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IJELLH Volume 6, Issue 10, October 2018 736

*Rajveer Singh
Research Scholar, Amity School of Languages,
Amity University Uttar Pradesh
Lucknow , Uttar Pradesh,India

**Prof. (Dr.) Kum Kum Ray

Guide Director,
Amity School of Languages, Amity University,
Lucknow , Uttar Pradesh, India

**Prof. (Dr.) Nita (Dave) Jain

Co-Guide, Ex. Principal,
Christ Church College, CSJM University,
Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

Socio-cultural factors in the development of H.L.V. Derozio as a poet and renaissance spirit
in the poems The Golden Vase, The Eclipse and The Ruins of Rajmahal awakening national
Derozio wrote poems during Bengal Renaissance and was influenced by social, religious,
literary and political changes of the time. The spirit of patriotism, struggle against the
religious fundamentalism and the impact of British rule in India was part of socio-cultural
movement. The dismal condition of India and glorious past shaped the sensibilities of
Derozio. Derozio was also influenced by Francis Bacon‟s philosophy and humanitarian ideal
of the west. Derozio criticised the social evil of Sati. He painted a picture of India‟s past in
“The Golden Vase”. “The Eclipse” reflected a call for social reform in society and rational
thinking. The ruins speak of the past and revive the memory about the glorious past and
express the painful state and emotions on the loss. Feelings of respect and attachment with
the past of country were expressed.

Key words: Social, Cultural, Reforms, Heritage, Country, Glory.

IJELLH Volume 6, Issue 10, October 2018 737

Henry Louis Vivian Derozio was born in Calcutta on 10 April 1809. His father was a
Portuguese and his mother was an Indian. Derozio started education at Dharamtallah
Academy of David Drummond (1787-1843) in 1815 at the age of six years. His mother died
in the same year near Krishnagar and his father Francis married an English lady Anna Maria
Rivers the following year (Williams 80). He started writing poems at an early age. The poems
of Derozio are full with the passion of patriotism, love for nation, desire for freedom and
Derozio wrote his poems during Bengal Renaissance. His writing was influenced by
it. Social, religious, literary and political changes were taking place. The spirit of patriotism,
struggle against the religious fundamentalism and the ideal of humanism are available in his
poetry. Derozio himself was a pioneering force, contributed in the rise of Bengal Renaissance
and created awareness in the minds of the people. The impact of British rule in India was felt
as a sort of socio-cultural movement. Derozio himself was part of this impact. Synthesis of
two cultures was taking place and the best example to quote is the marriage of the Derozio‟s
parents. It was a part of the change taking place in the society and culture. Indian and
European culture combined together in one family representing assimilation of East and
West. Two social classes, one representing the colonizers and the second, the colonized,
bounded together in the form of marriage between them. This assimilation influenced the
field of education also. It produced a class of English educated Indians. Derozio was one of
them. This interaction infused new learning into the minds of people “towards society,
religion, politics, and culture” (Chakraborty 8).
The condition of India in the early nineteenth century was very dismal. There was a
decline and degradation in every sphere of life: Political, Economic, Social and Religious.
Rabindranath Tagore described the condition of India as “Her life was dried up and it shoved
all those dead and forgotten customs, superstitions and prejudices, all the ignorance and fear,
all feuds, all bitterness and separateness, all unreasonable remoteness from the world ”(Bose,
13, qtd. in Sarkar 1). It requires training to be the leaders of national thought. Patriotism
should be a legitimate instinct of every human being and “it is the sacred duty of every
citizen” (Karsten 61). As a man and a citizen, it is moral obligation to manifest patriotism. It
should be positive patriotism without a desire to hurt someone else. It should not be
barbarous, ill-directed as expressed in the infamous classical saying “Our Country right or
wrong” (Karsten 62). Honest and productive work for the upliftment of society and nation is
also patriotism. A good patriot does his appointed work and duty consciously and efficiently.
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It may be in peace or war, in commerce, trade or profession. It may be termed as public

