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Republic of the Philippines

BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY


Pablo Borbon Main II, Batangas City
College of Engineering, Architecture & Fine Arts
www.batstate-u.edu.ph Tel. No. (043) 425-0139 loc. 118

ELECTRONICS/INSTRUMENTATION AND
CONTROL/MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

FINAL ASSESSMENT
ENG’G 412 – Materials and Science Engineering
Second Semester AY 2019-2020

Name: Gregori, Francine Cyrill R. Score: _________


Section: ECE-2201 Date: May, 2020

GENERAL DIRECTIONS: Read the directions completely for each part. Each direction only
applies to that specific part of the exam. Failure to follow the directions will result in the answer
being void.

PART I: Answer each of the questions stated for each number. The answers will be evaluated on
the basis of contents, analysis/interpretation and relevance.

1. Discuss the concept of materials science tetrahedron and how it is relevant to the history
and advancement of society. (10 points)

People will depend on materials boundlessly in order to survive. When utilizing a


material, one needs to understand the concept of materials science tetrahedron. It illustrates the
correlation among the structure, properties, performance and processing of any material. The
essence of this illustration is that the four aforementioned qualities concisely depicts the
interdependent and interconnected relationship with each other. Hence, if one alters the
processing, there is a direct connection with the structure, properties, and performance of the
material. Adjusting any one of the factors will have varying degrees of impact on the other three
factors. The role of monitoring the four components is important since the properties of materials
gives clues as to its structure and the structure of a material will depend on its innate properties
and on how it is processed.
This kind of thing is relevant for the advancement of society and is significant to the
history since discoveries of new materials and enhancements to old material are all underlain by
understanding of, and properties and functions of, the intimate relations between material
processing, composition and structure, on the other hand – lead to a steady increase in the
performance and efficiency of existing technologies and the creation of new ones.
It is a must to know the structure and properties of a material to consider its strength. It
will help us to decide which material is better to use. Take for an example the story of
semiconductor. Before they used the silicon they fail many times with different elements and
when they had germanium and silicon as their choices, they chose silicon. They analyse the
structure, properties, performance and processing of both elements and found out that silicon had
many advantage. Now, Si has the benefit of years of development, and is the leading
semiconductor material for electronic components and ICs. In fact, Si is still the fundamental
building block for Intel’s new line of processors. Imagine the life without having materials
science tetrahedron. We may not use a computer, laptop, or any digital devices.

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2. Cite the difference between each major classification of materials through a concise and
comprehensive discussion of each. (10 points)

Materials have major classifications-the metals, polymers, and ceramics. Metals are
known as a good conductor of electricity it tends to be shiny, strong and usually it requires high
temperature to melt because it consists of one or more metal elements as well as many non-
metallic elements in which their atoms are very orderly organized. These are materials like steel,
copper, iron and nickel. Meanwhile ceramics are compounds that are more resistant to high
temperatures and harsh than metals and polymers since it is a compounded of a metal and non-
metal. Tile, bricks, plates, glass, and toilets are the examples of this classification. In addition,
polymers include the plastics and rubber materials, and organic chemically-based substances,
such as carbon, hydrogen and other non-metallic elements which are not as strong or stiff as
other types of material. On the other hand, a composite consists of two or more materials from
metals, ceramics and polymers. This classification of material made of long, repeating chains of
molecules. The materials have unique properties, depending on the type of molecules being
bonded and how they are bonded. For the last classification, advanced materials are used as
advanced materials in high-tech applications. The composite's design aim is to achieve a
combination of properties which no single material displays, and the best features for every
component material should be incorporated. These materials are typically traditional, high-
performance materials whose properties have been improved and newly developed. The
materials in this type are also classified in four types: semiconductors, biomaterials, smart
materials and nanomaterials.

3. Present a broad answer to these questions: (5 points each)

a.) Why can you bend a paperclip only a few times before it breaks?

This is due to the repeated stresses and strains that leads to fatigue. When you bend a
paper clip a few times, you apply stress. Small stresses result to tiny cracks inside the metal and
gradually grow into bigger ones, until the whole thing snaps in half. In addition, doing that
subjects the paper clip to deformations (changes in shape). Eventually, the paper clip reaches its
breaking point.

b.) Why does rubber stretch even though it's a solid?

A rubber is a polymer and an elastomer as it shows notable feature of being elastic. After
being stretched, squeezed or any kind of physical deformation, it will return to its original shape.
It has moderately cross-linked bonds but if it is physically deformed well beyond its material
limits, it might not return to its original form, might as well break. But, if that beyond didn’t
reach, then elastic deformation will be involve which the tendency is return the material its
original shape.

c.) Why do metals conduct electricity but plastics don't?

Atoms of plastics are mainly held by covalent bond. That’s why there are no free
electrons in plastics. If there is no free electron, conduction of electricity will not happen. In
other words, the plastics that have more than 4 electrons in their valence shells that tends to give
electrons, instead of receiving and this makes it a poor conductor of electricity.

d.) Why can you snap a plank of wood but not stretch or squeeze it?

