòîèò ãëàãîë ãëàâíîãî íåîáõîäèìî), ÷òîáû îíà ñðà-
ïðåäëîæåíèÿ çó æå ïîäïèñàëà äîêóìåíòû.

Будущее в прошедшем (Future-in-the-Past)


Áóäóùåå âðåìÿ â ïðîøåäøåì (Future-in-the-Past) îáî-
çíà÷àåò äåéñòâèå, êîòîðîå ðàññìàòðèâàåòñÿ êàê áóäóùåå
ñ òî÷êè çðåíèÿ ïðîøëîãî. Future-in-the-Past óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ
â ïðèäàòî÷íûõ ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ, êîãäà ñêàçóåìîå ãëàâíîãî
ïðåäëîæåíèÿ âûðàæåíî ãëàãîëîì â ïðîøåäøåì âðåìåíè
(ñîãëàñíî ïðàâèëó ñîãëàñîâàíèÿ âðåì¸í).
Âñå ôîðìû Future-in-the-Past îáðàçóþòñÿ àíàëîãè÷íî ñî-
îòâåòñòâóþùèì ôîðìàì Future, îäíàêî âìåñòî âñïîìîãà-
òåëüíûõ ãëàãîëîâ shall è will óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ ñîîòâåòñòâåí-
íî should è would.

Îáðàçîâàíèå áóäóùåãî íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî âðåìåíè


â ïðîøåäøåì (Future Indefinite in the Past Tense)

×èñëî
Ëèöî
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå
Óòâåðäèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
I should (I’d) go to We should (we’d) go to
1-å
school. school.
You would (You’d) go to You would (You’d) go
2-å
school. to school.
He would (He’d) go to They would (You’d) go
school. to school.
3-å She would (She’d) go to
school.
It would rain.
Глагол 121

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

×èñëî
Ëèöî
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå
Âîïðîñèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
1-å Should I go to school? Should we go to school?
2-å Would you go to school? Would you go to school?
he go to Would they go to
3-å Would she school? school?
it rain?
Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
I should not (shouldn’t) We should not
1-å
go to school. (shouldn’t) go to school.
You would not You would not
2-å
(wouldn’t) go to school. (wouldn’t) go to school.
He would not They would not
She (wouldn’t) go to (wouldn’t) go to school.
3-å school.
It would not (wouldn’t)
rain.

Âèäîâðåìåííûå ôîðìû ãëàãîëà â Future-in-the-Past

Future-in-the-Past èìååò òå æå âèäîâðåìåííûå ôîð-


ìû ãëàãîëà, ÷òî è Future Tenses.

Áóäóùèå âðåìåíà Áóäóùèå âðåìåíà â ïðîøåäøåì


(Future Tenses) (Future-in-the-Past)

Future shall/will Future should/would


Indefinite work Indefinite- work
in-the-Past
Future shall/ Future should/would
Continuous will be Continuous- be working
working in-the-Past
122 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Áóäóùèå âðåìåíà Áóäóùèå âðåìåíà â ïðîøåäøåì


(Future Tenses) (Future-in-the-Past)

Future shall/ Future should/would


Perfect will have Perfect-in- have worked
worked the-Past
Future shall/will Future should/would
Perfect have been Perfect have been
Continuous working Continuous- working
in-the-Past

Óïîòðåáëåíèå Future-in-the-Past

Óïîòðåáëåíèå ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèõ ôîðì Future-in-the-Past


àíàëîãè÷íî óïîòðåáëåíèþ ïàðàëëåëüíûõ ôîðì áóäóùåãî
âðåìåíè (Future Tenses).

Áóäóùèå âðåìåíà
Áóäóùèå âðåìåíà
â ïðîøåäøåì
(Future Tenses)
(Future-in-the-Past)
Future She says she Future She said she
Indefinite will come. — Indefinite- would come. —
Îíà ãîâîðèò, in-the-Past Îíà ñêàçàëà,
÷òî ïðèä¸ò. ÷òî ïðèä¸ò.
Future She says she Future She said she
Continuous will be work- Continuous- would be work-
ing. — Îíà ãî- in-the-Past ing. — Îíà
âîðèò, ÷òî ñêàçàëà, ÷òî
áóäåò ðàáî- áóäåò ðàáî-
òàòü. òàòü.
Future She says she Future She said she
Perfect will have read Perfect-in- would have
the book by the-Past read the book
5:00. — Îíà by 5:00. —
ãîâîðèò, ÷òî Îíà ñêàçàëà,
ïðî÷ò¸ò êíè- ÷òî ïðî÷ò¸ò
ãó ê 5:00. êíèãó ê 5:00.
Глагол 123

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Áóäóùèå âðåìåíà
Áóäóùèå âðåìåíà
â ïðîøåäøåì
(Future Tenses)
(Future-in-the-Past)
Future She says she Future She said she
Perfect will have Perfect would have
Continuous been read- Continuous- been reading
ing the book in-the-Past the book for
for 2 hours by 2 hours by
5:00. — Îíà 5:00. — Îíà
ãîâîðèò, ÷òî ñêàçàëà, ÷òî
ê 5:00 áóäåò ê 5:00 áóäåò
÷èòàòü êíèãó ÷èòàòü êíè-
óæå 2 ÷àñà. ãó óæå 2 ÷àñà.

Áóäóùåå íåîïðåäåë¸ííîå âðåìÿ

Àíàëîãè÷íî ôîðìàì áóäóùåãî âðåìåíè (Future Tenses)


ôîðìû Future-in-the-Past íå óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ â ïðèäàòî÷-
íûõ ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ âðåìåíè è óñëîâèÿ. Âìåñòî íèõ óïî-
òðåáëÿþòñÿ ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèå ôîðìû ïðîøåäøåãî âðåìåíè.

Áóäóùåå íåîïðåäåë¸ííîå Áóäóùåå íåîïðåäåë¸ííîå


âðåìÿ (Future Indefinite âðåìÿ â ïðîøåäøåì
Tense) (Future Indefinite-in-the-Past)

She says she will come if She said she would come if
the weather is fine. — Îíà the weather was fine. — Îíà
ãîâîðèò, ÷òî ïðèä¸ò, åñëè ñêàçàëà, ÷òî ïðèä¸ò, åñëè
ïîãîäà áóäåò õîðîøåé. ïîãîäà áóäåò õîðîøåé.
124 Раздел 1. Части речи

Наклонениe (Mood)

Наклонение — ýòî ãðàììàòè÷åñêàÿ êàòåãîðèÿ ãëàãîëà, âû-


ðàæàþùàÿ òî, êàê ãîâîðÿùèé ðàññìàòðèâàåò äåéñòâèå ïî
îòíîøåíèþ ê äåéñòâèòåëüíîñòè. Â àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå åñòü
òðè íàêëîíåíèÿ: èçúÿâèòåëüíîå (the Indicative Mood), ñî-
ñëàãàòåëüíîå (the Subjunctive Mood) è ïîâåëèòåëüíîå (the
Imperative Mood).
Èçúÿâèòåëüíîå íàêëîíåíèå (the Indicative Mood) ïîêàçû-
âàåò, ÷òî ãîâîðÿùèé ðàññìàòðèâàåò äåéñòâèå êàê ðåàëü-
íûé ôàêò â íàñòîÿùåì, ïðîøåäøåì èëè áóäóùåì.
Ñîñëàãàòåëüíîå íàêëîíåíèå (the Subjunctive Mood) ïîêà-
çûâàåò, ÷òî ãîâîðÿùèé ðàññìàòðèâàåò äåéñòâèå íå êàê ðå-
àëüíûé ôàêò, à êàê ïðåäïîëàãàåìîå èëè æåëàòåëüíîå.
Ïîâåëèòåëüíîå íàêëîíåíèå (the Imperative Mood) âûðà-
æàåò ïîáóæäåíèå ê äåéñòâèþ, ò. å. ïðèêàçàíèå, ïðîñüáó,
ñîâåò è ò. ä.

Cîñëàãàòåëüíîå íàêëîíåíèå (the Subjunctive Mood)

Ñîñëàãàòåëüíîå íàêëîíåíèå âûðàæàåò ïðåäïîëàãàåìîå èëè


æåëàòåëüíîå äåéñòâèå. Åñòü äâå ôîðìû ñîñëàãàòåëüíîãî
íàêëîíåíèÿ: Present Subjunctive è Past Subjunctive.
Ãëàãîëû (èñêëþ÷åíèå — ãëàãîë to be) â ñîñëàãàòåëüíîì íà-
êëîíåíèè îòëè÷àþòñÿ îò èçúÿâèòåëüíîãî òîëüêî ôîðìîé
3-ãî ëèöà íàñòîÿùåãî âðåìåíè, íå èìåþùåé îêîí÷àíèÿ -s.
Ãëàãîë to be èìååò â íàñòîÿùåì âðåìåíè ôîðìó be äëÿ
âñåõ ëèö åäèíñòâåííîãî è ìíîæåñòâåííîãî ÷èñëà.  ïðî-
øåäøåì âðåìåíè ãëàãîë to be èìååò ôîðìó were äëÿ âñåõ
ëèö åäèíñòâåííîãî è ìíîæåñòâåííîãî ÷èñëà.

×èñëî
Ëèöî
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå
Ôîðìà Present Subjunctive
I be We be
1-å
I take We take
You be You be
2-å
You take You take
Глагол 125

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

×èñëî
Ëèöî
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå
He They be
3-å She be/take They take
It

Ôîðìà Past Subjunctive

1-å I were We were

2-å You were You were

He They were
3-å She were
It

Ôîðìû ñîñëàãàòåëüíîãî íàêëîíåíèÿ


â ñòðàäàòåëüíîì çàëîãå
(the Subjunctive Mood — the Passive Voice)

×èñëî
Ëèöî
Åäèíñòâåííîå Ìíîæåñòâåííîå
Ôîðìà Present Subjunctive

1-å I be sent We be sent

2-å You be sent You be sent

He They be sent
3-å She be sent
It

Ôîðìà Past Subjunctive

1-å I were sent We were sent

2-å You were sent You were sent

He They were sent


3-å She were sent
It
126 Раздел 1. Части речи

Óïîòðåáëåíèå ôîðìû Present Subjunctive

Óïîòðåáëåíèå Ïðèìåðû

 ïðèäàòî÷íûõ ïðåäëî- It is desirable that he be home


æåíèÿõ ïîäëåæàùèõ, at six o’clock. — Æåëàòåëüíî,
íà÷èíàþùèõñÿ ñ ñîþ- ÷òîáû îí áûë äîìà â øåñòü
çà that ïîñëå áåçëè÷- ÷àñîâ.
íûõ îáîðîòîâ òèïà it is It was necessary that he send the
necessary (íåîáõîäèìî), it document immediately. — Áûëî
is important (âàæíî), it is íåîáõîäèìî, ÷òîáû îí îòïðà-
desirable (æåëàòåëüíî) âèë äîêóìåíò íåìåäëåííî.

 äîïîëíèòåëüíûõ ïðè- The boss ordered that she do it


äàòî÷íûõ ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ herself. — Íà÷àëüíèê ïðèêà-
ïîñëå ãëàãîëîâ, âûðàæà- çàë, ÷òîáû îíà ñäåëàëà ýòî
þùèõ ïðèêàçàíèå, ïðåä- ñàìà.
ëîæåíèå, äîãîâîðåííîñòü: He insists that measures be
to order, to demand, to taken. — Îí íàñòàèâàåò, ÷òî-
suggest, to propose, to áû áûëè ïðèíÿòû ìåðû.
decide, to insist

 ïðèäàòî÷íûõ ïðåäëî- He closed the shutters lest


æåíèÿõ öåëè ïîñëå ñîþçà the window glass be broken by
lest — ÷òîáû íå hail. — Îí çàêðûë ñòàâíè,
÷òîáû ãðàä íå ðàçáèë ñòåêëà.

Óïîòðåáëåíèå ôîðìû Past Subjunctive

Óïîòðåáëåíèå Ïðèìåðû

 ïðèäàòî÷íûõ He speaks English as if he were an


ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ îá- Englishman. — Îí ãîâîðèò ïî-àí-
ðàçà äåéñòâèÿ ïîñëå ãëèéñêè êàê àíãëè÷àíèí (òàê,
ñîþçà as if — ñëîâíî ñëîâíî îí — àíãëè÷àíèí).

 ïðèäàòî÷íîé ÷àñòè If she were here, she would help


óñëîâíûõ ïðåäëîæå- me. — Åñëè áû îíà áûëà çäåñü,
íèé âòîðîãî òèïà îíà noìîãëà áû ìíå.
If I were you, I would call the
police. — Åñëè áû ÿ áûë íà âàøåì
ìåñòå, ÿ áû âûçâàë ïîëèöèþ.
Глагол 127

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Óïîòðåáëåíèå Ïðèìåðû

 äîïîëíèòåëüíûõ I wish she were with us! — Êàê


ïðèäàòî÷íûõ ïðåä- ÿ õîòåë áû, ÷òîáû îíà áûëà
ëîæåíèÿõ ïîñëå ãëà- ñ íàìè!
ãîëà to wish

Îáðàçîâàíèå ïîâåëèòåëüíîãî íàêëîíåíèÿ


(the Imperative Mood)

Ïîâåëèòåëüíîå íàêëîíåíèå âûðàæàåò ïîáóæäåíèå ê äåé-


ñòâèþ, ò. å. ïðîñüáó, ïðèêàç, ñîâåò, ïðèãëàøåíèå, çàïðåò
è ò. ä.

Ôîðìû ïîâåëèòåëüíîãî
Îáðàçîâàíèå Ïðèìåðû
íàêëîíåíèÿ

Óòâåðäèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà Èíôèíèòèâ Start


ïîâåëèòåëüíîãî íàêëîíå- áåç to up the
íèÿ äëÿ 2-ãî ëèöà åäèí- engine! —
ñòâåííîãî è ìíîæåñòâåí- Âêëþ÷èòå
íîãî ÷èñëà ñîâïàäàåò äâèãàòåëü!
ñ îñíîâîé èíôèíèòèâà
Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà do not Do not
ïîâåëèòåëüíîãî íàêëî- (don’t) + (don’t)
íåíèÿ îáðàçóåòñÿ ñ ïî- èíôèíèòèâ switch on
ìîùüþ âñïîìîãàòåëüíîãî áåç to the light! —
ãëàãîëà do, îòðèöàòåëüíîé He âêëþ-
÷àñòèöû not è îñíîâû ÷àéòå
èíôèíèòèâà èçìåíÿåìîãî ñâåò!
ãëàãîëà

Âûðàæåíèå ïîáóæäåíèÿ ê äåéñòâèþ

Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ ïîáóæäåíèÿ ê äåéñòâèþ, îáðàùåííîãî


ê 1-ìó è 3-ìó ëèöó, óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ ãëàãîë let, ëè÷íîå ìå-
ñòîèìåíèå â îáúåêòíîì ïàäåæå (èëè ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå â îá-
ùåì ïàäåæå) è èíôèíèòèâ áåç ÷àñòèöû to.
128 Раздел 1. Части речи

Óòâåðäèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
Let + (me, him, her, the boy, us, them) + èíôèíèòèâ áåç to
me Ïîçâîëüòå ìíå ïîèãðàòü.
him Ïóñòü îí ïîèãðàåò.
her Ïóñòü îíà ïîèãðàåò.
Let play.
the boy Ïóñòü ìàëü÷èê ïîèãðàåò.
us Ïîçâîëüòå íàì ïîèãðàòü.
them Ïóñòü îíè ïîèãðàþò.
Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
Do not (don’t) + let + (me, him, her, the boy, us, them) +
èíôèíèòèâ áåç to
me Íå ïîçâîëÿéòå ìíå èãðàòü.
him Ïóñòü îí íå èãðàåò.
Do not her Ïóñòü îíà íå èãðàåò.
(don’t) the boy play. Ïóñòü ìàëü÷èê íå èãðàåò.
let
Íå ïîçâîëÿéòå íàì
us
èãðàòü.
them Ïóñòü îíè íå èãðàþò.

Ñâîäíàÿ òàáëèöà îáðàçîâàíèÿ ïîâåëèòåëüíîãî íàêëîíåíèÿ

Îáðàçîâàíèå Ïðèìåðû
Óòâåðäèòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà äëÿ 2-ãî Sit still! — Ñèäèòå!
ëèöà åäèíñòâåííîãî è ìíîæå- Ñèäè ñìèðíî! Ñìèðíî!
ñòâåííîãî ÷èñëà ïîâåëèòåëüíîãî Stand up! — Âñòàíü-
íàêëîíåíèÿ ñîâïàäàåò ñ ôîðìîé òå! Âñòàíü!
èíôèíèòèâà áåç ÷àñòèöû to
Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà äëÿ 2-ãî Do not jump! — He
ëèöà åäèíñòâåííîãî è ìíîæå- ïðûãàé! He ïðûãàéòå!
ñòâåííîãî ÷èñëà ïîâåëèòåëüíîãî Do not be so rude! —
íàêëîíåíèÿ îáðàçóåòñÿ ñ ïîìî- He áóäü òàêèì ãðó-
ùüþ ãëàãîëà to do, ÷àñòèöû not áûì! He áóäüòå òàêè-
è èíôèíèòèâà îñíîâíîãî ãëàãî- ìè ãðóáûìè!
ëà áåç to
Глагол 129

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Îáðàçîâàíèå Ïðèìåðû
Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà ïîâåëè- Don’t let him play. —
òåëüíîãî íàêëîíåíèÿ äëÿ 1-ãî He ïîçâîëÿéòå åìó
è 3-ãî ëèöà åäèíñòâåííîãî è ìíî- èãðàòü. Don’t let them
æåñòâåííîãî ÷èñëà îáðàçóåòñÿ play. — Íå ïîçâîëÿé-
ñ ïîìîùüþ do not let (don’t let) òå èì èãðàòü.
Äëÿ îáðàçîâàíèÿ ôîðì ïîâåëè- Let us play. — Äàâàé
òåëüíîãî íàêëîíåíèÿ äëÿ 1-ãî (òå) èãðàòü. (Ïîèã-
è 3-ãî ëèöà åäèíñòâåííîãî ðàåì.) Let him play. —
è ìíîæåñòâåííîãî ÷èñëà óïî- Ïóñòü îí ïîèãðàåò.
òðåáëÿåòñÿ ãëàãîë let â ñî÷åòà- Let her play. — Ïóñòü
íèè ñ ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèì ëè÷- îíà ïîèãðàåò. Let
íûì ìåñòîèìåíèåì â îáúåêòíîì them play. — Ïóñòü
ïàäåæå èëè ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì îíè ïîèãðàþò. Let me
â îáùåì ïàäåæå è èíôèíèòè- introduce myself. —
âîì îñíîâíîãî ãëàãîëà áåç to Ïîçâîëüòå ìíå ïðåä-
ñòàâèòüñÿ.

Неличные формы глагола (The Verbals)

Íåëè÷íûå ôîðìû ãëàãîëà, ê êîòîðûì îòíîñÿòñÿ ïðè-


÷àñòèå (the Participle), èíôèíèòèâ (the Infinitive) è ãå-
ðóíäèé (the Gerund), âûðàæàþò äåéñòâèå áåç óêàçàíèÿ
ëèöà, ÷èñëà è íàêëîíåíèÿ. Îíè íå èìåþò ãëàãîëüíûõ
âðåìåííûõ ôîðì, à ëèøü óêàçûâàþò íà âðåìÿ, ñîîò-
íåñ¸ííîå ñ ìîìåíòîì äåéñòâèÿ, âûðàæåííîãî ãëàãî-
ëîì â ëè÷íîé ôîðìå. Íåëè÷íûå ôîðìû ãëàãîëà ìîãóò
âûïîëíÿòü ôóíêöèè âñåõ ÷ëåíîâ ïðåäëîæåíèÿ, êðîìå
ñêàçóåìîãî.

ÍÅËÈ÷ÍÛÅ ÔÎÐÌÛ ÃËÀÃÎËÀ

Ïðè÷àñòèå (The Participle)

Èíôèíèòèâ (The Infinitive)

Ãåðóíäèé (The Gerund)


130 Раздел 1. Части речи

Причастие (The Participle)

Причастие — ýòî íåëè÷íàÿ ôîðìà ãëàãîëà, êîòîðàÿ, íàðÿ-


äó ñî ñâîéñòâàìè ãëàãîëà, èìååò ñâîéñòâà èìåíè ïðèëàãà-
òåëüíîãî èëè íàðå÷èÿ.

Ôîðìû ïðè÷àñòèÿ ïåðåõîäíûõ ãëàãîëîâ

Äåéñòâèòåëüíûé Ñòðàäàòåëüíûé
Ïðè÷àñòèå
çàëîã (Active) çàëîã (Passive)

Present writing being written

Past — written

Perfect having written having been


written

Ôîðìû ïðè÷àñòèÿ íåïåðåõîäíûõ ãëàãîëîâ

Ïðè÷àñòèå Äåéñòâèòåëüíûé çàëîã (Active)

Present coming

Past come

Perfect having come

Îáðàçîâàíèå ôîðì ïðè÷àñòèÿ

Ïðè÷àñòèå Îáðàçîâàíèå Ïðèìåðû

Present îñíîâà ãëàãîëà + to ask — asking,


Participle Active -ing to swim —
(ïðè÷àñòèå íà- swimming,
ñòîÿùåãî âðåìå- to play —
íè äåéñòâèòåëü- playing,
íîãî çàëîãà) to live — living
Глагол 131

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ïðè÷àñòèå Îáðàçîâàíèå Ïðèìåðû

Past Participle Ñîâïàäàåò to ask — asked,


Active/Passive ñ ôîðìîé Past to order —
(ïðè÷àñòèå ïðî- Indefinite ïðà- ordered,
øåäøåãî âðå- âèëüíûõ è íåïðà- to give — given,
ìåíè äåéñòâè- âèëüíûõ ãëàãîëîâ to buy — bought
òåëüíîãî (ñîîòâåòñòâåííî)
è ñòðàäàòåëüíî-
ãî çàëîãîâ)

Perfect Âñïîìîãàòåëüíûé to write —


Participle Active ãëàãîë to have having written,
(ñîâåðøåííîå â ôîðìå Present to ask — having
ïðè÷àñòèå äåé- Participle + asked, to do —
ñòâèòåëüíîãî çà- ñìûñëîâîé ãëà- having done
ëîãà) ãîë â ôîðìå Past
Participle

Present Âñïîìîãàòåëü- to write — being


Participle íûé ãëàãîë to be written, to ask —
Passive (ïðè÷àñ- â ôîðìå Present being asked,
òèå íàñòîÿùåãî Participle + to give — being
âðåìåíè ñòðàäà- ñìûñëîâîé ãëà- given
òåëüíîãî çàëîãà) ãîë â ôîðìå Past
Participle

Perfect Âñïîìîãàòåëü- to write —


Participle íûé ãëàãîë to be having
Passive (ñîâåð- â ôîðìå Perfect been written,
øåííîå ïðè÷à- Participle + to ask — having
ñòèå ñòðàäàòåëü- ñìûñëîâîé ãëà- been asked, to
íîãî çàëîãà) ãîë â ôîðìå Past give — having
Participle been given

Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ÷àñòèöà not ñòàâèòñÿ ïåðåä ïðè÷àñòèåì:


not asking, not having asked.
132 Раздел 1. Части речи

Ïðàâîïèñàíèå îêîí÷àíèé ïðè÷àñòèÿ íàñòîÿùåãî âðåìåíè


äåéñòâèòåëüíîãî çàëîãà (Present Participle Active)

Ïðàâèëà Ïðèìåðû

Åñëè îñíîâà ãëàãîëà îêàí÷èâàåò- to make — making,


ñÿ íà íåìîå -å, òî ïåðåä îêîí÷àíèåì to give — giving,
-ing îíî îïóñêàåòñÿ to live — living
Åñëè îñíîâà ãëàãîëà îêàí÷èâàåòñÿ to sit — sitting,
íà ñîãëàñíóþ, êîòîðîé ïðåäøåñòâóåò to get — getting,
êðàòêèé óäàðíûé çâóê, òî êîíå÷íàÿ tî stop — stopping
ñîãëàñíàÿ ïåðåä -ing óäâàèâàåòñÿ
Åñëè îñíîâà ãëàãîëà îêàí÷èâàåòñÿ to travel —
íà ñîãëàñíóþ -l, òî -l óäâàèâàåòñÿ travelling,
to quarrel —
quarrelling

