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Norma

Alloyed steels for springs 2371


ed.: 1 mod.
Page: 1/5
Date:20-06-2000

Objective Index
To determine the characteristics of the alloyed 1. General .............................................................. 2
steels for the manufacture of springs, used in the 2. Qualitative properties of the semifinished..........2
Piaggio construction. 3. Qualitative properties of the finished product .... 2
4. Standard specification on the drawing............... 3

Modification Date Description of the modification

20-06-2000 ed. 1 – Completely revised edition.

W.E.F:
Author: P. Mariani
Checked by: A. Mantini
Approved by: A. Vignoli & E. Cascone

Distribution List (codes): 33, 34, 35, 40, 41, 59, 66, 68, 70, 80 , 81,84, 94, 99, 152, 158, 163, 190, 252, 352,
359, 375, 376, 380, 457, 510, 513, 542, 546, 548, 559, 573, 582, 584, 591, 619, 627, 636, 721.
Norma 2371 Page: 2 / 5 Modification: Ed.: 1

1. General The above is verified by the presence of aluminium


(at chemical analysis total Al ≥ 0,025%) or by the
The alloyed steels in the given standrad are usually
determination of the austenitic grain.
supplied in semifinished at annealed state. The hot
The size of the austenitic grain should be within 5
or cold formed final product is used after it is
and 8 as per the table given in norma UNI 3245.
hardened and tempered.
For testing methods see UNI EN 10083-1
Indicatively the steels in the given norma at ambient
appendex B para B.3 ( Metallographic
temperature have tensile modulus of elasticity
determination).
equal to 206 000 N/mm2 and torsional moduls of
elasticity equal to 80 400 N/mm2. 2.5 Appearence and surface decarburation
For alloyed steels used in the manufacture of
Within the limits indicated in the norma 2386.
springs made from hardened and tempered wire,
see norma 2368.
2.6 Internal defects
For alloyed steels used in the manufacture of
springs made from raw drawn material norma Within the limits indicated as per norma 2386.

2369.
2.7 Non metallic inclusions

The non metallic inclusions are the index of the


2. Qualitative properties of the
purity grade of the steel.
semifinished material They are determined as norma UNI 3244 (Method

The classification of the kinds of steel are those K of the reference pictures). The permissible

given in UNI 3545 with additions and modifications. limits are as following:

For supply conditions ( taken partly from UNI


10233-1 and UNI–EN 10083-1) see standard 2386. Diameter d mm Index K
(bar or wires) (Oxides
only)
2.1 Correspondence with international 70∠ d ≤ 100 K4 ≤ 40
standards 35 ∠ d ≤ 70 K4 ≤ 35
17∠ d ≤ 35 K3 ≤ 40
See table 1 at page 4 8 ∠ d ≤ 17 K3 ≤ 30
d≤8 K2 ≤ 35

2.2 Chemical composition

See table 2 at page 5.


3. Qualitative properties of the finished
product.
2.3 Mechanical characteristics

See table 2 at page 4 3.1 Fatigue strength

The springs should overcome fatigue test without


2.4 Austenitic grain
getting broken, as specified in the corresponding
The alloyed material meant for special use drawings.
described in the given norma are fine grain killed After the test is conducted, a variation in the
steels. dimensions of the free spring is permissible,
Norma 2371 Page: 3 / 5 Modification: Ed.: 1

provided these dimensions remain within the 2386, 2682/LT, 2700.


tolerances given in the drawing. UNI 3244:80, UNI 3245:87; UNI 3545:80; UNI
5394:92; UNI 10233-1:93.
3.2 Surface appearance UNI EN 10083-1:98.

The surface appearance holds considerable


importance for the fatigue strength of the spring.
The spring surfaces should be free from ribbings,
flaking, roaks, pittings or other defects which can
disturb the impact strength of the component. The
test is conducted visually and thereafter with the
help of a magnifying glass, with penetrating
liquids/fluids, with magnetic methods (metalloscopic
methods) or using other techniques or using
equipment adapted to highlight any surface defects
whatever be their direction.
Besides the surfaces should be free from dry oil
films deposits or other unspecified surface
deposits. When shot peening is required, it should
be carried out as per specification given for it or as
per UNI 5394.

3.3 Heat treatment state and structure

The thermal treatment state should be the one


specified by the orders and drawings and the
corresponding structure.