Wood is an anisotropic material meaning, there are different properties in a lump of wood
in different directions. The annual ring-and-grain structure of wood is distinct. You can normally
bend and snap a small, dead, tree branch with your hands bare, but when you are pulling or
moving it in the opposite direction you find it almost impossible to stretch or compress the same

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branch. Same concept applies to a plank of wood. When you snap a plank, you use a force
parallel to the grain where the wood is weak; you apply force against the grain with the wood
being strongest when try to stretch or squeeze the plank. That’s why you can’t stretch or squeeze
a plank of wood.

4 . Differentiate the following: (5 points each)

a.) Elastic and Anelastic deformation

Elastic deformation happens when external force is applied. The object returns to its
original shape when stress (external force) is released, unless stress reaches the maximum stress.
While Anelastic deformation when the object will not retain to its original form. The
deformation will be permanent and cannot be back to its original form.

b.) Plastic Deformation and Creep

Plastic deformation permanent distortion that occurs when a material is subjected to


tensile, compressive, bending, or torsion stresses that exceed its yield strength and cause it to
elongate, compress, buckle, bend, or twist. However, the tendency of a solid material to slowly
or permanently deform under the influence of persisting mechanical stresses is creep (often
called cold flow). It is due to long-term exposure to high stress, which is still below the material's
yield strength.

c.) Particle-reinforced and Fibre-reinforced Composites

Fibre-reinforced composites and particle-reinforced composites differ in the following


areas: strengthening, usage and cost. Particle-reinforced composites are less effective than
fibreenhanced composites for material strengthening. Particle-reinforced composites are usually
used when high resistance to wear is needed, while this is not the case for fibre-reinforced
composites. Particle-reinforced composites are cheaper and simpler to manufacture than
composites with fibreenhanced materials. The main benefit of particle-reinforced composites is
their low cost and ease of production and forming compared to fiber-reinforced ones. Particulate-
reinforced composites find applications where high levels of wear-resistance are required such as
road surfaces. While Fiber-reinforced composites have emerged as viable structural materials
due to their advantageous stiffness, thermal expansion, strength and density properties. These
properties are derived in a composite through the dominance of high stiffness/high strength
fibers over the relatively soft, low strength matrix.

7. Provide a comprehensive explanation of the relevance of Materials Science and


Engineering on this modern world. (10 points)

In this new era, MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING became a fundamental


instrument for shaping the world into modernization that starts from technological changes. The
core to core values of understanding of the intimate relation between processing, composition
and structure and properties, are instill on us. By this, by learning the fundamental structure of
materials at atomic or molecular scales and investigating the relationships between them and
studying the features and phenomena of the materials, we can produce new products and
applications and improve the old ones that will benefit human beings in meeting the demands on
transport equipment, prosthetics equipment, energy generation, transmission and storage. Thus,
Materials Science and Engineering not just played an important role in the economy, raising
living standards, reducing energy demands, also it concern the environmental quality. It helps us
to improve the “non-eco-friendly” inventions and discoveries making new forms or versions
especially in distribution of electrical power, store energy and conserve energy.

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8. State and discuss at least three significant applications of Materials Science and
Engineering in process industries. (10 points)

Industries where the primary production processes are either continuous or occur on a
batch of materials that is indistinguishable. Materials Science and Engineering plays a vital role
in this case. It deals with the relationship between the structures and properties of materials and
their applications and this concerns the interconnected composition, microstructure, and
synthesis-processing. To transform resources into other products they need to set a performance
cost, what would be the cost of fabrication. By studying the Materials Science and Engineering,
the first process to be done in process industries is knowing the composition to be used special
its qualities and quantities. The next one is the microstructure, focusing on features of the
structure limitation in terms of strength and formality. And the last one is the synthesis-
processing, it the process on how to make it real and to make its form. Hence, these three made
the process industries to be helpful in mankind. We had the chance to use new technology as we
experience the modernization. Along with this, the damage and hazardous were able to lessen by
studying the material. We were able to be more productive and meet the demands since it helps
to make our life easier.

9. Select a particular topic from our lectures or from the list of topics on our syllabi, state
why do you think it is relevant to your field of specialization. (10 points)

The topic that I have selected from Materials Science and Engineering syllabus is
electrical properties. It is relevant to our field of specialization as it subclasses the
semiconductors. Everything in our course, such in microelectronics, global-scale communication
and biomaterials and nanomaterial’s, the concept of semiconductor (the idea of a material that
can behave both as being a conductor and an insulator) continues to revolve and has become a
basic in bringing about technological changes, depending on how the semiconductor is designed.
Electronic engineering requires application of electrical properties learned in Materials Science
and Engineering. Choosing the suitable material to conduct electricity, impede electricity, and
transform electricity into its suitable practical application, increasing the efficiency of the
devices and isolating electrical hazards. Truly, by studying electrical properties will help in
higher performance and efficiency of existing technologies and to the creation of new ones. This
will surely benefit to mankind.

