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Е. И.

Курашвили

уЧЕБНОЕ
ПОСОБИЕ
110 чтению Ii устной реЧII
дЛ1! технических вузов
Е.И. Курашвили

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

ПОСОБИЕ ПО ЧТЕНИЮ И УСТНОЙ РЕЧИ


ДЛЯ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИХ ВУЗОВ

Доnущеno гocyдapcmвenHыJr{. комиmеnw"", СССР


no нщюд/Шм,у образоваfШЮ
в качестве уче6ШJZО nocoбuя
для сmудентов теХllических сnеЦШlJlышсmей
высших учебных заведений

МОСКВА
.ВЫСШАЯ ШКОлл.
1991
ББК 81.2 Англ-923
К 93

Рецензент:

кафедра иностранных языков Московского института


злеКТрО1llЮЙ техшfКИ (зав. кафедрой
проф. л.п. Зайцева)

К
4602020102(4309000000) - __
__________________ 078
275 - 91
001(0])-91

ISBN 5-06-002017-7 © Е.И. Курашвили, 1991


ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Данное пособие предназначено для студентов II


курса технических вузов в кa<IecTBe продолжения Учеб­
ника аиглийекого языка для технических вузов (авторы
Е. И. Курашвили, Е.С Михалкова, М., 1991, второе из­
дан ие).
Цель учебного посоuия - подготовить студентов к
практической деятельности - умению работать с литера­
турой по специальности и вести беседу по научн ой те­
матике с использо ванием такоro методического приема,
как учебная дискуссия. Предусматривается дальней шее
совершенствованне навыков и умений в различных
видах чтения, а также обучение устным формам общс­
ния по научной тематике на материале предложенных
текстов и упражнений с внешней изобразительной 0110-
рой в виде диаграмм, таблиц и лоrnко-структурирован­
НЫХ схем. Задания к текстам, в основном, имеют
проблемный характер и ставят целыо развивать у сту­
дентов лоrnч еСКое мышл е ние и умение вести дискус­

СИЮ.
Учебное пособие разработано на оснопе ориrnналь­
нык текстов по Ha)'IНЫM темам, представляющим
пр акт ичсский и познавательный ин те рес для студентов
многих технических вузов, и состоит из 15 уроков, рас­
считанных примерно на 50 часов аудиторных занятий.
Тематически тексты уроков сгруппированы в три
раздела, и при прохождении каждого раздела предус­
матривается проведение учебной конференции на осно­
ве пройденной тематики.
Раздел 1 посвящен научным и технологическим до­
стижениям хх столетия и возникающим трудно разре­
шимым проблемам эколоrnи и общества в цслом. За­
тр а rnвается вопрос об ответственности ученого п е рсд
обществом.
В разделе II обсуждаются современные теории про­
И СХОЖДСIIИЯ Вселенной и даются HaYOJНыe СЦСIIарии ее
будущего развития.
В разделе III освещаются достижения в области ки­
бернетики и рассматриuаются некоторые наибол ее пе р­
сп ект ивные п ути ее ра звит ия.
В каждом уроке пр едстаDЛ СНО два тематиче ск и свя­
занных текста - текст А, предназначенный для самосто­
ятел ьной работы студента и пред полагающий и зучаю­
щее чтение (детальное, ТО'-!иое понимание читаемOI'О).
3
и текст В, предназначенный для ознакомительного и
просмотровоro чтения в аудитории .
В пособие входят лабораторные работы, предполага­
ющие использование ТСО при самостоятельной работе
студента в ЛУРе для отработки трудночитаемой лекси­
ки и основных грамматических и лексических речевых
стерсопшов, характерных для иаучиого стиля речи. В
случае отсутствия ЛУРа лабораторные работы можно
выполнять по ключам самостоятельно в качестве до­
машн еro задания.
В учебном пособии приводится модель учебной
конференции, в которой даются рекомендации по ро­
левому участию в конференции, построению доклада и
основные речевые клиш е.
В конце пособия I1зется ПОУРОЧJlЫЙ словарь.

Автор
PART 1

SCIENCE. TECHNOLOGlCAL PROGRESS


AND SOCIETY

"Сопсеrn for тап himself and his fзrс must alwa)'s


form the chief intcrcst of .111 technical c::ndeavQurs, сопсет
for the greatcst UЛSО)"'еd probIems of the organization оС
labour and IЬе dislriburion of goods-in I)rder Ihat the
crcalions оС оие rninds shaLl ье а blessing апд nat а curse
ro mankind, NC\'Cf forgcr rhis in [Ье midst of уоис dia.
grams and equarions."

Al.Ьeп Eil1stl';ll

UNIТ ONE

• Prior 10 rcading the passage оп scicncc and lechnological


progress, let's ask people of your group Iheir opinions оп
some aspects of the problem.
PUBLIC OPINION POLL
1. What do you Ihink of sciencc? Оо science and lech-
nology do more good Ihan harm, more harm Ihan good, о'
аЬои! equal?

Opinion Men Women TOlal

More good Ihan


harm
More harm Ihan
good
Aboul equal

2. Leaving oul mililary applications do you Ihink thal


scientific discoveries сап have very dangerous effecls?
5
Opinion М еп Women Tot,,1

Уе ,

No

• Discuss the rcsults о[ the public ор,пюп раП with уош


partners. Gi\'c reasolls [аг уоиг opinion.

RE-'(J (NG IA

• Read the passlge belov.' looking for the main idcas соп­
ccrning the "good" and the ' Ъагт" of sci entific and tcch-
nological discoveries.

