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Urban

Structure
What do you need to know
1. Differences in the structure of urban areas can lead to differences
in the quality of life of the inhabitants.

2. Urban models attempt to show those differences.


How does urban structure affect quality of life?

The way that an urban area is structured is extremely important


as it affects the three quality of life environments (built, social
and economic):

1. BUILT – housing tenure, location, access to services, etc.

2. SOCIAL – education, health, friends, leisure pursuits, etc.

3. ECONOMIC – housing and transport costs, job location, etc.


STRUCTURE OF CITIES

- This is useful in understanding a society, their social classes and


economy.
- It gives an insight into society’s urban planning skills, how the city
developed.
URBAN LAND USES
1.

The main characteristics of the CBD are as follows:

 It forms the Old Core - often with a complex historic street pattern.
 It is very accessible – rail, port, road networks with many routes converging here.
 Public Transport is often based close by, on the edge of the CBD with rail and bus stations
and taxi ranks.
 High numbers of pedestrians during the day - two daily rush hours
 High land values
 whole sale markets
 Tall buildings (build up rather than out due to high land values)
 Local Government Buildings e.g. Town Hall, Library, Council Offices.
 Specialist services - including financial services, e.g. banks, building societies etc.
 Entertainment Centre - theatres, cinemas, museums.
 Little Industry
2.
Cities have continued to grow outwards into the countryside. This is the process of
suburbanisation as new residential areas are created at the edge of the city.

Reasons for Suburban Growth

1. Better public transport and increased car ownership


meant people could separate work from where they live.
2. Building societies provided mortgages making it easier to
buy homes
3. People were better off and looking for a better living
environment.

The continued outward growth of cities is also


known as urban sprawl.
3.
Urban sprawl continues to enlarge towns and cities, with continued growth at the rural-
urban fringe
4.
 The rural-urban fringe (the area at the edge of a city) become an increasingly popular
area for economic developments.
 Competition for land in these areas increase significantly.
 The land is much cheaper here than in the city centre, and many factories once in inner
city locations moves to these areas as their previous locations lacked space for expansion.
 Industrial estates and residential use, these areas attract shopping centers, business
parks and recreation facilities such as golf courses.
TYPES OF URBAN MODELS / LAND USE MODELS
1. Concentric zone
2. Sector
3. Multiple-nuclei
4. Peripheral
Zone I    Central Business District:
Hotels, Offices, Businesses, Other Commercial
activities)
Zone II    Zone of Transition:
Grey zone, Tendency to conversion of land uses
Zone III Lower Income working People:
Homes/slums
Zone IV High Income Residences:
White Collar/middle class families
Zone V Commuter Zone:
People who work in the center choose to live in
the suburbs
Zones in the Concentric Zone Model Theory
Ex. BOSTON
A - The Central Business District (CBD)
• This is the area most accessible to the
largest number of people, containing
shops, offices, banks, etc.
• Land is expensive and this area has high
rents and multi-story buildings as a
consequence.
• There is very little space and
competition for land is high.
• Traffic congestion is high.
• Vegetated areas are sparse

Boston’s central city


CBD of Boston

Notice the high density of land uses and the presence of skyscrapers that
Characteristically mark the CBD.
B - Zone of Transition
("Twilight Zone")

• This land has TWO sections:


• Wholesale light manufacturing
• low class residential (old inner city areas).
• cheap housing for each new immigrant wave.
• Redevelopment and renewal in this area and
the growth of zone A to meet the needs of an
expanding town, mean that Zone B is in a state
of constant change.
• The poorest people in the settlement live here,
but it is now fashionable for old warehouses to
be refurbished in the center of some cities for
sale at extremely high prices.