Åñëè îñíîâà ãëàãîëà îêàí÷èâàåòñÿ to lie — lying,


íà -ie, òî êîíå÷íîå -ie ìåíÿåòñÿ íà -y to die — dying

Åñëè îñíîâà äâóñëîæíîãî èëè ìíî- to refer —


ãîñëîæíîãî ãëàãîëà, â êîòîðîì óäà- referring,
ðåíèå ïàäàåò íà ïîñëåäíèé ñëîã, to permit —
îêàí÷èâàåòñÿ íà îäíó ñîãëàñíóþ permitting
ñ ïðåäøåñòâóþùèì êðàòêèì ãëàñ-
íûì çâóêîì, òî êîíå÷íàÿ ñîãëàñíàÿ
óäâàèâàåòñÿ

Çíà÷åíèå ïðè÷àñòèé

Ïðè÷àñòèÿ Çíà÷åíèÿ Ïðèìåðû

Present Äåéñòâèå, îäíî- Look at the girl standing


Participle âðåìåííîå at the window. — Ïîñìî-
Active ñ äåéñòâèåì, òðè íà äåâî÷êó, ñòîÿ-
(ïðè÷àñòèå âûðàæåííûì ùóþ ó îêíà. I looked at
íàñòîÿùå- ãëàãîëîì-ñêàçó- the girl standing at the
ãî âðåìåíè åìûì window. — ß ïîñìîòðåë
äåéñòâè- íà äåâî÷êó, ñòîÿâøóþ
òåëüíîãî ó îêíà.
çàëîãà)
Глагол 133

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ïðè÷àñòèÿ Çíà÷åíèÿ Ïðèìåðû

Past Äåéñòâèå, ñîâåð- Consumer durables


Participle øàþùååñÿ îáû÷- imported from Japan are
Passive íî, âîîáùå always high quality. —
(ïðè÷àñòèå Ïîòðåáèòåëüñêèå òîâà-
ïðîøåäøå- ðû äëèòåëüíîãî ïîëüçî-
ãî âðåìåíè âàíèÿ, èìïîðòèðóåìûå
ñòðàäàòåëü- èç ßïîíèè, âñåãäà õîðî-
íîãî çàëîãà) øåãî êà÷åñòâà.
Ðåçóëüòàò ïðî- A man in torn clothes
øåäøåãî äåé- was making his way
ñòâèÿ, êîòîðîìó towards the boat. —
ïîäâåðãëîñü ëè- Ê ëîäêå ø¸ë ìóæ÷èíà
öî èëè ïðåäìåò â ïîðâàííîé îäåæäå.
Perfect Äåéñòâèå, ïðåä- Having written the test
Participle øåñòâóþùåå the students left the
Active (ñî- äåéñòâèþ, âûðà- lecture room. — Íàïè-
âåðøåííîå æåííîìó ãëàãî- ñàâ êîíòðîëüíóþ ðàáî-
ïðè÷àñòèå ëîì-ñêàçóåìûì òó, ñòóäåíòû âûøëè
äåéñòâè- èç àóäèòîðèè.
òåëüíîãî
çàëîãà)
Present Äåéñòâèå, ñîâåð- The experiment now
Participle øàþùååñÿ â íà- being carried on in
Passive ñòîÿùèé ìîìåíò our laboratory will
(ïðè÷àñòèå (ìîìåíò ðå÷è) make a scientific
íàñòîÿùå- èëè â íàñòîÿ- breakthrough. — Ýêñïå-
ãî âðåìåíè ùèé ïåðèîä âðå- ðèìåíò, ïðîâîäèìûé
ñòðàäàòåëü- ìåíè â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ â íà-
íîãî çàëîãà) øåé ëàáîðàòîðèè, ñî-
âåðøèò ïðîðûâ â íàóêå.
Perfect Äåéñòâèå, ïðåä- Having been warned
Participle øåñòâóþùåå about the bandits, he
Passive (ñî- äåéñòâèþ, âûðà- left his valuables at
âåðøåííîå æåííîìó ãëàãî- home. — Òàê êàê åãî
ïðè÷àñòèå ëîì-ñêàçóåìûì ïðåäóïðåäèëè î áàíäè-
ñòðàäàòåëü- òàõ, îí îñòàâèë öåí-
íîãî çàëîãà) íûå âåùè äîìà.
134 Раздел 1. Части речи

Ôóíêöèè ïðè÷àñòèÿ â ïðåäëîæåíèè

Ôóíêöèè
Ïðè÷àñòèÿ Ïðèìåðû
â ïðåäëîæåíèè

Present îïðåäåëåíèå They looked at the sleeping


Participle puppy. — Îíè ïîñìîòðå-
Active ëè íà ñïÿùåãî ùåíêà.
(ïðè÷àñòèå I picked up the flower lying
íàñòîÿùå- on the floor. — ß ïîäíÿ-
ãî âðåìå- ëà öâåòîê, ëåæàâøèé íà
íè äåéñòâè- ïîëó.
òåëüíîãî
çàëîãà) îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî While crossing the road be
âðåìåíè careful. — Ïåðåõîäÿ äîðî-
ãó, áóäüòå âíèìàòåëüíû.

îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî Knowing Spanish well


ïðè÷èíû he translated the article
without difficulty. — Çíàÿ
õîðîøî èñïàíñêèé ÿçûê,
îí ëåãêî ïåðåâ¸ë ñòàòüþ.

îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî Íå sat in the armchair


îáðàçà äåé- reading a book. — Îí ñèäåë
ñòâèÿ â êðåñëå, ÷èòàÿ êíèãó.

Past îïðåäåëåíèå A broken plate was lying


Participle on the floor. — Ðàçáèòàÿ
Passive òàðåëêà ëåæàëà íà ïîëó.
(ïðè÷àñòèå The answer received from
ïðîøåäøå- the publisher surprised
ãî âðåìåíè us. — Îòâåò, ïîëó÷åííûé
ñòðàäàòåëü- îò èçäàòåëÿ, óäèâèë íàñ.
íîãî çàëî-
ãà) îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî When asked about
âðåìåíè the accident, he said
nothing. — Êîãäà åãî ñïðî-
ñèëè ïðî àâàðèþ, îí íè÷å-
ãî íå ñêàçàë.
Глагол 135

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ôóíêöèè
Ïðè÷àñòèÿ Ïðèìåðû
â ïðåäëîæåíèè

Past îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî Squeezed by ice the steamer


Participle ïðè÷èíû could not continue her
Passive way. — Òàê êàê ïàðîõîä
(ïðè÷àñòèå áûë ñæàò ëüäîì, îí íå ìîã
ïðîøåäøå- ïðîäîëæàòü ñâîé ïóòü.
ãî âðåìåíè
ñòðàäàòåëü- èìåííàÿ ÷àñòü My pen is broken. — Ìîÿ
íîãî çàëî- ñîñòàâíîãî ñêà- ðó÷êà ñëîìàíà.
ãà) çóåìîãî

Perfect îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî Having collected all


Participle âðåìåíè the material, he started
Active (ñî- writing the report. — Ñî-
âåðøåííîå áðàâ âåñü ìàòåðèàë, îí
ïðè÷àñòèå íà÷àë ïèñàòü îò÷¸ò.
äåéñòâè-
òåëüíîãî îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî Having lived in London for
çàëîãà) ïðè÷èíû many years he knew the
city very well. — Ïðîæèâ
â Ëîíäîíå ìíîãî ëåò, îí
çíàë ãîðîä î÷åíü õîðîøî.

Present îïðåäåëåíèå The building being built


Participle in our street is a new
Passive hospital. — Çäàíèå, ñòðî-
(ïðè÷àñòèå ÿùååñÿ íà íàøåé óëèöå,
íàñòîÿùå- íîâàÿ áîëüíèöà.
ãî âðåìåíè
ñòðàäàòåëü- îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî Being asked about
íîãî çàëî- âðåìåíè the accident, he said
ãà) nothing. — Êîãäà åãî ñïðî-
ñèëè ïðî àâàðèþ, îí íè÷å-
ãî íå ñêàçàë.

îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî Being prepared well,


ïðè÷èíû I passed the exam. — Òàê
êàê ÿ áûë õîðîøî ïîäãî-
òîâëåí, ÿ ñäàë ýêçàìåí.
136 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ôóíêöèè
Ïðè÷àñòèÿ Ïðèìåðû
â ïðåäëîæåíèè

Perfect îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî Having been washed and


Participle âðåìåíè dried the apples were
Passive (ñî- placed in a bowl. —
âåðøåííîå Ïîñëå òîãî êàê ÿáëîêè
ïðè÷àñòèå áûëè âûìûòû è âûñóøå-
ñòðàäàòåëü- íû, èõ ïîëîæèëè â ìèñêó.
íîãî çàëî-
îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî Having been sent to the
ãà)
ïðè÷èíû wrong address the letter
didn’t reach him. — Òàê
êàê ïèñüìî áûëî ïîñëàíî
ïî íåâåðíîìó àäðåñó, îíî
íå äîøëî äî íåãî.

Инфинитив (The Infinitive)

Инфинитив — ýòî íåëè÷íàÿ ôîðìà ãëàãîëà, êîòîðàÿ òîëüêî


íàçûâàåò äåéñòâèå, íå óêàçûâàÿ íè ëèöà, íè ÷èñëà. Èíôè-
íèòèâ îáû÷íî óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ ñ ÷àñòèöåé to.

Èíôèíèòèâ áåç ÷àñòèöû to

Ïðàâèëà Ïðèìåðû

Ïîñëå ìîäàëüíûõ ãëà- May I use your car? — ß ìîãó


ãîëîâ must, can (could), âîñïîëüçîâàòüñÿ òâîåé ìàøè-
may (might), need, will, íîé? You must do it alone. —
would, shall, should, Òû äîëæåí ñäåëàòü ýòî îäèí.
dare You should work harder. — Òû
äîëæåí ðàáîòàòü óñåðäíåå.
Ïîñëå ãëàãîëîâ to He made me do it. — Îí çàñòà-
make, to let, èíîãäà âèë ìåíÿ ýòî ñäåëàòü. I can’t
òàêæå ïîñëå to help let you go there. — ß íå ïîçâî-
ëþ òåáå ïîéòè òóäà. He helped
me (to) clean the flat. — Îí ïî-
ìîã ìíå óáðàòü â êâàðòèðå.
Глагол 137

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ïðàâèëà Ïðèìåðû

 îáîðîòå «îáúåêòíûé I saw her cross the street.


ïàäåæ ñ èíôèíèòèâîì» I heard him sing.
ïîñëå ãëàãîëîâ to see,
to watch, to hear, to feel

Ïîñëå âûðàæåíèé had I had better stay at home.


better, would rather, I would rather not tell him the
would sooner truth.

Ôîðìû èíôèíèòèâà è èõ ïåðåâîä

Ôîðìû Active Passive

Indefinite to help to be helped


I am glad to help I am glad to be
her.— ß ðàä åé ïî- helped. — ß ðàä,
ìî÷ü. ÷òî ìíå ïîìîãàþò.

Continuous to be helping
I am glad to be
helping him. — —
ß ðàä, ÷òî ïîìîãàþ
åìó ñåé÷àñ.

Perfect to have helped to have been helped


I am glad to have I am glad to have
helped them. — been helped. —
ß ðàä, ÷òî ïîìîã ß ðàä, ÷òî ìíå ïî-
èì. ìîãëè.

Perfect to have been helping


Continuous I am glad to have
been helping you. —
ß ðàä, ÷òî ïîìîãàë —
(ïîìîãàþ) âàì (íà
ïðîòÿæåíèè êàêî-
ãî-òî âðåìåíè).
138 Раздел 1. Части речи

Çíà÷åíèå ôîðì èíôèíèòèâà

Ôîðìà
Çíà÷åíèÿ Ïðèìåð
èíôèíèòèâà

Indefinite Äåéñòâèå, îäíîâðåìåí- I am glad to help


Infinitive íîå ñ äåéñòâèåì ãëàãî- you. — ß ðàä
ëà-ñêàçóåìîãî òåáå ïîìî÷ü.

Continuous Äëèòåëüíîå äåéñòâèå, I am glad to be


Infinitive îäíîâðåìåííîå ñ äåé- helping you. —
ñòâèåì ãëàãîëà-ñêàçó- ß ðàä, ÷òî ïîìî-
åìîãî ãàþ òåáå.

Perfect Äåéñòâèå, ïðåäøåñòâó- I am glad to have


Infinitive þùåå äåéñòâèþ ãëàãî- helped you. —
ëà-ñêàçóåìîãî ß ðàä, ÷òî ïîìîã
òåáå.

Perfect Äëèòåëüíîå äåéñòâèå, I am glad to


Continuous ñîâåðøàâøååñÿ â òå÷å- have been helping
Infinitive íèå âðåìåíè, ïðåäøå- you. — ß ðàä,
ñòâîâàâøåãî äåéñòâèþ ÷òî ïîìîãàë
ãëàãîëà-ñêàçóåìîãî òåáå.

Ôóíêöèè èíôèíèòèâà â ïðåäëîæåíèè è åãî ïåðåâîä

Ôóíêöèè
â ïðåäëî- Ïåðåâîä Ïðèìåðû
æåíèè

Ïîäëåæà- Èíôèíèòè- Òî test this equipment is


ùåå âîì, îòãëà- his task. — Èñïûòûâàòü
ãîëüíûì ýòî îáîðóäîâàíèå — åãî
ñóùåñòâèòåëü- çàäà÷à. To accomplish
íûì this work requires great
skill. — Âûïîëíåíèå ýòîé
ðàáîòû òðåáóåò áîëüøî-
ãî óìåíèÿ.
Глагол 139

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ôóíêöèè
â ïðåäëî- Ïåðåâîä Ïðèìåðû
æåíèè

×àñòü ñî- Èíôèíèòè- His task is to test this


ñòàâíîãî âîì, îòãëà- equipment. — Åãî çàäà-
èìåííîãî ãîëüíûì ÷à — èñïûòûâàòü ýòî
ñêàçóåìîãî ñóùåñòâèòåëü- îáîðóäîâàíèå. The next
íûì stage will be to publish the
results of the research. —
Ñëåäóþùèì øàãîì áóäåò
ïóáëèêàöèÿ ðåçóëüòàòîâ
èññëåäîâàíèÿ.

×àñòü ñî- Èíôèíèòè- She began to translate the


ñòàâíîãî âîì, ëè÷íîé article. — Îíà íà÷àëà ïå-
ãëàãîëüíî- ôîðìîé ãëà- ðåâîäèòü ñòàòüþ.
ãî ñêàçóå- ãîëà-ñêàçóå-
ìîãî ìîãî

Äîïîëíå- Èíôèíèòè- This engineer wants to


íèå âîì, ëè÷íîé test this equipment in
ôîðìîé ãëà- your laboratory. — Ýòîò
ãîëà-ñêàçóå- èíæåíåð õî÷åò èñïû-
ìîãî òàòü ýòî îáîðóäîâàíèå
â âàøåé ëàáîðàòîðèè.
The negotiators failed to
come to an agreement. —
Ó÷àñòíèêè ïåðåãîâîðîâ
íå ïðèøëè ê ñîãëàøåíèþ.

Îïðåäåëå- Îïðåäåëèòåëü- The equipment to be tested


íèå íûì ïðèäà- is in your laboratory. —
òî÷íûì ïðåä- Îáîðóäîâàíèå, êîòîðîå
ëîæåíèåì, äîëæíî áûòü èñïûòà-
îòãëàãîëüíûì íî (äëÿ èñïûòàíèÿ), íà-
ñóùåñòâèòåëü- õîäèòñÿ â âàøåé ëàáîðà-
íûì, ëè÷íîé òîðèè. Popov was the first
ôîðìîé ãëàãî- to invent the radio. — Ïî-
ëà-ñêàçóåìîãî ïîâ ïåðâûì èçîáðåë ðà-
äèî.
140 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ôóíêöèè
â ïðåäëî- Ïåðåâîä Ïðèìåðû
æåíèè
Îáñòîÿòåëü- Èíôèíèòèâîì, The engineer came to
ñòâî îòãëàãîëüíûì the laboratory to test the
ñóùåñòâèòåëü- equipment. — Èíæåíåð
íûì, ëè÷íîé ïðèø¸ë â ëàáîðàòîðèþ
ôîðìîé ãëàãî- äëÿ òîãî, ÷òîáû èñïû-
ëà-ñêàçóåìîãî òàòü ýòî îáîðóäîâàíèå
(äëÿ èñïûòàíèÿ ýòîãî
îáîðóäîâàíèÿ). He reached
the island to discover he
had left his fishing rods. —
Êîãäà îí äîáðàëñÿ äî
îñòðîâà, òî îáíàðóæèë,
÷òî çàáûë óäî÷êè.
Ââî- Óñòîé÷èâûì To be sure — íåñîìíåí-
äíûé ÷ëåí âûðàæåíèåì íî; to sum up — â çàêëþ-
ïðåäëîæå- ÷åíèå; to put in another
íèÿ way — èíà÷å ãîâîðÿ; that
is to say — òî åñòü; so to
speak — òàê ñêàçàòü

Cложное дополнение (Complex Object)

Ïåðâàÿ ÷àñòü ýòîãî îáîðîòà — ëè÷íîå ìåñòîèìåíèå â îáúåê-


òíîì ïàäåæå èëè èìÿ ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå (íåîïðåäåë¸ííîå
ìåñòîèìåíèå) â îáùåì ïàäåæå. Âòîðàÿ ÷àñòü — èíôèíè-
òèâ.
Èíôèíèòèâ îáîçíà÷àåò äåéñòâèå, ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå èëè
ìåñòîèìåíèå — ñóáúåêò ýòîãî äåéñòâèÿ.
Îáîðîò óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ ïîñëå îïðåäåë¸ííûõ ãëàãîëîâ.

1 2 3 4

Ïîäëå- Ñêàçó- Ñëîæíîå äîïîëíåíèå Âòîðîñòåïåí-


æàùåå åìîå íûå ÷ëåíû
ïðåäëîæåíèÿ
Глагол 141

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

1 2 3 4

We know him/John to study economics.

Ìû çíàåì ÷òî îí/Äæîí èçó÷àåò ýêîíîìèêó.

Óïîòðåáëåíèå êîíñòðóêöèè Complex Object


ïîñëå ãëàãîëîâ

Ãëàãîëû, âûðàæàþùèå æåëàíèÿ è ýìîöèè:

to want — õîòåòü He wanted the doctor to


to wish — æåëàòü examine his son. — Îí õî-
to desire — æåëàòü òåë, ÷òîáû äîêòîð îñìî-
should (would) like — õî- òðåë åãî ñûíà. Íå wishes
òåë áû the work to be done in
to like — ëþáèòü, íðàâèòüñÿ time. — Îí õî÷åò, ÷òîáû
to hate — íåíàâèäåòü ðàáîòà áûëà ñäåëàíà âî-
âðåìÿ.

Ãëàãîëû, âûðàæàþùèå ïðåäïîëîæåíèå:

to expect — îæèäàòü They expect the steamer


to think — äóìàòü to leave tomorrow. — Îíè
to believe — ïîëàãàòü, ñ÷è- îæèäàþò, ÷òî ïàðîõîä
òàòü îòîéäåò çàâòðà.
to suppose — ïîëàãàòü We consider him to be
to consider — ñ÷èòàòü a clever man. — Ìû ñ÷è-
to find — íàõîäèòü, ïðèçíà- òàåì, ÷òî îí óìíûé ÷å-
âàòü ëîâåê. I know them to be
to know — çíàòü right. — ß çíàþ, ÷òî îíè
to declare — çàÿâëÿòü ïðàâû.

Ãëàãîëû, âûðàæàþùèå ïðèêàçàíèå, ïðîñüáó, ðàçðåøåíèå:

to order — ïðèêàçûâàòü What made him take this


to command — ïðèêàçûâàòü step? — ×òî çàñòàâèëî
to ask — npoñèòü åãî ñäåëàòü ýòîò øàã?
to allow — ðàçðåøàòü, ïî- The manager ordered the
çâîëÿòü goods to be unpacked. —
to make1 — çàñòàâëÿòü Ìåíåäæåð ïðèêàçàë, ÷òî-
to let* — ðàçðåøàòü áû òîâàðû ðàñïàêîâàëè.
142 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ãëàãîëû ÷óâñòâåííîãî âîñïðèÿòèÿ1:

to see — âèäåòü We saw the teacher enter


to watch — íàáëþäàòü the classroom. — Ìû âè-
to observe — íàáëþäàòü äåëè, êàê ó÷èòåëü âîø¸ë
to notice — çàìå÷àòü â êëàññ. Have you heard
to hear — ñëûøàòü him play the piano? —
to feel — ÷óâñòâîâàòü Ñëûøàëè ëè âû, êàê îí
èãðàåò íà ðîÿëå?

1
Ïîñëå ýòèõ ãëàãîëîâ èíôèíèòèâ óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ áåç ÷à-
ñòèöû to.

Сложное подлежащее (Complex Subject)

Íåêîòîðûå ãëàãîëû è ïðèëàãàòåëüíûå â àíãëèéñêîì ÿçû-


êå ìîãóò óïîòðåáëÿòüñÿ â êîíñòðóêöèè ñî ñëîæíûì ïîäëå-
æàùèì.
Ñëîæíîå ïîäëåæàùåå — ýòî îáîðîò, ñîñòîÿùèé èç äâóõ ÷àñ-
òåé. Ïåðâàÿ ÷àñòü — ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå èëè ìåñòîèìåíèå â îá-
ùåì ïàäåæå. Âòîðàÿ ÷àñòü — ñëîæíîå ñêàçóåìîå, ñîñòîÿùåå
èç ãëàãîëà â ëè÷íîé ôîðìå è èíôèíèòèâà (Infinitive). Ïåð-
âàÿ ÷àñòü ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïîäëåæàùèì îáîðîòà, à âòîðàÿ ÷àñòü —
åãî ñêàçóåìûì:
He is said to resemble me. — Ãîâîðÿò, îí ïîõîæ íà ìåíÿ.
She was the first to come. — Îíà ïðèøëà ïåðâîé.

1 2 3 4

Ïîäëåæà- Ñêàçóåìîå Èíôèíèòèâ Âòîðîñòåïåííûå


ùåå ÷ëåíû ïðåäëîæåíèÿ

Íå/John is known to study economics.


Глагол 143

Ñòðóêòóðà è ïåðåâîä êîíñòðóêöèè Complex Subject

1 2 2à 3
Ïîäëåæàùåå Ñêàçóåìîå Èíôèíèòèâ Âòîðîñòåïåí-
íûå ÷ëåíû
ïðåäëîæåíèÿ

2 1 2à 3
She is said to get married.

1 2 2à 3
Ãîâîðÿò, ÷òî îíà âûõîäèò çàìóæ.

Êîíñòðóêöèÿ ïåðåâîäèòñÿ ïðèäàòî÷íûì ïðåäëîæåíè-


åì ñ ñîþçîì ÷òî (ðåæå ÷òîá), ïðè ýòîì ïîäëåæàùèì
ïðèäàòî÷íîãî ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ïðè ïåðåâîäå ñòàíîâèòñÿ
ïîäëåæàùåå âñåãî ïðåäëîæåíèÿ, à ñêàçóåìîå ñîâïàäàåò
ñ èíôèíèòèâîì ýòîãî îáîðîòà.

Óïîòðåáëåíèå êîíñòðóêöèè Complex Subject


ñ ãëàãîëàìè

 ïàññèâíîé ôîðìå
to say is said, was said They were believed
to have left Omsk. —
to know is known, was known
Ñ÷èòàëîñü, ÷òî îíè
to report is reported, was óæå óåõàëè èç Îìñêà.
reported
to suppose is supposed, was
supposed
to expect is expected, was
expected
to consider is considered, was
considered
to think is thought, was
thought
144 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû
to believe is believed, was They were believed
believed to have left Omsk. —
Ñ÷èòàëîñü, ÷òî îíè
to assume is assumed, was
óæå óåõàëè èç Îìñêà.
assumed
to find is found, was found
 àêòèâíîé ôîðìå
to seem seems, seemed She appears to be
a very good specialist
to appear appears, appeared
in this sphere. — Îêà-
to prove proves, proved çàëîñü, ÷òî îíà î÷åíü
to happen happens, happened õîðîøèé ñïåöèàëèñò
â ýòîé îòðàñëè.
to be + ïðèëàãàòåëüíîå + èíôèíèòèâ
to be likely is likely, was likely They are likely to
arrive tomorrow. —
to be is unlikely, was
Îíè, íàâåðíîå, ïðèå-
unlikely unlikely
äóò çàâòðà.
to be sure is sure, was sure
to be is certain, wàs
certain certain

Герундий (The Gerund)

Герундий — íåëè÷íàÿ ôîðìà ãëàãîëà, âûðàæàþùàÿ äåé-


ñòâèå è îáëàäàþùàÿ ñâîéñòâàìè êàê ãëàãîëà, òàê è èìåíè
ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîãî. Âñå ôîðìû ãåðóíäèÿ ñîâïàäàþò ñ ôîð-
ìàìè ïðè÷àñòèÿ.

