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CCNA question bank:

1. Which of the following commands is used to encrypt all passwords, including username passwords,
authentication key passwords, console and virtual terminals line access passwords on router running Cisco
IOS?
[A] Login password <password>
[B] Service password-encryption
[The actual encryption process occurs when the current configuration is written or when a password is configured.
Service password encryption is applied to all passwords, including username passwords, authentication key
passwords, the privileged command password, console and virtual terminal line access passwords. This command is
primarily useful for keeping unauthorized individuals from viewing your password in your configuration file.]
[C] Enable password
[D] Enable secret <password>

2. Which of the following commands displays a hop-by-hop path through an IP network from the source switch?
[A] Ping
[B] Ipconfig
[C] Show vlan
[D] Traceroute
[The command Traceroute <destination ip address> shows the hop by hop path through the IP network from the
source device. The path is shown in terms of IP addresses (Layer 3 addresses) and not MAC addresses (Layer 2
addresses).]

3. Three hosts host A, B and C are being added to the corporate network. Which of the following IP addresses
represent the default gateways for host A and C? (Choose 2 best answers) [Click on the Exhibit]

[A] 192.168.1.1
[B] 192.168.1.16
[C] 192.168.1.36
[D] 192.168.1.63

IP address: 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.240


Subnet ID: 191.168.1.0
Available Host IDs: 191.168.1.1 - 191.168.1.14
Broadcast address: 191.168.1.15
Host A is in VLAN 1 (Port 3). Therefore, the default gate is 192.168.1.1 (fa0/0.1 of router)

IP address: 192.168.1.17 255.255.255.248


Subnet ID: 191.168.1.16
Available Host Ids: 191.168.1.17 - 191.168.1.22
Host B is in VLAN 100 (Port 14). Therefore, the default gate is 192.168.1.17 (fa0/0.2 of router)

IP address: 192.168.1.36 255.255.255.224


Subnet ID: 191.168.1.32
Available Host Ids: 191.168.1.33 - 191.168.1.62
Host C is in VLAN 200(Port 21). Therefore, the default gate is 192.168.1.36 (fa0/0.3 of router)

4. Which of the following Cisco router components is used for storing a single startup configuration file?
[A] RAM
[B] ROM
[C] Flash Memory
[D] NVRAM

Typically, a Cisco router has the following types of memory components:


1. RAM (or DRAM): This type of memory is used for working storage. This is where part of IOS image, routing
tables, packets, and others are stored during normal working of a router. RAM is erased when the router is powered
off.
2. ROM (Read Only Memory): ROM stores bootstrap code for booting Cisco IOS. It points to the functional IOS
image so that the router can complete its start-up configuration successfully. It is somewhat analogous the BIOS in
PC. ROM also contains a small portion of IOS.
3. Flash memory: Flash memory contains the fully functional IOS images. It is the default location for getting IOS
image at boot time. You can loosely compare the IOS image with operating system (say DOS).
4. NVRAM: NVRAM stands for Non Volatile RAM. NVRAM stores the initial or startup configuration file.

5. Which of the following is true? [Click on the Exhibit]

[A] Cable A: Straight


Cable B: Straight
Cable C: Cross
Cable D: Straight
[B] Cable A: Straight
Cable B: Cross
Cable C: Straight
Cable D: Straight
[C] Cable A: Cross
Cable B: Straight
Cable C: Straight
Cable D: Cross
[D] Cable A: Cross
Cable B: Straight
Cable C: Straight
Cable D: Straight
Anytime that you hook up two end-devices like routers, PCs, print-servers, etc to one another, you'll need a
crossover cable. A switch or hub already have all their ports crossed over, so hooking up an end-device to a switch
uses a straight-through cable. When hooking up two switch ports together, you use a cross-over cable again.

6. The exhibit shows a NAT translation. It is an example of which of the following [Please click on the exhibit].

[A] Static NAT


[B] Dynamic NAT without overloading
[C] Overloading
[D] Overlapping
NAT (Network Address Translation) can be broadly classified as below:
1. Static NAT: Static NAT maps an unregistered IP address to registered IP (globally unique) addresses on one-to-
one basis.
The command used for this purpose is:
ip nat inside source static <local-ip> <global-ip>,
Where <local-ip> is the local IP address assigned to a host on the inside network <global-ip> is the globally unique
IP address of an inside host as it appears to the outside world.
2. Dynamic NAT: Maps an unregistered IP address to a registered (globally unique) IP address from a group of
registered (globally unique) IP addresses.
3. Overloading - A special case of dynamic NAT that maps multiple unregistered IP addresses to a single registered
(globally unique) IP address by using different port numbers. Dynamic NAT with overloading is also known as PAT
(Port Address Translation).
4. Overlapping - This occurs when your internal IP addresses belong to global IP address range that belong to
another network. In such case, the internal IP addresses need to be hidden from the outside network to prevent
duplication. NAT overlapping allows the use of internal global addresses by mapping them to globally unique IP
addresses using static or dynamic NAT.

7. You want to configure a switch port for layer 3 operation. Which command can be used?
[A] Interface 13 enable
[B] No switchport
[C] Set 13
[D] Switchport
The command “no switchport” enables a switch port for layer 3 operation. On the other hand, the command
“switchport” enables a switch port for layer 2 operation.