Abandoned row houses in


North Philadelphia.
C - Council Estates
• Semi-detached housing can
be found here with gardens
and on large estates.
• Less expensive private
estates can also be found
here.
• Often described as "medium
class residential“.
• second-generation
immigrants and rural
migrants
Middle-income neighborhoods in Reston,
VA. Social areas can be delimited by
Certain traits taken from the census, such
As income, education, or family.
D - Commuter Zone (suburbs)

• High class residential area where private, top quality


housing can be found.
• Detached and semi-detached housing can be built on
cheaper land here.
• Often lots of garages. Big gardens and many outbuildings
can be found here.
• Called the 'commuter zone' as it is expected that the more
affluent members of the community would live in the zone
furthest away from the center as they could afford the
transport costs to the center for access to services and
employment.
Suburban homes built on landfills, Treasure Island, FL. When land values are high and pressure
for housing intense, terrain rarely stands in the way of the developer. In fact, particular physical
site characteristics can actually increase land values.
E - Countryside Areas

• In the countryside surrounding the urban area, those


seeking to escape from the urban area can live in pleasant
rural surroundings whilst still being close to work.
• Although Burgess did not include this zone in his original
model, it has been added here to show the importance of
rural living, whilst still being close to services.
• Many satellite villages and towns surround major urban
areas, allowing people to live further away from the main
settlement.
Newcastle upon Tyne
Urban Processes can be seen as
inward and outward movements

Inward Movement (Centripetal)


Rural to urban migration,
gentrification, re-urbanisation, urban
renewal

Outward Movement (Centrifugal)


Suburbanisation, urban sprawl,
counter-urbanisation
Suburbanization is the
increase in the numbers
of people living in the
residential areas near the
edge of the city (suburbs)
leading to the outward
growth of urban areas.
Reasons for suburbanisation
• Rapid urban growth leads new residential
areas being built in suburbs
• Social problems and overcrowding in inner
city areas cause richer people to move to
suburbs
• Improving public transport
• Linked to de-industrialization such as
shipbuilding, warehouses or factories
closing
CMA has lost
agricultural land from
40,991 ha in 1991 to
22,130 ha in 2004
(CMDA, 2001)
Increasing population
Year Population Decadal Growth Density of opulation Extent (sq.km.)
rate (sq.km.)
1981 32,76,622 18617 176.00

1991 38,43,195 17.29 % 21836 176.00


2001 43,43,645 13.02 % 24680 176.00
2011 46,81,087 26,553 176.00
Urban Problems due to improper growth in Chennai City

Loss of Open space & Only 2.09% green cover available (sasidharan & Prosperi, 2011).
recreation spaces

Urban Transportation  Delay due to low speed of about 10 km/hr in the CBD and 18 km/hr in other
major roads(Chennai Metropolitan development Authority 2012, 2-5)
 Air pollution ( Base year 2002) - CO, NOx, HC and PM from vehicles with a
high level of about 177.00 t, 27.29t, 95.64 t and 7.29 t (Velmurugan et al.,
2005, 1811)

Urban Noise Noise level more than 80dB in most of the areas to compare to allowable 55 dB
by Tamilnadu Pollution Control Board allowable (Karthik & Partheeban,
2013)
Urban parking The parking index is greater than one in majority of the business areas of the city
(Chennai Metropolitan development Authority, 2012)

Urban Floods For about 2,847 km of urban roads only 855 km of storm drain. flood during peak
rainy season (Gupta & Nair, 2010)

Slums and lack of


housing

Disposal & Waste Noise, smell, Quality of water and soil (Anna University, 2002)
treatment plants
MIGRATION :

Human migration is the movement by people from one


place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently
or temporarily in a new location. The movement is often
over long distances and from one country to another, but
internal migration is also possible; indeed, this is the
dominant form globally.
Pull factors are those that are associated with the area of destination

1. Economic reasons:
More jobs
Better jobs
Higher wages
The promise of a “better life”
2. Social reasons:
Principles of religious tolerance
3. Physical/spatial reasons:
Attractive environments, such as mountains, seasides and warm climates

 Push factors are those associated with the area of origin

1. Economic reasons:
 
Overpopulation
Few jobs
Low wages
2. Social reasons:
Intolerance towards a certain cultural group
Active religious persecution
3. Physical/spatial reasons:
Natural disasters

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