Çíà÷åíèÿ ôîðì ãåðóíäèÿ

Ôîðìû
Çíà÷åíèÿ Ïðèìåð
ãåðóíäèÿ
Indefinite äåéñòâèå, îäíîâðå- I am surprised at
ìåííîå ñ äåéñòâè- hearing this. — Ìíå
åì ãëàãîëà â ëè÷íîé óäèâèòåëüíî ñëû-
ôîðìå øàòü ýòî.
Глагол 145

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ôîðìû
Çíà÷åíèÿ Ïðèìåð
ãåðóíäèÿ
Indefinite äåéñòâèå, îòíîñÿùå- We intend selling the
åñÿ ê áóäóùåìó âðå- house in May. — Ìû
ìåíè íàìåðåíû ïðîäàòü
äîì â ìàå.
äåéñòâèå áåçîòíîñè- Reading provides you
òåëüíî êî âðåìåíè with knowledge. —
åãî ñîâåðøåíèÿ ×òåíèå äàåò çíàíèÿ.
Perfect äåéñòâèå, ïðåäøå- He mentioned having
ñòâóþùåå äåéñòâèþ seen him once. — Îí
ãëàãîëà â ëè÷íîé óïîìÿíóë, ÷òî âèäåë
ôîðìå åãî îäíàæäû.

Ôîðìû âðåìåíè è çàëîãà ãåðóíäèÿ

Active Passive

Indefinite asking being asked


He likes asking Íå likes being asked
questions. — Îí ëþ- questions. — Åìó íðà-
áèò çàäàâàòü âîï- âèòñÿ, êîãäà åìó çàäà-
ðîñû. þò âîïðîñû.
Perfect having asked having been asked
He denied He denied having been
having asked this ashed thin question. —
question. — Îí îò- Îí îòðèöàë, ÷òî åìó
ðèöàë, ÷òî çàäàë çàäàëè ýòîò âîïðîñ.
ýòîò âîïðîñ.

Ôóíêöèè ãåðóíäèÿ â ïðåäëîæåíèè

Ôóíêöèè Ïðèìåðû

Ïîäëåæàùåå Reading is my favourite


pastime. — ×òåíèå — ìîå ëþ-
áèìîå âðåìÿïðåïðîâîæäåíèå.
146 Раздел 1. Части речи

Ïðîäîëæåíèå òàáëèöû

Ôóíêöèè Ïðèìåðû

Èìåííàÿ ÷àñòü ñîñòàâíî- At that moment she seemed


ãî ñêàçóåìîãî (ñ ïðåäëî- almost on the point of breaking
ãàìè against — ïðîòèâ, down. — Â òîì ìîìåíò êàçà-
for — çà, à òàêæå ñ âû- ëîñü, ÷òî îíà âîò-âîò ðàçðû-
ðàæåíèÿìè to be on the äàåòñÿ.
point (of) — ñîáèðàòü-
ñÿ ñäåëàòü ÷òî-ëèáî, to be
far (from) — äàëåêî íå)
×àñòü ñîñòàâíîãî ãëà- Íå’s just finished writing the
ãîëüíîãî ñêàçóåìîãî article. — Îí òîëüêî ÷òî çà-
êîí÷èë ïèñàòü ñòàòüþ.
Ïðÿìîå äîïîëíåíèå I remember seeing him at the
party. — ß ïîìíþ, ÷òî âèäåë
åãî íà âå÷åðèíêå.
Ïðåäëîæíîå êîñâåííîå I am fond of skating. — ß ëþ-
äîïîëíåíèå áëþ êàòàòüñÿ íà êîíüêàõ.
Îïðåäåëåíèå Do you have any reason for
drawing such conclusions? —
Ó âàñ åñòü îñíîâàíèå äåëàòü
òàêèå âûâîäû?
Îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî:
âðåìåíè (ñ ïðåäëîãàìè After saying this he turned
on (upon) — âî âðåìÿ, round and left the room. —
after — ïîñëå, before — Ñêàçàâ ýòî, îí ðàçâåðíóëñÿ
ïåðåä, when — â òî âðå- è âûøåë èç êîìíàòû.
ìÿ êàê, when — êîãäà)
ïðè÷èíû (ñ ïðåäëîãàìè I’m grateful to you for helping
for — çà, through — èç- me out with my English
çà, owing to — áëàãîäà- homework. — ß áëàãîäàðíà
ðÿ, èç-çà) òåáå, ÷òî òû ïîìîã ìíå ñäå-
ëàòü äîìàøíåå çàäàíèå ïî
àíãëèéñêîìó ÿçûêó.
îáðàçà äåéñòâèÿ (ñ ïðåä- You can improve your English
ëîãîì by — ïóòåì, ïðè by reading books in the
ïîìîùè) original. — Òû ìîæåøü óëó÷-
øèòü ñâîé àíãëèéñêèé ÿçûê,
÷èòàÿ êíèãè â îðèãèíàëå.
Глагол 147

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ôóíêöèè Ïðèìåðû

ñîïóòñòâóþùèõ îáñòîÿ- Íå left the room without


òåëüñòâ (ñ ïðåäëîãàìè saying good-bye. — Îí âûøåë
besides — êðîìå, instead èç êîìíàòû, íå ïîïðîùàâ-
of — âìåñòî, without — øèñü.
áåç, apart from — ïîìèìî)
öåëè (ñ ïðåäëîãàìè for I went there with the view of
the purpose of, with the finding out the details of the
object of, with a view to — matter. — ß ïîø¸ë òóäà äëÿ
ñ öåëüþ, äëÿ òîãî ÷òîáû) òîãî, ÷òîáû âûÿñíèòü ïîä-
ðîáíîñòè äåëà.

óñëîâèÿ (ñ ïðåäëîãàìè You will never learn a language


without — áåç, in case of, without learning its grammar. —
in the event of — â ñëó÷àå Âû íèêîãäà íå âûó÷èòå èíî-
åñëè, subject to — ïðè óñ- ñòðàííûé ÿçûê, åñëè íå áóäå-
ëîâèè) òå èçó÷àòü ãðàììàòèêó.

Óïîòðåáëåíèå ãåðóíäèÿ ïîñëå ãëàãîëîâ,


èì¸í ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ è ïðèëàãàòåëüíûõ, ïðè÷àñòèé
ñ ïðåäëîãîì â ðàçíûõ ôóíêöèÿõ â ïðåäëîæåíèè

Ôóíêöèè Ïðèìåðû

Ïðåäëîæíîå êîñâåííîå äîïîëíåíèå:

can’t bear, can’t face, can’t fancy, We insisted on being


can’t imagine, can’t resist, can’t informed every hour. —
stand, can’t help Ìû íàñòàèâàëè íà
òîì, ÷òîáû íàñ èíôîð-
ìèðîâàëè êàæäûé ÷àñ.
to accuse of, to approve (disapprove) I don’t object to being
of, to believe in, to care for, interviewed. — ß íå
to complain of, to consist in (of), âîçðàæàþ ïðîòèâ
to dream of, to forget about, to òîãî, ÷òîáû ó ìåíÿ
hear of, to insist on, to object âçÿëè èíòåðâüþ.
to, to plan on, to prevent from,
to result in, to return to, to spend
in, to succeed in, to suspect of, to
talk of, to think of, to worry about
148 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ôóíêöèè Ïðèìåðû

to be afraid of, to be capable I am fond of


(incapable) of, to be disappointed reading. — ß ëþáëþ
at, to be engaged in, to be fond ÷èòàòü.
of, to be interested in, to be proud
of, to be responsible for, to be
surprised at, to get used to

Ïðÿìîå äîïîëíåíèå:

to admit, to avoid, to begin, He drank his coffee


to cease, to consider, to continue, and resumed reading
to delay, to deny, to endure, his paper. — Îí âû-
to enjoy, to escape, to finish, ïèë êîôå è ïðîäîë-
to forget, to give up, to go on, æèë ÷èòàòü ãàçåòó.
to hate, to intend, to keep, to keep I can’t bear being
on, to leave off, to like, to love, humiliated. — ß íå
to mention, to mind (â âîï- âûíîøó, êîãäà ìåíÿ
ðîñèòåëüíûõ è îòðèöàòåëü- óíèæàþò.
íûõ ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ), to neglect, He kept on smiling at
to postpone, to prefer, to propose her. — Îí ïðîäîëæàë
(= to suggest), to put off, to quit, åé óëûáàòüñÿ.
to recall, to recollect, to regret,
to remember, to resent, to resume,
to risk, to start, to stop,
to suggest, to try

Îïðåäåëåíèå:

apology (for), astonishment (at), His astonishment at


chance (of), opportunity (of), seeing me there was
disappointment (at), experience obvious. — Åãî óäèâ-
(in), fear (of), habit (of), hope (of), ëåíèå ïðè âèäå ìåíÿ
idea (of), importance (of), interest çäåñü áûëî î÷åâèäíî.
(in), means (of), method (of), Do you have any
necessity (of), objection (to), plan reason for saying such
(for), pleasure (of), possibility (of), a thing? — Ó âàñ
preparation (for), problem (of), åñòü ïðè÷èíû ãîâî-
process (of), reason (for), surprise ðèòü òàêîå?
(at), way (of)
Глагол 149

Ãåðóíäèàëüíûé îáîðîò

ÃÅÐÓÍÄÈÀËÜÍÛÉ ÎÁÎÐÎÒ
(GERUND CONSTRUCTION)

Èìÿ ñóùåñòâèòåëü-
íîå (â ïðèòÿæàòåëüíîì Ãåðóíäèé
èëè îáùåì ïàäåæå) èëè
ïðèòÿæàòåëüíîå ìåñòî-
èìåíèå

Äåéñòâèå, âûðàæåííîå ãåðóíäèåì, îòíîñèòñÿ ê ïîäëåæà-


ùåìó, à èíîãäà ê äîïîëíåíèþ ïðåäëîæåíèÿ: They began
laughing. — Îíè íà÷àëè ñìåÿòüñÿ.
Äåéñòâèå, âûðàæåííîå ãåðóíäèåì, òàêæå ìîæåò îòíîñèòü-
ñÿ ê ëèöó èëè ïðåäìåòó, êîòîðûå íå ÿâëÿþòñÿ ïîäëåæà-
ùèì èëè äîïîëíåíèåì ïðåäëîæåíèÿ.  ýòîì ñëó÷àå ëèöî
èëè ïðåäìåò, ê êîòîðûì îòíîñèòñÿ äåéñòâèå ãåðóíäèÿ, âû-
ðàæàåòñÿ ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì â ïðèòÿæàòåëüíîì èëè îáùåì
ïàäåæå (åñëè ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå, ê êîòîðîìó îòíîñèòñÿ äåé-
ñòâèå, âûðàæåííîå ãåðóíäèåì, ÿâëÿåòñÿ íåîäóøåâëåííûì)
èëè ïðèòÿæàòåëüíûì ìåñòîèìåíèåì, êîòîðûå ñòîÿò ïå-
ðåä ãåðóíäèåì: We insisted on the letter being signed
immediately. — Ìû íàñòàèâàëè íà òîì, ÷òîáû ïèñüìî
áûëî íåìåäëåííî ïîäïèñàíî. We insisted on his signing the
letter immediately. — Ìû íàñòàèâàëè íà òîì, ÷òîáû îí
ïîäïèñàë ïèñüìî íåìåäëåííî. We insisted on Tom’s signing
the letter immediately. — Ìû íàñòàèâàëè íà òîì, ÷òîáû
Òîì ïîäïèñàë ïèñüìî íåìåäëåííî.

Ïåðåâîä ãåðóíäèàëüíîãî îáîðîòà

Ïðèäàòî÷íûìè ïðåäëîæåíèÿìè, His (my friend’s)


êîòîðûå ââîäÿòñÿ ñîþçàìè ÷òî, taking part in this
÷òîá. Èìÿ ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå èëè work helped me
ìåñòîèìåíèå, ñòîÿùåå ïåðåä ãå- greatly. — To, ÷òî
ðóíäèåì, ñòàíîâèòñÿ â ðóññêîì îí (ìîé äðóã) ïðèíè-
ÿçûêå ïîäëåæàùèì ïðèäàòî÷íî- ìàë ó÷àñòèå â ýòîé
ãî ïðåäëîæåíèÿ, à ãåðóíäèé — ðàáîòå, î÷åíü ïîìîã-
ñêàçóåìûì ëî ìíå.
150 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Óêàçàòåëüíîå ìåñòîèìåíèå òî I heard of our head


ìîæåò ñòîÿòü â ðàçíûõ ïàäåæàõ engineer’s having
been sent abroad. —
ß ñëûøàë (î òîì),
÷òî íàøåãî ãëàâíîãî
èíæåíåðà îòïðàâè-
ëè çà ãðàíèöó.

Модальные глаголы (Modal Verbs)

Ê ìîäàëüíûì îòíîñÿòñÿ ãëàãîëû can (could), may (might),


must, need, ought to, to be able to, to have to, to be to, shall,
should, will, dare, wuold. Îíè óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ â ñî÷åòàíèè
ñ èíôèíèòèâîì ñìûñëîâîãî ãëàãîëà è îçíà÷àþò íå ñàìî
äåéñòâèå, à îòíîøåíèå ê íåìó ãîâîðÿùåãî.

Íåêîòîðûå îñîáåííîñòè ìîäàëüíûõ ãëàãîëîâ

Îñîáåííîñòè Ïðèìåðû

Íå èçìåíÿþòñÿ ïî ëèöàì I can read. Íå can read.


è ÷èñëàì

Íå èìåþò âðåìåííûõ ôîðì. I have to do it now.


Èñêëþ÷åíèå: can — could, I had to do it at once.
may — might, be to — was
to, were to, have (has) to —
had to, ò. å. èìåþò ôîðìû
íàñòîÿùåãî è ïðîøåäøåãî
âðåìåíè

Ïîñëå ìîäàëüíûõ ãëàãîëîâ He can swim.


èíôèíèòèâ óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ He has to work a lot.
áåç ÷àñòèöû to (çà èñêëþ-
÷åíèåì ãëàãîëà ought to, be
to, have to)
Глагол 151

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Îñîáåííîñòè Ïðèìåðû

 3-ì ëèöå åäèíñòâåííî- Íå can play football. She


ãî ÷èñëà â Present Simple may come in.
(Indefinite) ìîäàëüíûå
ãëàãîëû íå èìåþò îêîí÷à-
íèÿ -es, -s

Âîïðîñèòåëüíóþ è îòðè- Can he play football?


öàòåëüíóþ ôîðìû ìîäàëü- He cannot play football.
íûå ãëàãîëû îáðàçóþò áåç May she come in? She may
âñïîìîãàòåëüíîãî ãëàãî- not come in.
ëà to do1

 ðàçãîâîðíîé ðå÷è â îò- cannot = can’t; could not =


ðèöàòåëüíîé ôîðìå îáû÷- couldn’t; may not = mayn’t;
íî óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ ñîêðà- might not = mightn’t;
ùåíèÿ must not = mustn’t; ought
not = oughtn’t; need not
= needn’t; should not
= shouldn’t; would not
= wouldn’t; shall not =
shan’t; will not = won’t;
is not to = isn’t to; do not
have to = don’t have to

1
Èñêëþ÷åíèå: ãëàãîë have to.
Does he have to come?

Çíà÷åíèÿ ìîäàëüíûõ ãëàãîëîâ

Ìîäàëüíûå
Çíà÷åíèÿ Ïðèìåðû
ãëàãîëû
can, could âîçìîæíîñòü I can swim. — ß óìåþ
èëè ñïîñîá- ïëàâàòü. I could swim
íîñòü ñîâåð- when I was 5. — ß óìåë
øèòü äåéñòâèå ïëàâàòü, êîãäà ìíå áûëî
5 ëåò.
152 Раздел 1. Части речи

Ïðîäîëæåíèå òàáëèöû

Ìîäàëüíûå
Çíà÷åíèÿ Ïðèìåðû
ãëàãîëû
could ïðåäïîëîæåíèå She could have read the
(â óòâåðæäå- book. — Âîçìîæíî, îíà
íèÿõ) ïðî÷ëà êíèãó.

can, could ñîìíåíèå, íå- Can she have done it? —


äîâåðèå (â âî- Íåóæåëè îíà ýòî ñäåëà-
ïðîñèòåëüíûõ ëà?
è îòðèöàòåëü-
íûõ ïðåäëîæå-
íèÿõ)

ðàçðåøåíèå, You can take my


çàïðåò (â óò- umbrella. — Ìîæåøü
âåðäèòåëüíûõ, âçÿòü ìîé çîíò. She
îòðèöàòåëüíûõ said I could take her
è âîïðîñèòåëü- umbrella. — Îíà ñêàçàëà,
íûõ ïðåäëîæå- ÷òî ÿ ìîãó âçÿòü å¸ çîíò.
íèÿõ) Can I use your car? —
ß ìîãó âîñïîëüçîâàòü-
ñÿ òâîåé ìàøèíîé? Could
I use your car? — ß ìîãó
âîñïîëüçîâàòüñÿ Âàøåé
ìàøèíîé? You can’t stay
here. — Òû íå ìîæåøü
çäåñü îñòàâàòüñÿ. He said
I couldn’t stay there. —
Îí ñêàçàë, ÷òî ÿ íå ìîãó
çäåñü îñòàâàòüñÿ.

to be able to â ñëîæíûõ She will be able to do it. —


âðåìåíàõ âìå- Îíà ñìîæåò ýòî ñäåëàòü.
ñòî ãëàãîëà can She has been able to do it. —
Îíà ñìîãëà ýòî ñäåëàòü.

ôàêòè÷åñêè ñî- He was able to translate


âåðøèâøååñÿ the article without
äåéñòâèå a dictionary. — Îí ñìîã
ïåðåâåñòè ñòàòüþ áåç
ñëîâàðÿ.
Глагол 153

Ïðîäîëæåíèå òàáëèöû

Ìîäàëüíûå
Çíà÷åíèÿ Ïðèìåðû
ãëàãîëû

may, might ðàçðåøåíèå, May I speak to you? —


çàïðåò Ìîæíî ñ âàìè ïîãîâî-
ðèòü?
You may not smoke here. —
Çäåñü íåëüçÿ êóðèòü.

ïðåäïîëîæåíèå She may do (have done)


ñ äîëåé íåóâå- it. — Ìîæåò áûòü, îíà
ðåííîñòè ýòî äåëàåò (ñäåëàëà).

óïð¸ê (might) You might be more


attentive. — Òû ìîã áû
áûòü âíèìàòåëüíåå.

âåæëèâàÿ Might I have a cup of


ïðîñüáà tea? — Ìîæíî ìíå ÷àø-
êó ÷àþ?

must äîëæåíñòâîâà- She must do it. — Îíà


íèå äîëæíà ýòî ñäåëàòü.

íàñòîÿòåëüíûé You must consult the


ñîâåò doctor. — Âû äîëæíû ïî-
ñîâåòîâàòüñÿ ñ âðà÷îì.

ïðåäïîëîæå- He must have come. — Îí,


íèå ñ áîëüøîé äîëæíî áûòü, óæå ïðè-
äîëåé óâåðåí- ø¸ë.
íîñòè Íå must be an engineer. —
Äîëæíî áûòü, îí èíæåíåð.

çàïðåò You must not leave the


room. — Òû íå äîëæåí
(Òåáå íåëüçÿ) âûõîäèòü
èç êîìíàòû.

probably/ ïðåäïîëîæå- He will probably come


be likely to íèå, îòíîñÿ- (is likely to come)
ùååñÿ ê áóäó- tomorrow. — Îí, äîëæíî
ùåìó áûòü, ïðèåäåò çàâòðà.
154 Раздел 1. Части речи

Ïðîäîëæåíèå òàáëèöû

Ìîäàëüíûå
Çíà÷åíèÿ Ïðèìåðû
ãëàãîëû
to have (to) íåîáõîäèìîñòü You will have to gî
ïîä âëèÿíèåì home. — Âàì ïðèä¸òñÿ
îáñòîÿòåëüñòâ ïîéòè äîìîé.
I have to get up at
6 a. m. — ß âûíóæäåí
âñòàâàòü â 6 óòðà.
äîëæåíñòâî- I had to go there. —
âàíèå â ïðî- ß äîëæåí áûë (ìíå íàäî
øåäøåì è áó- áûëî, ìíå ïðèøëîñü) ïî-
äóùåì âìåñòî éòè òóäà.
must I shall have to do it. —
ß äîëæåí áóäó (ìíå íàäî
áóäåò, ìíå ïðèä¸òñÿ)
ýòî ñäåëàòü.
need íåîáõîäèìîñòü You needn’t hurry. — Íå
(â âîïðîñèòåëü- ñòîèò (Íå íóæíî) ñïå-
íûõ è îòðèöà- øèòü.
òåëüíûõ ïðåä- Need he come? — Íóæíî
ëîæåíèÿõ) ëè åìó ïðèõîäèòü?
îòñóòñòâèå íå- You needn’t have come
îáõîäèìîñòè so early. Âû íå äîëæíû
(íàäîáíîñòè) áûëè (íå áûëî íåîáõîäè-
ñîâåðøàòü äåé- ìîñòè) ïðèõîäèòü òàê
ñòâèå (â ïðî- ðàíî.
øëîì)
should, ought ìîðàëüíûé You should visit her. —
(to) äîëã, ñîâåò, ðå- Âàì ñëåäóåò ïîñåòèòü
êîìåíäàöèÿ å¸.
ïðåäïîëîæåíèå They should be a happy
ñ äîëåé óâåðåí- family. — Îíè, âåðîÿòíî,
íîñòè ñ÷àñòëèâàÿ ñåìüÿ.
to be (to) îáÿçàííîñòü The lessons were to begin
â Present ïî ïëàíó, ðàñ- at 9 a. m., so I got up very
Simple, ïèñàíèþ, ãðà- early. — Çàíÿòèÿ äîëæíû
Past Simple ôèêó, ïðåä- íà÷àòüñÿ â 9 óòðà, ïîýòî-
(Indefinite) âàðèòåëüíîé ìó ÿ âñòàë î÷åíü ðàíî.
äîãîâîð¸ííîñòè We are to meet at the
corner. — Ìû äîãîâîðèëèñü
âñòðåòèòüñÿ íà óãëó.
Глагол 155

Ïðîäîëæåíèå òàáëèöû

Ìîäàëüíûå
Çíà÷åíèÿ Ïðèìåðû
ãëàãîëû
to be (to) ïðèêàç, You are to go to bed! —
â Present èíñòðóêöèÿ Ëîæèòåñü ñïàòü!
Simple,
Past Simple
(Indefinite)
to be (to) äåéñòâèå, êîòî- I was to have translated
(â Past ðîå äîëæíî the article yesterday. —
Indefinite áûëî ñîâåð- ß äîëæåí áûë ïåðåâåñòè
â ñî÷åòàíèè øèòüñÿ â ïðî- ñòàòüþ â÷åðà (íî íå ïå-
ñ ïåðôåêò- øëîì ïî äîãî- ðåâ¸ë).
íûì èíôèíè- âîðåííîñòè èëè
òèâîì ïëàíó, íî íå ñî-
(Perfect âåðøèëîñü
Infinitive))
shall ïðèêàç, ïðåäó- You shall not run away
ïðåæäåíèå, from me! — Òû îò ìåíÿ
óãðîçà, ïðåäî- íå óáåæèøü!
ñòåðåæåíèå
âîïðîñ äëÿ ïî- Shall I turn on the
ëó÷åíèÿ ðàñïî- lights? — Âêëþ÷èòü
ðÿæåíèÿ, óêà- ñâåò?
çàíèÿ
should, ought ïîðèöàíèå èëè You should have helped
to (â ñî÷åòà- óïðåê your mother./You ought
íèè ñ ïåð- to have helped your
ôåêòíûì mother. — Òû äîëæåí
èíôèíèòè- áûë ïîìî÷ü ìàìå./Òåáå
âîì (Perfect íóæíî áûëî (íàäî áûëî,
Infinitive)) ñëåäîâàëî, ñëåäîâàëî áû)
ïîìî÷ü ìàìå.
will, would âîëÿ, æåëàíèå, We will help you. — Ìû
íàìåðåíèå ïîìîæåì âàì (ñ óäîâîëü-
ñòâèåì).
âåæëèâàÿ Would you like some
ïðîñüáà, ïðè- coffee? — He õîòèòå ëè
ãëàøåíèå êîôå?
156 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ìîäàëüíûå
Çíà÷åíèÿ Ïðèìåðû
ãëàãîëû

will, would óêàçàíèå íà The knife won’t cut. —


òî, ÷òî ïðåä- Íîæ íå ðåæåò.
ìåò íå âû- The lock wouldn’t open. —
ïîëíÿåò ñâîè Çàìîê íå îòêðûâàåòñÿ.
ôóíêöèè
(â îòðèöàòåëü-
íûõ ïðåäëîæå-
íèÿõ)

will (äëÿ 2-ãî ïðåäïîëîæåíèå This will be the


è 3-ãî ëèöà) hospital. — Ïî-âèäèìî-
ìó, ýòî è åñòü áîëüíèöà.
You will have seen him. —
ß ïîëàãàþ, ÷òî âû óæå
âèäåëèñü ñ íèì.

dare èìåòü ñìåëîñòü How dare you say that! —


÷òî-òî ñäåëàòü Êàê òû ñìååøü òàêîå ãî-
âîðèòü!

