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URBAN FORM AND

STRUCTURE
Compiled By
Ar. K.Lavanya, Associate Professor
EVOLUTION OF CITY FORM
• The settlements grew into villages, villages
transformed into cities.
• The cities are dynamic in nature.
• The growth of the city was irregular, responsive to
the changes.
• Form depended on:-
1. Structure of the land.
2. Pattern in which land was distributed.
• The cities that are the result of transformation of
villages, show superimposition of geometrical
layout over existing irregular ones. Motivates city
builder
EVOLUTION OF CITY FORM

The form of the city is influenced by

1. Geography
2. Depend on the impact of natural environment.
3. Social, political, economic forces.
4. Period of development.
5. Trade practiced.
CONSTRAINTS ON CITY FORM
• Cities are physical artifacts inserted into a preexisting natural
world, and natural constraints must be respected if a settlement
is to survive and prosper.
• Cities must conform to the landscape in which they are located.
• Climate influences city form. For example, streets have been
aligned to take advantage of cooling breezes, and arcades
designed to shield pedestrians from sun and rain.
• The architecture of individual buildings often reflects
adaptations to climatic characteristics.
• Cities must have a healthy water supply, and locations along
rivers and streams, or near underground watercourses, have
always been favored.
• City location and internal structure have been profoundly
influenced by natural transportation routes.
- Cities have been sited near natural harbors, on navigable
rivers, or along land routes determined by regional
topography
ELEMENTS
The physical elements of the city can be
divided into three categories:

1. Networks
2. Buildings
3. Open spaces
URBAN FORM
Urban form can be defined as the spatial pattern of human
activities at a certain point in time (Anderson et al., 1996).

Urban form is a term used to describe the physical elements


within activity. It refers to the arrangement, function and
aesthetic qualities of the design of buildings and streets,
which overlay the land use and transport system (Mead et al,
2006, p110)

Generally, urban forms can be classified in various


dimensions. However the four key metrics:
 density,
 land use mix,
 connectivity, and
 accessibility
URBAN DENSITY

Urban density - is the measure of an urban unit of interest


(e.g., population, employment, and housing) per area unit
(e.g., block, neighbourhood, city, metro area, and nation)

There are many measures of density, and three


common measures are
 population density (i.e., population per unit area),
 built-up area density (i.e., buildings or urban land
cover unit per area),and
 employment density (i.e., jobs per unit area
LAND USE MIX
Land use mix - refers to the diversity and integration of land
uses (e.g., residential, park, commer cial) at a given scale.

As with density, there are multiple measures of land use mix,


including:

(1) The ratio of jobs to residents;


(2) The variety and mixture of amenities and activities; and
(3) The relative proportion of retail and housing.
CONNECTIVITY

Connectivity - refers to street density and


design. Common measures of connectivity include
inter section density or proportion, block size, or
intersections per road kilometer .

Where street connectivity is high - characterized by finer


grain systems with smaller blocks that allow frequent
changes in direction-there is typically a positive
correlation with walking and thereby less pollution
URBAN STRUCUTRE

It is the arrangement of land use in urban areas.


Sociologists, economists, and geographers developed
several models explaining where different 
types of  people and businesses tend to exist within the
urban setting.

Urban structure can also refer to the urban spatial structure,


which concerns with the arrangement of public 
and private space in cities and the degree of connectivity
and accessibility
TYPES OF URBAN FORMS

• Radiocentric / circular / concentric form

• Grid iron form

• Linear form

• Radial / star form


RADIOCENTRIC / CIRCULAR / CONCENTRIC
FORM
RADIOCENTRIC / CIRCULAR / CONCENTRIC
FORM

MOSCOW, 1893
RADIOCENTRIC / CIRCULAR / CONCENTRIC
FORM

MOSCOW, AT PRESENT
GRID IRON FORM
GRID IRON FORM
GRID IRON FORM
GRID IRON FORM
GRID IRON FORM
LINEAR FORM
LINEAR FORM
LINEAR FORM
LINEAR FORM
RADIAL FORM
RADIAL FORM
RADIAL FORM
RADIAL FORM
OTHER STAR SHAPED FORMS
Q&A