SC!ENCE AND TECHNOLOGICA(. PROGRESS !N MODERN SOC!EТY

Nat ural sciencc is Ihc main characteristic fcalure distin-


guishing the present сi"Шzаtiол from the otl1er сivilizаliолs
i11 the pasl. From its carly beginnings in thc sixlселth сел­
lшу, Ihc dcvclopments of science havc iпЛu е лсеd the coursc
of \vestern civilization more алd люге until today il plays а
шоst dошiлапt rulc. *11 is П ОI much о/ 011 (!x(.lggerafion (О
say [Ьа! wc livc in а world that, matcrially and intelleclu-
ally, has Ьссп crcated Ьу science.
This poinl is easy 10 illLlstrate оп the material !суеl.
Опс mcrcly псед, [о m еЛ li ол (l1е tеleрlюп с, the radio, Ihc
tekvision, IЬе automobile, алd [Ье airplanc , ог алу of thc
co"nlless devices invented Ьу [l1е applicalion of sciencc.
There is hardly ап articlc used iл IЬе homes, in thc places
of work, ог in Ihe places of enjoyment that has п оl Ьее п
modified Ьу technology bascd оп science; Ihe т са п' of
communica(iol1 that bind 1he continents into а single СОШ·
Л1uпitу dcpend оп sci(!nll!ic knolv-hО1V; without . . . modern
sanilillion il would Ьс impossibIe [о have largc cenlres of
populalion; without modern industry al1d agriculture il would
Ье impossible 10 feed, 10 (Iothc, and 10 provi,le the
"abu"dant и/е " (о lhis large populatiol1.
Thcrc is, howcvcr, ano(her раг! of Ihe story lcss obviou,
апд less \vell kno\Vn, Ьи! /аг тоге imponanl. It is а 5tory
of expanding intellectual horizons- the impact of 5cie,,,e 011
the mind of а тап . *Fundamentally, scicncc is аn inlellec-
6
/иа! enterprise, ап at!empt (о understand the world in u
par/icular ,,'ау. АН (Ье dcv~lopmen(s men(ioned аЬоуе аге
Ьи! (he results, the olltcomes of this intellectual activity.
Оует the past 150 уеаГБ the range оС human knowlcdge
has Ьееп doubIed суету tlvelye (о fif(cen уеаГБ. In 1930 тап
knew four times а, lПuсh as hc did in 1900; Ьу 1960 his
knowledge Ьад gтo\yn sixlcenfold, апд Ьу Ihe уеаг 2000 it
сап Ье expcctcd 10 Ье а hundrcd limes v.'ha( it had Ьееп а
cCnlury previously.
ТЬе sееопd раг( of (he t \ventieth eentury has brought а
пшпЬеr of technical innovations, which ате stiJl уету young
Ьи! \Vllich аге taken .<о much /ог granted IЬа! it is as if
they Ьа\'е always existe.d.
[п the fifties of (Ье running century hardly апуопе
would ртоЬаЫу haye bc!ieyed й1а! 'ус shou!d Ье аЫе (о sit
а! home and \уа(сЬ a,lronauts v.'alking in Брасс- ОГ (ha(
реор!е eou!d Ье kept a!ive Ьу the heart of а dead тап.
ТЬе (ransis(or was по! invented unti! 1948. This piece of
e!ectronic equipmen( found wide иБе in Браее technology,
eomputcrs, (ransistor radios, medical iпstruтепts, (clevision
scts-in fact, whercver preei,e eontro! and modu!ation of
e!eelrical signals was required. It sеешеd absurd 10 suppose
Ihat i( сои!д eyer Ье rep!aced, howcyer, (Ье inven(ion of [С;
(integrated circuits) iп 1958 brought in а п е\у cra of ehange
in (Ье ficld БО fundamental, that it already ЬаБ (Ье charac-
teris(ics оС а 5eeond industria! rеуо!щiоп.
А mere twelye уеаТБ separated (Ьс lаuпеhiпg оС (Ье So·
viet 5a(cHi(e Sрщпik 1 in 1957 and man's first landing оп
the Маоп in 1969. ТЬс first !ong·(crm orbital sta(ion Salyut
launched in 1971 opcncd а пе\v era in 'расе researeh, pro-
viding the possibiliry ОС conduc(ing invcstigations in thc field
of astrophysics, Брасе (ееhпо!оgу, ше diсiпе, biology, etc. ип­
der еопdi(iопs iпеопсei\'аЫе оп (Ье carlh. Anolhcr period оС
(сп уеат, and in 1981 we could witness IЬе launching of а
typicaHy "е'у cosmic vcl1icle-the 5hщt!е.
It is по( difficult (о continue \,..ith o(her examples Ьи!
thc point is с!еат. Events such as these атс characterislic оС
(Ье га(с оС teehnological dC"e!opmcn( in (he sceond half of
the 20th ccn(ury. "They sllggest tha( (Ье tcchnologica! inпо·
vations we are to cxperience during the пех! twenty уеат,
(о ео!',е тау weH surpass ош wi!dest fantasies апд today's
tomorrow тау well Ьссоте tomorrow's the day before ycs-
terday. 5cicncc occupies а сеп!га! position in modern society.
Н dominates тап', who!e existcncc. Research and inпоуа­
tions in icehl1ology should improve society's liYing and
7
working conditions and remeJy the negalive e!lecls of [есЬ­
nical and social changes.
*Recent developments of nuclcar weapons, satellites,
space platforms and intercontinental ballistic missilcs Ьауе
attracted, and rightly so, public attention throughout [Ье
world_ *ТЬсу make и'агs о/ annihilation possible and forcily
thrust upon us (Ье necessity of coming (о an understanding
with (Ье other nations. It is not merely а matter оС реасе,
but, rather, poses (Ье question оС the "егу survival о/ Ihe
huтan га ее.

• Answer [Ье following qucstions bascd оп (Ье information


found in (Ье reading ог оп уош own experiencc ог thinking.
1. What means of communicalion were mentioned in (Ье
text? 2. What technological innovations оС (Ье 20th century
made communication between continents possible? 3. How
do science and technology influence the men? 4. А! what
rate has scientific knowledge Ьееп developing in (Ье 20th
centuгy? 5. What аге (Ье potential dangers of scientific dis-
coveries? 6. Are science and technology а blessing for а
тап or а curse?

• Тгу (о gucss the mcaning оС the words given ш italics in


the text.
• Translate (Ье sentences marked with ап asterisk.
• Think and say аЬощ:
а) (Ьс rate of [Ье Ьитап kno\Vicdgc dc\'clopment based оп
[Ье figures belo\V:

1900 ~ 1930 ~ 1960 -+ 2000


1 ~ 4 ~ 16 --+ 100

Ь) de\'elopment in space research.

• Read [Ье !\I,'O summaries, \Vhich one reflects (Ье ideas оС


the passage more accurately" Why is the other по! good? It
is bccause
а) it is 100 short and [Ье main idea is по! expresscd;
Ь) it is (оо long and there are (оо тапу details апд [Ье
kcy-ideas do поl s!and out;
с) the wrong key-ideas have bcen selectcd.
8
Summary 1
Natura1 science апд technoIogy pIay а dominant role in
modern society. The range of human knowledge doubIes еу­
егу twelve to fifteen years. Research and innoyations should
improye living and working conditions and remedy the neg-
ative effects of technical and social changes.

Summary 2
Natural science is the main charactcristic [cature о[ thc
present civilization. Science and tcchnology have modified
our homes, places of work and enjoyment, means of сот­
munications. Science expands man's intellectual horizons. The
range of human knowledge doubIes еуегу twelye years and
Ьу the year 2000 it сап Ье expected to Ье а hundred times
what it had Ьееп а century preyiously. The second half of
the twentieth century has brou~ht а питЬет of technical in-
novations-transistor, ICs, satell1tes, etc. Recent devclopmcnts
of nuclear weapons make wars of annihilation possible апd
pose the question of the survival of thc human racc.

READJNG 18

• Look through thc first апd the last paragraphs апd find
thc sentences suррогtiпg thc idca of thc titlc.