Äðóãèå ñïîñîáû âûðàæåíèÿ ìîäàëüíîñòè

Ñî÷åòàíèÿ Çíà÷åíèÿ Ïðèìåðû

to be obliged äîëæåíñò- I was obliged


(áûòü îáÿçàííûì) âîâàíèå (compelled, forced) to
to be compelled, do it. — ß áûë âû-
to be forced íóæäåí (îáÿçàí) ñäå-
(áûòü âûíóæäåí- ëàòü ýòî.
íûì)

to be allowed ðàçðåøå- I was (wasn’t)


íèå, çàïðåò allowed to come
at seven o’clock. —
Ìíå ðàçðåøèëè
(íå ðàçðåøèëè) ïðèé-
òè â ñåìü ÷àñîâ.
Предлог 157

Предлог
The Preposition

Предлог — ýòî ñëóæåáíàÿ ÷àñòü ðå÷è, êîòîðàÿ âûðàæà-


åò ðàçëè÷íûå îòíîøåíèÿ èì¸í ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ, ìåñòîè-
ìåíèé-ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ, à òàêæå ãåðóíäèÿ ê äðóãèì ñëî-
âàì â ïðåäëîæåíèè (ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì, ïðèëàãàòåëüíûì,
ãëàãîëàì). Ïðåäëîã âñåãäà óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ â ñîþçå ñ èìåíà-
ìè ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûìè, ìåñòîèìåíèÿìè-ñóùåñòâèòåëüíû-
ìè, ïðèëàãàòåëüíûìè, ãåðóíäèåì, âõîäÿ â ñîñòàâ ÷ëåíîâ
ïðåäëîæåíèÿ: îïðåäåëåíèÿ, îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà, ïðåäëîæíîãî
äîïîëíåíèÿ.

Ôîðìû ïðåäëîãîâ

Ïðîèçâîäíûå
Ïðîñòûå Ñîñòàâíûå
è ñëîæíûå

at, by, for, across, before, behind, because of,


in, with, outside, inside, upon, instead of, out of,
to è äð. during, considering according to,
è äð. in front of è äð.

Ïðåäëîãè ìåñòà (Prepositions of Place)

Ïðåäëîã Ïåðåâîä è çíà÷åíèå Ïðèìåðû

above íàä, âûøå (â ïðî- a path above the lake —


ñòðàíñòâåííîì îò- òðîïà íàä îçåðîì,
íîøåíèè) above my head — íàä
ìîåé ãîëîâîé
across ïî òó ñòîðîíó, íà a forest across the
òîé ñòîðîíå (íà river — ëåñ ïî òó ñòî-
äðóãîé ñòîðîíå) ðîíó ðåêè
at ó, â, çà, íà (â íå- at the station — íà âîê-
êîòîðîé òî÷êå ïðî- çàëå, at the table — çà
ñòðàíñòâà) ñòîëîì, at the cinema —
â êèíîòåàòðå
158 Раздел 1. Части речи

Ïðîäîëæåíèå òàáëèöû

Ïðåäëîã Ïåðåâîä è çíà÷åíèå Ïðèìåðû

behind çà, ñçàäè, ïîçà- behind the forest — çà


äè (ïîçàäè äðóãîãî ëåñîì
ïðåäìåòà)

below íèæå, ïîä (íèæå below the surface —


óðîâíÿ ÷åãî-ëèáî) ïîä ïîâåðõíîñòü, below
zero — íèæå íóëÿ

beside ðÿäîì ñ; áëèç, îêî- beside the river —


ëî (â íåïîñðåä- ó ðåêè
ñòâåííîé áëèçîñòè Let me sit down beside
îò êîãî-ëèáî èëè you. — Ïîçâîëüòå ìíå
÷åãî-ëèáî) ñåñòü ðÿäîì ñ âàìè.

between ìåæäó (ìåæäó äâó- between London and


ìÿ ïðåäìåòàìè) Bath — ìåæäó Ëîíäî-
íîì è Áàòîì, between
the chair and the
table — ìåæäó ñòóëîì
è ñòîëîì

by ó, ïðè, îêîëî, âîç- a house by the lake —


ëå, ðÿäîì ñ (â íåïî- äîì ðÿäîì ñ îçåðîì,
ñðåäñòâåííîé áëè- by the window — âîç-
çîñòè îò êîãî-ëèáî ëå îêíà, by the river —
èëè ÷åãî-ëèáî) ó ðåêè

in âíóòðè, â, íà, in the kitchen — íà


â ïðåäåëàõ (â ïðå- êóõíå, in London —
äåëàõ êàêîãî-ëèáî â Ëîíäîíå, in the
ïðîñòðàíñòâà, îáú- book — â êíèãå, in the
åêòà èëè ïðåäìåòà) car — â ìàøèíå, in the
world — â ìèðå

in front ïåðåä (îäèí ïðåä- the lawn in front of the


of ìåò ïåðåä äðóãèì) house — ëóæàéêà ïå-
ðåä äîìîì, in front of
the mirror — ïåðåä çåð-
êàëîì
Предлог 159

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ïðåäëîã Ïåðåâîä è çíà÷åíèå Ïðèìåðû

near âîçëå, ó, îêîëî, ðÿ- regions near the


äîì (âáëèçè ÷åãî- equator — ðàéîíû îêî-
ëèáî) ëî ýêâàòîðà
on íà (íà ïîâåðõíîñòè the picture on the
êàêîãî-ëèáî ïðåä- wall — êàðòèíà íà
ìåòà) ñòåíå, on the table —
íà ñòîëå
opposite íàïðîòèâ, ïðîòèâ to sit opposite each
(ñ äðóãîé ñòîðîíû, other — ñèäåòü äðóã
ïî äðóãóþ ñòîðîíó) ïðîòèâ äðóãà
over íàä, âûøå (íàä êà- a flight over the
êèì-ëèáî ïðåäìå- sea — ïîë¸ò íàä ìî-
òîì èëè ïîâåðõ ðåì, a lamp over the
êàêîãî-ëèáî ïðåä- bookshelf — ëàìïà íàä
ìåòà) êíèæíîé ïîëêîé
under ïîä, íèæå (ðàñïîëî- under a tree — ïîä äå-
æåíèå îäíîãî ïðåä- ðåâîì, under the roof —
ìåòà íèæå äðóãîãî) ïîä êðûøåé, under
sunny skies — ïîä ñîë-
íå÷íûì íåáîì

Ïðåäëîãè íàïðàâëåíèÿ (Prepositions of Direction)

Ïðåäëîã Ïåðåâîä è çíà÷åíèå Ïðèìåðû


across ñêâîçü, ÷åðåç (äâè- to run across the
æåíèå íà äðóãóþ street — ïåðåáåæàòü
ñòîðîíó ÷åãî-ëèáî) ÷åðåç óëèöó, to swim
across the river —
ïëûòü ÷åðåç ðåêó
from ñ, îò, èç (íàïðàâëå- to take the book from
íèe äåéñòâèÿ îò íà- the shelf — âçÿòü êíè-
÷àëüíîãî ïóíêòà ãó ñ ïîëêè, to return
äâèæåíèÿ) from the south — âåð-
íóòüñÿ ñ þãà
160 Раздел 1. Части речи

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ïðåäëîã Ïåðåâîä è çíà÷åíèå Ïðèìåðû

into â(î), íà, âíóòðü to come into the


(äâèæåíèå èëè íà- garden — âûéòè â ñàä,
ïðàâëåíèå âíóòðü to go into the house —
÷åãî-ëèáî) âîéòè â äîì

off ñ (ñî) (óäàëåíèå èëè Take it off the table! —


îòäåëåíèå îò ÷åãî- Óáåðèòå ýòî ñî ñòîëà!
ëèáî)

out of ãëàãîë ñ ïðèñòàâ- to let somebody out


êîé âû- è ïðåäëî- of the house — âûïó-
ãîì èç (äâèæåíèå ñòèòü êîãî-ëèáî èç
çà ïðåäåëû ÷åãî- äîìà, to take the keys
ëèáî) out of the bag — âû-
íóòü êëþ÷è èç ñóìêè

over íàä, âûøå (äâèæå- to fly over the ocean —


íèå íàä êàêèì-ëèáî ëåòåòü íàä îêåàíîì,
ïðåäìåòîì, ïîâåðõ to climb over the wall —
è ÷åðåç ÷òî-ëèáî) ïåðåëåçòü ÷åðåç ñòåíó

through ÷åðåç, ñêâîçü, ïî, to enter the house


âíóòðè (äâèæåíèå through the window —
ñêâîçü êàêîé-ëè- ïðîíèêíóòü â äîì ÷å-
áî ïðåäìåò èëè ïðî- ðåç îêíî, to go through
ñòðàíñòâî) the forest — èäòè ÷å-
ðåç ëåñ, through time
and space — ñêâîçü âðå-
ìÿ è ïðîñòðàíñòâî

to ê, â (äâèæåíèå to send somebody to


ê êàêîé-ëèáî òî÷êå Edinburgh — ïîñëàòü
è å¸ äîñòèæåíèå) êîãî-ëèáî â Ýäèíáóðã.
Come here to me. — Ïî-
äîéäè ñþäà êî ìíå.

towards ê, ïî íàïðàâëåíèþ to turn towards home —


ê (äâèæåíèå ê êà- ïîâåðíóòü ïî íàïðàâ-
êîé-ëèáî òî÷êå áåç ëåíèþ ê äîìó, towards
å¸ äîñòèæåíèÿ) the south — ê þãó
Предлог 161

Óïîòðåáëåíèå ïðåäëîãîâ âðåìåíè (Prepositions of Time)

Ïðåäëîã Óïîòðåáëåíèå Ïðèìåðû

in óêàçûâàåò íà in 2003 — â 2003 ãîäó,


ãîä, âðåìÿ ñó- in May — â ìàå, in the
òîê, ìåñÿö, morning — óòðîì (èñêëþ-
ñåçîí, ïðîìå- ÷åíèå: at night — íî÷üþ), in
æóòîê ïðå- winter — çèìîé, in an hour —
ìåíè ÷åðåç ÷àñ

at òî÷íîå óêàçà- at four o’clock — â ÷åòûðå


íèå âðåìåíè ÷àñà, at 12:30 — â 12:30

óêàçàíèå ïå- at Christmas — íà Ðîæäå-


ðèîäà âðåìå- ñòâî,
íè at the weekend — íà âûõîä-
íûå

on óêàçûâàåò íà on Sunday — â âîñêðåñå-


îïðåäåë¸ííûé íüå, on 29 May — 29 ìàÿ,
äåíü íåäåëè, on Monday evening — â ïîíå-
äàòó, òî÷íûé äåëüíèê âå÷åðîì, on 22 June
ìîìåíò, îïðå- 1941 — 22 èþíÿ 1941 ãîäà,
äåë¸ííûé ìî- on the evening of May the
ìåíò äíÿ first — âå÷åðîì ïåðâîãî ìàÿ

Ìíîãîçíà÷íîñòü íåêîòîðûõ ïðåäëîãîâ

Ïðåäëîã Çíà÷åíèÿ Ïðèìåðû


at íàõîæäåíèå â íå- at the desk — çà ïàðòîé,
êîòîðîé òî÷êå ïðî- at the window — ó îêíà
ñòðàíñòâà

ïðèñóòñòâèå ïðè êà- at the party — íà âå÷å-


êîì-ëèáî ñîáûòèè ðèíêå, at the meeting —
íà ñîáðàíèè

ðàññòîÿíèå at the distance of


40 miles — íà ðàññòîÿ-
íèè 40 ìèëü
162 Раздел 1. Части речи

Ïðîäîëæåíèå òàáëèöû

Ïðåäëîã Çíà÷åíèÿ Ïðèìåðû


at íàñòðîåíèå èëè ðàñ- at one’s will — ïî ñîá-
ïîëîæåíèå äóõà ñòâåííîé âîëå
òî÷íîå óêàçàíèå at Easter — íà Ïàñõó
âðåìåíè èëè ïåðèî-
äà âðåìåíè
by íàõîæäåíèå â íåïî- by the square — ó ïëîùà-
ñðåäñòâåííîé áëè- äè, by the sea — ó ìîðÿ
çîñòè îò êîãî-ëèáî
èëè ÷åãî-ëèáî
by äåéñòâóþùåå ëèöî a machine driven by
èëè äåéñòâóþùàÿ electricity — ìàøèíà,
ñèëà ïîñëå ãëàãîëà ïðèâîäèìàÿ â äâèæåíèå
â ñòðàäàòåëüíîì çà- ýëåêòðè÷åñòâîì, a book
ëîãå written by Mark Twain —
êíèãà, íàïèñàííàÿ Ìàð-
êîì Òâåíîì
íàïðàâëåíèå äâè- to move by the river
æåíèÿ âäîëü êàêî- side — èäòè âäîëü ðåêè
ãî-ëèáî îáúåêòà
ñðåäñòâî èëè ñïîñîá by reading aloud — ÷è-
ñîâåðøåíèÿ äåé- òàÿ âñëóõ
ñòâèÿ
ñðîê, ê êîòîðîìó by three o’clock — ê òð¸ì
ñîâåðøàåòñÿ äåé- ÷àñàì, by Monday — ê ïî-
ñòâèå íåäåëüíèêó
for ëèöî èëè ïðåäìåò, food for animals — êîðì
ðàäè êîòîðîãî èëè äëÿ æèâîòíûõ
â ïîëüçó êîòîðî-
ãî ñîâåðøàåòñÿ äåé-
ñòâèå
ïðîäîëæèòåëüíîñòü for two months — â òå÷å-
äåéñòâèÿ íèå äâóõ ìåñÿöåâ
îïëàòà ÷åãî-ëèáî $10 for a hat — äåñÿòü
â îïðåäåë¸ííîì ýê- äîëëàðîâ çà øëÿïêó
âèâàëåíòå
Предлог 163

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ïðåäëîã Çíà÷åíèÿ Ïðèìåðû


for íàçíà÷åíèå ïðåä- A thermometer is used for
ìåòà measuring temperature. —
Òåðìîìåòð èñïîëüçóåò-
ñÿ äëÿ èçìåðåíèÿ òåìïå-
ðàòóðû.
on íàõîæäåíèå íà ïî- a house on the hill — äîì
âåðõíîñòè êàêî- íà õîëìå
ãî-ëèáî ïðåäìåòà
îïðåäåë¸ííûé äåíü on Sunday — â âîñêðåñå-
íåäåëè, îïðåäåë¸í- íüå, on the 1st of April —
íàÿ äàòà, òî÷íûé ïåðâîãî àïðåëÿ
ìîìåíò
òåìà êíèãè, âûñòó- a debate on modern
ïëåíèÿ, ïðåäìåò ïå- literature — ñïîðû ïî ïî-
ðåãîâîðîâ, âîäó ñîâðåìåííîé ëèòå-
ñïîðîâ ðàòóðû
ðàáîòà â êàêîì-ëèáî to be on the committee —
ó÷ðåæäåíèè áûòü ÷ëåíîì êîìèòåòà
ïðåáûâàíèå â êà- on leave — â îòïóñêå,
êîì-ëèáî ñîñòîÿíèè, to be on fire — ïûëàòü,
ïîëîæåíèè, ïðî- áûòü â îãíå
öåññå
Раздел 2. Синтаксис
164 Раздел 2. Синтаксис

СИНТАКСИС 2

Предложение
The Sentence

Предложение — ýòî åäèíèöà ðå÷è, âûðàæàþùàÿ çàêîí-


÷åííóþ ìûñëü, èìåþùàÿ îïðåäåë¸ííóþ ãðàììàòè÷åñêóþ
ôîðìó è èíòîíàöèþ.

Òèïû ïðåäëîæåíèé
â çàâèñèìîñòè îò ñòðóêòóðû

Ñëîæíîå ïðåäëîæåíèå
(Composite Sentence)
Ïðîñòîå ñëîæíî- ñëîæíîïîä÷èíåííîå
ïðåäëîæå- ñî÷èíåííîå (Complex Sentence)
íèå (äâà è áîëåå ïðèäàòî÷íîå
(Simple íåçàâèñèìûõ ãëàâíîå
ïðåäëîæåíèå
Sentence) ïðåäëîæåíèé) ïðåäëîæåíèå
(The
(Compound (The Main
Subordinate
Sentence) Clause)
Clause)

It was It was a dark There were though it was


a winter night, and/ millions of a dark night.
night. There but there were stars in the
were millions millions of sky
of stars in stars in the
the sky. sky.

She doesn’t She doesn’t She can leave if she doesn’t


like her job. like her job, her job like it.
She can’t but she can’t
leave it. leave it.
Предложение 165

Âèäû ïðåäëîæåíèé â çàâèñèìîñòè


îò öåëè âûñêàçûâàíèÿ

Ïðåäëîæåíèÿ

ïîâåñòâîâà- ïîâåëè- âîïðîñè- âîñêëèöà-


òåëüíûå òåëüíûå òåëüíûå òåëüíûå
(Declarative (Imperative (Interrogative (Exclamatory
Sentences) sentences) sentences) sentences)

Everybody Do it now! Did you What a nice


likes ice- Let’s go, send him baby! What
cream. dear. Come a letter? fantastic
Nobody to see us, Does she news! How
likes bad please. speak nice the girl
marks. German? is!

Повествовательные предложения
(Declarative Sentences)

Ïîâåñòâîâàòåëüíûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ñîäåðæàò ñîîáùåíèÿ


î ñîáûòèÿõ, ôàêòàõ, äåéñòâèÿõ, ÷óâñòâàõ, îòíîøåíèè
ê ÷åìó-ëèáî. Òàêèå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ áûâàþò óòâåðäèòåëüíû-
ìè èëè îòðèöàòåëüíûìè. Ïîâåñòâîâàòåëüíûå ïðåäëîæå-
íèÿ õàðàêòåðèçóþòñÿ ïðÿìûì ïîðÿäêîì ñëîâ: ïîäëåæà-
ùåå, ñêàçóåìîå, äîïîëíåíèå, îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî.

Ïîðÿäîê ñëîâ â ïîâåñòâîâàòåëüíîì


ïðåäëîæåíèè

Îáñòîÿ- Ïîä- Ñêàçó- Äîïîëíå- Îáñòîÿ-


òåëüñòâî ëåæà- åìîå/ íèå (íåïðÿ- òåëüñòâà
(÷àùå — ùåå èìåííàÿ ìîå, ïðÿìîå,
âðåìåíè) ÷àñòü ïðåäëîæíîå)
0 1 2 3 4
Last year we spent our holidays in the
 ïðîøëîì ìû ïðîâåëè íàøè êàíè- South.
ãîäó êóëû íà þãå.
166 Раздел 2. Синтаксис

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

0 1 2 3 4
Sometimes they went with us for a walk.
Èíîãäà îíè õîäèëè ñ íàìè íà ïðîãóë-
êó.

Ïîðÿäîê ñëåäîâàíèÿ
ðàçëè÷íûõ âèäîâ îáñòîÿòåëüñòâ

Îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî
Ïîäëå- Ñêàçó- Äîïîë-
æàùåå åìîå íåíèå îáðàçà
ìåñòà âðåìåíè
äåéñòâèÿ
I met Tom by chance at the last
ß âñòðå- Òîìà ñëó÷àéíî airport Sunday.
òèë â àýðî- â ïðîø-
ïîðòó ëîå âîñ-
êðåñåíüå.

Вопросительные предложения
(Interrogative Sentences)

Âîïðîñèòåëüíûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ñîäåðæàò çàïðîñ êà-


êîé-ëèáî èíôîðìàöèè.

Òèïû âîïðîñèòåëüíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé

Òèïû Âîïðîñû Îòâåòû

Îáùèå Do you work? Yes, I do. No,


âîïðîñû Is she reading? I don’t.
(Genetal Yes, she is. No,
Questions) she isn’t.

Ñïåöèàëüíûå Where do you work? I work at school.


âîïðîñû What is she reading? She is reading
(Special Who knows this a book.
Questions) story? He does.
Предложение 167

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Òèïû Âîïðîñû Îòâåòû

Ðàçäåëèòåëü- You work much, Yes, I do. No,


íûå âîïðîñû don’t you? I don’t.
(Disjunctive She can’t sing, can
Questions) she? Yes, she can.
Àëüòåðíà- Have you got a flat I have got a flat.
òèâíûå or a room?
âîïðîñû Does he know He knows
(Altarnative French or English? English.
Questions)

Ñòðóêòóðà îáùåãî âîïðîñà (General Questions)

Îáùèå âîïðîñû çàäàþòñÿ êî âñåìó ïðåäëîæåíèþ ñ öåëüþ


ïîëó÷èòü ïîäòâåðæäåíèå èëè îòðèöàíèå.  îáùèõ âîïðî-
ñàõ âñïîìîãàòåëüíûé èëè ìîäàëüíûé ãëàãîë ñòàâèòñÿ â íà-
÷àëå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ïåðåä ïîäëåæàùèì. Åñëè â ñîñòàâå ñêà-
çóåìîãî íåò âñïîìîãàòåëüíîãî èëè ìîäàëüíîãî ãëàãîëà, òî
ïåðåä ïîäëåæàùèì ñòàâèòñÿ âñïîìîãàòåëüíûé ãëàãîë do
(does) èëè did, à ïîñëå íåãî — ñìûñëîâîé ãëàãîë â ôîðìå
èíôèíèòèâà áåç ÷àñòèöû to; îñòàëüíûå ÷ëåíû ïðåäëîæå-
íèÿ ñòîÿò â ïîðÿäêå ïîâåñòâîâàòåëüíîãî ïðåäëîæåíèÿ. Îá-
ùèå âîïðîñû, êîòîðûå âûðàæàþò óäèâëåíèå, îáðàçóþòñÿ
ñ ïîìîùüþ ÷àñòèöû not, êîòîðàÿ ñòàâèòñÿ ïîñëå ïîäëåæà-
ùåãî ïåðåä ñìûñëîâûì ãëàãîëîì. Êðàòêèé îáùèé âîïðîñ
ñîñòîèò èç ïîäëåæàùåãî, âûðàæåííîãî ëè÷íûì ìåñòîè-
ìåíèåì, ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèì ïîäëåæàùåìó ïåðâîé ÷àñòè,
è âñïîìîãàòåëüíîãî èëè ìîäàëüíîãî ãëàãîëà.

Âñïîìîãà-
Ñìûñëî-
òåëüíûé èëè Ïîäëå- Äîïîëíå- Îáñòîÿ-
âàÿ ÷àñòü
ìîäàëüíûé æàùåå íèÿ òåëüñòâà
ñêàçóåìîãî
ãëàãîë

Do you watch TV in the


Âû ñìîòðèòå òåëåâèçîð evening?
âå÷åðîì?
168 Раздел 2. Синтаксис

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Âñïîìîãà-
Ñìûñëî-
òåëüíûé èëè Ïîäëå- Äîïîëíå- Îáñòîÿ-
âàÿ ÷àñòü
ìîäàëüíûé æàùåå íèÿ òåëüñòâà
ñêàçóåìîãî
ãëàãîë

Does she study English at school?


Îíà èçó÷àåò àíãëèé- â øêîëå?
ñêèé

Did they see a new in our


Îíè âèäåëè play theatre?
íîâóþ â íàøåì
ïüåñó òåàòðå?

Can they go to the in June?


Ìîãóò ëè îíè ïîåõàòü village â èþíå?
â äåðåâíþ

Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà îáùèõ âîïðîñîâ

Îáùèå âîïðîñû â îòðèöàòåëüíîé ôîðìå âûðàæàþò óäèâ-


ëåíèå è ñîîòâåòñòâóþò â ðóññêîì ÿçûêå âîïðîñàì, íà÷è-
íàþùèìñÿ ñî ñëîâ ðàçâå? íåóæåëè? Îòðèöàòåëüíàÿ ôîðìà
îáùèõ âîïðîñîâ îáðàçóåòñÿ ïðè ïîìîùè ÷àñòèöû not, êî-
òîðàÿ ñòàâèòñÿ ïîñëå ïîäëåæàùåãî ïåðåä ñìûñëîâûì ãëà-
ãîëîì.