“English speakers in India-whether they were from Britain or were educated in
English on the continent- were generally intent on professional and pecuniary advancement.
In India, as elsewhere, poetry was seldom a successful commercial enterprise” (Gibson 8).
“By the middle of the nineteenth century, moreover, there was a lively debate about the
legitimacy of writing English poetry rather than poetry in Indian vernaculars. Yet in the same
period, English (along with Hindi) came to serve as a lingua franca of political, commercial,
and intellectual elites” (Gibson 8). “Indian press in the period 1780-1820 and its editors
remained content with the London Literary scene, particularly powerful British influences
were Burns, Moore, Byron, Keats, and L.E.L. (Letitia London). Discussions of contemporary
British poetry (a good bit of it [was] orientalist in nature), mingled with discussions and
translations of the Persian poet Haifiz, Firdousi ans with translations of Sanskrit texts”
(Gibson 10). “Sir William Jones‟ hymes to Indian deities had been taken for translation, and
Jones‟notes and other apparatus made frequent comparisons of Indian gods to the gods of
Greece and Rome” (Gibson 22).
“Indian society was in a state of transition” and there was contradiction about the
development of society whether it was to take place along western line or a synthesis of East
and West (Kundu 142). The second opinion was in favour of modernisation of the society
along western lines. Derozio wanted to spread “western, particularly English ideas” (Kundu
142). Derozio was influenced by Francis Bacon‟s (1561-1626) philosophy and it influenced
him for scientific thinking. Advancement of Learning, Novum Organum and New Atlantis
embodied scientific views. In “Sonnet on the Philosophy of Bacon” Derozio appreciated
Bacon‟s scientific and secular idea of truth. Indian English poetry has been understood to
begin with Henry Louis Vivian Derozio. “English language poetry in India was only the
preoccupation of a small set of British and Indian elites” (Gibson 8).
Baconian idea of fresh knowledge as the driving force of human progress is evident in
Derozio‟s address to the student‟s “as your knowledge increases, moral principals will be
fortified and rectitude of conduct will ensure happiness” (Kundu 144-145). “He is sometimes
critical of things Indian. Defends Indian Knowledge and intelligence” (Gibson 22).
Thomas Paine‟s (1757-1809) Age of Reason (1807) also influenced the thoughts of
Derozio and his disciples. This book brought a revolution in France and England in religious
thoughts. Everything was sought to justify in terms of reason. It challenged the accepted
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social systems and orthodox prejudices and questioned the validity of archaic religious ideas.
Paine‟s rational spirit inspired Derozio and his students (Mustafi 143).
Derozio was also influenced by French thinker M. Pierre Louis Moreau. He translated
his moral philosophy De Maupertuis from French into English. It was printed posthumously.
Derozio was greatly inspired by the English Romantic poets- Thomas Moore (1799-
1852), L.E. London (1802-1838), John Keats (1795-1821), Lord Byron (1798-1824), William
Wordsworth (1770-1580), P.B. Shelly (1792-1822) and Sir Walter Scott (1791-1832).
Poems of Derozio reflect the English romantic spirit. He imitated Thomas Moore,
L.E. London, Lord Byron and Sir Walter Scott in his love and romance poems. John Keats
and P.B. Shelly influenced in writing poems on nature.
Derozio‟s romantic poems reflect freedom of individual feeling, emotion and passion
and love for nature. The Fakeer of Jungheera and Eclipse reflects the romantic ideal of
freedom and passion, protest against certain customs and traditions. Passionate plea for want
of liberty like a bird confined in a cage is available in Tasso.
The Fakeer of Jungheera is “altogether upon the strained and extravagant model of
Lord Byron‟s poetic romance poetic romance of love and murder” (Oriental Herald 114-115).
Humanitarian ideal of the west also influenced the poems of Derozio. Influence of
Thomas Campbell is reflected in the lines “And as the slave departs, the man returns” in
Freedom to the Slave (Derozio 19). Anti-slavery movement also influenced him to write on
freedom. Freedom to the Slave was written when Anti-slavery movement was quiet strong in
England. The poem expressed degrading and inconsistent feeling of slavery and advocated
free thought and movement. Glory of the struggle for freedom from slavery and tyranny was
sung. The poem reflected sympathy for the tortured and oppressed slaves. It had an appeal for
struggle for the freedom of the slave. Humanitarian consideration with indignation is