TOMORROW ]5 NOW

In а dccade the Julian calcndar will record the year


'2001-the beginning of the 21st century. It is far more than
а chronological cyent, for [Ье meaning and importance of
chronological time is less vital now than ever before in his-
tory. Time began for тап more than а million ycars ago
and until today it was thc movcr and shakcr of man's dcs-
tiny. Howcver, the slow расе of nature has Ьееп augmented
Ьу thc incredibIe speed of the developing technology since
the last third of the 20th ccntury. ТЬе technological innova-
tions arc revolutionizing ош lives more than an~1hing else.
Events, inv'entions, mогаliliсs-аlJ slide ашl changc 50 5wiflly
that we seem to Ье rushing а! tomorro\v апд our future
has already arrived. In that scnsc IЬС 21st ccntury i5 alrcady
here, for the responsibility for IЬе events and technology
that will produce that change are being formed today.
It is possible to extrapolate from certain seemingly wcll-
rooted trends апд tcchnologics апд thus gain а glimpse а!
9
thc \'егу least of [Ье possibIc lотопо\vs !Ьас a\vait us. ТЬе
increasing sophistication of the rockelry, for example, prog-
nost;cates а continucd assault оп 'расе. А! the same timc,
we Ьауе virlually гип оиt of fronlicrs оп land and will
probabIy IШП а! long last [о (Ье ,са (Ьа! bIankets seven
tenths of [Ье earth's surfacc. "'We ,Ьаll ask more ques-
tions- al thc bcginnings of things, and where they аге
headcd. "Wc ,Ьаll Ьауе far тоге and better tools with
which [о ргу loose Й,е an 5\\'СГ' from а "eluctanl (un"illing)
universe. "Но\у did it аll bcgin? " is cerlain 10 Ье а major
intellectual question а! "тсЬ (Ье cosmologists of [Ье 21st
сепшгу will launch Ihcmscl\'es with аН (Ье exotica lhal а
space-oriented socicly сап offer. X-ray astronomy, gamma,ray
astron01nY, orbiling astronomical observatorics, ,юd the sta-
Ые, atmosphere-frcc far side of (Ье тооп, as the finest of
ai1 observatories will Ьс (Ье discipl;ncs and (Ье platforms \УС
,Ьаll use 10 рее!' out ;nlo space and Ьack into time (о the
or;gin of а" thin~s.
And whal m.gbl тап find tbere? No опе today Ьа, ап­
swcrs. We сan saCely ,ау only [Ьа! IЬе Questions will Ьс
raised and countless voyages in searcl, of answers will Ье
undertaken. 1п trulh, the 21st century will ргоЬаЫу Ье а
new age of exploration, as теп ask (Ье questions they Ьауе
always asked, Ьи! (о which [Ьеу Ьауе never before had (Ьс
теan. of. seeking (Ьс answers.
ТЬ с 21st ccntury will surely pro\';de those means. AI-
ready, [Ье laser, [Ье сотршсг, and alom;c cnergy Ьауе
foune their \vays ;nto ош lives and аге alrcady being used
Cor the tasks of (од ау. Thesc same lools will Ьс applied (о
пе\у tasks of [Ье 21st ccntury, lasks \\'е сannо! суеп соп­
ceive of today.
In cvery area of Ьumап cndeavour (Ье future offers daz-
zling capabil;ties for exploring and understanding oursclvcs
апд (Ьс world аЬои! us. The auestion is in facl по! 50
тисЬ '.\'hat will we !earn, Ьи! ral'!,CC whal shall "'е do with
IЬе incredibIe mountains оС knowlcdgc \уе are а! (т, very
т от еп! heaping togetl'er. Shall we explorc lЬе other planets
of [Ье solar system or tI,е depths of оtlf oceans? Sl,all "с
control [Ье weather or [Ье human mind?
In аll probability, we _ Ьа ll ассер! every challcnge (Ье
human mind сап find, in dccpcst space or inside ils own
cort ex (кора головного мозга). These are simply broad ас­
eas оС ргоЬаЬШtу, уе! it is (о these only tl,at we сап look
in (ЬС Ьорс of seeing where we are headed. For [Ье (есЬ­
nological avalanche threatens 10 inundate (затоплять) us Ьу
generating зп cver more elaborate technology and in [Ье
10
process crealing probIems that could not Ьаус Ьееп foreseen.
Мотеоует, the solution to these probIems lies in creating а
sti!! тоте sophisticated technology, which creates still тоте
probIems по! Ьу failing in its designed goals iJUt Ьу suc-
cceding brilliantly. \Vith суету new technological development
therc соте, а new sct оГ unforeseen probIems, and wc
ha\'c reached а point whcrc "..е саппо! afford unforcscen
probIems, lest [Ьсу outstrip (обгонять, опережать, превое­
ходить) оит inte!!eetual capaeity to deal with them . Wc \уi!l
sQOn learn to plumb the depths о[ [Ье human gene and 50
рте5еп! to nature оп а molccular Icvel our demand5 for thc
future of тап. Shall we eliminate diabetc5 [rom the Ьитап
race Ьу substituting опе gene [от another? But what effect
might that havc оп [Ьс othcr genes within the eonste!!ation
of chromosomes that make ир thc bIueprint of тап? Сап
we determine the effect of changes we will make in [Ьс
heart of а molecule от in the atomic nucleus оС а star?
ТЬе 21st eentury will demand extremc caution and sci-
е Пliliс di5Ciplinc. For thc targcts оС exploration arc а!т05!
""ithin our gra5p, and the tools that will ел1епd our теасЬ
are also close at hand. We 5Ьа!! pursue (тип aftcr) knowl-
edge; it will Ье the preoecupation of the 21st-ccntury тап.
The only question5 remaining еопеетп [Ье uses to which
,исЬ kno\vledge will Ье put and the price we must рау for
it.

• Read carefully the second paragraph and ,ау about (Ье


possibIe fields of invcstigation in thc 21st century.

• Read the passage as а v,'hole carefulJy and lind anS\vers


10 thc fo!!owing qucstions:
1. What factor is augmcnting the slow расе of nature
and making us rush at tomorrow? 2. What тзkе, the аи­
(Ьот prognosticate а continuous assault оп 'расе in fUlure?
3. Why does the ашhоr prcdict greal researches of thc scas
and oceans? 4. What tool5 of invesligation of (Ьс universe
has the author mentioned? 5. Why is thc author cautious
whilc speaking of new technologies?

• Look through the passa~e and find the English еqшvа­


lents for IЬе fo!!owing Russlan phrases:
время было вершителем и мерилом судьбы челове­
ка ; медленная поступь; ожидающие нас Dозможные
альтернативы завтрашнего ДIfН; наступление на космос;

11
выведат[, ответы у НСlIоддающейся при роды; мы при­
мем любой вызов; потоk технолоrnческой информации
угрожает затопить нас; заглянуть в космическое про­
странство ; задачи, которые мы даже не можем и пред·
ставить сегодня .
• Topics for discussion.
1. Our future has already arrived. 2. The shape of 10-
morrow сап well .Ье foresccn. 3. The main fields of invesli-
gation will Ье the ,расе and (Ье ,са. and oceans. 4. Among
the theorelical problems IЬе main will Ье (Ье origin of the
Universe. 5. Мап should Ье cautious aboul new technolo-
gics .
• Write а short summary оп passage 1В.

НОМЕ EXERCISES (to Ье donc in wriring)

1. Translate inlo Russian. Рау altcnlion [о [!,е Passive Voice.

1. ТЬе entire induSlrial and agricul[ural structure of our


Ыс is de[ermined Ьу ош scientific know!edge. 2. Ап army
о! highly trained теп and "'отеп is required Ьу ош im-
mense industrial complex for its mere maintenance (эксплу­
атация) 10 say nothing аЬои! its further development. 3.
After World War IJ public attention throughout (Ье world
was attracted (о atomic and hydrogen bombs. 4. More [е­
cently our attention Ьзs Ьееп focused оп satellites, ,расе­
platforms, and intercontinental ballistic missiJes. 5. Science is
more and more deeply involved into war problcms. 6. ТШs
less-wcll-known fact needs (о Ье told and (Ье average citizen
should Ье informed аЬои! it. 7. In connection with these
Cacts тапу pressing рroЫст. тш! ье faced and solved. 8.
ТЬе question о! (Ье very surviva! о! /Ье human race is im-
posed оп our gcneration.
П. Trans!ate intoEnglish. Use (!1е Collowing adjectives:
oUI-о/-dаlе, valuable,
reliabIe, "se/ul, pracl/cable.
1. Только что получена ценная информация. 2. На­
ша лаборатория будет переоборудована. 3. Разработаны
реальные планы. 4. Вьщвинуты полезные идеи. 5. Все
старое оборудопание будет демонтировано (10 demount).
6. Новое надежное оборудование уже разработано на­
шими инженерами. 7. Оно будет смонтировано к кон­
цу года. 8. Будут получены ценные результаты.