Ðàçâ¸ðíóòàÿ ôîðìà

Âñïîìîãà- Îòðèöà- Ñìûñëî- Äðóãèå


òåëüíûé Ïîäëå- òåëüíàÿ âàÿ ÷àñòü ÷ëåíû
èëè ìîäàëü- æàùåå ÷àñòèöà ñêàçó- ïðåäëîæå-
íûé ãëàãîë not åìîãî íèÿ

Do you not read books?


Ðàçâå âû íå ÷èòàåòå êíèãè?
Can they not go to the
Ðàçâå îíè íå ìîãóò ïîåõàòü village?
â äåðåâíþ?
Предложение 169

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ñîêðàù¸ííàÿ ôîðìà

Âñïîìîãà- Äðóãèå
Ñìûñëîâàÿ
òåëüíûé èëè Ïîäëå- ÷ëåíû
÷àñòü
ìîäàëüíûé æàùåå ïðåäëîæå-
ñêàçóåìîãî
ãëàãîë + not íèÿ

'RQ¶W \RX UHDG ERRNV"


Ɋɚɡɜɟ ɜɵ ɧɟɱɢɬɚɟɬɟ ɤɧɢɝɢ"

&DQ¶W WKH\ JR WRWKHYLOODJH"


Ɋɚɡɜɟ ɨɧɢ ɧɟɦɨɝɭɬɩɨɟɯɚɬɶ ɜɞɟɪɟɜɧɸ"

Ðàçäåëèòåëüíûå âîïðîñû (Disjunctive Questions)

Ðàçäåëèòåëüíûé âîïðîñ ñîñòîèò èç äâóõ ÷àñòåé: ïîâåñòâî-


âàòåëüíîãî ïðåäëîæåíèÿ è êðàòêîé ôîðìû îáùåãî âîïðî-
ñà, ñîñòîÿùåãî èç ïîäëåæàùåãî-ìåñòîèìåíèÿ è âñïîìîãà-
òåëüíîãî èëè ìîäàëüíîãî ãëàãîëà ëèáî ãëàãîëà-ñâÿçêè.

Ïåðâàÿ ÷àñòü — Âòîðàÿ ÷àñòü —


ïîâåñòâîâàòåëüíîå êðàòêàÿ ôîðìà îáùåãî
ïðåäëîæåíèå âîïðîñà

She is home, isn’t she?


Îíà äîìà, íå òàê ëè?

She isn’t at home, is she?


Ÿ íåò äîìà, íå ïðàâäà ëè?

They will help us, won’t they?


Îíè ïîìîãóò íàì, íå ïðàâäà ëè?

You don’t play football, do you?


Âû íå èãðàåòå â ôóòáîë, íå òàê ëè?

She can swim, can’t she?


Îíà óìååò ïëàâàòü, íå ïðàâäà ëè?
170 Раздел 2. Синтаксис

Ñïåöèàëüíûå âîïðîñû (Special Questions)

Специальные вопросы — ýòî âîïðîñû, êîòîðûå ïðåäïîëàãà-


þò íå ïðîñòîå ïîäòâåðæäåíèå èëè îòðèöàíèå ìûñëè, âû-
ñêàçàííîé â âîïðîñå, à ïîëó÷åíèå êàêîé-ëèáî äîïîëíè-
òåëüíîé èíôîðìàöèè.

Îñîáåííîñòè Ïðèìåðû

Ñïåöèàëüíûå âîïðîñû íà- when — êîãäà; where —


÷èíàþòñÿ ñ âîïðîñèòåëü- ãäå; what — ÷òî, êàêîé;
íîãî ñëîâà (èëè ãðóïïû why — ïî÷åìó; how many/
ñëîâ), çàìåíÿþùåãî òîò much — ñêîëüêî; whose —
÷ëåí ïðåäëîæåíèÿ, ê êî- ÷åé; which — êîòîðûé, êà-
òîðîìó îòíîñèòñÿ âîïðîñ êîé; who — êòî; how —
êàê; whom — êîãî

 ñïåöèàëüíûõ âîïðîñàõ, Who is sitting in the


êîòîðûå îòíîñÿòñÿ ê ïîä- classroom? Who speaks
ëåæàùåìó, ñîõðàíÿåòñÿ English well? Who can ski?
ïðÿìîé ïîðÿäîê ñëîâ What lies on the table?

 ñïåöèàëüíûõ âîïðîñàõ, Whose book is on the shelf?


êîòîðûå îòíîñÿòñÿ ê îïðå- What apple do you want?
äåëåíèþ ïîäëåæàùåãî, Which team is the best?
òàêæå ñîõðàíÿåòñÿ ïðÿ-
ìîé ïîðÿäîê ñëîâ

Âîïðîñû ê ïîäëåæàùåìó
Âîïðîñû, êîòîðûå îòíîñÿòñÿ ê ïîäëåæàùåìó, íà÷èíàþò-
ñÿ ñ âîïðîñèòåëüíûõ ìåñòîèìåíèé who? — êòî?, what? —
÷òî?, èãðàþùèõ â âîïðîñå ðîëü ïîäëåæàùåãî.

Ïîäëå-
Ñêàçóåìîå Äîïîëíåíèå Îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî
æàùåå

Who speaks German well?


Êòî ãîâîðèò ïî-íåìåöêè õîðîøî?
Who played tennis yesterday?
Êòî èãðàë â òåííèñ â÷åðà?
Предложение 171

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ïîäëå-
Ñêàçóåìîå Äîïîëíåíèå Îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî
æàùåå

Who will bring a cup from the


Êòî ïðèíåñåò ÷àøêó kitchen?
èç êóõíè?
What is it over there?
×òî ëåæèò âîí òàì?

Âîïðîñû ê îïðåäåëåíèþ ïîäëåæàùåãî

Âîïðîñû, êîòîðûå îòíîñÿòñÿ ê îïðåäåëåíèþ ïîäëå-


æàùåãî, íà÷èíàþòñÿ ñ âîïðîñèòåëüíûõ ìåñòîèìåíèé
what? — êàêîé?, which? — êîòîðûé?, whose? — ÷åé?,
how much?/how many? — ñêîëüêî?, what kind of? —
êàêîé?, çà êîòîðûìè íåïîñðåäñòâåííî ñëåäóåò ïîäëå-
æàùåå.

Âîïðîñè-
òåëüíîå Ïîäëå- Ñêàçó- Äîïîë- Îáñòîÿ-
ìåñòî- æàùåå åìîå íåíèå òåëüñòâî
èìåíèå

What book has been


Êàêàÿ êíèãà lost?
áûëà ïî-
òåðÿíà?

How many students wrote the yesterday?


Ñêîëüêî ñòóäåíòîâ íàïèñà- dictation â÷åðà?
ëè äèêòàíò

Whose sister is a book in the


×üÿ ñåñòðà reading êíèãó room?
÷èòàåò â êîìíàòå?

Which of the girls likes coffee most of all?


Êàêàÿ èç äåâî÷åê ëþáèò êîôå áîëüøå
âñåãî?
172 Раздел 2. Синтаксис

Îòâåòû íà âîïðîñû ê ïîäëåæàùåìó


è îïðåäåëåíèþ ïîäëåæàùåãî

Îòâåòû íà âîïðîñû, îòíîñÿùèåñÿ ê ïîäëåæàùåìó èëè åãî


îïðåäåëåíèþ, îáû÷íî äàþòñÿ â êðàòêîé ôîðìå. Îíè ñîñòî-
ÿò èç ïîäëåæàùåãî (ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîãî èëè ìåñòîèìåíèÿ)
è ñêàçóåìîãî, âûðàæåííîãî âñïîìîãàòåëüíûì èëè ìîäàëü-
íûì ãëàãîëîì, âõîäÿùèì â ñîñòàâ ñêàçóåìîãî âîïðîñà.

Âîïðîñ Îòâåò

Who is standing at the My mother is. — Ìîÿ


door? — Êòî ñòîèò ó äâåðè? ìàìà.

Who likes the house? — My sister does. — Ìîåé


Êîìó íðàâèòñÿ äîì? ñåñòðå.

Who can skate? — Êòî óìå- Mary can. — Ìýðè.


åò êàòàòüñÿ íà êîíüêàõ?

What book is lying on the A German book is. — Íå-


table? — Êàêàÿ êíèãà ëå- ìåöêàÿ.
æèò íà ñòîëå?

Âîïðîñû ê äîïîëíåíèþ è îáñòîÿòåëüñòâó

Âîïðî- Âñïîìîãà-
Äî-
ñèòåëü- òåëüíûé/ Ñìûñ-
Ïîäëå- ïîë- Îáñòîÿ-
íîå ìîäàëü- ëîâîé
æàùåå íå- òåëüñòâî
ìåñòî- íûé ãëàãîë
íèå
èìåíèå ãëàãîë

When did you see her?


Êîãäà âû âèäåëè å¸?

What will they read tomorrow?


×òî îíè ïðî÷òóò çàâòðà?

What can they see there?


×òî îíè âèäÿò òàì?
Предложение 173

Àëüòåðíàòèâíûå âîïðîñû
(Alternative Questions)
Àëüòåðíàòèâíûé âîïðîñ çàäàåòñÿ, êîãäà ïðåäëàãàåòñÿ
ñäåëàòü âûáîð, îòäàòü ïðåäïî÷òåíèå ÷åìó-ëèáî. Àëüòåðíà-
òèâíûé âîïðîñ ñîñòîèò èç äâóõ îáùèõ âîïðîñîâ, ñîåäèíåí-
íûõ ñîþçîì or (èëè). Âòîðîé âîïðîñ èìååò êðàòêóþ ôîðìó.

Ïåðâàÿ ÷àñòü Ñîþç or Âòîðàÿ ÷àñòü

Have you got a flat a room?


Ó âàñ êâàðòèðà êîìíàòà?
or
Does he know English?
èëè
French àíãëèéñêèé?
Îí çíàåò ôðàíöóç-
ñêèé

Повелительные (побудительные) предложения


(Imperative Sentences)

Ïîâåëèòåëüíûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ âûðàæàþò ïîáóæäåíèå


ê äåéñòâèþ ñ öåëüþ âûïîëíåíèÿ ïðèêàçà, ïðîñüáû, æå-
ëàíèÿ, ñîâåòà, ðàçðåøåíèÿ; â îòðèöàòåëüíîé ôîðìå òàêèå
ïðåäëîæåíèÿ âûðàæàþò çàïðåò.

Ïîíÿòèå î ïîâåëèòåëüíîì ïðåäëîæåíèè

 ïîâåëèòåëüíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ Stand up! Don’t be so


îòñóòñòâóåò ïîäëåæàùåå noisy!

Ñëîâà please, will you, won’t you Will you help me?
ñìÿã÷àþò ïðèêàç Close the doors, please.

Äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ ïðîñüáû â êîí- Come here, will you?


öå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ìîæåò óïîòðåá- Fetch me a drinke,
ëÿòüñÿ will you? èëè won’t you? won’t you?
174 Раздел 2. Синтаксис

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Óïîòðåáëåíèå âñïîìîãàòåëüíîãî Do come, Tom!


ãëàãîëà do äåëàåò ïðîñüáó áîëåå
íàñòîé÷èâîé

Ïîáóæäåíèå ê äåéñòâèþ ìîæåò áûòü âûðàæåíî:

âîïðîñèòåëüíûì ïðåäëîæåíèåì, Would you give me


íà÷èíàþùèìñÿ ñ will èëè would a cup of tea, please?
Will you come here?

ïîâåñòâîâàòåëüíûì ïðåäëîæå- Don’t be so lazy.


íèåì

âîñêëèöàòåëüíûì ïðåäëîæåíèåì Silence!

Восклицательные предложения
(Exclamatory Sentences)

 âîñêëèöàòåëüíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ âûñêàçûâàåìîå ìíåíèå


ñîïðîâîæäàåòñÿ ïðîÿâëåíèåì óäèâëåíèÿ, ðàäîñòè, âîñõè-
ùåíèÿ è ò. ä.

Ïîíÿòèå î âîñêëèöàòåëüíîì ïðåäëîæåíèè

 âîñêëèöàòåëüíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ What a lovely


÷àñòî âûäåëÿþò êàêîé-òî ÷ëåí ïðåä- day!
ëîæåíèÿ

Âîñêëèöàòåëüíûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ïðîèç- Oh, it will be


íîñÿòñÿ ñ ïîíèæàþùåéñÿ èíòîíàöèåé very interesting!

Âîñêëèöàòåëüíûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ÷àñòî What a wonderful


íà÷èíàþòñÿ ñ ìåñòîèìåíèÿ what (êà- day it is!
êîé, ÷òî çà) èëè íàðå÷èÿ how (êàê). How nice it is!
What îòíîñèòñÿ ê ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîìó, How beautifully
à how — ê ïðèëàãàòåëüíîìó èëè íà- she sings!
ðå÷èþ
Предложение 175

Отрицательные предложения
(Negative Sentences)

 àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå â ïðîñòîì ïðåäëîæåíèè âîçìîæíî


òîëüêî îäíî îòðèöàíèå.

Ïîíÿòèå îá îòðèöàòåëüíîì ïðåäëîæåíèè

Îòðèöàíèå ìîæåò áûòü


Ïðèìåðû
âûðàæåíî:

îòðèöàòåëüíîé ÷àñòèöåé I have not (haven’t) seen


not, êîòîðàÿ ñòàâèòñÿ ïî- him today. They will not
ñëå âñïîìîãàòåëüíîãî èëè (won’t) be coming to the
ìîäàëüíîãî ãëàãîëà, âõîäÿ- party. You should not
ùåãî â ñîñòàâ ñêàçóåìîãî (shouldn’t) have said it.
íåîïðåäåë¸ííûì ìåñòîèìå- She answered nothing. (She
íèåì (no, nobody, no one, didn’t answer anything.)
nothing)
îòðèöàòåëüíûì íàðå÷èåì We went nowhere yesterday.
(never, nowhere) (We did not go anywhere
yesterday.)
îòðèöàòåëüíûì ñîþçîì I could remember neither
neither … nor Tom nor Jane. (I couldn’t
remember either Tom or
Jane.)

Ñòðóêòóðà îòðèöàòåëüíîãî ïðåäëîæåíèÿ

Âñïîìîãàòåëü- Ïðåäèêàòèâ Äðóãèå


Ïîäëåæà- íûé/ìîäàëüíûé èëè ÷ëåíû
ùåå ãëàãîë, ãëàãîë- ñìûñëîâîé ïðåäëî-
ñâÿçêà to be + not ãëàãîë æåíèÿ

My mother has not (hasn’t) come home yet.

You must not (mustn’t) leave him alone.

The children are not (aren’t) happy here.


176 Раздел 2. Синтаксис

Простое предложение
Simple Sentence

Простое предложение — ýòî ïðåäëîæåíèå, êîòîðîå èìå-


åò îäíó ãðàììàòè÷åñêóþ îñíîâó, ñîñòîÿùóþ èç ãëàâíûõ
÷ëåíîâ: ïîäëåæàùåãî è ñêàçóåìîãî èëè èç îäíîãî ãëàâ-
íîãî ÷ëåíà.
×ëåíàìè ïðåäëîæåíèÿ íàçûâàþòñÿ ñëîâà, âõîäÿùèå â ñî-
ñòàâ ïðåäëîæåíèÿ è îòâå÷àþùèå íà êàêîé-ëèáî âîïðîñ.
×ëåíû ïðåäëîæåíèÿ äåëÿòñÿ íà ãëàâíûå è âòîðîñòå-
ïåííûå.

ÃËÀÂÍÛÅ
÷ËÅÍÛ ÏÐÅÄËÎÆÅÍÈß

Ïîäëåæàùåå Ñêàçóåìîå
(The Subject) (The Predicate)

ÂÒÎÐÎÑÒÅÏÅÍÍÛÅ ÷ËÅÍÛ ÏÐÅÄËÎÆÅÍÈß

Äîïîëíåíèå Ââîäíûå
(the Object) ïðåäëîæåíèÿ
(Parentheses)

Îïðåäåëåíèå Îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî
(the Attribute) (the Adverbial)

ÄÎÏÎËÍÅÍÈÅ (THE OBJECT)

Ïðÿìîå Êîñâåííîå Ïðåäëîæíîå


(the Direct (the Indirect (the Prepositional
Object) Object) Object)
Простое предложение 177

Типы простого предложения

Ïî íàëè÷èþ ãëàâíûõ ÷ëåíîâ ïðîñòûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ äå-


ëÿòñÿ íà ïîëíûå, íåïîëíûå, ñëîâà-ïðåäëîæåíèÿ è ôðà-
çû-ïðåäëîæåíèÿ.

Îäíîñîñòàâíîå — ãðàììàòè÷åñêàÿ îñ- Winter!


íîâà ñîñòîèò èç îäíîãî ãëàâíîãî ÷ëåíà, Indian summer.
âûðàæåííîãî ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì, èíôè- To see him here!
íèòèâîì èëè ãåðóíäèåì Listening to Jane
again!

Äâóñî- Íåðàñïðîñòðàí¸ííîå — ñî- John smiled.


ñòàâ- ñòîèò òîëüêî èç ãëàâíûõ Mary will come.
íîå — ÷ëåíîâ ïðåäëîæåíèÿ She will be
ãðàììà- sleeping.
òè÷åñêàÿ
îñíîâà Ðàñïðî- Ïîëíîå — âû- It sounds
ñîñòîèò ñòðàí¸í- ðàæåíî è ïîä- strange.
èç äâóõ íîå — ñî- ëåæàùåå, I haven’t seen
ãëàâíûõ ñòîèò èç è ñêàçóåìîå him.
÷ëåíîâ: ãëàâíûõ
ïîäëå- è âòîðî- Íåïîëíîå — íå Sounds strange.
æàùåãî ñòåïåííûõ âûðàæåíî ïîä- Haven’t seen
è ñêàçó- ÷ëåíîâ ëåæàùåå ëèáî him.
åìîãî ïðåäëîæå- ñêàçóåìîå, ëèáî
íèÿ îáà ýòèõ ÷ëåíà

Ïîäëåæàùåå (The Subject)

Ïîäëåæàùåå
Ïðèìåðû
ìîæåò áûòü âûðàæåíî:
èìåíåì ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì The Moon is the satellite of
the Earth.

ìåñòîèìåíèåì They are first-year students.


One must keep one’s word.
Who is on duty today? No
one knows him.
178 Раздел 2. Синтаксис

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ïîäëåæàùåå
Ïðèìåðû
ìîæåò áûòü âûðàæåíî:
èíôèíèòèâîì èëè èíôèíè- To do this sum is very
òèâíûì îáîðîòîì difficult. For him to come is
out of the question.
ãåðóíäèåì èëè ãåðóíäèàëü- Speaking is the best way of
íûì îáîðîòîì learning any language.
êîëè÷åñòâåííûì èëè ïî- I like all his novels, but
ðÿäêîâûì ÷èñëèòåëüíûì the second is the best. Your
brother’s gonig abroad is
impossible.
ëþáûì ñëîâîì èëè ñëîâî- “Had” is the Past Tense of
ñî÷åòàíèåì, óïîòðåáëÿå- the verb to “have”.
ìûì â çíà÷åíèè ñóùåñòâè-
òåëüíîãî
ïðèäàòî÷íûì ïðåäëîæå- It’s a pity that she is ill.
íèåì

Âèäû íåïîëíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé1

Âèä íåïîëíîãî
Ïðèìåðû
ïðåäëîæåíèÿ
Îòñóòñòâóåò ïîäëåæà- Don’t know him.
ùåå (I don’t know him.)
Îòñóòñòâóåò ñêàçóåìîå Who knows the answer? — Jack.
(Jack knows.)
Îòñóòñòâóåò ÷àñòü ñêà- You seen him?
çóåìîãî (Have you seen him?)
Îòñóòñòâóåò ïîäëåæà- Reading a book?
ùåå è ÷àñòü ñêàçóåìîãî (Are you reading a book?)
Îòñóòñòâóþò ïîäëåæà- What are you looking at? — The
ùåå è ñêàçóåìîå tree. (I’m looking at the tree.)

1
Íåïîëíûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ õàðàêòåðíû äëÿ ðàçãîâîðíîé
ðå÷è.
Простое предложение 179

Безличные предложения
(Impersonal Sentences)

Безличное предложение (the Impersonal Sentence) — äâó-


ñîñòàâíîå ïðåäëîæåíèå ñ ôîðìàëüíûì ïîäëåæàùèì, âû-
ðàæåííûì ìåñòîèìåíèåì it, êîòîðîå íà ðóññêèé ÿçûê íå
ïåðåâîäèòñÿ.

Óïîòðåáëåíèå áåçëè÷íûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé

Óïîòðåáëåíèå Ïðèìåðû

Äëÿ îáîçíà÷åíèÿ âðå- It’s six o’clock. — Øåñòü ÷àñîâ.


ìåíè è ðàññòîÿíèÿ It’s a long way from here. —
Îòñþäà äàëåêî.

Äëÿ îáîçíà÷åíèÿ ÿâëå- It often rains in London. —


íèé ïðèðîäû, ñîñòîÿ-  Ëîíäîíå ÷àñòî èä¸ò äîæäü.
íèÿ ïîãîäû è îêðóæà- It’s getting dark. — Òåìíååò.
þùåé îáñòàíîâêè

Òèïû ñêàçóåìûõ

Ñîñòàâíîå
Ïðîñòîå ãëàãîëüíîå
èìåííîå
ìîäàëüíîå ôàçîâîå
Âûðàæàåò- Âûðàæà- Ìîäàëü- Ãëàãîë, îáî- Ãëàãîë-
ñÿ ãëàãî- åòñÿ ôðà- íûé ãëà- çíà÷àþ- ñâÿçêà
ëîì â ëè÷- çàìè1 ãîë + èí- ùèé íà÷àëî, (to be,
íîé ôîðìå, (have ôèíèòèâ ïðîäîëæå- to get,
à òàêæå a look, íèå, êîíåö to seem)3
êîíñòðóê- make fun äåéñòâèÿ2 + èìåííàÿ
öèåé there of) (to begin, ÷àñòü (ïðå-
is/are to start) + äèêàòèâ)
èíôèíèòèâ/
ãåðóíäèé
180 Раздел 2. Синтаксис

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ñîñòàâíîå
Ïðîñòîå ãëàãîëüíîå
èìåííîå
ìîäàëüíîå ôàçîâîå

He is He has You must We went on My house


reading never do it right dancing all is new.
a book. He made fun now. He night. They Mary
has read of me. has to began to seems
the book. I decided think of talk like old happy.
There is to have his future. friends.
a book on a look at
the table. it.

1
To catch sight of, to keep track of, to have a smoke, to
have dinner, to make allowance for (ïðèíèìàòü ÷òî-ëèáî
âî âíèìàíèå), to make fun of, to make use of, to make an
effort, to make arrangements, to pay attention to, to put
pressure on, to take advantage of, to take a walk, to take
notice of
2
To begin, to start, to continue, to go on, to keep, to stop,
to finish, to cease
3
To be, to look, to feel, to taste, to smell, to sound, to get,
to grow, to become, to turn, to prove, to remain, to keep,
to continue, to seem, to appear

Ïðåäèêàòèâ (èìåííàÿ ÷àñòü ñîñòàâíîãî ñêàçóåìîãî)

Ïðåäèêàòèâ
Ïðèìåðû
ìîæåò áûòü âûðàæåí:

ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì He has become a famous writer.

ïðèëàãàòåëüíûì Why do you always keep silent?

ïðè÷àñòèåì This cup is broken. He keeps


working hard.

èíôèíèòèâîì My ambition is to become


a famous singer.
Простое предложение 181

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ïðåäèêàòèâ
Ïðèìåðû
ìîæåò áûòü âûðàæåí:
÷èñëèòåëüíûì My brother is 5. He was the first
to come.
ìåñòîèìåíèåì This book is mine. It’s me.
íàðå÷èåì She is out.
ãåðóíäèåì Her hobby is collecting dolls.
ïðèäàòî÷íûì ïðåäëî- The question is if he will help
æåíèåì me.
ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì èëè The room is in disorder.
ìåñòîèìåíèåì ñ ïðåä- She was in despair.
ëîãîì

Структура предложения
с конструкцией there is/there are

 àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå øèðîêî óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ ïðåäëî-


æåíèÿ, íà÷èíàþùèåñÿ ñ êîíñòðóêöèè (îáîðîòà) there
is/there are ñî çíà÷åíèåì «èìååòñÿ, åñòü, íàõîäèòñÿ, ñó-
ùåñòâóåò». Â òàêèõ ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ ãîâîðèòñÿ î ñóùå-
ñòâîâàíèè, íàëè÷èè ïðåäìåòà, ëèöà, ÿâëåíèÿ, âûðà-
æåííîãî ïîäëåæàùèì è åù¸ íå èçâåñòíîãî ñîáåñåäíèêó
èëè ÷èòàòåëþ. Êîíñòðóêöèÿ there is/there are íå èìå-
åò ñàìîñòîÿòåëüíîãî çíà÷åíèÿ è íà ðóññêèé ÿçûê íå ïå-
ðåâîäèòñÿ.