expressed in the poem On The Abolition of Sattee. Derozio was influenced by Robert Burns
(1757-1796) also. He received this influence from his teacher, David Drummond, who
composed a poem named In Memory of Robert Burns (A Brief Memoir 220).
Derozio was against the superstitions prevalent in society. This environment of
superstition made Derozio to write against it. He believed the reason of superstition as
priestly impositions. He exposed the unholy deeds of holy characters and hollowness of
saintly men and priests in The Fakeer of Jungeera. In the poem Eclipse, he contended that the
real reason of Eclipse is known to the Brahmins but they plunged people into it‟s
superstitious notion. He condemned the tyranny of priests in the poem On the Abolition of
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Sattee and held them responsible for the degradation of Hindu females. Fervent protest
against the wretched condition of Hindu females and desire for female emancipation is
Socio-cultural factors shape the sensibilities of the writers in that period. Awakening
of national consciousness and rediscovery of Indian cultural heritage came in the nineteenth
century. This phenomenon was result of the Western impact and the great Renaissance. Sri
Aurobindo described Indian Renaissance as “less like the European one and more like the
Celtic movement in Ireland” (qtd. in Lokhande 77). India‟s past was rediscovered. At the
same time, earnest Indians got English education and got western ideas. Contact with
European culture created pressure to look at Indian culture and reawakening became
inevitable. The renaissance brought the idea of liberty and determined the future of India.
Western education brought the ideas of political liberty which renewed nationalism. The
introduction of the British educational system started modernisation of Indian elite. It brought
Indians in contact with the Western culture. It marked the beginning of Indian Renaissance.
Indian intelligentsia advocated the cause of English education in India. The socio-religious
organisations like Brahmo Samaj revived the cultural past of India and filled the Indian minds
for national spirit. Many Indian were full with the ambition to regenerate India.
Derozio started to write under such socio-cultural environment. Michael Madhusadan
Dutt and kashiprasad Ghosh were his contemporaries. The writings of Rammohan Roy were
also made a shaping influence on the poets. Early English poetry was imitative. English poets
like Scott, Baron, Wordsworth and others were imitated but it recreated Indian sensibility and
portrayed Indian milieu. Incidents from Indian history, myths and legends and Hindu rituals
were reflected. This created first stage of National awakening in the poetry. Nationalism
includes various aspects as the search for identity, the social and reformative zeal,
glorification of the past and desire of the struggle for freedom.
The renaissance spirit awakened the Indians for self-identity. The enslaved
consciousness in the Indians slowly started to search for their cultural identity. Rammohan
Roy‟s essay A Defence of Hindu Theism (1817) was a publication of significance for
asserting cultural identity. European literature of revolt also influenced the English educated
elite. This germinated the zeal of patriotism and political liberty. Indians started to explore
the ancient and historical past of India. Indian English poetry was influenced by this
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One form of national consciousness in the form of Social and Reformative zeal was
developing in the first quarter of nineteenth century. This zeal of national consciousness gave
birth to several religious and social reforms. Derozio‟s poetry reflects this in many poems as
an appeal to social reforms.
Henry Louis Vivian Derozio, Michael Madhusudan Dutt and Kashiprasad Ghose
asserted the spirit of national consciousness as part of national awakening. Derozio
considered himself a true Indian. He was pioneer of earliest nationalists in India. Several of
his poems are filled with his love for India and the patriotic fervour is evident in his poetry.
The Fakeer of Jungheera (1828) express the social evil of Sati, the custom of widow‟s
burning themselves on the funeral pyres of their husbands. This cruel and painful custom was
practised under the sanction of religion. This practice was declared illegal in 1829 by Lord
William Benetick.
Henry Derozio believed that “modern Indian aesthetics should have a didactic purpose
and must acquire the ability to address larger social and poetical issues” (Williams 55). He
exhorted future Indian-English poets to acquire “buoyancy and clarity” so that they could
direct the hearts and minds of the Indian youth on a voyage of self-discovery and happiness
