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STRUKTUR & PERKEMBANGAN TUMBUHAN

PARENKIMA

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Cross-section through the leaf of Rose bay
(Oleander): 1 cuticle, 2 ipperepidermis, 3
palisade parenchyma, 4 spongy
parenchyma, 5 intercellular space in
spongy parenchyma, 6 small vascular
bundle, 7 lower epidermis, 8 vacity, 9 hairs,
10 stoma

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Parenchyma

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Parenkima  bagian utama jaringan dasar;
terdapat pada berbagai organ sebagai jaringan
yang bersinambungan seperti pada daerah
korteks dan empulur batang, korteks akar,
jaringan dasar pada tangkai daun, mesofil daun,
bagian buah yang berdaging, juga pada floem &
xilem.
endosperma biji, jejari empulur, perisikel

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• Parenchyma cells have thin primary walls
• Ground tissues are typically parenchyma
• Many parenchyma cells are isodiametric
• A transverse section of corn (Zea mays) internode
showing ground parenchyma in which vascular
bundles are embedded.
It consists of isodiametric cells with thin walls, a
large central vacuole and an extremely thin parietal
layer of cytoplasm.
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Parenchyma proper, or ground tissue, is usually considered as a
tissue lacking in a high degree of functional and structural
specialization, and which consists of highly vacuolated thin-walled
cells with a minimal amount of cytoplasm.
Examples of such tissue are cortical parenchyma of stems and roots
as well as the pith of stems.
However, parenchyma cells may be highly specialized when they are
parts of a complex tissue like xylem parenchyma.
Other examples of highly specialized types of parenchyma include
assimilation parenchyma of leaves (mesophyll), aerenchyma and
storage parenchyma of tubers and seeds.

Parenchyma cells are characterized by complete plasticity.


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Parenkima  sel-sel dengan diferensiasi sederhana

Dinding sel tipis, vakuola besar dengan protoplas hidup.


Senyawa: utamanya selulosa dan juga hemiselulosa, pektin
Sifat penebalan dinding primer
Bentuk sel parenkima, umumnya bersegi banyak/ poligonal (rerata
mempunyai 14 muka) dan diameternya dalam berbagai arah bidang
hampir sama (isodiametris)
Parenkima  tempat utama berlangsungnya aktivitas tumbuhan:
fotosintesis, asimilasi, respirasi, penimbunan zat makanan cadangan,
sekresi, ekskresi.
Ada parenkima penutup luka (fungsi regenerasi)
Sel parenkim  sel yang sedikit berdiferensiasi, masih mampu
membelah.
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Tetrakaidecahedron formation
A model of units simulating the packing of parenchyma cells. The
units have 14 sides, a solid geometrical unit referred to as a
tetrakaidecahedron.
While not all parenchyma cells have this structure, it is likely to be
the most common three-dimensional orientation.
It has been modeled with soap bubbles as well. In the model shown
here, for each solid geometrical unit there are 8 faces that are
hexagonal, and 6 faces that are rectangular. However, there may be
variation in the numbers of both hexagonal and rectangular facets.
Also, the quadrilateral faces may vary in numbers of faces that are
square or rectangular. Thus, the average numbers of faces is
considered to be 14.

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tetrakaidecahedron

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Bentuk lain Parenkima
1. prismatis memanjang --- p. palisade/ p. pagar / p. tiang
2. tidak teratur --- p. sponsa/ p. bunga karang
3. bercabang-cabang --- p. bintang / aktinenkim
contoh: mesofil daun Canna
 dengan ruang antar sel yang besar – aerenkima
contoh: alat pengapung Eichornia crassipes (eceng
gondok)
4. parenkima dengan dinding sel ke arah dalam
--- p. lipatan contoh: mesofil daun Pinus

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p. palisade & p. sponsa

p. bintang / aktinenkim

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p. bintang / aktinenkim

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p. Lipatan (tanda anak panah)
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Parenkima berdasarkan fungsi
1. P. asimilasi / fotosintetik
 umum di perifer terutama pada daun, batang, buah yang
hijau
 di dalam sel  kloroplas  klorenkima
2. P. penimbun / cadangan makanan
 umum di bagian dalam tubuh  empulur batang, dalam
akar, umbi batang, umbi lapis, rimpang, biji
 di dalam sel  cadangan makanan: gula, tepung,
lipida, protein

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3. P. air
 sel-sel besar, dinding tipis, tidak punya kloroplas, plasma sel
sedikit, vakuola besar, kadang berisi lendir
 terdapat pada tumbuhan xerofit atau epifit
 sel penuh air  mempertahankan diri dari kekeringan.
Lendir  daun Aloe
4. P. pengangkut
 sel-sel penyusun berbentuk tabung / persegi memanjang
menurut arah pengangkutan
 dinding parenkima  penebalan sekunder
5. P. udara / aerenkima
ruang antar sel besar; sel penyusun dapat: bulat,
bintang, bentuk jari  menyimpan udara
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P. asimilasi / fotosintetik

cross-section of soybean (Glycine max)


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P. penimbun / cadangan makanan

A B

C
Gambar Parenkima Penimbun pada: A. Kulit Pisang berisi amilum, B. Rimpang
Temugiring berisi Minyak Atsiri, C. Biji Palem Raja, Karbohidrat pada Dinding Sel
P. air

• Succulent centric leaf


• Modified mesophyll for water-storage
• Cross section of the stem-like cylindrical (centric) leaf of saltwort. The
leaves of this xerophyte are said to be succulent because they have a
fleshy consistency due to abundant water-storage internal parenchyma. A
single-layered compact palisade mesophyll spreads under the epidermis.
• 1 = epidermis, 2 = sunken stoma, 3 = palisade mesophyll, 4 = tannin-
containing sheath, 5 = minor vein, 6 = water-storage parenchyma, 7 = xylem
of the midvein, 8 = phloem of the midvein
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Ruang antar sel
Cara terbentuknya:
1. Sisogen  tangkai daun teratai, aerenkima;
saluran resin; sekretori Asteraceae, Apiaceae;
kelenjar minyak Eucalyptus; saluran getah
2. Lisigen  ruang minyak daun jeruk, kapas,
sirih; ruang antar sel batang tumbuhan air
3. Sisolisigen  ruang antara protoxilem
4. Reksigen  berkas pengangkut batang jagung

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Gambar Skematik Tahapan Berturut-turut
(No. 1—4) Perkembangan Secara Sizogen
Saluran Resin Pinus halapensis (Sumber:
Fahn, 1990).

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Saluran resin poison ivy (Rhus toxicodendron or
Toxicodendron radicans)

adas

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Eucalyptus

Gambar Skematik
Tahapan Berturut-turut
Perkembangan Secara
Lisigen Saluran Resin
Primer Mangifera indica.
Sel yang Melarut diberi
Nomor (Sumber: Fahn,
1990)

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Reksigen

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Secretory Structures
• nectar (flowers) from nectaries
• oils (peanuts, oranges, citrus) from accumulation of glands
and elaioplasts.
• resins (conifers) from resin canals
• lacticifers (e.g., latex - milkweed, rubber plants, opium
poppy)
• hydathodes (openings for secretion of water)
• digestive glands of carnivorous plants (enzymes)
• salt glands that shed salt (especial in plants adapted to
environments laden with salt).

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