12
UNIТ TWO

READJNG 2А

• First read the sentences given in italics, (о get the main


idea of the passage as а whole and of еасЬ paragraph sepa-
rately. Then, read еасЬ paragraph carefully (о find spccific
examples, reasons от details аЬои! (Ье main ideas.

11-IE SOENТlSTS· RESPO:-;SIВlLrrY

I think it тау ье reasonabIy maintained that neither the


United States пот anу other nation сап, Ьу itself, solve the
important problems Ihal plague Ihe world now. The ртоЬ­
Icms that соun! today-Ihe steady population increase, the
diminishing of ош resources, the multiplication of оит
wastes, the damage 10 the environment, the десау of the
Gities, the declining quaJily of life-are a/l interdependent
and аге a/l globa/ 'n nа/иге.
No nаtlоn, Ье it а5 wealthy as the United State5, а5
Jarge as Ihe Soviet Union, от а5 populous as China, сап
со"есl lhese probIems wl/hou/ ге/егеnсе 10 lhe resl о/ Йе
world. Тhough the United Stale5 for instance, brought its
population (о а firm plaleau ['plretou], cleaned its 50il, puri-
fied its water, Шtегеd its зir, 5wept пр it5 waste, and cycled
its resource5, аН would avail it nothing а. lоng as the те5!
of the world did попе of these things.
These probIems, left nnsolved, WiII weight п. down ип­
der а steady acceleration of increasing misery with each
passing year; уе! 10 solve Ihem requlres us to think above
Ihe level о/ nattonalism. No arnоun! of lосаl pride anу­
where in the world; по аmоun! of palriotic ardor оп а less-
than-aIl-mankind scaJe; по атоип! of flag waving; по preju-
dice in favonr of some ,реciбс regionaJ culture aпd tradi-
tion; по conviction of personal от ethnic superiority, сап
ртеуаН against the cold equation5. The nalions о/ /he world
must co-operate 10 seek. Ihe possibiltty о/ тulua/ li/e, ог
reтain separately hostlle 10 /асе Ihe ccrtatnty о/ тulual
death-
Nor сап the co·operation Ье the peevish agrecment of
haughty equaJs: each quick (о resent s1urs, eager (о snuff
ои! injustice 10 itself, and ready 10 profit а! the expense of
others. So little time is left and 50 high have Ьесоте (Ье
stakes, Ihal there по longer rcmains апу profitabIe \чау of
haggJing over delails, manoeuvring for position, or threalcn-
13
ing а! eyery тотепl 10 pick ир ош 1осаl marbles and go
Ьоте,
Т!,е inlernationa/ co-operalian must lake Ihe /агm а/ а
\\'orld governmenl slIfficienlly effeclive 10 make and еn­
/огсе Ihe necessary decisions, and against which [Ьс indi-
vidual nations wou!d Ьаус nci!11"r tl1c right пог [Ьс power
to take ир arms,
Тугаппу? Ycs, af course. Just аЬои! [Ье tyranny of
\Vashington over А1Ьапу, А1Ьапу ауег New У ork City, and
New У ork Ci!y оуег те, Though \ус аге еаеЬ of us рег­
sonaHy harried Ьу !Ье tinaneial demands and plagued Ьу the
endlcss orders of [Ье oftieia1dom of three different 1eye1s of
governmcnt, we аееер! it аН, тоге ог 1ess stoicaHy, under
[Ье firm eanYielion lhal 1ife would Ье worse otherv,ise, То
ассер! а fourth leye1 wou1d Ьс а сЬсар priec to рау for
kceping nиг plane! Yiable,
Ви! who оп Earth bes! realizes [Ье serious nature of the
problcms [Ьа! beset us? А, а elass, the se;entists, 1 shou1d
think, They сап weigh, ffiOS! aecurately and most judicious1y,
the drain оп [Ье v,'or1d's rcsourees, the effeet of g1oba1 ро1-
1ution, the dangers to а fragmenting eeo10gy,
And \уЬо оп Earth might most rcalisticaHy bear а соп­
siderable share of responsibility [or the problems that beset
us? As а class, [Ьс scientists, 1 shou1d think. Sinec they
Bladly ассер! the eredit [or lowering (Ьс death rate апд for
шdиSlгiаliziпg (Ьс world, they might with some grace аееер!
а good share of responsibili!y [or the 1css than desirable
side ef[ee!s [Ьа! Ьауе accompanicd those vietories.
Аш! who оп Earth might Ье expected to 1cad (Ье \уау
in tinding solutians to (Ьс ргоblешs that l>eset us? As а
eiass, (Ье scientists, 1 should think. Оп whom else сап we
depend [or the elal>oralion оГ huтапе systems [or liшitiпg
population, ef[eetive ways of preventing ог reycrsing ро1lи­
tion, c1egant methods of cycling геsошсеs? А1l this will
elcarly dcpcnd оп steadiJy increasing scientific know1edge апд
оп steadily increasing tl1C wisdom \vith \vhieh this knowledge
is applied,
And who оп Earth [' most likely to risc аЬоуе the lim-
itations of national and ethoic prcjudice апд speak in the
паше of mankind as а \\rhole? As а class, the sciel1tists, 1
should think. ТЬе паtiопs of [Ьс world аге divided [п cul-
turc: in language, in rеligiол, in tastcs, in philosophy, in
heritage-but v/here\/cr sсiепсе ex.ists at аН, it is the same
seicnec; апд scicnlis!, from anyv,'here апд everywhere speak
the same language, profcssionally, апд ассер! thc same
тодс оС lhought.

14
Is il поl Ihcn а5 а cla55, 10 Ihe 5cienli51s Ihat we must
Iшп to find leaders in the fight for world governrncnt?

Fгom "Today and tomorrow; and "


Ьу [s({ac Лsimvv

• Look through the passage and find (Ье English equiva-


lcnts for the follo\ving RU5sian phrascs:
МОЖНО с полным ОСнОDанием угверждать; прООле·
мы, беспокоящие мир; упадок mродов; сиижение УРОВ­
ня жизни; все это ничего не СТОИJIO бbl ; возрастаюu~ая
нищета; патриотиче с кий пыл; никакие предрассудки в
~oдy; этническое пре-ВОСХDДСТВО; неотвратимость обоюд­
ной гибели (смерти); высокомерные (lI адменные) рав­
ные стороны; каждая стремится 01l0РО'IИТЬ; нажиться
за счет; торговаться по мелочаl\l; забрать СВОИ «игруш­
КИ) и; чиновничество; твердое убеж.пение; наиболее
здраВОМhlсляu\ие; принять на себя зна'lительнуIO ДОЛЮ
ответственности за; поОо'Jllые эффекты (вли>!нне)

• Examine each paragraph carefully and find answer5 (о (Ьс


following que5tions:
1. What probIems plaguc (Ье worl<l (oday? 2. Why сап
по nation solvc (hesc probIcms separalely? 3. Wha( should
IЬе na(ions до 10 Ihink аЬоуе !Ье 'е\'еl of nalionalism? 4.
\УЬу docs thc аи(Ьо, ассерl (Ье "tyranny" of а "world gov-
ernmcn( "? 5. Why should Ihe scien!isls ьс rcsponsibIe
(according 10 IЬе aUlhor) [о, Ihe probIems (Ьаl besel us? б.
Why соиЫ only scientists (accordil1g 10 the au(hor) find IЬе
solutions to these problcms? 7. Why аге scienlists mosl
likely (aecording 10 (Ье au(hor) 10 rise аЬоуе Ihc limitalions
of nalional prejudice? 8. Why are thc na(ions of IЬе world
divided in сultшс? 9. Why are (Ье scientisls (according (о
IЬе aUlhor) по! divided il1 cul(urc?