(Williams 55). He said “the ideas of aesthetics and literary representation to forge the identity
of a motherland (matryabhumi) and the Indian nation (bharat rastra)” (Willaims 55). He was
“the first Indian writer in English to deliberate upon the nature of aesthetics that should be
employed in Indian writing in English” (Dhardwaker 222-23, qtd. in Williams 56).
Derozio was also influenced by the Scottish Enlightment. The Scottish educators David
Hare (1775-1842) and David Drummond “fostered a questioning mind and a democratic
intellect” (Geroge, qtd. in Williams 57). Derozio‟s early training with Drummond made him
“into a free thinker” (Mukhopadhyay et al. vi). Derozio wrote an essay in the Indian Gazettee
on 22 January 1830 on the influence of poetry on society which may be considered “a
manifesto of new aesthetics” (William 57). Derozio argued the tremendous influence of
poetry on society and considered the responsibility of the poet to elevate and improve “men‟s
moral and intellectual nature” (Mukhopadhyay 320). Derozio‟s poetry contains stereotype
“communal identities, especially of the Hindus, Muslims and Christians that was prevalent
amongst the English-educated intelligentsia of nineteenth century, but the ironic content of
his writing carry a strong anti-European and nationalistic bias” (Williams 105).
Before the English language formally entered India, “Derozio of lusso-British ancestry,
created a literature in English that not only forged the identity of an emerging Indian Nation
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but also critiqued an increasingly coercive British colonial system” (Williams 105). He
instilled “a sense of pride in the Hindu past and modernised the Indian thought and
imagination wedding out superstition and blind belief” (Williams 105).
The Eurasian Movement of 1829-30 also influenced Derozio in distancing away from the
British and bringing near to the Indians. The Gazette notification of Jun 1792 debarred East
Indians from higher positions in civil and military services of the company or studying in
England on government expense. In 1822, the Supreme Court in Calcutta declared that the
East Indians could not be treated as British subjects but only as Indian natives. A campaign
was devised by the East Indian Committee in 1829 to represent the cause and grievances of
the Eurasian community. Derozio‟s patriotic fervour is evident in his speech in Town Hall
meeting organised on 9 March 1831. He gave the reason to be present there as “I am
interested in the welfare of my countryman, and therefore I ought to be here” and “I love my
country and I love justice, and therefore I ought to be here” (Edwards, 112-113).
Derozio considered India as his motherland his racial identity as Eurasian. But “the
hybrid nature of their identity and the notions of racial impurity in nineteenth century Europe
and Asia prevented the assimilation of Eurasians in either the British or Indian societies” and
Derozio felt that “neither the British nor the Indians were capable of including them in their
own communities” (Williams 108).
On frequent occasions, Derozio used to visit his aunt married to Mr. Arthur Johnson at
Bhaugulpore. On one of his visits Derozio saw a Fakeer “on a rock in the middle of the river”
and this became “the first suggestion to his fertile imagination of the longest and most
sustained flight of his muse” (Edward 4).
In The Fakeer of Jungheera, Derozio mixed “the tantric, Hindu mythological, Islamic
and Christian traditions” which “creates a composite whole that corresponds to the elegiac
European tradition of the nineteenth century” (Williams 113). He criticised the evil of Hindu
Society, the practice of widow burning. The Fakeer of Jungheera is “full of Byronic echoes”
and “ardent social reformer too peeps through the poem with a face twisted by pain and also
lit up with a hope for future” (Azhar 343). The Fakeer of Jungheera is Indian in
its “theme, imagery, vivid portrayal and spirit” (Rao 71). Derozio was “the first poet who
served to connect the traditional with the modern” and “formed the crucial link between the
East and the West” (Rao 96). Vinay Dharwadkar called him the first literary figure who
expressed “a romantic nationalism in Indian Literature” (Dharwadker 225).
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Through the poem “The Golden Vase”, Derozio has painted a picture of India‟s past. The
opening lines of the poem express the life of an Indian woman, her feelings of love, pain of
parting from her love, fear of death and dark and dismal thought of despair. The glorious and
peaceful environment has been portrayed by use of symbols. Flowers on the golden vase have
been shown as symbol of sweet thoughts in the mind of Indian woman. It symbolises the