10. Discuss the application/s or importance of Materials Science and Engineering in your
field of specialization. (15 points)

Materials Science and Engineering has concerns in my field of specialization which is


Electronics engineering. In making devices we need to analyse the materials that we will use
because it is the first thing to do in order to prevent the possible accidents that may cause of the
device materials itself. Output that does works for a short time and suddenly results to accidents,
is worthless and one who did it cannot be considered as an engineer. We did study the
semiconductors, such as those made from silicon, are used to make integrated circuits for
computer chips. Barium titanate (BaTiO3), tantalum oxide (Ta2O5), and many other dielectric
materials are used to make ceramic capacitors and other devices. Superconductors are used in
making powerful magnets. Copper, aluminium, and other metals are used as conductors in power
transmission and in microelectronics. Single discrete devices and integrated circuits (ICs),
consisting of several or millions of devices, are manufactured and interconnected on a single
semiconductor substrate, are produced as semiconductor devices. Those are evidence of how
much important that we study such materials and to continuously make highly materials are vital
to the progress of the electronics industry. It is not just about how fast we make our output, it is
about the influence of our output and how secure the users and secondary users as well as to the
environment when it will be used. In order to aim this, we must apply the philosophy of
Materials Science and Engineering.

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PART II: Think of a novel and innovative application of Materials Science and Engineering that
you can use, develop or construct in the future as future engineer. The application could be in a
form of a machine, design, process or equipment and the basic foundation should be problem
based and should help in the advancement of society. Explain the concept of your idea, how
would it possibly work and cite where Materials Science and Engineering is applied. (Examples:
Waste Segregator for Landfills using your own possible discovery or version of bioplastic,
Automatic Sand Separator for Construction Workers using Advanced Materials, Robotic Arm for
Disabled Persons employing Biomaterials). You can provide illustrations or any medium you
deem necessary in expressing your idea. (50 points)

Barrio’s Forklift Drone


Gregori, Francine Cyrill R.

"Death on arrival" or "death on home" had been a scene for many years in the provinces
due to the insufficiency of vehicles. It is the rough roads and rushing water currents which makes
vehicles unable to pass through. In order to rush patients to a nearby hospital, people use cradles
and do the "Ambulansiyang de Paa" (Ambulance on Foot). However, there are cases that the
speed of the "Ambulansiyang de Paa" cannot keep the life of a person.
Meanwhile, the suffering of farmers from carrying heavy stuffs is known for a long time.
This sometimes result to "nabalian ako" (I got broken bone) and to "nagkaluslos ako" (I got
hernia).
With these existing problems, the concept of forklift and drone could be possibly
proposed since forklift was designed to lift and move materials over short distances and drone,
the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) was designed to be a flying robot for a wide range of
civilian roles.

Forklift

Source: Internet

Figure 1: Forklift

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Drone

Source: Internet

With these parts, if only they would be able to combine to produce an innovation, their
disadvantages will successfully be balanced. Thus, the aforementioned problems could be
possible lessen.
I come up to the idea of forklift drone and I call it Barrio’s Forklift Drone since it is
dedicated to the people who lives in barrio.

Figure 3: Barrio’s Forklift Drone


Software used: AutoCAD

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Figure 4: Barrio’s Forklift Drone’ Faces
Software used: AutoCAD

Figure 6: Surface Parts of Barrio’s Forklift Drone


Software used: AutoCAD

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The Barrio’s Forklift Drone would have six basics parts; propellers, door, side guard,
monitor, forks and carriage and mask.
Propellers, will be made in carbon fiber. It is the most expensive materials for propellers
but I will chose it because it had best quality and advantages. It produce less vibration due to its
stiffness, and it sounds quieter too when spinning. They are also lighter and significantly stronger
than plastic when crashed, but not indestructible though. This part is very important because it is
responsible in determining the direction the drone takes either forward or backward and a faulty
propeller means impaired flight for the drone and hence an accident.
For the door and side guard (walls and roof), I will choice the metal, since it is one of
strongest solid that can help in protecting and keeping the cargoes. The spare side guards are
provided and the choice depends on the user. Is it the original, the close one or is it the spare one
that is designed to breathe the natural air and conserve more energy? No worries for the close
one type of ride, since there will be an aircon so people can breathe. Furthermore, this is also for
the people who have fears in height, they are not able to see the heights thus, their fears will be
lessen.
The forks and carriage and mask will also be made in metals. The carriage will have the
welded metal frame or flat metal plates that move along the mast so the work of rising and
lowering the load will be possible together with forks, the two parallel arms that carry the load. It
is expected to reach the one hundred fifty-five centimetre and turn around to complete its mirror
degree during rising to place the load inside the box. The process will be undergo in monitor
(connected to the all cameras) which will be made up like the standard monitor of the current era.
Meanwhile, the inner face of Barrio’s Forklift Drone; controller, antenna, transmitter,
motor, power distributer, and engine battery will be placed in bellow the box, like the present
and common design of the vehicles for security. To be eco-friendly, the innovation must use the
electric source of power instead of gas. The connection of those main components would be
handled by electronics and mechanical engineer.
With its speed to fly, appropriate size and weight, for 400 kilos of load, Barrio’s Forklift
Drone will able to pass through in the narrowed and rough place. The success of Barrio’s Forklift
Drone, will be part of the success of the people who lives in barrios.
“No one should be left behind. Let us use the learnings from Materials Science and Engineering in helping others.”

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