• Look Ihrough IЬе passage and fill il1 IЬе bIanks with (Ье
proper informalion. In some cases grammatical ehanges are
necessary.
1. Aecording (о 'saae Asimov, IЬе probIcms (hat plague
IЬе world аге IЬе following: 1) (he \vorld popula(ion ... ; 2)
(Ьс world rсsошееs аге ... ; 3) the \vastcs are ... ; 4) cnvi-
ronmenl is ... ; 5) !Ье cities are ... ; 6) (Ье qualilY of life is
.... 2. ТЬе author lhinks (Ьа( Ihe US is ... , Ihe USSR is ... ,
апд Сшпа is ... _ 3. ТЬе author's idea аЬои( (Ье US is IЬаl
15
thc country's population is ..., its soil is ... , its wa!er is ...,
its air is ... , its wastes are ... • 4. The author thinks that
the world scientists should Ье responsible [о, ... because
they ....

PU8LIC OPINION POLL

Which, if any, of the things оп the list do уои think


could Ье areas where scientifie diseoveries eould have уету
dangerous e{{eets (vd), dangerous effeets (d), not dangerous
effects (n).

Branch of sci- Men Women Total


ence/techno!ogy

NucIear energy
Biotechno!ogy and genetic
engineering
Nationa! defcnce and ar-
maments
Sрасе exploration
Agriculture and plant sci-
спсс

~fedical research
Control and reduction of
pollution
Robotics
New forms о{ energy
In{ormation teehnology and
computers
Astrology

• Diseuss the results оС the publie opinion роП with уои,


partners. Give reasons for your opinion.

READING 28

• Read the passage а, fast а, possible, time yourself. Ртот


the [ои, titles presented below choose the one which better
interprets the main idea. Explain уои, choice.
16
1. The development of scicntific research.
2. This magic rate of growth.
3. Never mind quality.
4. Publish or pe~ish.

Scicntific rcscarch has Ьссотс so important in (Ье 20th


century that it is по longer possibIe (о describe аnу Ьитаn
society, without according it its rightlu/ р/асе.
Scientifie activity, with аll its technicaI аnд economic
consequences, is а! present passing through а period of par-
ticularly rapid development as compared with other hитап
activities and тау, broadly speaking, Ье said to.be doubling
in the course of еасЬ dccadc. This law of growth сап Ье
deduced from а fairly wide variety of statisticaI facts such
as: [Ьс number of originaI pubIications appearing in {Ье sci-
entific journals апd (Ье number of abstracts published in а
ЬгаnсЬ of science such as physics. It is also found (о ье
[гие if the criterion adopted is (Ье number of scientific per-
sonnel working in laboratories. Lastly, (Ье number of signifi-
саn! scientific discoverics made сасЬ ycar сап Ье estimated,
and though such аn estimate must, of course, Ье somewhat
arbitrary, [Ье result will again show the same rate о!
growth. А few figures will support [Ье information given
аЬоуе. ТЬе number of scientific journaIs and periodicaIs
which was аЬои! 100 а! the beginning of the 19th century,
reached 1,000 in 1850, more (Ьаn 10,000 in 1900, approached
100,000 in 1960 and-if [Ье rate of growth remains соn­
stant-should Ье tn the ne/ghbourhood of а million а! lhe
end of [Ье century.
If we [игn [о [Ье length of scientific papers, it is gettlng
ои! 01 hand. In [Ье past 35 years, the length of paper in
four disciplines has increased Ьу аn average of 64 per сеn!.
ТЬе average lettcr is 30 per сеn! longer !oday (Ьan i! was
10 years ago, despite frequen! editorial decrees (Ьа! they
should Ье short. То exarnine the probIem [Ье mos! pres!i-
gious publications in physics, chemis!ry, astronomy, anд
mathematics from three countries - [Ье US, Britain and
Japan - wcrc s!udied. Between 1950 аnд 1980/83, (Ье !ength
of papcrs increased appreciabIy in each country anд for aII
publications. Values ranged from 13 per сеn! for (Ье
Monthly Notices of the Roya! AstronomicaI Socicty [о 115
per cent for [Ье Journa! 'of (Ье MathematicaI Society о!
Japan. Chemistry papers grew (Ье most (93 per cent), with
astronomy seeond (82 рег cent), !hen ma!hema!ics (77 per
сеn!) , аnд physics (27 per ccnt). Nationa! averages were:
Japan, ир 85 per cent; (Ье US, ир 65 per cent; аnд Great
17
Britain, up 45 per сеп!. ТЬе jump in !Ье Icngth of leltcrs is
суеп more dramatic. ТЬе average increase оуе, (Ье las! 20
years is 74 per сеп!.
But how should we intcrpret thosc findings? М ainly,
!hree rcasons are detected for long papers. First, it is easier
{о write them. А. Churchill put it, Ье needed а wcek {о
prepare а five minute spcech оп ап important subject, Ьи!
Ье could talk for ап Ьои, immcdiately. Secondly, scientists
are rewarded for ovcrwriting. Long papers in referrcd jour-
па!, often !еад [о promotion (IIРОдВllжеНllе, повыше"ие)
апд tenure (занятие должности). l! is argucd [Ьаl in
Britain IЬе pressure !о "pubIish or perisll" is now grcater
[Ьап in the US, bccause of СUl ' in science funding. Thirdly,
writing lодау is sloppier (lIеряшливыЙ). Some pcople sus-
рес! that modern authors Ьауе 10 usc more words 10 ех­
press а quanlum of thoughl IЬап earlier wrilers, becausc
IЬеу Ьауе по! learnl English grammar а, Ihoroughly.
Though, по! еуегуопе agrees ,vith this intcrpretation. For
example, Hclmut Abt, lопgtiшс editor of (Ье Astrophysical
Journa1 believes IЬа! IЬе length of papers has littlc 10 do
with [Ьс three main poin!s. Не says that (Ье aoswer lies in
IЬе scientific content (содержание). Science is more сот­
plex now. lnstruments yield far more information and тorе
space is needed Cor explanation. Мапу papers that would
have Ьееп acceptabIe for pubIication 20 years ago аге по!
acceptabIe now because (Ьеу до по! Ьауе enough соп!еп! .

• Try to guess !Ье шеапing of (Ье \vords given in itaJics in


[Ье text.

• Think аnд say about:


а) [Ьс га!с of growth of scientific journaJs апд periodic<lls:
1800 -+ 1850 -+ 1900 -+ 1960 -+ 2000
100 -+ 1,000 -+ 10,000 -+ 100,000 ..... ?
Ь) (Ье length of scicnlific paper>, Jettcrs.

НОМЕ EXERCISES (10 Ьс done iп wriling)

1. Transla!e into Russian.


J. For аll our long history of curiosity about the ,са, wc
still know rcmarkabIy littlc аЬощ it. 2. Nowadays plcnty of
ships make worldwidc voyages, whilc (Ье scientists аЬсшd
Ihem make measurcments of tcmperature ашl depth, шар
18
currents, and study anima!s trying to ехр!аin а11 аЬои! the
various water masses that circu!ate the oceans. 3. ТЬе re-
searches show that а11 kinds of toxic wastes are Пushеd into
the ,еа, in [Ье Ьоре that ,исЬ vas! amounts of wa!er CaiI
neu!ra!ize [Ьет and make [Ьет safe. 4. P!ans to dispose
radioactive wastes in [Ье деер paTts of the oceans mllS! Ье
reconsidered in the light of recent fшdiпgs that the deep sea
Поог is по! а "dead zone". 5. Oceanography is а relatively
new science anд- methods of research and samp!ing eqllip-
теп! are becoming very sophistieated and increasingJy costly.
б. Ви! rcsearch а! ,еа is а luxury ['iAlфm] we must afford.