joyful past and the peaceful state of mind of the people and a flourishing environment for
love in the society. The loyalty and purity of love of Indian woman is shown with the symbol
of “one rose she wears upon her temple” symbolising faithfulness and love with only one
person (Derozio 173). One more unique quality which gives separate identity to Indian
woman is shown by the symbol of hiding “the stark” by “a dark glossy ringlet” (Derozio
173). The hiding of the stark shows private feelings of love which are generally not expressed
publically by Indian women. Death is symbolised by the use of pale Cameeni flower which
gives sweet fragrance in night but falls down from the tree in the morning symbolising death.
Derozio has explained that this does not symbolise the fate of her love like the “ill-fated
flower” but is compared with the short life of the flower to the impending danger. The pain
and fear is expressed through the eyes of the lady.
Binary opposition has been used to compare melancholy and beauty. Though, the lady on
the vase is very beautiful but she is surrounded by melancholy. The mournful stillness in her
eyes tells us that there is some grief in her heart. The lonely condition of the lady is compared
with the lone moon in the sky. There is a lack of smile on the lady‟s lips. Her missing smile is
compared with the “sparkling like sunbeams on a ruby rare” (Derozio 174). The beauty of the
young lady is described as “so white, so gently twined/ Around the golden neck of that bright
vase/ Looks as „twere made of moonlight” (Derozio 174). The intimate moments of love are
imagined when the arm of the lady encircled to clasp her beloved. It seems as if the lady is
inviting her young beloved to rest “His head even there, and slumber if he can” (Derozio
The poet has mentioned that the vase is lucky and it makes him jealous. The lady‟s
beloved left her and it turned her smile into tears. Time spent with him was like heaven in
“spring time of his youth” (Derozio 175). The reason for departing his beloved is mentioned
in the next lines. It was due to war. War brings pain and tears in the life of people. The pain
of parting with the beloved is explained vividly. War brought silence on the smiling lips
which used to shine like sunbeam on a rare ruby. It changed the happy life as if in heave to a
state of loneliness and melancholy. Duty to save motherland took got preference in the life of
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patriot over the worldly comforts and the loved ones were left behind with the pain of
parting, tears in eyes and impending danger of death. The lady in The Golden Vase represents
the state of Indians during foreign attacks. The condition in the battlefield is expressed as
more grim and “blood- reddened field” shows the gravity of loss of life. It turned the peaceful
environment of love and prosperity into “horrid sights” and “scenes of waste and woe”
(Derozio 175). Villages were destroyed and became desolate, the security wall of city were
broken, sacked and besieged. The scene of war is created vividly in the lines “The hoarse
breath of the trumpet; the war cry/ Of armies rushing to the charge” and “The moan of
soldiers dying gasp by gasp;/ The howl of midnight hungry wolves” (Derozio 175). The
horrific condition of wounded and dead in the war became worse in night when they became
feast of the howling hungry wolves and vultures.
War with foreign intruders forced the Indians to leave their beloved ones in solitude and
“wretchedness unutterably sad” condition (Derozio 176). The environment of peace and
happiness changed into thoughts “as dark and dismal as despair” (Derozio 176). The country
has been personified and the painful condition is described as “oh! When our country writhes
in galling chains” (Derozio 176). The treatment of nation in the hands of invaders is
described as “her proud masters scourge her as dog” (Derozio 176). The pain of the country
due to its subjugated condition is compared with “an unhappy parent‟s wail” (Derozio 176).
The wail is such that it should swell our bosoms and we should rush to her relief like sons.
Patriots have been invoked with a spirit longing to be free on their flashing swords as alight
of hope. It is desired that we should not stop till every tyrant every tyrant is defeated and bent
on knees or fight till death owing an honourable place in grave and coming generations
remember the sacrifice for the love for country.
Derozio considered that the Muslim attackers came to spoil the land which was blessed
by the Gods. The state of our country before Muslim attack is shown as rich soil clad with
beauty. Love for the country is expressed by asking who will not be ready to fight against the