Ãëàãîë
Îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî
Îáîðîò to be
Ïîäëåæàùåå (ìåñòà/
there â íóæíîé
âðåìåíè)
ôîðìå

There is a telephone in the hall.

There will be a concert tonight.


182 Раздел 2. Синтаксис

Îáùèå ñâåäåíèÿ î ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ


ñ êîíñòðóêöèåé there is/are

Îáùèå ñâåäåíèÿ Ïðèìåðû

Ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèå ïðåäëî- There is a lamp on the


æåíèÿ â ðóññêîì ÿçûêå table. — Íà ñòîëå ëàìïà.
íà÷èíàþòñÿ ñ îáñòîÿòåëü-
ñòâà ìåñòà èëè âðåìåíè

Ãëàãîë to be â ìîæåò There were lots of people in


óïîòðåáëÿòüñÿ â ðàçíûõ the hall. — Â çàëå áûëî ìíî-
ôîðìàõ âðåìåíè: there is/ ãî ëþäåé.
are, there was/were, there There will be a meeting
have/has been, there had tonight. — Ñåãîäíÿ âå÷åðîì
been, there will be áóäåò ñîáðàíèå.
There hasn’t been any snow
for two days. —  òå÷åíèå
äâóõ äíåé íå áûëî ñíåãà.

Åñëè â ïðåäëîæåíèè åñòü There is a boy and two


îäíîðîäíûå ïîäëåæàùèå, girls in the room. Â êîìíà-
ãëàãîë-ñêàçóåìîå îáû÷- òå ìàëü÷èê è äâå äåâî÷êè.
íî ñîãëàñóåòñÿ ñ ïåðâûì There are two girls and a boy
èç íèõ in the room. — Â êîìíàòå
äâå äåâî÷êè è ìàëü÷èê.

Ãëàãîë to be ïîñëå there There can be no doubt about


óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ â ñî÷åòàíèè it. —  ýòîì íåò íèêàêîãî
ñ ìîäàëüíûìè ãëàãîëàìè ñîìíåíèÿ.
(can, may, must, etc.) There must be somebody
inside. — Âíóòðè, äîëæíî
áûòü, êòî-òî åñòü.

Ïîñëå there ìîãóò óïîòðåá- There lived an old doctor in


ëÿòüñÿ è äðóãèå íåïåðå- the village. — Â ñåëå æèë
õîäíûå ãëàãîëû, ñõîæèå ñòàðûé äîêòîð.
ïî çíà÷åíèþ ñ to be: There came a knock on the
to live, to exist, to stand, door. — Ðàçäàëñÿ ñòóê
to lie, to live, to come â äâåðü.
Простое предложение 183

Îáðàçîâàíèå ïðåäëîæåíèé ðàçëè÷íîãî òèïà


ñ êîíñòðóêöèåé there is/there are

is (’s)
a book
will be
on the
There
books table.
were
some
have been
books

was no
book
is not
a book
(isn’t) on the
There
table.
will be no books
can’t be any books

Yes, there
Is is.
a book
Was No, there
isn’t.
on the
there
table? Yes, there
are.
Were books
No, there
Are any books
weren’t
(any).

There is
a book
on the
on the table.
What is there
table? There are
(some)
books on
the table.
184 Раздел 2. Синтаксис

Îòðèöàòåëüíûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ
ñ êîíñòðóêöèåé there is/there are

Îáðàçîâàíèå Ïðèìåðû

Ñ ïîìîùüþ îòðèöàòåëüíîé There isn’t a book on the


÷àñòèöû not, åñëè ïîäëåæà- shelf.
ùåå âûðàæåíî èñ÷èñëÿåìûì There aren’t any cars in
ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì â åäèí- the street.
ñòâåííîì ÷èñëå èëè èìå-
åò îïðåäåëåíèå, âûðàæåííîå
íåîïðåäåë¸ííûì ìåñòîèìå-
íèåì any èëè ÷èñëèòåëüíûì
Ñ ïîìîùüþ íåîïðåäåë¸í- There are no books on the
íûõ ìåñòîèìåíèé no, no one, shelf.
nobody, nothing There is nothing in the box.
Ñ ïîìîùüþ not … anyone, not I have not read anything
… anybody, not … anything about it.

Второстепенные члены предложения


(The Secondary Parts of the Sentences)

Дополнение (the Object)

Ñïîñîáû âûðàæåíèÿ ïðÿìîãî äîïîëíåíèÿ


(the Direct Object)

Ïðÿìîå äîïîëíåíèå (the Direct Object) îçíà÷àåò ëèöî èëè


ïðåäìåò, íà êîòîðûé íàïðàâëåíî äåéñòâèå, âûðàæåííîå
ãëàãîëîì-ñêàçóåìûì.

Ïðÿìîå äîïîëíåíèå
Ïðèìåðû
ìîæåò áûòü âûðàæåíî:

ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì I have bought a new car.

ìåñòîèìåíèåì I didn’t see anybody in the


room.
Простое предложение 185

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ïðÿìîå äîïîëíåíèå
Ïðèìåðû
ìîæåò áûòü âûðàæåíî:

÷èñëèòåëüíûì How many newspapers did


you buy? — I bought three.
èíôèíèòèâîì She wants to buy a bike.
èíôèíèòèâíûì îáîðîòîì Íå asked for the documents
to be sent to him by post.
ãåðóíäèåì I like swimming.
ãåðóíäèàëüíûì îáîðîòîì I don’t like his going there.
ïðèäàòî÷íûì ïðåäëîæåíèåì He says that he is a genius.

Ìåñòî ïðÿìîãî äîïîëíåíèÿ â ïîâåñòâîâàòåëüíûõ


è ïîâåëèòåëüíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ

Ïîäëå- Ïðÿìîå Äðóãèå ÷ëåíû


Ñêàçóåìîå
æàùåå äîïîëíåíèå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ

Taras reads stories about


adventures.
Tom, take this chair, please.

Ñïîñîáû âûðàæåíèÿ êîñâåííîãî äîïîëíåíèÿ


(the Indirect Object)

Êîñâåííîå äîïîëíåíèå (the Indirect Object) îçíà÷àåò ëèöî,


ê êîòîðîìó îáðàùåíî äåéñòâèå, íåïîñðåäñòâåííî íàïðàâ-
ëåííîå íà äðóãîé îáúåêò.

Êîñâåííîå äîïîëíåíèå
Ïðèìåðû
ìîæåò áûòü âûðàæåíî:

ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì áåç ïðåä- Mother gave the child


ëîãà â îáùåì ïàäåæå a toy.
186 Раздел 2. Синтаксис

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Êîñâåííîå äîïîëíåíèå
Ïðèìåðû
ìîæåò áûòü âûðàæåíî:

ìåñòîèìåíèåì â îáúåêòíîì Give us some more time,


ïàäåæå please.

Ìåñòî êîñâåííîãî äîïîëíåíèÿ â ïðåäëîæåíèè

Êîñâåííîå Ïðÿìîå
Ïîäëåæàùåå Ñêàçóåìîå
äîïîëíåíèå äîïîëíåíèå
The teacher showed the pupils an interesting
picture.

Ñïîñîáû âûðàæåíèÿ ïðåäëîæíîãî äîïîëíåíèÿ


(the Prepositional Object)

Ïðåäëîæíîå äîïîëíåíèå
Ïðèìåðû
ìîæåò áûòü âûðàæåíî:

ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì ñ ïðåä- We talked about the


ëîãîì weather.
ìåñòîèìåíèåì ñ ïðåäëîãîì He never argues with me.
ãåðóíäèåì ñ ïðåäëîãîì He insists on going there
right now.
ãåðóíäèàëüíûì îáîðîòîì I insist on his writing the
letter immediately.

Ìåñòî ïðåäëîæíîãî äîïîëíåíèÿ â ïðåäëîæåíèè

Ïðåäëîæ-
íîå äîïîë-
Ïðÿìîå íåíèå
Ïîäëå- Ñêàçó- Îáñòîÿ-
äîïîë-
æàùåå åìîå Êîñâåí- òåëüñòâî
íåíèå
íîå äîïîë-
íåíèå
He bought the disk for me at the shop.
Простое предложение 187

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ïðåäëîæ-
íîå äîïîë-
Ïðÿìîå íåíèå
Ïîäëå- Ñêàçó- Îáñòîÿ-
äîïîë-
æàùåå åìîå Êîñâåí- òåëüñòâî
íåíèå
íîå äîïîë-
íåíèå
He bought me the disk at the shop.
They explained1 the rule to me at once.

1
Ãëàãîëû to explain to, to introduce to, to dictate to, to read
to, to describe to, to refer to íå äîïóñêàþò ïðåîáðàçîâà-
íèÿ, ñîäåðæàùåãîñÿ â ïðèìåðàõ 1 è 2.

Определение (the Attribute)

Определение (the Attribute) — ýòî âòîðîñòåïåííûé ÷ëåí


ïðåäëîæåíèÿ, êîòîðûé îáîçíà÷àåò ïðèçíàê ïðåäìåòà.
Îïðåäåëåíèå áûâàåò ïðåïîçèòèâíûì è ïîñòïîçèòèâíûì.
Ïðåïîçèòèâíîå îïðåäåëåíèå ñòîèò ïåðåä îïðåäåëÿåìûì
ñëîâîì, à ïîñòïîçèòèâíîå — ïîñëå íåãî.

Ñïîñîáû âûðàæåíèÿ îïðåäåëåíèÿ

Ïðåïîçèòèâíîå îïðåäåëåíèå
Ïðèìåðû
ìîæåò áûòü âûðàæåíî:
ïðèëàãàòåëüíûì It’s a lovely day today!
ïðè÷àñòèåì We live in a changing
world. The unexpected news
shocked everybody.
÷èñëèòåëüíûì It takes five years to become
a teacher.
ìåñòîèìåíèåì Travelling is my hobby.
188 Раздел 2. Синтаксис

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ïðåïîçèòèâíîå îïðåäåëåíèå
Ïðèìåðû
ìîæåò áûòü âûðàæåíî:
ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì â îáùåì It was a November day.
ïàäåæå
ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì â ïðèòÿ- Mike’s birthday is on the
æàòåëüíîì ïàäåæå eighth of March.
ïðè÷àñòíûì îáîðîòîì When I saw a star falling
from the sky, I made a wish.
ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì ñ ïðåä- The top of the mountain is
ëîãîì always snow-covered.
èíôèíèòèâîì I had a great desire to tell
him the truth.
ãåðóíäèåì ñ ïðåäëîãîì I didn’t like his idea of
going there alone.

Обстоятельство (the Adverbial)

Обстоятельство (the Adverbial) — ýòî âòîðîñòåïåííûé


÷ëåí ïðåäëîæåíèÿ, êîòîðûé îáîçíà÷àåò, êàê è ïðè êàêèõ
îáñòîÿòåëüñòâàõ ñîâåðøèëîñü äåéñòâèå (ò. å. óêàçûâàåò
âðåìÿ, ìåñòî, ñïîñîá, ñòåïåíü, ïðè÷èíó, öåëü ñîâåðøåíèÿ
ýòîãî äåéñòâèÿ, à òàêæå ñîïóòñòâóþùèå îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà).
Ïî çíà÷åíèþ îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà äåëÿòñÿ íà îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà
âðåìåíè, ÷àñòîòû, ñïîñîáà äåéñòâèÿ, öåëè, ïðè÷èíû, ðå-
çóëüòàòà è ñòåïåíè.

Ñïîñîáû âûðàæåíèÿ îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà

Îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî
Ïðèìåðû
ìîæåò áûòü âûðàæåíî:
íàðå÷èåì You should take life more
seriously.
ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì Íå spent the holiday in the
ñ ïðåäëîãîì country.
Простое предложение 189

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî
Ïðèìåðû
ìîæåò áûòü âûðàæåíî:

ïðè÷àñòèåì She stood in the doorway


talking to John.

ïðè÷àñòíûì îáîðîòîì Coming into the room, she


switched on the TV-set at once.

èíôèíèòèâîì I did my best to help her.

ãåðóíäèåì ñ ïðåäëîãîì One learns by failing.

ïðèäàòî÷íûì ïðåäëî- As he was very busy, he forgot


æåíèåì about his own wedding.

Ìåñòî ðàçëè÷íûõ âèäîâ îáñòîÿòåëüñòâ


â ïðåäëîæåíèè

Îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà âðåìåíè (Adverbials of Time):

h ñòàâÿòñÿ â íà÷àëå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ Last spring we went


to China.

h ïîñëå îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà ìåñòà, I left two hours ago.


ò. å. â êîíöå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ We’ll come at three
o’clock tomorrow.

Îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà ìåñòà (Adverbials of Place):

h ñòàâÿòñÿ ïîñëå îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà Hang this picture


îáðàçà äåéñòâèÿ, ò. å. â êîíöå above the sofa.
ïðåäëîæåíèÿ

h åñëè â ïðåäëîæåíèè åñòü äâà îá- He went to a rest


ñòîÿòåëüñòâà ìåñòà, òî áîëåå òî÷- camp in the South.
íîå ñòàâèòñÿ ïåðâûì

h ïåðåä îáñòîÿòåëüñòâîì îáðà- I met him there by


çà äåéñòâèÿ, åñëè îíî âûðàæåíî chance.
íàðå÷èÿìè here èëè there
190 Раздел 2. Синтаксис

Ïðîäîëæåíèå òàáëèöû
Îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà ÷àñòîòû è ïîâòîðÿåìîñòè (Adverbials of
Indefinite Time and Frequåncy):
h åñëè îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà ÷àñòîòû âû- He often goes for
ðàæåíû íàðå÷èåì, òî îíè ñòà- a walk in the
âÿòñÿ ïåðåä ñìûñëîâûì ãëà- evenings. She is
ãîëîì, íî ïîñëå ìîäàëüíûõ always ready for her
è âñïîìîãàòåëüíûõ ãëàãîëîâ, lessons. You must
à òàêæå ãëàãîëà to be be never late for
classes.
h â âîïðîñèòåëüíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ Does he often speak
ñòàâÿòñÿ ïîñëå ïîäëåæàùåãî English at the lesson?
h îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà ÷àñòîòû, âû- She has been to
ðàæåííûå ãðóïïîé ñëîâ twice Kiev twice a month.
a year, every other day, ñòàâÿòñÿ
â êîíöå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ
Îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà ñòåïåíè (Adverbials of Degree):
h îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà ñòåïåíè, êîòîðûå They have almost
îïðåäåëÿþò ãëàãîë, ñòàâÿòñÿ ïå- finished the work.
ðåä ñìûñëîâûì ãëàãîëîì è ïîñëå
âñïîìîãàòåëüíîãî ãëàãîëà,
ìîäàëüíîãî ãëàãîëà èëè ãëàãî-
ëà to be
h îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà ñòåïåíè, êîòî- I am always glad to
ðûå îïðåäåëÿþò èìåíà ïðèëàãà- go for a walk with
òåëüíûå èëè íàðå÷èÿ, ñòàâÿòñÿ you.
ïåðåä òåìè ñëîâàìè, ê êîòîðûì
îíè îòíîñÿòñÿ
Îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà îáðàçà äåéñòâèÿ (Adverbials of Manner):
h åñëè îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà îáðàçà äåé- Don’t run so fast.
ñòâèÿ âûðàæåíû íàðå÷èåì, òî Listen to your
îíè ñòàâÿòñÿ ïîñëå ñìûñëîâîãî teacher attentivelly.
ãëàãîëà
h ïðè ãëàãîëàõ ñ îáîñîáëåííûì The man quickly
ñóôôèêñîì îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà ñïî- went out. The man
ñîáà äåéñòâèÿ ìîãóò ñòàâèòüñÿ went out quietly.
ïåðåä ãëàãîëîì èëè ïîñëå ñóô-
ôèêñà
Простое предложение 191

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

h åñëè îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî ñïîñîáà äåé- She could do it only


ñòâèÿ âûðàæåíî èìåíåì with our help.
ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì èëè ãåðóíäèåì
ñ ïðåäëîãîì, òî îíî ñòîèò ïîñëå
ãëàãîëà-ñêàçóåìîãî è åãî äîïîë-
íåíèÿ èëè â íà÷àëå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ
Îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà ïðè÷èíû Being tired he
(Adverbials of Cause) ñòàâÿòñÿ decided to have
â íà÷àëå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ a rest.
Îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà ñëåäñòâèÿ She was clever
(Adverbials of Result) ñòàâÿòñÿ enough to understand
ïîñëå ñêàçóåìîãî everything.
Îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà öåëè (Adverbials of He’ll have to hurry
Purpose) ñòàâÿòñÿ ïîñëå ãëàãîëà to catch the bus.

Вводные члены предложения (Parentheses)

Ââîäíûå ÷ëåíû ïðåäëîæåíèÿ (Parentheses) èñïîëüçóþò-


ñÿ â ïðåäëîæåíèè äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ îòíîøåíèÿ ãîâîðÿùåãî
ê âûñêàçûâàåìîé ìûñëè, ïðèäàâàÿ åé ðàçëè÷íûå îòòåíêè
(ïðåäïîëîæåíèå, óâåðåííîñòü, ñîæàëåíèå è ò. ï.).

Ââîäíûå ÷ëåíû ïðåäëîæå-


Ïðèìåðû
íèÿ ìîãóò áûòü âûðàæåíû:

ìîäàëüíûìè ñëîâàìè èëè Unfortunately my train was


ôðàçàìè late.
Of course I’ll come with you.
ïðè÷àñòíûì îáîðîòîì Generally speaking, you are
not right.
èíôèíèòèâíûì îáîðîòîì To tell you the truth, I don’t
know what to say.
ââîäíûì ïðåäëîæåíèåì I must say you are quite right.
ïðÿìûì îáðàùåíèåì Good morning, Tom!
192 Раздел 2. Синтаксис

Сложное предложение
Composite Sentence
Сложносочинённое предложение (The Compound Sentence)
ñîñòîèò èç äâóõ èëè íåñêîëüêèõ ðàâíîöåííûõ ïî ñîäåð-
æàíèþ ïðîñòûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé, ñâÿçàííûõ ìåæäó ñîáîé
ñî÷èíèòåëüíûìè ñîþçàìè.

Ñïîñîáû ñâÿçè ÷àñòåé


ñëîæíîñî÷èíåííîãî ïðåäëîæåíèÿ

Ñïîñîáû ñâÿçè Ïðèìåðû


Ïðè ïîìîùè ñî÷èíèòåëü- The rain stopped and the
íûõ ñîþçîâ and, as well as, sun came out. Not only
not only … but also, both … children but also grown-ups
and è äð. enjoyed the film.
Ïðè ïîìîùè ïðîòèâèòåëü- They will go to London, but
íûõ ñîþçîâ but, while, before they start, they will
whereas è äð. call us up.
Ïðè ïîìîùè ðàçäåëèòåëü- Either you stay in Moscow
íûõ ñîþçîâ or, either … or, or you go to Paris.
neither … nor è äð.
Ïðè ïîìîùè ïðè÷èííî-ñëåä- You should close the window
ñòâåííûõ ñîþçîâ for, so è äð. for it’s cold outside.
Áåññîþçíûì ñïîñîáîì Love me, love my dog.

Сложноподчинённое предложение (The Complex Sentence)


ñîñòîèò èç ãëàâíîãî ïðåäëîæåíèÿ (the Principal Clause)
è îäíîãî èëè íåñêîëüêèõ çàâèñèìûõ ïðèäàòî÷íûõ ïðåä-
ëîæåíèé (the Subordinate Clause), êîòîðûå ïîÿñíÿþò åãî.

Òèïû ïðèäàòî÷íûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé

Òèïû ïðèäàòî÷íûõ
Ïðèìåðû
ïðåäëîæåíèé
Ïðèäàòî÷íûå ïðåäëî- That he is a bad friend is well
æåíèÿ ïîäëåæàùèå known. What is done can't be
(Subject Clauses) undone.
Сложное предложение 193

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Òèïû ïðèäàòî÷íûõ
Ïðèìåðû
ïðåäëîæåíèé
Ïðèäàòî÷íûå ïðåäèêà- The suggestion was that no one
òèâíûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ should interfere. The reason for my
(Predicative Clauses) coming is that I hoped to see you.
Äîïîëíèòåëüíûå ïðè- I don’t know where you live. He
äàòî÷íûå ïðåäëîæå- has just gone away saying that
íèÿ (Object Clauses) he will return in an hour.
Îïðåäåëèòåëüíûå ïðè- The man who was here yesterday
äàòî÷íûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ is a well-known painter. His words
(Attributive Clauses) that he wasn't coming upset me.
Îáñòîÿòåëüñòâåííûå Nobody will speak to him until he
ïðèäàòî÷íûå ïðåäëîæå- apologizes. When the cat is away,
íèÿ (Adverbial Clauses) the mice play.

Ñïîñîáû ñâÿçè ïðèäàòî÷íûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé ñ ãëàâíûì

Ñ ïîìîùüþ ñîþ- Ñ ïîìîùüþ ñîþç- Áåññîþçíûì ñïî-


çîâ ïîä÷èíåíèÿ íûõ ñëîâ where, how, ñîáîì
when, that, if, what, who (whom),
because è äð. which, that è äð.
We don’t know We don’t know where The book you’ve
when she will do he is. seen on the table
this work. is my friend’s one.

Ñïîñîáû ñâÿçè ïðèäàòî÷íûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé ïîäëåæàùèõ


(Subject Clauses) ñ ãëàâíûì ïðåäëîæåíèåì

Ïðèäàòî÷íûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ïîäëåæàùèå (Subject Clauses)


âûïîëíÿþò â ñëîæíîì ïðåäëîæåíèè ôóíêöèþ ïîäëåæàùåãî.

Ñïîñîáû ñâÿçè Ïðèìåðû


Ñîþçàìè that, That he is a bad friend is well
whether, if known. Whether he will come
tomorrow isn’t known yet.
194 Раздел 2. Синтаксис

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ñïîñîáû ñâÿçè Ïðèìåðû

Ñîþçíûìè ñëîâàìè What’s worrying her now is who will


who (whom), whose, come. It is uncertain when we shall
what, why, when, start. How this happened is not
which, where, how clear.

Áåññîþçíûì ñïîñî- It’s a pity you couldn’t come to my


áîì birthday party.

Ñïîñîáû ñâÿçè ïðèäàòî÷íûõ ïðåäèêàòèâíûõ


ïðåäëîæåíèé (Predicative Clauses) ñ ãëàâíûì
ïðåäëîæåíèåì

Ïðèäàòî÷íûå ïðåäèêàòèâíûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ âûïîëíÿþò


â ñëîæíîì ïðåäëîæåíèè ôóíêöèþ èìåííîé ÷àñòè ñîñòàâ-
íîãî ñêàçóåìîãî (ïðåäèêàòèâà).

Ñïîñîáû ñâÿçè Ïðèìåðû

Ñîþçàìè that, whether, if The fact is that she didn’t


take part in the meeting at all.
The question is whether the
shop will still be open.

Ñîþçíûìè ñëîâàìè who The weather is not what it was


(whom), whose, what, yesterday. This is why he
which, when, where, how, comes here. That is where she
why lives.

Ñïîñîáû ñâÿçè äîïîëíèòåëüíûõ ïðèäàòî÷íûõ


ïðåäëîæåíèé (Object Clauses)

Äîïîëíèòåëüíûå ïðèäàòî÷íûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ (Object


Clauses) âûïîëíÿþò â ñëîæíîì ïðåäëîæåíèè ôóíêöèþ
ïðÿìîãî èëè ïðåäëîæíîãî äîïîëíåíèÿ ê ãëàãîëó èëè èìå-
íè ïðèëàãàòåëüíîìó â ãëàâíîì ïðåäëîæåíèè.
Сложное предложение 195

Ñïîñîáû ñâÿçè Ïðèìåðû


Ñîþçàìè that, if, whether Do you know if he’ll come in
time?
Ñîþçíûìè ñëîâàìè what, I don’t know what he is doing.
who (whom), which, whose, I don’t remember where she
when, where, how, why lives.
Áåññîþçíûì ñïîñîáîì I wish you’d come to see my
parents.