11. Translate into Eng!ish. Use Participle 1 or 11.


1. Экологические проблемы, с которыми столкну­
лись (to face) все страны, очень слОжны. 2. Ущерб ОК­
ружающей среде, наблюдаемый нами, носит глобаль­
ный характер. 3. Данные, полученные в ходе исследо­
ваний, не отличаются от прежних (previous) результа­
тов. 4. Ученые, работающие в любой области науки, не
должны забывать о своей ответственпоети.

UNIТ THREE

READING ЗА

• ТЬе artic!e below is concerned with [Ье problem тисЬ


too dangerous and difficult [о solve. If it were уои
responsible for [Ье problem, what steps would уои take оп
different levels?
1_ What mеаsшеs would уои take оп governrnenta!
!сус!? 2. What acts would уои take оп the !еуе! of [Ье
Academy of Sciences? 3. What flfst steps wou1d уои take if
уои wcre the head of [Ье scientific team dealing with [Ье
problcm?
Rcad [Ье passagc, then think а litt!e and ,ау.
PRESSiNG PROBLEMS
Atmospheric pollution raises problems of scvcral types.
First, there are loca! problcms due [о [Ье production of
smoke and offensive gases Ьу factories. Second!y, there are
regional problems crcatcd Ьу indllstria! agg!omerations which
тау spread [Ье same harmful effects over whole areas.
19
Thirdly, there ме some (уре, of pollution, such as those
arising Crom nucJear explosives, whiCh cover а considerable
portion of the g1obe. And lastly, there appeared опе more
!уре оС pollution which is threatening the g10be as а whole.
Recent scientific research suggests that the protective
layer of ozone around our planet is under scyere at!ack.
Alarm bells were sounded in 1982 when researchers in the
Antarctic first identified а yawning (зияющий) holc oyer
the Antarctic where the ozone layer is thinnest.
This was the first sign of а hole. Fiye years later it was
reporled that the holc had grown (о ап arca the sizc of the
United States.
The major cause of (ы' weakening of the ozone layer is
believed 10 Ье the incrcasing атоun! of harmful chcmicals
that ме being released into the atmosphere Ьу humankind.
Environmentalists anд scientists point ои! that а furthcr
опе per сеп! drop in the overall ozone layer сan cause ап
increase of skin cancer.
The fundamental importance of thc ozone layer is that it
acts а, а filter intercepting most of the sun's radiation in-
cluding potentially harmful Ultra Violet B-rays which сап
causc melanoma - skin cancer.
The appearance оС the Antarctic hole has intensified the
search for а cause. Strong evidence now suggests that it is
the growing industrial ше оС chlorine compounds called
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) which is responsible.
CFC is а propellent (движущая сила) gas commonly
used in aerosol sprays, air cooling systems in fridges (а.".
разг. холодильник) and air-conditioning. Опсе released
CFC сan hang around in the atmosphere for 100 years.
Some eventually reaches the upper atmosphere (о Ье broken
down Ьу the sunlight. In the process chlorine is released
which combines with oxygcn atoms thus reducing the
атоип! available for ozone production.
According (о measurcmcnts recorded Ьу the US Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency опе chlorine atom has enough
kinetic energy (о dcstroy 100,000 molecules of О7опе. US
'расе agency NASA has predicted that а rise of 2.5 per
сеп! in CFC emissions would cause ап extra опе million
canccrs ovcr the lifctime оС thc prcscnt US population.
Researchers suggcst that thc level of CFCs in the atnlO-
sphere is actually increasing Ьу 5 per сеп! each уем. Since
1969 the ozone level has fallen Ьу 3 per ссп! over the
densely populated cities of the US, Canada апд Europe and
ьу 4 per сеп! over Australia and New Zealand.
In its "worst prediction scenario" NASA claims that an
ever-thinning ozone layer couJd eventuaJly allow а more
20
harmful Согт of radiation, known as Ultra Violet С, (о Ш!
(Ье earth. Laboratory experiments Ьа"е shown thз! Ultra
Violct С сап penetrate ceHs in (Ье body and irreparably
damagc (Ье nucleic acids and proteins which ате (Ьс build-
ing blocks of life.
There is the need СО' ап international agreement (Ьа!
would completely stop CFC production.

• Answcr (Ье foHowing questions:


1. How тanу !ypes оС problems arise in (Ье atmospheric
poIIution control? 2. Аге aII of [Ье effects equaIIy dangerous
and Ьагrпful? 3. Which опе is (Ье most serious and why? 4.
How do environmentalists explain [Ье ozone thinning? 5.
Why is [Ье ozone lаус, so important for аН liYing оп [Ье
earth? 6. What ате (Ьс most dramatic predictions оС NASA
concerning the problem? 7. What steps should we take to
avoid (Ье situation?

• Topics for discussion.


1. Scientists should Ье more responsibIe for atmospheric
poHution.
2. People should avoid overusing:
а) аl1 kinds of sprays;
Ь) air-conditioning wherever possible;
с) Cridges whene"er possible.

REAOING 3В

• Read (Ьс passage carefully and intcrprct (Ьс CoHowing


idca: "How сап scicntists so confident1y predict what will
occur in (Ье пех! 100 year, when we сап'! еусп predict (Ье
weathcr for tomorrow? " What is your idea оп (Ье problem?

15 ШЕ ЕЛRТН GЕТПNG HOТffiR?

It soundcd like nature's own apocalypse (апокаЛИI1СИС).