4. Standard specification on the


drawing:

Following should be indicated:


- Piaggio logo of the material
- Heat treatment to be employed
- Reference to the given norma
For eg.
52 Si Cr Ni 5 hardened and tempered- Norma
2382
If the project and drawing division wishes to have
characteristics different from those given in the
present norma, then it should be indicated on the
drawing.
Reference Normas
Norma 2371 Page: 4 / 5 Modification: Ed.: 1

TABLE 1 – Correspondence to international standard (1)

Previous
Piaggio logo SAE AFNORM BS DIN (2) JIS
Piaggio logo
48 Si 7 M 2 50Si 7 --- 51 S7 --- 51 Si 7 (1.5025) ---
55 Si 7 55Si 8 9255 56 S7 250 A 53 55 Si 7 (1.5026) ---
60 Si 7 --- 9260 61 S7 250 A 61 60 Si 7 (1.5027) ---
60 SiCr 8 --- 9262 60 SC7 925 A 60 60SiCr8 (1.7108) ---
52 SiCrNi 5 M5 --- --- --- --- ---
50 CrV 4 --- 6145-6150 51 CV4 735 A 50 50CrV4 (1.8159) SUP 10
51CrMoV 4 --- --- --- --- --- ---

Note:
(1) Approximate correspondence. Among the different kinds of steel, there could be small differences in the
chemical composition.
(2) The numerical denomination of the materials (werkstoff nr.) indicated in brackets has also been adopted
by the European Standards (EN).

TABLE 2 – Chemical composition ( % mass on casting)

Chemical composition (1) (3)


Piaggio
logo P S
C Mn Si Cr Ni Mo V
max. max.
48Si7 0,42÷0,52 0,50÷0,80 1,50÷2,00 --- --- --- --- 0,035 0,035
55Si7 (2) 0,52÷0,60 0,60÷0,90 1,50÷2,00 0,15÷0,45 --- --- --- 0,035 0,035
60Si7 0,57÷0,64 0,60÷0,90 1,50÷2,00 --- --- --- --- 0,035 0,035
60SiCr8 0,57÷0,64 0,70÷1,00 1,70÷2,20 0,25÷0,40 --- --- --- 0,035 0,035
52SiCrNi5 0,49÷0,56 0,70÷0,90 1,20÷1,50 0,70÷1,00 0,50÷0,70 --- --- 0,035 0,035
50CrV4 0,47÷0,55 0,70÷1,10 0,15÷0,40 0,80÷1,20 --- --- 0,10÷0,20 0,035 0,035
51CrMoV4 0,48÷0,56 0,70÷1,00 0,15÷0,40 0,90÷1,20 --- 0,15÷0,25 0,07÷0,12 0,035 0,035

Note:
(1) The other elements not indicated in table should not be added to the steel, except for those destined for
the processing of the casting. Residues can be present provided the hardening properties and mechanical
properties are respected.
(2) Chrome content indicated is optional.
(3) For aluminum content see point 2.4 at pg. 2.
Norma 2371 Page: 5 / 5 Modification: Ed.: 1

TABLE 3 – Characteristics

Standard supply Meccanical Characteristics (at


state of bars hardened and tempered state)
Type of Previous
Piaggio (1) Commonly used Heat (2)
material Piaggio Direction for use
logo Treatment
logo
Thermal Hardness Rm Rp0,2 A
State HB (3) N/mm2 N/mm2 %
Water Quenching 860 °C
Annealed
48Si 7 M 2- 50Si 7 ≤ 245 and tempering at 1300÷1550 ≥ 1110 ≥6 For very stressed water quenched springs
Steels having softened
400÷480°C
Silicon 55Si 7 55Si 8 Annealed ≤ 248 Oil quenching 855°C iand 1350÷1600 ≥ 1160 ≥6
For very stressed oil quenched springs
60Si 7 --- softened ≤ 255 tempering at 400÷480°C 1380÷1630 ≥ 1180 ≥6
Steels having Annealed
60Si Cr 8 --- ≤ 255 Oil quenching 850°C and 1450÷1700 ≥ 1250 ≥5 For very stressed oil quenched springs
Si-Cr softened
tempering at
Steels
Annealed 400÷480°C
having Si- 52SiCrNi 5 M5 ≤ 260 1400÷1650 ≥ 1220 ≥5 For strongly stressed springs.
softened
Cr-Ni
Oil quenching 850°C and For torsion bars, axle shaft.
Steels having 50 CrV 4 --- Annealed ≤ 241 1330÷1580 ≥ 1140 ≥6
tempering at
Cr – V softened 400÷480° C
51CrMoV 4 --- ≤ 255 1380÷1630 ≥ 1180 ≥6

Note:
(1) The standard supply state (soft annealed) usually corresponds to the state of easy machinability. However, requisites of procurement or manufacturing of the pieces may
vary for components; in such cases the supply state (heat treatment state and hardness limits ) should be indicated on the drawing.

(2) Values shown on the test piece ∅=10 mm at hardened and tempered state. For testing method see norma 2682/LT.

(3) The hardness should be carried out on surface or core as per norma 2700.

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