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But will the Micro-Deval test supplement to indicate aggregate toughness and test is the predominant test in the

ant test in the U.S.; it


or supplant the L. A. Abrasion test for abrasion characteristics. Aggregate is used by 47 States (Wu et al., 1998).
some aggregate applications? It has in abrasion characteristics are important
Ontario for measuring the quality of because the constituent aggregate in Test Concept
aggregates for transportation HMA must resist crushing, degradation
construction. It has replaced the L. A. and disintegration in order to produce a The L.A. abrasion test measures the
Abrasion test (more formally named Test high quality HMA. degradation of a coarse aggregate sample
for Resistance to Degradation of that is placed in a rotating drum with
Aggregate by Abrasion and Impact in the The standard L.A. abrasion test subjects a steel spheres (Figure 7). As the drum
Los Angeles Machine) for coarse coarse aggregate sample (retained on the rotates the aggregate degrades by
aggregate and the magnesium sulfate No. 12 (1.70 mm) sieve) to abrasion, abrasion and impact with other aggregate
soundness test for fine aggregate.For impact, and grinding in a rotating steel particles and the steel spheres (called the
many decades throughout the world, the drum containing a specified number of "charge"). Once the test is complete, the
L. A. Abrasion test (ASTM and steel spheres. calculated mass of aggregate that has
AASHTO) has been the standard for broken apart to smaller sizes is expressed
evaluating coarse aggregate degradation After being subjected to the rotating as a percentage of the total mass of
and toughness in dry conditions.It also is drum, the weight of aggregate that is aggregate. Therefore, lower L.A.
a standard in the EU. Rogers wrote, retained on a No. 12 (1.70 mm) sieve is abrasion loss values indicate aggregate
“Despite the name, the Los Angeles test subtracted from the original weight to that is tougher and more resistant to
does not measure abrasion but rather obtain a percentage of the total aggregate abrasion.
impact resistance.” Many believe that this weight that has broken down and passed
dry test is a measure principally of through the No. 12 (1.70 mm) sieve.
breakdown due to impact and Summary
Therefore, an L.A. abrasion loss value of
degradation during handling, batching 40 indicates that 40% of the original
and lay-down operations. A sample of aggregate retained on the
sample passed through the No. 12 (1.70 No. 12 (1.70 mm) sieve is
mm) sieve. placed inside a rotating steel
ASTM C 131, C 535
drum containing a specified
AASHTO T-96 The standard Los Angeles abrasion test number of steel spheres or
is: "charge". As the drum rotates, a
The L. A. Abrasion Machine is used as a shelf inside the drum picks up
quality control tool for aggregates, Background the aggregate and steel spheres.
including crushed rock, gravel and slag. The shelf carries them around
The testing method determines the until they drop on the opposite
degradation when subjected to abrasion, Aggregates undergo substantial wear and
tear throughout their life. In general, they side of the drum, subjecting the
attrition, impact and grinding. The aggregate to impact and
sample is placed in the drum along with a should be hard and tough enough to resist
crushing, degradation and disintegration crushing. Then, the aggregate is
hardened steel abrasive charge. After subjected to abrasion and
rotating the drum a specific number of from any associated activities including
manufacturing (Figure 2), stockpiling grinding as the drum continues
times, samples are removed and to rotate until the shelf picks up
examined for wear. (Figure 3), production (Figure 4), placing
(Figure 5) and compaction (Figure 6) the contents, and the process is
(Roberts et al., 1996). Furthermore, they repeated. The drum is rotated for
Durham Geo offers two models; a basic must be able to adequately transmit loads a specified number of
model and an enclosed model. Both from the pavement surface to the revolutions. Afterward, the
machines are constructed from structural underlying layers and eventually the aggregate is removed from the
steel with a welded 1/2 in (1.27 cm) thick subgrade. These properties are especially drum and sieved on a No. 12
drum wall. The drum is fitted with a critical for open or gap graded HMA, (1.70 mm) sieve. The aggregate
removable shelf in accordance with which do not benefit from the cushioning retained on the sieve is weighed
ASTM "preferred design" effect of the fine aggregate and where and the difference between this
recommendations. Rotation is provided coarse particles are subjected to high weight and the original weight is
by an electric motor with speed reduction contact stresses (Wu et al., 1998). expressed as a percentage and
and enclosed chain drive to allow the Aggregates not adequately resistant to reported as the L.A. abrasion
drum to turn at 30-33 rpm. The enclosed abrasion and polishing may cause loss value. Figure 11 shows
model is a new design that meets OSHA premature structural failure and/or a loss major equipment used in the
sound and mechanical safety of skid resistance. Furthermore, poor L.A. abrasion test.
requirements. An interlock prevents resistance to abrasion can produce
operation unless the double hinged lid is excessive dust during HMA production Parameters Measured
closed. Both models, (C-658 and C-660) resulting in possible environmental
come with a 25 kg abrasive charge and a problems as well as mixture control Note 1 There is no standard L.A.
heavy duty catch pan. problems. abrasion specification for Superpave mix
design; specifications are typically
Overview Because of the preceding issues, a test to established by state or local agencies.
predict aggregate toughness and abrasion Typically U.S. state specifications limit
The Los Angeles (L.A.) abrasion test resistance is valuable. The L.A. abrasion the abrasion of coarse aggregate for
(Figure 1) is a common test method used HMA use to a maximum ranging from 25
to 55 percent, with most states using a
specification of 40 or 45 percent (Figure
14). Requirements for Stone Matrix
Asphalt (SMA) tend to be lower;
AASHTO specifies a maximum L.A.
abrasion loss of 30 percent for SMA.