*"ТЬе earth's temperature would rise, melting (Ье icecaps,
raising [Ье sea" flooding (Ьс land. Arisona would turn into
а rain /ores/ and (Ье agricultural MidwC5t would Ьесоmе а
descrt." At least, that was how ТУ weathcrmcn intcrprctcd
а report Ьу (Ье Environmental Protection Agcncy (ЕРА) оп
(Ье "greenhouse eCfeet" (Ьа! would begin altering (Ье earth's
climatc Ьу (Ье 19905. 'ТЬе ЕРА prcdicrcd "catastrophic сап-
21
sequeIlees" if eontingency (непредвиде нное обстоятельст­
во) plans wecen't шаdс wilh "а sense 01 lIrgency".
Fortunately, [Ье ne\VS impcoved !atec when the Naliona!
Academy оС Seienecs said that a!though [Ье greenhouse ef-
feel was уегу real, "caution (осторожность) по! panie" was
in QTdcr,
In faet, Ihc science of [Ье рЬепо тепоп is тосе inter-
esting [Ьап fcightening. *ТЬе gceenhouse effecl resu!ts when
СО, and certain olhec gases in [Ье atmosphece allow the
sun's u!lraviolet сау' (о penetcate and wat'm (Ье earth Ьи!
[Ьеп absorb [Ье infcared enecgy [Ье earth cadiates back into
'раее - тосЬ а, g!ass in а greenhousc effeet docs - focming
а kind of "thermal blanket" acound (Ье p!anet. Ву burning
huge amounts of fossi! fucls, which re!case СО 2 _ into сЬе
atmosphere, тап Ьа, raised [Ь е СО 2 !еус! fcom 21;0 (о 340
pacts рес million sinee 1860. And continued use of соаl and
other l ossil lue/s is expeetcd to double the coneentcation of
СО 2 Ьу сЬе уеас 2050, elevating (Ьс eacth's (етресасосе Ьу
3 [о 9 degrees Fahcenheit. ТЬе greenhouse effeet will теan
mueh тасс (Ьа п hotter ,оттес, and mildec winters. '! тау
altcc rainfall, affeet ссор yields (урожай) and eventually - а,
glaciecs bcgin (о melt - raisc (Ье leve! оС (Ь е ,еа.
Both cepocts pcedict (Ьа! [Ье tempccatuce change \vill Ье
grcater in (Ье polac regions {Ьап пеас [Ье equator. 'П gen-
eral, they specu!ate (Ьа! snowfall wi11 be~n !atec, the grow-
ing season will leng!hcn and higher !atttudes will gct !ess
rain. ' ТЬе ЕРА ,ау' that the sca leycl will рсоЬаЫу rise а!
leas! two feet ЬеСосе (Ье уеас 2100, wlUch could flood
"т а пу оС сЬе major рое!, of the world, dlsrup/ tcansporta-
tiun nelworks, alter ecosystcms and cause rnajor sr.ifts in
!and de\'e!opmcnt pa!tcrns" .
A1though use of fossil fue!s is !Ье main cause of the
СО 2 incrcase, the goyernrnent agencics don'/ advoca/e аnу
sweeping changes in energy policies. Еуеп а to/al Ьаn оп
[Ье burning ос Cossi! [ие!, in [Ье Uni!ed Sta!es wou!dn't
Ьауе much iтpac/, because thc United Sta!es accounts Сос
оп!у 25 рее сеп! of thc world's total man-made СО 2 ernis-
sions . • А wocldwide соа! Ьап instituted in 2000 would delay
!Ье \\'arming Ьу аЬои! 15 усас, Ьш is considered economi-
саНу and politically un!eas/ble.
IС wc сап'! рсе\'еп! (Ье greenhouse eCfee!, we сап рсе­
расе [ос it. Suggcstions include bceeding (выводить) p!ants
that need Icss water, impcoving irrigation systcms, and тапу
others.
Howevec по! all experts асе convineed tha! the Ьса! is
coming. Sornc think (Ьа! the ОБе of primacy energy ,оиссе,
22
such а; соal соиЫ decline' 60 per сеп! Ьу 2050 and, per-
haps, "the opposite of the ЕРА scenario is true. If !he rate
of fossil-fucl use is going down, the атоип! of СО, we add
to the air is getting less every year". -

• Try [о guess the mcaning о[ thc words фуеп in italics ш


the text.
• Translate the sentences marked with ап asterisk.
• Answer thc foHo\ving qucstions:
1. " there а 100 per ссп! agrecment оп оиг planet's
future climatic conditions? 2. If the ЕРА'; prediction соте'
'гие, what should the people living bcsi.de the ,еа do? 3. If
the ЕРА'; prediction соте; true, what climatic conditions
should there Ьс in diffcrent rcgions of the Sovict Union?

НОМЕ EXERCISES Но Ье done in writing)

1. Translate into Russian.


1. People ,еет 'О realize the potcntial dangers of ,оте
scientifie diseoveries. 2. The majority of the people ques-
tioned in а public opinion роН do по! doubt seience [о do
тоге good than harm. 3. However, 70 рег ссп! of those
questioned 'ассер! that seientific diseoveries сап have daпger­
ои; c[feets. 4. Nuclear energy is considered to Ье а high-risk
area Ьу 70 рег сеп! of the respondents (отвечающий), vvilh
bioteehnology and genctie engineering the seeond most men-
tioncd. 5. There ,еет; !о Ье rcaHy а serious q;ap (пробел)
in eommunication betwccn the public and soentists аЬои!
the goings оп in modern biology. 6. 'П vicw of this еопсеrn,
it is perhaps по! surprising tha! most (84 per· cent) of those
questioned [elt that scientists and teehnologists should рау
тоге attention to the soeial implications of their work, with
76 рег сеп! of respondents saying that politicians should
know тоге аЬои! science.

11. Translate into English. Use the Complex Subject with


!he Infinitive.
Model: Конечно, все мы слишком хорошо знаем, чтО
такое загрязнение окружающей среды.-- АН of
us аге cerlain 10 know уегу well what environmental
poHution is.
23
1. Он, конечно, работает в учреждении, свя занном с
охраной окружающей среды. 2. Ожидают, что 011 при­
едет в учреждени е к 9 часам. 3. Вероятно, 01[ ответит
на ваши вопросы . 4. Мы , кон ечно, поним аем потенци­
альную УlJЮзу п а шему репюн у. 5. Пол агаем , что ваша
пробл ема будет ре шена.

UNIT FOUR

READl NG 4А

• Read the article Ьу Keith D evlin, reader in mathem atics


at lhe Universiry оС Lancaster, and interpret its title.