Ñïîñîáû ñâÿçè îïðåäåëèòåëüíûõ ïðèäàòî÷íûõ


ïðåäëîæåíèé (Attributive Clause)

Îïðåäåëèòåëüíûå ïðèäàòî÷íûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ âûïîëíÿþò


â ñëîæíîì ïðåäëîæåíèè ôóíêöèþ îïðåäåëåíèÿ.

Ñïîñîáû ñâÿçè Ïðèìåðû

Ñîþçíûìè ñëîâàìè:
ìåñòîèìåíèÿìè who My sister, who is an engineer,
(whom), whose, which, lives in London. His words that
that he wasn't coming upset me.
íàðå÷èÿìè when, I remember the day when I first
where, why met you.
Áåññîþçíûì ñïîñîáîì He can take any book he needs.

Виды придаточных обстоятельственных предложений

Îáñòîÿòåëüñòâåííûå ïðèäàòî÷íûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ (Adverbial


Clauses) âûïîëíÿþò â ñëîæíîì ïðåäëîæåíèè ôóíêöèþ ðàç-
íûõ îáñòîÿòåëüñòâ (ìåñòà, âðåìåíè, ïðè÷èíû), îòíîñÿùèõ-
ñÿ ê ãëàãîëó èëè ïðèëàãàòåëüíîìó ãëàâíîãî ïðåäëîæåíèÿ.
Ïî çíà÷åíèþ îáñòîÿòåëüñòâåííûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ äåëÿòñÿ íà
îáñòîÿòåëüñòâåííûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ âðåìåíè, ìåñòà, ñïîñîáà
äåéñòâèÿ èëè ñðàâíåíèÿ, ïðè÷èíû, öåëè, ñëåäñòâèÿ, ïðåä-
ïîëîæèòåëüíûå è óñëîâíûå.
196 Раздел 2. Синтаксис

Âèäû ïðèäàòî÷íûõ
Ïðèìåðû
ïðåäëîæåíèé
Ïðèäàòî÷íûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ âðå- I’ll ring you up after
ìåíè (Adverbial Clauses of Time) Tim has come. When the
ââîäÿòñÿ ñîþçàìè when, as soon cat is away, the mice
as, until (till), after, before, as, play. As I was going down
while, as long as, since the street, I met Tom.
Ïðèäàòî÷íûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ìåñ- Wherever he went, he
òà (Adverbial Clauses of Place) was welcome. I am where
ââîäÿòñÿ íàðå÷èÿìè where, I belong.
wherever
Ïðèäàòî÷íûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ They were so tired that
ñëåäñòâèÿ (Adverbial Clauses of they decided to have
Result) ââîäÿòñÿ ñîþçàìè that, a break.
so that, such that
Ïðèäàòî÷íûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ Íå couldn’t come,
ïðè÷èíû (Adverbial Clauses because he was ill. Since
of Cause) ââîäÿòñÿ ñîþçàìè you were absent I went
because, as, since, for, now that home alone. Now that he
is here, we can talk.
Ïðèäàòî÷íûå îáñòîÿòåëüñòâåí- She looked as if she
íûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ îáðàçà äåéñò- was unhappy. She sings
âèÿ èëè ñðàâíåíèÿ (Adverbial so well that everyone
Clauses of Manner or Comparison) admires her. He works
ââîäÿòñÿ ñîþçàìè as, as (so) … as, as quickly as I do.
as if (as though), than, how, that
Ïðèäàòî÷íûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ öåëè You have to come in time
(Adverbial Clauses of Purpose) in order that you won’t
ââîäÿòñÿ ñîþçàìè so that, in miss the train. I’ll give
order that, in case (íà ñëó÷àé you some sandwiches in
åñëè), so case you get hungry.
Ïðèäàòî÷íûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ What will you do if it
(óñëîâèÿ) (Adverbial Clauses of rains? You may take my
Condition) ââîäÿòñÿ ñîþçàìè car provided that you
if, unless, provided (providing) drive carefully.
that, on condition that, suppose
(supposing) that, in the case
(â ñëó÷àå åñëè)
Сложное предложение 197

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Âèäû ïðèäàòî÷íûõ
Ïðèìåðû
ïðåäëîæåíèé

Ïðèäàòî÷íûå óñòóïèòåëüíûå She hasn’t bought me


ïðåäëîæåíèÿ (Adverbial Clauses a newspaper though
of Concession) ââîäÿòñÿ ñîþçàìè she promised. However
though, although, in spite of the hard she tried, nothing
fact that, even if, even though, seemed to change. The
no matter who/what/when/how, streets were empty in
à òàêæå íàðå÷èÿìè whatever, spite of the fact that if
however was only eight o’clock.

Придаточные предложения условия


(Conditional Clauses)

 ñëîæíîïîä÷èí¸ííûõ ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ ñ ïðèäàòî÷íûì óñ-


ëîâèÿ ïðèäàòî÷íûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ âûðàæàþò óñëîâèå,
à ãëàâíûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ — ñëåäñòâèå, èç íåãî âûòåêàþ-
ùåå. Ïðèäàòî÷íûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ óñëîâèÿ ñîåäèíÿþòñÿ
ñ ãëàâíûì ïðåäëîæåíèåì ñîþçàìè if (åñëè), unless (åñëè ...
íå), provided (that), providing (that), on condition (that) (ïðè
óñëîâèè åñëè, ïðè óñëîâèè ÷òî), supposing (that), suppose
(that) (ïðåäïîëîæèì, ÷òî).

Òèïû óñëîâíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé

Òèï Ïðèäàòî÷íîå Ãëàâíîå


óñëîâèÿ ïðåäëîæåíèå ïðåäëîæåíèå
I òèï — Present Simple Future Simple
ðåàëüíîå (Indefinite) (Indefinite)
óñëîâèå
(îòíîñèò- If he works hard, he will pass his exam.
ñÿ ê áóäó-
ùåìó âðå- Åñëè îí áóäåò îí ñäàñò ýêçàìåí.
ìåíè) ìíîãî ðàáîòàòü,
198 Раздел 2. Синтаксис

Ïðîäîëæåíèå òàáëèöû

Òèï Ïðèäàòî÷íîå Ãëàâíîå


óñëîâèÿ ïðåäëîæåíèå ïðåäëîæåíèå

should (ñî âñåìè Future Simple


ëèöàìè) + èíôè- (Indefinite)
íèòèâ áåç to
If he should come, I shall ask him for help.
Åñëè îí (âäðóã) ÿ ïîïðîøó åãî ïîìî÷ü.
ïðèä¸ò,

II òèï — Past Simple would (could, might) +


ìàëîâå- (Indefinite)1 Indefinite Infinitive
ðîÿòíîå If he worked hard, he would pass his exam.
óñëîâèå Åñëè áû îí ñòàðà- îí ñäàë áû ýêçàìåí.
(îòíîñèò- òåëüíî ðàáîòàë,
ñÿ ê íà-
ñòîÿùåìó Past Continuous1 would (could, might) +
èëè áóäó- Continuous/Indefinite
ùåìó âðå- Infinitive
ìåíè) If it were raining I would be sleeping.
now, ÿ áû ñïàë.
Åñëè áû ñåé÷àñ I could go to bed.
ø¸ë äîæäü, ÿ ìîã áû ïîéòè ñïàòü.

III òèï — Past Perfect would (could, might) +


íåâûïîë- Perfect Infinitive
íèìîå If he had worked he would have passed
óñëîâèå hard, his exam.
(îòíîñèòñÿ Åñëè áû îí ìíîãî îí ñäàë áû ýêçàìåí
ê ïðîøåä- ðàáîòàë (ðàíüøå), (óæå).
øåìó
âðåìåíè) Past Perfect would (could, might)
Continuous + Perfect Continuous
Infinitive
If you hadn’t been I would have been
sitting in the back sitting there.
of the car during
the accident,
Åñëè áû âî âðåìÿ òàì áû ñèäåë ÿ.
àâàðèè òû íå ñè-
äåë íà çàäíåì ñè-
äåíüå ìàøèíû,
Сложное предложение 199

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Òèï Ïðèäàòî÷íîå Ãëàâíîå


óñëîâèÿ ïðåäëîæåíèå ïðåäëîæåíèå
ñìåøàí- II òèï III òèï
íûé òèï If he knew he would have
English well, translated the article
for you yesterday.
Åñëè áû îí çíàë îí ïåðåâ¸ë áû â÷åðà
õîðîøî àíãëèé- äëÿ âàñ ýòó ñòàòüþ.
ñêèé ÿçûê,
III òèï II òèï
If you had worked you wouldn’t be behind
harder last term, the rest of his class now.
Åñëè áû âû ðàáî- âû áû òåïåðü íå îò-
òàëè óñåðäíåå ñòàâàëè îò êëàññà.
â ïðîøëîé ÷åò-
âåðòè,

1
Ãëàãîë to be óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ â ïðèäàòî÷íîì ïðåäëîæåíèè
â ôîðìå ñîñëàãàòåëüíîãî íàêëîíåíèÿ (the Subjunctive
Mood), ò. å. ôîðìà were óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ ñî âñåìè ëèöàìè
åäèíñòâåííîãî è ìíîæåñòâåííîãî ÷èñëà.

Ïåðåâîä óñëîâíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé ïåðâîãî òèïà

Ïðèäàòî÷íîå
Ãëàâíîå ïðåäëîæåíèå
ïðåäëîæåíèå
Present Simple Future Simple (Indefinite) —
(Indefinite) — ïåðåâîäèò- ïåðåâîäèòñÿ ãëàãîëîì áóäó-
ñÿ ãëàãîëîì áóäóùåãî ùåãî âðåìåíè
âðåìåíè
If he uses the dictionary, he will translate the text.
Åñëè îí áóäåò ïîëüçî- îí ïåðåâåä¸ò òåêñò.
âàòüñÿ ñëîâàðåì,
should + èíôèíèòèâ áåç Future Simple (Indefinite) —
to — ïåðåâîäèòñÿ ãëàãî- ïåðåâîäèòñÿ ãëàãîëîì áóäó-
ëîì áóäóùåãî âðåìåíè ùåãî âðåìåíè
200 Раздел 2. Синтаксис

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ïðèäàòî÷íîå
Ãëàâíîå ïðåäëîæåíèå
ïðåäëîæåíèå

If you should need my help, I will certainly help you.


Åñëè òåáå (âäðóã) ïîíàäî-
áèòñÿ ìîÿ ïîìîùü, ÿ, êîíå÷íî, ïîìîãó òåáå.

Ïåðåâîä óñëîâíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé


âòîðîãî òèïà

Ïðèäàòî÷íîå
Ãëàâíîå ïðåäëîæåíèå
ïðåäëîæåíèå

Past Simple (Indefinite) — would + Indefinite


ïåðåâîäèòñÿ ãëàãîëîì Infinitive — ïåðåâîäèòñÿ
â ôîðìå ïðîøåäøåãî âðå- ãëàãîëîì â ôîðìå ïðîøåä-
ìåíè ñ ÷àñòèöåé áû) øåãî âðåìåíè ñ ÷àñòèöåé áû
èëè èëè
Past Continuous — ïåðå- could (might) + Indefinite
âîäèòñÿ ãëàãîëîì íåñî- Infinitive — ïåðåâîäèòñÿ ìîã
âåðøåííîãî âèäà â ïðî- áû/ìîãëè áû + èíôèíèòèâ
øåäøåì âðåìåíè èëè
ñ ÷àñòèöåé áû
would + Continuous
Infinitive — ïåðåâîäèòñÿ
ãëàãîëîì íåñîâåðøåííîãî
âèäà â ïðîøåäøåì âðåìåíè
ñ ÷àñòèöåé áû
èëè
could (might) + Continuous
Infinitive — ïåðåâîäèòñÿ ìîã
áû/ìîãëè áû + èíôèíèòèâ

If they were not busy, they would come to you today.


Åñëè áû îíè íå áûëè çà- îíè áû ïðèøëè ê òåáå ñå-
íÿòû, ãîäíÿ.

If you tried, you could do it.


Åñëè áû òû ïîñòàðàëñÿ, òû ìîã áû ýòî ñäåëàòü.
Сложное предложение 201

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ïðèäàòî÷íîå
Ãëàâíîå ïðåäëîæåíèå
ïðåäëîæåíèå
If we were going by car, I would be driving.
Åñëè áû ìû åõàëè íà ìà- å¸ áû â¸ë ÿ.
øèíå,
If he were home, he could be sleeping.
Åñëè áû îí áûë äîìà, îí áû ñïàë.

Ïåðåâîä óñëîâíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé


òðåòüåãî òèïà

Ïðèäàòî÷íîå
Ãëàâíîå ïðåäëîæåíèå
ïðåäëîæåíèå
Past Perfect — ïåðåâî- would + Perfect Infinitive — ïå-
äèòñÿ ãëàãîëîì â ôîð- ðåâîäèòñÿ ãëàãîëîì â ôîðìå
ìå ïðîøåäøåãî âðåìå- ïðîøåäøåãî âðåìåíè ñ ÷àñòè-
íè ñ ÷àñòèöåé áû öåé áû
èëè èëè
Past Perfect could (might) + Perfect
Continuous — ïåðå- Infinitive — ïåðåâîäèòñÿ ìîã
âîäèòñÿ ãëàãîëîì íå- áû/ìîãëè áû + èíôèíèòèâ
ñîâåðøåííîãî âèäà â èëè
ïðîøåäøåì âðåìåíè
would + Perfect Continuous
ñ ÷àñòèöåé áû
Infinitive — ïåðåâîäèòñÿ ãëà-
ãîëîì íåñîâåðøåííîãî âèäà
â ïðîøåäøåì âðåìåíè ñ ÷àñòè-
öåé áû
èëè
could (might) + Perfect
Continuous Infinitive — ïåðå-
âîäèòñÿ ìîã áû/ìîãëè áû + èí-
ôèíèòèâ
If I had received this I would have called you.
letter on Monday,
Åñëè áû ÿ ïîëó÷èë ýòî ÿ áû ïîçâîíèë òåáå.
ïèñüìî â ïîíåäåëüíèê,
202 Раздел 2. Синтаксис

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ïðèäàòî÷íîå
Ãëàâíîå ïðåäëîæåíèå
ïðåäëîæåíèå

If he had been free, he could (might) have helped you.


Åñëè áû îí áûë ñâîáî- îí ìîã áû òåáå ïîìî÷ü.
äåí (òîãäà),

If you hadn’t been you would have been laughing


sleeping, too.
Åñëè áû òû íå ñïàë òû áû òîæå ñìåÿëñÿ.
(òîãäà),

If you had come at six he might still have been waiting


o’clock, for you.
Åñëè áû âû ïðèøëè îí ìîã áû âñ¸ åù¸ æäàòü âàñ.
â øåñòü ÷àñîâ,

Ïåðåâîä óñëîâíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé


ñìåøàííîãî òèïà

Ïðèäàòî÷íîå ïðåäëîæåíèå Ãëàâíîå ïðåäëîæåíèå

II òèï — ïåðåâîäèòñÿ ãëà- III òèï — ïåðåâîäèòñÿ ãëà-


ãîëîì ñîâåðøåííîãî èëè ãîëîì ñîâåðøåííîãî èëè
íåñîâåðøåííîãî âèäà â íåñîâåðøåííîãî âèäà â
ïðîøåäøåì âðåìåíè ñ ÷à- ïðîøåäøåì âðåìåíè ñ ÷à-
ñòèöåé áû ñòèöåé áû

If you weren’t a careless you wouldn’t have had that


drive, accident.
Åñëè áû òû áûë âíèìà- òû áû íå ïîïàë â òó àâà-
òåëüíûì âîäèòåëåì, ðèþ.

III òèï — ïåðåâîäèòñÿ ãëà- II òèï — ïåðåâîäèòñÿ ãëà-


ãîëîì ñîâåðøåííîãî èëè ãîëîì ñîâåðøåííîãî èëè
íåñîâåðøåííîãî âèäà â íåñîâåðøåííîãî âèäà â
ïðîøåäøåì âðåìåíè ñ ÷à- ïðîøåäøåì âðåìåíè ñ ÷à-
ñòèöåé áû ñòèöåé áû

If she had taken my advice, she wouldn’t be crying now.


Åñëè áû îíà âîñïîëüçîâàë- îíà áû ñåé÷àñ íå ïëàêàëà.
ñÿ ìîèì ñîâåòîì (òîãäà),
Ñâîäíàÿ òàáëèöà äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ óñëîâèÿ

Íåðåàëüíîå óñëîâèå Íåðåàëüíîå óñëîâèå


Ðåàëüíîå óñëîâèå
(íàñòîÿùåå èëè áóäóùåå) (ïðîøëîå)
Ãëàâíîå Ïðèäàòî÷íîå Ãëàâíîå Ïðèäàòî÷íîå Ãëàâíîå Ïðèäàòî÷íîå
ïðåäëîæåíèå ïðåäëîæåíèå ïðåäëîæåíèå ïðåäëîæåíèå ïðåäëîæåíèå ïðåäëîæåíèå
Сложное предложение

If you heat it turns to I wouldn’t if I were I wouldn’t if I had been


ice water. make so many careful. have made the more careful.
mistakes mistake
Åñëè íàãðå- îí ïðåâðàùà- ß áû íå äåëà- åñëè áû áûëà ß áû íå ñäåëà- åñëè áû áûëà
âàòü ëåä, åòñÿ â âîäó. ëà ñòîëüêî âíèìàòåëüíîé. ëà ýòó îøèáêó, âíèìàòåëü-
îøèáîê, íåé.
I’ll help you if I am free. I’d help you if I were free. I would have if I had been
helped you free.
yesterday
ß ïîìîãó åñëè áóäó ß áû ïîìîã åñëè áû áûë ß áû ïîìîã åñëè áû áûë
òåáå, ñâîáîäåí. òåáå, ñâîáîäåí. òåáå â÷åðà, ñâîáîäåí.
She if she was She would if she were She would if she had
translated free. translate the free. have already been free.
the article article translated the
article
Îíà ïåðåâå- åñëè áûëà Îíà ïåðåâåëà åñëè áû áûëà Îíà óæå ïåðåâå- åñëè áû áûëà
ëà ñòàòüþ, ñâîáîäíà. áû ñòàòüþ, ñâîáîäíà. ëà áû ñòàòüþ, ñâîáîäíà.
203
204 Раздел 2. Синтаксис

Прямая и косвенная речь


(Direct and Indirect Speech)

Ïðÿìàÿ è êîñâåííàÿ ðå÷ü

Ïðÿìàÿ ðå÷ü Êîñâåííàÿ ðå÷ü


(Direct Speech) (Indirect Speech)
Íåïîñðåäñòâåííûå ñëî- Ðå÷ü ãîâîðÿùåãî, ïåðåäà-
âà ãîâîðÿùåãî, ïåðåäàâàå- âàåìàÿ íå ñëîâî â ñëîâî,
ìûå áåç èçìåíåíèé à òîëüêî ïî ñîäåðæàíèþ,
â âèäå äîïîëíèòåëüíûõ ïðè-
äàòî÷íûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé
Ïðè ïåðåâîäå ïðÿìîé ðå÷è â êîñâåííóþ ëè÷íûå è ïðèòÿ-
æàòåëüíûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ ìåíÿþòñÿ ïî ñìûñëó:
He says, “I’m busy.” He says (that) he is busy.
She says, “My car is old.” She says (that) her car is old.
Åñëè ãëàãîë, ââîäÿùèé êîñâåííóþ ðå÷ü, óïîòðåáë¸í â îä-
íîì èç ïðîøåäøèõ âðåì¸í, òî â êîñâåííîé ðå÷è äåéñòâóåò
ïðàâèëî ñîãëàñîâàíèÿ âðåì¸í:
He said, “I know it.” He said he knew it.
She said, “I have already She said she had already
done it.” done it.
Óêàçàòåëüíûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ è íàðå÷èÿ ìåñòà è âðåìåíè
â êîñâåííîé ðå÷è ìåíÿþòñÿ, åñëè ãëàãîë, ââîäÿùèé êîñ-
âåííóþ ðå÷ü, óïîòðåáë¸í â îäíîì èç ïðîøåäøèõ âðåì¸í.
here — çäåñü there — òàì
this — ýòîò that — òîò, ýòîò
these — ýòè those — òå, ýòè
now — òåïåðü then — òîãäà
today — ñåãîäíÿ that day — â òîò äåíü
tomorrow — çàâòðà the next day — íà ñëåäóþùèé
the day after tomorrow — äåíü
ïîñëåçàâòðà two days later — ÷åðåç äâà
yesterday — â÷åðà äíÿ
the day before yesterday — the day before — íàêàíóíå
ïîçàâ÷åðà two days before — çà äâà äíÿ
ago — òîìó íàçàä äî ýòîãî
last night — â÷åðà âå÷åðîì before — ðàíüøå
Сложное предложение 205

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ïðÿìàÿ ðå÷ü Êîñâåííàÿ ðå÷ü


(Direct Speech) (Indirect Speech)
next year — â áóäóùåì the previous night — íàêàíóíå
ãîäó âå÷åðîì;
He said, “I’ll translate the the next year, the following
article tomorrow.” — Îí year — â ñëåäóþùåì ãîäó.
ñêàçàë: «ß ïåðåâåäó ñòà- He said that he would
òüþ çàâòðà». translate the article the next
day. — Îí ñêàçàë, ÷òî ïåðå-
âåä¸ò ñòàòüþ çàâòðà (íà
ñëåäóþùèé äåíü).

Ñïîñîáû ïåðåäà÷è ïîâåñòâîâàòåëüíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé


(Affirmative Sentences) â êîñâåííîé ðå÷è

Ïðÿìàÿ ðå÷ü Êîñâåííàÿ ðå÷ü


(Direct Speech) (Indirect Speech)
Ïîâåñòâîâàòåëüíûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ââîäÿòñÿ â êîñâåííóþ
ðå÷ü ñëåäóþùèìè ãëàãîëàìè:
to say — ãîâîðèòü, ñêà- to say (to smb) that …
çàòü to tell smb that …
to tell — ãîâîðèòü, ñêà-
çàòü
to add — äîáàâèòü to add that …
to announce — îáúÿâ- to announce that …
ëÿòü to answer (to smb) that …
to answer — îòâå÷àòü to decide that …
to decide — ðåøàòü to declare (to smb) that …
to declare — çàÿâëÿòü to explain (to smb) that …
to explain — îáúÿñíÿòü to inform (smb) that …
to inform — ñîîáùàòü to promise (smb) that …
to promise — îáåùàòü to remark that …
to remark — çàìå÷àòü to reply that …
to reply — îòâå÷àòü to state that …
to state — çàÿâëÿòü to suppose that …
to suppose — ïðåäïî- to think that …
ëàãàòü
to think — äóìàòü
206 Раздел 2. Синтаксис

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Ïðÿìàÿ ðå÷ü Êîñâåííàÿ ðå÷ü


(Direct Speech) (Indirect Speech)
said (to me) (that) he
told me (didn’t
He said, “I (don’t) know
He informed me know) knew
Spanish well.”
explained to Spanish
me well.