plunderers to stop the treasures to be taken away by them. The attacks by Muslims have been
described as lawless and destruction of temples with a motive to plunder. The march of
Hindoos is mentioned to stop the savage and rude disturber of peace. The lady on the vase
represents India and has been symbolised as the state of India during Muslim attacks. She has
been symbolised as sacred youthful love in the hope of joys once again. But the hope is
shown very less as such hopes are fulfilled only in dreams.
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The poem ends in happy moments with the meeting of the two lovers. The sight of the
lady falls on the shining gem of the ring of a man. She identifies the ring as it was once her
own. She recognises that it is her beloved and her eyes are filled with tears due to joy. The
ending of the poem may be presumed as the hope of Derozio for a free India with love
forthcoming in the young hearts in a peaceful and prosperous country.
In the poem “The Eclipse”, Derozio has compared the departing of his lover like an
eclipse for him. In the opening note of the poem, Derozio has mentioned the superstitious
belief about the eclipse in the Hindus. He has expressed scientific thinking. The real reason of
the eclipse was very well known to the Brahmins and they could calculate the occurrence of
eclipse with the precision of the best European astronomers but the incident was linked with a
myth that the eclipse happened when the moon was swallowed by a monster. This reflects the
lack of scientific thinking and giving a religious angle to the events by Indians. It also shows
that scientific knowledge was available with about astronomy but it was limited to a few who
gave it a religious angle by creating myth. This attitude of learned one‟s kept Indian masses
away from the scientific knowledge and thinking. The reformative attitude of Derozio is
reflected for social reform in society and rational thinking.
“The Ruins of Rajmahal” is a poem about the ruins of Singhee Dulan and Sona Masjid. It
creates an image of rich and glorious past of our country. Derozio has also expressed his
feelings about the contemporary state of country as compared to its glorious past. Singhee
Dulan and Sona Masjid were built by Shooja Shah. Native and European travellers used to
visit these sites. The walls of Sona Masjid were covered with marble slabs which had been
plundered. The ruined state is expressed in the opening lines as there is “no Muezzin in the
Mosque” and “The sacred hall, the holy sod/By unbelievers‟ feet are trod” (Derozio 88). The
walls are covered with weed where many a sage had worshiped but those days are gone by.
The columns are broken and wild dog howl in the hall, the high lattice are occupied by owls
and their dismal cry.
The ruins speak of the past and revive the memory as “relic whisper of the dead”
(Derozio 89). Derozio has expressed his despair in the lines “I would not have the day return/
That saw these wrecks in all their pride” (Derozio 89). The situation has been compared with
the state of a person holding urn of his beautiful beloved in the lines “As he who weeps oér
Beauty‟s urn/ Feels what he felt not by her side” (Derozio 90). The painful state and emotions
on the loss are expressed as “A gloom that gives to sorrow zest!/ A pang that‟s welcome to
the breast!” (Derozio 90). Feelings of respect and attachment with the past of country are
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available in “A nobler work of mortal hands!” (Derozio 90). The ruins are mentioned as “A
worthier, dearer legacy!/ How eloquent is all around!” (Derozio 90). Through the ruins,
Indian philosophy of changing good and bad times has also been described. The ruins under
the “moonlight stream”; “beautiful lunar beam” and “sacred stillness in each star” also gives
a message of mortality to human beings (Derozio 91).
The ruins remind that anyone may face this “forlorn- neglected- desolate” state (Derozio
91). Writing of names on the walls by European and native travellers is regarded mocking the
pride and power of the past kings. Shooja Shah, who constructed these buildings, never
thought such a fate of these magnificent structures. The patriotic emotions are shown by
Derozio in “My native land is that which he did once command” (Derozio 92). Though the
“sons of fame” of country are dead but the spirit of the country is not “wholly fled” (Derozio
92). The rivers of the country are flowing between fertile banks. There are mist clad
mountains with their peaks “as if to pierce the sky” (Derozio 92). The bygone glory shall live
in the memory through years. Flourishing green fields are some traces of its glory and shall
remind its past. Some traces which give image of our country are mentioned as:

A holy relic of the past;

A dazzling meteor fleeting by,
A irish in a cloudy sky;
A vesper breeze in summer shade,
A sunbeam in the gloomy glade-
A rose-bud in the wilderness!
In the last lines of the poem, Derozio has expressed his feeling of hope and despair. The
ruins are symbol of contemporary state of India. The condition of India was like the condition
of ruins as expressed “haggard wilderness of despair”, surrounded by darkness and gloom
like a spell. But there seemed a halo circle giving hope and felt by all which could neither be
seen nor concealed. The state of country was like a “woman in her widowhood” in a
mournful mood (Derozio 93).
Poems of Henry Louis Vivian Derozio are patriotic in passion with burning
nationalistic zeal and powerful enough to ignite patriotism in the mind of the reader. The
poet‟s consciousness about the glorious past of India and lamenting the contemporary
condition depicts the patriotic feelings of the poet and stimulate historical consciousness of
India in the mind of the Indians. Wars for freedom and independence, readiness to sacrifice
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everything and devotion to the freedom of nation inspire the reader‟s unconsciousness mind
with patriotism and desire for freedom. The poems signal a message to the readers to strive to
regain glorious past of India.
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Works Cited:

A Brief Memoir of the Late Mr. David Drummond. The Oriental Magazine, vol. 1, no. 6,
June 1843, p. 220.
Azhar, Sheeba. Forlorn Voices of Indian English Poetry with special Reference to Bengal.
Lapis Lazuili, An International Literary Journal. vol. 5, no. 1, Spring 2015, pp. 341-
Chakraborty, Tarun Kanti. Derozio’s Poetry : A Response to Bengal Renaissance. University
of North Bengal, 2007, Cooch Behar. Shodhganfa, Shodh-ganga.inflinet.ac.in.
Derozio, Henry Louis Vivian. Poems. Calcutta, Messrs. S. Smith and Co. Hurkaru Library,
---. The Fakeer of Jungheera: A Metrical Tale; and other Poems. Calcutta, Samuel Smith and
Co. Hurkaru Library, 1828.
Dhardwaker, Vinay. “Formation of Indian- English Literature.” Literary Cultures in History:
Reconstructions from South Asia, edited by Sheldon Pollack, New Delhi, Oxfrod
UP, 2004, pp. 222-23.
Edward, Thomas. “The Town Hall Meeting, 9th March 1831.” Henry Derozio, the Eurasian,
Poet, Teacher, and Journalist: With Appendices, W. Newman & Co, Ld., 4
Dalhousie Square, 1884, pp. 111-120.
Gibson, Marry Ellis, editor. Anglophone Poetry in Colonial India: A Critical Anthology. Ohio
UP, Athens, 2013.
Karsten, Gustaf E. “Folklore and Patriotism.” The Journal of English and Germanic
Philology, Vol.- 7, No.- 2 (Apr 2, 1908), pp. 61-78. University of Illinois, JSTOR,
www.jstor.org/sable/27699914 . Accessed on 07 Dec 2016.
Kundu, Bhabatosh. “The Socio-Religious Concepts of Derozio.” Derozio and Young Bengal,
University of Burdwan, 1996, West Bengal, India, pp. 142-195.
Lokhande, Rajendra P. “Nationalism in Pre-Independence Indian Poetry in English.”
Nationalism in Indian Poetry in English. Shivaji University, Kolhapur, 2002, pp.
Mukhopadhyay, Abirlal, et. al. Song of the Stormy Petrel: Complete Works of Henry Louis
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