Ñïîñîáû ïåðåäà÷è âîïðîñèòåëüíûõ


ïðåäëîæåíèé (Interrogative Sentences)
â êîñâåííîé ðå÷è

Äëÿ ïåðåäà÷è âîïðîñîâ


â êîñâåííîé ðå÷è óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ:
ïðÿìàÿ ðå÷ü êîñâåííàÿ ðå÷ü
(Direct Speech) (Indirect Speech)

to ask (smb) — to ask (smb) Îáùèé Ñïåöè-


ñïðàøèâàòü (êî- âîïðîñ àëü-
ãî-ëèáî) to wonder íûé
to wonder — èí- âîïðîñ
òåðåñîâàòüñÿ, æå-
ëàòü çíàòü, çàäà- to be interested if what
âàòü ñåáå âîïðîñ to know (whether) when
to be interested to where
know — èíòåðå- to want to
ñîâàòüñÿ know
would like to
know — õîòåëîñü
áû çíàòü

Îáùèé âîïðîñ (General Question)

asked
wondered
He asked, “Is it was interested if (whether) it
He
raining?” to know was raining.
wanted to
know
Сложное предложение 207

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Äëÿ ïåðåäà÷è âîïðîñîâ


â êîñâåííîé ðå÷è óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ:
ïðÿìàÿ ðå÷ü êîñâåííàÿ ðå÷ü
(Direct Speech) (Indirect Speech)

Ñïåöèàëüíûé âîïðîñ (Special Question)

asked
wondered
I said, “What are was interested what you were
I
you writing?” to know reading.
wanted to
know

Ñïîñîáû ïåðåäà÷è ïîáóäèòåëüíûõ


ïðåäëîæåíèé (Imperative Sentences)
â êîñâåííîé ðå÷è

Äëÿ ïåðåäà÷è ïîáóäèòåëüíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé


â êîñâåííîé ðå÷è óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ:
ïðÿìàÿ
ðå÷ü
êîñâåííàÿ ðå÷ü (Indirect Speech)
(Direct
Speech)
to advise — ñîâåòîâàòü
to ask — ïðîñèòü
to beg — óìîëÿòü
to command — ïðèêàçûâàòü
to encourage — ïîîùðÿòü
to invite — ïðèçûâàòü
to order — ïðèêàçûâàòü äîïîë- èíôè-
to say
to recommend — ðåêîìåí- íåíèå íèòèâ
äîâàòü
to remind — íàïîìèíàòü
to request — ïðîñèòü
to tell — âåëåòü, ïðèêàçàòü
to urge — óáåæäàòü
to warn — ïðåäóïðåæäàòü
208 Раздел 2. Синтаксис

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Äëÿ ïåðåäà÷è ïîáóäèòåëüíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèé


â êîñâåííîé ðå÷è óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ:
ïðÿìàÿ ðå÷ü êîñâåííàÿ ðå÷ü
(Direct Speech) (Indirect Speech)

He said, “Get your coat, Tom!” He told Tom to get his coat.
“You had better hurry, Jane!” She advised Jane to
she said. hurry.
“Don’t swim out too far, I warned/told the kids not
kids!” I said. to swim out too far.
“Do, please, help me!” she She asked/begged him to
asked. help her.

He said, “Let’s leave at once.” He suggested leaving at


She said, “Let’s not say once.
anything about it.” She suggested not saying
anything/saying nothing
about it.
Раздел 3. Словообразование
Сложное предложение 209

СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЕ 3
ÃËÀÂÍÛÅ ÑÏÎÑÎÁÛ ÑËÎÂÎÎÁÐÀÇÎÂÀÍÈß

Àôôèêñàöèÿ Êîíâåðñèÿ Ñëîâîñëîæåíèå

Ñóôôèêñû Ïðåôèêñû

Îáîñîáëåííûå ñóôôèêñû

Ïîíÿòèå î ñïîñîáàõ ñëîâîîáðàçîâàíèÿ

Ñïîñîáû Ïðèìåðû

Àôôèêñàöèÿ — ýòî îáðàçîâàíèå íîâîé îñíîâû èç óæå ñó-


ùåñòâóþùåé îñíîâû äîáàâëåíèåì:

h ñóôôèêñà work + er = worker

h îáîñîáëåííîãî ñóôôèêñà put + on = put on

h ïðåôèêñà un + happy = unhappy

Êîíâåðñèÿ — ýòî ïåðåõîä ñëî- an eye — ãëàç


âà èç îäíîé ÷àñòè ðå÷è â äðó- to eye — ðàçãëÿäûâàòü
ãóþ áåç èçìåíåíèÿ âíåøíåé
ôîðìû ñëîâà

Ñëîâîñëîæåíèå — ýòî îáðàçî- air + plane = airplane


âàíèå íîâîé îñíîâû ïóòåì
îáúåäèíåíèÿ äâóõ óæå ñóùå-
ñòâóþùèõ îñíîâ
210 Раздел 3. Словообразование

Ñïîñîáû îáðàçîâàíèÿ èì¸í ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ

Ñïîñîáû îáðàçîâàíèÿ Ïðèìåðû

Àôôèêñàöèÿ
ñóôôèêñû:
x-er/-or/-ent/-ist/-ate (äåÿ- to work — worker, to
òåëüíîñòü ÷åëîâåêà); instruct — instructor,
art — artist, accountant;
x-ness (êà÷åñòâî, õàðàêòåð); dark — darkness, kind —
kindness;
x-(a)tion (ïðîöåññ, ñîñòîÿ- to dictate — dictation,
íèå, õàðàêòåðèñòèêà); to educate — education,
to transalate — translation;
x-ment (ðåçóëüòàò äåéñòâèÿ to develop — development;
îò ãëàãîëîâ);
x-th/-ty (îò ïðèëàãàòåëüíûõ true — truth, probable —
îáðàçóþòñÿ ñóùåñòâèòåëü- probability;
íûå ñ òåì æå çíà÷åíèåì);
x-ance/-ence (êà÷åñòâî, to ignore — ignorance;
ñîñòîÿíèå);
x-al (ðåçóëüòàò äåéñòâèÿ); to approve — approval;
x-ing (äåéñòâèå) to cook — cooking

ïðåôèêñû:
x îòðèöàòåëüíûå ïðåôèêñû disagreement,
mis-; un-; im-; il-; ir-; dis-; misunderstanding,
in-; non-; impossibility, indifference;
x post- (ïîñëå); postgraduate;
x ex- (ïðåäûäóùèé, áûâøèé); ex-president, ex-husband;
x semi- (ïîëîâèíà); semicolon, semiconductor;
x co-, com-, con-, col- (âìåñòå, collaboration, cooperation;
ñîâìåñòíî);
x sub- (ïîä, íèæå, ìåíüøå) subdivision, submarine

Ñëîâîñëîæåíèå arm + chair = armchair


merry + go + round =
merry-go-round
Êîíâåðñèÿ to look — a look (ñìî-
òðåòü — âçãëÿä);
to run — a run (áåæàòü —
ïðîáåæêà)
Сложное предложение 211

Ñïîñîáû îáðàçîâàíèÿ èì¸í ïðèëàãàòåëüíûõ

Ñïîñîáû îáðàçîâàíèÿ Ïðèìåðû

Àôôèêñàöèÿ

ñóôôèêñû:
x-ful (ñâîéñòâî èëè êà÷åñòâî); beauty — beautiful,
doubt — doubtful;
x-less (îòñóòñòâèå êà÷åñòâ); care — careless, home —
homeless;
x-ous (õàðàêòåðíîå êà÷åñòâî); courage — courageous,
danger — dangerous;
x-able (âîçìîæíîñòü âûïîëíå- to eat — eatable, to
íèÿ äåéñòâèÿ, ñâîéñòâî èëè manage — manageable,
êà÷åñòâî); comfort — comfortable;
x-ible (êà÷åñòâî, áëàãîäàðÿ êî- to resist — resistible,
òîðîìó äåéñòâèå ìîæåò áûòü to access — accessible;
âûïîëíåíî);
x-ic (õàðàêòåðèñòèêà); poet — poetic;
x-ish (ñëàáîâûðàæåííîå êà÷å- child — childish (ðåáÿ÷å-
ñòâî èëè õàðàêòåðèñòèêà); ñêèé), green — greenish
(çåëåíîâàòûé), young —
youngish (ìîëîæàâûé);
x-like (ñõîäñòâî); child — childlike (ïî-äåò-
ñêè ïðîñòîé);
x-ese, -ian (ïðèíàäëåæíîñòü China — Chinese,
ê êàêîé-ëèáî ñòðàíå) Ukraine — Ukrainian

ïðåôèêñû: happy — unhappy,


îòðèöàòåëüíûå ïðåôèêñû harmed — unharmed,
un-, in-, ir-, il-, im-, dis- complete — incomplete,
regular — irregular,
legai — illegal,
possible — impossible,
honest — dishonest

Ñëîâîñëîæåíèå dark-blue, snow-white


212 Раздел 3. Словообразование

Ñïîñîáû îáðàçîâàíèÿ ãëàãîëîâ

Ñïîñîáû îáðàçîâàíèÿ Ïðèìåðû

Àôôèêñàöèÿ

ñóôôèêñû:
x-en (óñèëåíèå ñîñòîÿíèÿ); white — to whiten,
strength — to strengthen;
x-fy (ïðîèçâîäèòü äåéñòâèå, intensive — to intensify,
îáîçíà÷åííîå â îñíîâå ãëà- clear — to clarify;
ãîëà);
x-ise/-ize (çàíèìàòüñÿ òåì, ÷òî criticism — to criticize
îáîçíà÷åíî ïðîèçâîäÿùèì
ñëîâîì)

ïðåôèêñû:
x de-, dis-, mis-, un- (äåéñòâèå, to frost — to defrost,
îáðàòíîå çíà÷åíèþ îñíîâû); to like — to dislike,
to understand —
to misunderstand,
to cover — uncover;
x under- (íåïîëíîòà, íåäîñòà- to estimate —
òî÷íîñòü äåéñòâèÿ); to underestimate,
to work —
to underwork;
x over- (÷ðåçìåðíîñòü èëè èç- to work — to overwork,
áûòîê äåéñòâèÿ); to eat — to overeat;
x out- (ïðåâçîéòè ïî ïðèçíàêó); number — outnumber,
weigh — to outweigh;
x re- (ïîâòîðåíèå äåéñòâèÿ) to fill — to refill,
to write — to rewrite

Ñëîâîñëîæåíèå to whitewash, to
broadcast, to come in,
to calm down

Êîíâåðñèÿ a knife — to knife,


dirty — to dirty,
a switch — to switch
Сложное предложение 213

Ñïîñîáû îáðàçîâàíèÿ íàðå÷èé

Ñïîñîá îáðàçîâàíèÿ Ïðèìåðû

Àôôèêñàöèÿ

ñóôôèêñû:
x ló (ê îñíîâå ïðèëàãà- loud — loudly, bad — badly,
òåëüíîãî èëè ñóùå- quick — quickly, happy —
ñòâèòåëüíîãî); happily;
x ward(s) (íàïðàâëåíèå) back — backward(s), home —
homeward
Приложение
214 Приложение

ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ

Таблица неправильных глаголов


Irregular Verbs

Past Simple
Infinitive Participle II Ïåðåâîä
(Indefinite)

be was, were been áûòü


(am, is, are)
beat beat beaten áèòü, êîëîòèòü
become became become äåëàòü,
ñòàíîâèòüñÿ
begin began begun íà÷èíàòü(ñÿ)
bend bent bent, bended ñãèáàòü, ãíóòü
bind bound bound âÿçàòü,
ñâÿçûâàòü;
çàäåðæèâàòü,
îãðàíè÷èâàòü
bite bit bitten, bit êóñàòü(ñÿ),
æàëèòü
blow blew blown äóòü
break broke broken ëîìàòü(ñÿ),
ðàçáèâàòü(ñÿ)
bring brought brought ïðèíîñèòü,
ïðèâîçèòü
build built built ñòðîèòü
burn burnt, burnt, ïå÷ü, ñæèãàòü;
burned burned çàãîðàòü
(íà ñîëíöå)
buy bought bought ïîêóïàòü
cast cast cast áðîñàòü
Таблица неправильных глаголов 215

Ïðîäîëæåíèå òàáëèöû

Past Simple
Infinitive Participle II Ïåðåâîä
(Indefinite)

catch caught caught ëîâèòü


choose chose chosen âûáèðàòü
come came come ïðèõîäèòü,
ïðèáûâàòü,
ïðèåçæàòü
cost cost cost ñòîèòü
cut cut cut ðåçàòü, êðîèòü
do did done äåëàòü,
âûïîëíÿòü,
ñîâåðøàòü
draw drew drawn òÿíóòü; ÷åð-
òèòü, ðèñîâàòü
dream dreamed, dreamed, ìå÷òàòü,
dreamt dreamt âèäåòü âî ñíå
drink drank drunk ïèòü; ïüÿí-
ñòâîâàòü
drive drove driven ãíàòü, ïðîãî-
íÿòü; âåçòè,
ïîäâîçèòü
eat ate eaten åñòü
fall fell fallen ïàäàòü, îïó-
ñêàòüñÿ
feed fed fed êîðìèòü
(ñêîòèíó)
feel felt felt ùóïàòü;
÷óâñòâîâàòü
íà îùóïü;
ïî÷óâñòâîâàòü
fight fought fought äðàòüñÿ,
áîðîòüñÿ
find found found íàõîäèòü
216 Приложение

Ïðîäîëæåíèå òàáëèöû

Past Simple
Infinitive Participle II Ïåðåâîä
(Indefinite)

fly flew flown ëåòàòü


forbid forbade, forbidden çàïðåùàòü
forbad
forget forgot forgotten çàáûâàòü
forgive forgave forgiven èçâèíÿòü
forsake forsook forsaken îñòàâëÿòü,
èçáàâëÿòüñÿ
îò ÷åãî-ëèáî
freeze froze frozen çàìèðàòü,
ïîêðûâàòüñÿ
ëüäîì,
ìåðçíóòü
get got got ïîëó÷àòü,
äîáûâàòü
give gave given äàâàòü,
îòäàâàòü
go went gone õîäèòü, åõàòü
grow grew grown âûðàñòàòü,
óâåëè÷èâàòü-
ñÿ, âîçðàñòàòü
hang hung, hung, âåøàòü, âèñåòü
hanged hanged
have had had èìåòü, âëà-
äåòü, ñîäåð-
æàòü
hear heard heard ñëûøàòü
hide hid hidden, hid ïðÿòàòü
hit hit hit áèòü
hold held held äåðæàòü
Таблица неправильных глаголов 217

Ïðîäîëæåíèå òàáëèöû

Past Simple
Infinitive Participle II Ïåðåâîä
(Indefinite)

hurt hurt hurt ïîâðåäèòü,


ïðè÷èíèòü
áîëü

keep kept kept ñîõðàíÿòü,


óõàæèâàòü
know knew known çíàòü
lead led led âåñòè
learn learnt, learnt, èçó÷àòü
learned learned
leave left left ïîéòè, ïîå-
õàòü; îñòàâèòü
let let let ïóñêàòü,
ðàçðåøàòü
light lighted, lit lighted, lit îñâåùàòüñÿ,
çàãîðàòüñÿ
lose lost lost òåðÿòü,
óòðà÷èâàòü
make made made äåëàòü,
èçãîòàâëèâàòü
mean meant meant èìåòü íàìåðå-
íèå, îçíà÷àòü
meet met met âñòðå÷àòü(ñÿ)
mistake mistook mistaken îøèáàòüñÿ
pay paid paid ïëàòèòü, îáðà-
ùàòü âíèìà-
íèå
put put put êëàñòü, ñòà-
âèòü
UHDG UHDG[red] UHDG[red] ÷èòàòü
218 Приложение

Ïðîäîëæåíèå òàáëèöû

Past Simple
Infinitive Participle II Ïåðåâîä
(Indefinite)

ride rode ridden åõàòü âåðõîì


ring rang, rung rung çâîíèòü, òåëå-
ôîíèðîâàòü
rise rose risen âñòàâàòü,
óâåëè÷èâàòüñÿ
run ran run áåæàòü

say said said ãîâîðèòü,


ñêàçàòü
see saw seen âèäåòü,
ïîíèìàòü
sell sold sold ïðîäàâàòü
send sent sent ïîñûëàòü,
ïåðåäàâàòü
set set set ñòàâèòü,
ðàçìåùàòü
shake shook shaken òðÿñòè,
äðîæàòü
shine shone shone ñâåòèòü(ñÿ),
îñâåùàòü
show showed shown ïîêàçûâàòü
shut shut shut çàêðûâàòü(ñÿ)
sing sang sung ïåòü
sit sat sat ñèäåòü
sleep slept slept ñïàòü
speak spoke spoken ãîâîðèòü, ñêà-
çàòü
stand stood stood ñòîÿòü
steal stole stolen êðàñòü
Таблица неправильных глаголов 219

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

Past Simple
Infinitive Participle II Ïåðåâîä
(Indefinite)

stick stuck stuck âòûêàòü,


ïðèêëåèâàòü
sweep swept swept ìåñòè
swim swam swum ïëàâàòü
take took taken áðàòü, âçÿòü
teach taught taught ó÷èòü, îáó-
÷àòü, ïðåïîäà-
âàòü
tear tore torn ðâàòü
tell told told ãîâîðèòü,
ðàññêàçûâàòü
think thought thought äóìàòü
throw threw thrown áðîñàòü
wake woke woken ïðîñûïàòüñÿ,
áóäèòü
wear wore worn íîñèòü (îäå-
æäó)
win won won âûèãðûâàòü,
ïîáåæäàòü
220 Приложение

Группы неправильных глаголов


Irregular Verbs in Groups

Ôîðìà ïðîøåäøåãî âðåìåíè (the Past Simple)


è ôîðìà ïðè÷àñòèÿ ïðîøåäøåãî âðåìåíè
(the Past Participle) ñîâïàäàþò

1 2

cost — cost bring — brought


let — let buy — bought
cut — cut fight — fought
put — put think — thought
hit — hit catch — caught
shut — shut teach — taught
hurt — hurt

lend — lent light — lit


lose — lost keep — kept
send — sent sit — sit
shoot — shot sleep — slept
spend — spent feel — felt
get — got burn — burnt
build — built leave — left
learn — learnt

meet — met dream — dreamt


smell — smelt mean — meant

sell — sold find — found


tell — told have — had
pay — paid hear — heard
make — made hold — held
stand — stood read — read
understand — understood say — said
Группы неправильных глаголов 221

Ôîðìà ïðîøåäøåãî âðåìåíè (the Past Simple)


è ôîðìà ïðè÷àñòèÿ ïðîøåäøåãî âðåìåíè
(the Past Participle) íå ñîâïàäàþò

1 2

break — broke — broken come — came — come


choose — chose — chosen become — became —
speak — spoke — spoken become
steal — stole — stolen
wake — woke — woken

3 4

drive — drove — driven blow — blew — blown


ride — rode — ridden grow — grew — grown
rise — rose — risen know — knew — known
write — wrote — written throw — threw — thrown
beat — beat — beaten fly — flew — flown
bite — bit — bitten draw — drew — drawn
hide — hid — hidden show — showed — shown

5 6

eat — ate — eaten begin — began — begun


fall — fell — fallen drink — drank — drunk
forget — forgot — forgotten swim — swam — swum
give — gave — given ring — rang — rung
see — saw — seen sing — sang — sung
take — took — taken run — ran — run

Ñâîäíàÿ òàáëèöà ïðàâîïèñàíèÿ îêîí÷àíèé

Ñëîâî + -s èëè -es (birds/watches)


ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå + s (ìíîæåñòâåííîå ÷èñëî)
bird — birds
mistake — mistakes
hotel — hotels
ãëàãîë + s (he/she/it -s)
think — thinks
remember — remembers
live — lives
222 Приложение

Ïðîäîëæåíèå òàáëèöû

íî: +es ïîñëå -s/-sh/-ch/-x


bus — buses address — addresses
pass — passes dish — dishes
finish — finishes wash — washes
watch — watches sandwich — sandwiches
teach — teaches box — boxes

òàêæå: potato — potatoes


tomato — tomatoes
do — does
go — goes

-f/-fe = -ves
shelf — shelves
knife — knives
íî: roof — roofs

Ñëîâà îêàí÷èâàþùèåñÿ íà -y
(baby — babies/study — studied)

-y ìåíÿåòñÿ íà -ies
study — studies family — families
baby — babies story — stories
city — cities fly — flies
try — tries marry — marries

-y ìåíÿåòñÿ íà -ied
study — studied
marry — married
try — tried
copy — copied

-y ìåíÿåòñÿ íà -ier/-iest
easy — easier/easiest
lucky — luckier/luckiest
happy — happier/happiest
funny — funnier/funniest
heavy — heavier/heaviest

-y ìåíÿåòñÿ íà -ily
easy — easily heavy — heavily
happy — happily lucky — luckily
Группы неправильных глаголов 223

Îêîí÷àíèå òàáëèöû

y íå èçìåíÿåòñÿ íà i â îêîí÷àíèÿõ -ay/-ey/-oy/-uy:


buy — buys
holiday — holidays
key — keys
enjoy — enjoys/enjoyed
stay — stays/stayed
íî: say — said
pay — paid (íåïðàâèëüíûå ãëàãîëû)

-ing
ãëàãîëû íà -e (make/write/drive) = -eing
make — making
write — writing
come — coming
dance — dancing

ãëàãîëû íà -ie = -ying


lie — lying
die — dying
tie — tying
Ñïðàâî÷íîå èçäàíèå
анықтамалық баспа

Äëÿ ñòàðøåãî øêîëüíîãî âîçðàñòà


мектеп жасындағы ересек балаларға арналған

ÂÅÑÜ ØÊÎËÜÍÛÉ ÊÓÐÑ Â ÑÕÅÌÀÕ È ÒÀÁËÈÖÀÕ

Èëü÷åíêî Âàëåðèÿ Âèòàëüåâíà


ÀÍÃËÈÉÑÊÈÉ ßÇÛÊ
(îðûñ ò³ë³íäå)

Îòâåòñòâåííûé ðåäàêòîð À. Æèëèíñêàÿ


Âåäóùèé ðåäàêòîð Ò. Ñóäàêîâà. Õóäîæåñòâåííûé ðåäàêòîð Å. Áðûí÷èê

ÎÎÎ «Èçäàòåëüñòâî «Ýêñìî»


123308, Ìîñêâà, óë. Çîðãå, ä. 1. Òåë. 8 (495) 411-68-86, 8 (495) 956-39-21.
Home page: www.eksmo.ru E-mail: info@eksmo.ru
ндіруші: «ЭКСМО» АБ Баспасы, 123308, Мскеу, Ресей, Зорге кшесі, 1 й.
Тел. 8 (495) 411-68-86, 8 (495) 956-39-21
Home page: www.eksmo.ru E-mail: info@eksmo.ru.
Тауар белгісі: «Эксмо»
аза%стан Республикасында дистрибьютор жне нім бойынша арыз-талаптарды %абылдаушыны7
кілі «РДЦ-Алматы» ЖШС, Алматы %., Домбровский кш., 3«а», литер Б, офис 1.
Тел.: 8(727) 2 51 59 89,90,91,92, факс: 8 (727) 251 58 12 вн. 107; E-mail: RDC-Almaty@eksmo.kz
німні7 жарамдылы% мерзімі шектелмеген.
Сертификация туралы а%парат сайтта: www.eksmo.ru/certification
Îïòîâàÿ òîðãîâëÿ êíèãàìè «Ýêñìî»:
ÎÎÎ «ÒÄ «Ýêñìî». 142700, Ìîñêîâñêàÿ îáë., Ëåíèíñêèé ð-í, ã. Âèäíîå,
Áåëîêàìåííîå ø., ä. 1, ìíîãîêàíàëüíûé òåë. 411-50-74.
E-mail: reception@eksmo-sale.ru
Ïî âîïðîñàì ïðèîáðåòåíèÿ êíèã «Ýêñìî» çàðóáåæíûìè îïòîâûìè
ïîêóïàòåëÿìè îáðàùàòüñÿ â îòäåë çàðóáåæíûõ ïðîäàæ ÒÄ «Ýêñìî»
E-mail: international@eksmo-sale.ru
International Sales: International wholesale customers should contact
Foreign Sales Department of Trading House «Eksmo» for their orders.
international@eksmo-sale.ru
Ïî âîïðîñàì çàêàçà êíèã êîðïîðàòèâíûì êëèåíòàì, â òîì ÷èñëå â ñïåöèàëüíîì
îôîðìëåíèè, îáðàùàòüñÿ ïî òåë. +7(495) 411-68-59, äîá. 2261, 1257.
E-mail: vipzakaz@eksmo.ru
Îïòîâàÿ òîðãîâëÿ áóìàæíî-áåëîâûìè è êàíöåëÿðñêèìè òîâàðàìè äëÿ øêîëû è îôèñà
«Êàíö-Ýêñìî»: Êîìïàíèÿ «Êàíö-Ýêñìî»: 142702, Ìîñêîâñêàÿ îáë., Ëåíèíñêèé ð-í, ã. Âèäíîå-2,
Áåëîêàìåííîå ø., ä. 1, à/ÿ 5. Òåë./ôàêñ +7 (495) 745-28-87 (ìíîãîêàíàëüíûé).
e-mail: kanc@eksmo-sale.ru, ñàéò: www.kanc-eksmo.ru

Ñâåäåíèÿ î ïîäòâåðæäåíèè ñîîòâåòñòâèÿ èçäàíèÿ ñîãëàñíî


çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâó ÐÔ î òåõíè÷åñêîì ðåãóëèðîâàíèè
ìîæíî ïîëó÷èòü ïî àäðåñó: http://eksmo.ru/certification/
Өндірген мемлекет: Ресей. Сертификация қарастырылған

Ïîäïèñàíî â ïå÷àòü 26.05.2014. Ïðîèçâåäåíî 02.07.2014.


Ôîðìàò 84x1081/32. Ïå÷àòü îôñåòíàÿ. Óñë. ïå÷. ë. 11,76.
Òèðàæ ýêç. Çàêàç