ТН Е GOLD E~ A GC OF МЛТНЕМАТl СS

Aftcr 1984, mathematics will псусг Ьс quile thc ,атс


again. For that уеаг, three of the subject's most outstanding
problems were 50lved. And thc 5tOГY has а human side: опе
researcher Сгот the US had ( о go [о the Soviet Union Ье­
Соге ы> work was recognizcd.
То 5се three оС thc most Camous problems of mathc-
тайс, аН 501ved in оп е уеаг, а> happened in 1984, \уа5
something по mathematician expected. The disproof оС
Mertens Conjecture and the proofs оС the Biel)erbacli (;оп­
jecturc and the Riemann Hypothesis surprised суе гуопе and
in тапу ways, marked the end of а mathcm aticaI ега going
back t\vo centuries. For years, mathematicians had gro" 'n ир
with these Сатi1iаг problems around them, по опе was сх­
pectcd to go ои! and асшаНу soIve апу опе оС them. А п и
yet soIved Ihcy have Ьее п : mathematics " 'iIl пеуе г Ьс !JlIitc
the saтc again.
The journaI Mathem aticaI Rcviews lists ,оте 2,750 diC-
Cerent mathematicaI rcsearch journals. If уои сопsе Г\'з ti \'с l у
estim ate thc аппиаl contcnt of cach journal to Ье, оп ave r-
age, 700 pages, this теаПБ that each усаг Бот е 1,650,000
pagcs of mathematicaI research агс pubIisIled. Laid end ( о
end this output would strctch some 300 miles. Опе cstimale
puts thc питЬег of professionaI malhcmalicians in thc \\-orld
at 100,000. Lay аН оС these mathcmaticians cnd [о с пи, and
[Ьсу wouId stretch аЬои! 100 miIes. From \vrnch уои couId
infcr that еасЬ уеа г the aV'eragc mathem atician prod uccs
(hrce times his о\уп hcight in mathcmatical output.
24
Wilh аll lЫ, inyeslmenl in people and топеу уои mi/ф1
ехреСI 10 ,ее great strides forward, and indeed IЬе репоd
since 1%5 Ьа, 5есп 50те tremendoU5 adyances. Ви! math-
ematks cannot simp1y Ье produced Ьу throwing hugc quan-
tities of cash and manpower around. Ultimale1y il nccds (Ьс
(оисЬ of Ьитап gcniu5, and il was those touches IЬа!
solvcd IЬгее c1assic problcms 1ast уеаг.
ТЬс fir~t was (Ье Mcrlcns Conjecture. It was proposed
in 1897 Ьу IЬе German F. Mer!ens. It concerns (Ье function
м(,,), defmed оп positivc wholc numbers " Ьу sel!ing М(n)
10 Ье (Ье difference bel\veen (Ьс number of numbers lc5s
(Ьап n wh.ich are products of зп еусп number of distinct
primes and (Ье number of numbers which are products оС
an odd number of distinct primes. Numbers which are di-
\isibIc Ьу (Ье square of апу primc arc ignored in caIcu1ating
м(n).
It sО!шds comp1icated Ьи! ап ехатр1е makes things
c1earer. If уои take n = 16, (Ье питЬег, 1ess (Ьап 16
wh.ich are producIs of ап еуеп number of distincI primes
are 1 (Ihis is а special case: Ьу convention 1 is not re-
garded as а prime, and i5 (Ье product of zero primes; О is
ап еуеп number), 4, 6, 10, 14, 15, while (Ье numbers in (Ье
"odd" c1ass are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13. There аге 5 numbers in
the еусп class and б in (Ье odd, so (Ье diffcrence between
(Ьет is 6 - 5 = 1 and so М(16) = 1. Readers "iith mi-
crocomputers сап readi1y obtain а (аЫе оС уа1ие, of м(n)
for yarious уа1ие, оС n. Mertcns managcd (о ca1cu1ate 10,000
ya1ues of (Ье functions (without (Ье aid of а compUlcr) and
what Mcrtens' calcu1ation tended (о confirm, was (Ьаl
though (Ье behaviour of (Ье funclion М(n) is quitc спаtiс,
the уа1ие of М(n) is always less thап.,,[п, (Ье squarc rool
of n. (In (Ье ехатр1с аЬоуе, n = 16, so.Jir. = 4, апd оС
course, М(n) = 1 is less than 4.) А compUler search car-
ried оиl in 1%3 verified IЬе conjeclure for а11 n ир 10 10
billion. Виl for а malhematician, th.is is Ьу ·по теап. IЬе
end of IЬе ,(огу. ТЬе conjecture "'а, (Ьаl М(n) is Icss IЬап
vп for а11 yalucs of n.
Why should опе care if the conjeclure hold for а11 ll?
Тhe principle reason for formu1aling IЬе conjecture in IЬе
firsl р1асе was that, if Irue, it would а! оnсе imp1y (Ье
truth of (Ье Ricmann Hypolhesis. Виl IЬе solution of the
RiетаlШ РгоЫет had 10 wait, for in spring of 1984, Ап­
drew Odlyzk.o, of Ве11 Laboratories in (Ье United Stales. and
Неrmапп Те Riele, of (Ье Amsterdam Сеп!ге for 1\1athe-
таНе, and Computer Science showed IЬаl !Ье Мег!еп,
Conjccturc is false. Their proof, whieh involved IЬе use of а
25
computer, did not do an}1hing (о resolvc (Ье Riешапп Ну­
pothesis опе way or (Ье other. Nor did it produce а singlc
ехашрlc оС а number n for which М(п) exceeds.,Jii. АН it
showcd is (Ьа! such ап n has (о eX1st, somewhere. Еуеп
(Ьа ! made 1984 а special ycar Cor шаth е ш а ti сiапs. But there
\vas шоге and belter to сот е.

• ТЬе art;cle са п Ье dividcd into ("'о par!s. Whcre \vould


уоиdivide it? \\/Ьа! is еасЬ раг! abollt?

• FiU in thc blanks with iпfогшаtiоп taken Crom [Ь е text.


1. The пuшЬег оС (Ье шаthетаtiсаl rcscarch journals il1
(Ь с wor1d is ... . 2. АН of thеш- issuc аппиаНу аЬои! ...
pages оС mathematical researeh. 3. The number оС mathe-
ma!icians in (Ь е world is аЬои! .... 4. Оп average еасЬ of
(Ьет writcs ... his own height in mathemalical output. 5.
ТЬе year оС ... тау Ье caHed а speeial year Cor mathcmali-,
cians. 6. ТЬе Mer(ens Conjccture was proposed in ... . 7.
ТЬ е numbers in (Ье "еуе п " class аге ... . 8. ТЬе питЬег'
in the "odd" class are .... 9. ТЬе value оС М(п) is always
less (Ьап ... . 10. Andrcw Odlyzko and Hermann Те Riele
provcd (Ьаl (Ьс Merlens Conjecture is ... .

• Find (Ье English equivalents Cor (Ьс foHov;ing Russian


phrascs:
никакие два значения по модулю меньше 1 н е мо­
')'Т дать зна'lеlJJlе коэффициента а 2 больше 2; выдаю-
1I1и еся зада чи ; в среднем; д елаТ h большие успехи;
стремился п одтве рд ить пред пол ожение; опро вержен ие
предположения; это пр сппол ожени е С llраведлив о для;
ч е тные числ а ; таБJlица значени й

• Find ans\\'ers (о the Collowing qucs{ions in the text:


1. What statisties аЬощ mathemalical sciences does {hc
author give? 2. Why did the author саН (Ье ycar 1984 (l,е
goltlcn agc of шаtl.сшаtiеs? 3. Wl.at does the Merlcns
Conjee{ure state? 4. Why are tho numbers 4, 6, 8, 9, 10 по!
primes'! 5. What Ьауе Anu,'Cw Odlyzko апд Нсгт апп Те
Riele proved? 6. Оо уои think (Ьа! lhis is (Ье cnd of {Ье
Mertens ConjeetUIe story Cor mathcmaticians? Why?

READlNG 48

• Rcad IЬе arlicle Ьу Keith Dcvlin, rcader in mathemalics


26
а! the University оС Lancaster and cxp!ain: What Ьитап
side does this story Ьауе?

ВIEBIORВACH CONJECТURE

ТЬс Bieberbach Conjecture concerns functions оЕ сот­


р!ех numbers, питЬет, invo!ving the squaTe тао! оЕ minus
1. Among these functions, (Ье опе, оЕ most interest and use
10 IЬе mathematicians атс those which сап ье expTessed as
the "sum)l of ал infinite serics: .
f(z) = ао + alz + a2z2 + азzЗ + ... ,
wheTe еасЬ оС the coefficients "о> al' а2' and so оп is а
complex питЬет and the variable z ranges over complcx
numbers. ParticulaT examp!es оС such fuпctions are the ех·
ponenlia! function, the 10gaTithm function, and (Ьс tTigono-
metric functions оС sinc and cosine, though most рсор!е
тее! these only when the function is Testricted (о ас! ироп
rcal numbers. Such functions ате the lijeblood оС тапу
paTts of science and engineeTing.
In 1916, Ludwig Biebcrbach, а German mathemalician,
wrote а рарет in \vhich Ье proved (Ьаl if а complex Сunс.­
lion оС (Ье Еотт f(2) = z + a2z2 + азzЗ + ... is ,исЬ that
по two values of z оС abso!ute va!ues !ess (Ьап 1 give IЬе
same value of а2 i5 а! тО51 2. (ТЬе 5tatement of f(z) given
assumes (Ьа! а; = 1.) lп а footnote, Bieberbach conjecturcd
that Сот аН value5 о( n, the coefficient а n оС zn \viU Ье а!
most n in abso!ulc va!ue. Such ап e1egant conjecturc at-
tractcd а great dea! of attention.
Мапу mathematicians \vorked ОП Bicbcrbach Conjecture
and considcrable progres5 was made. In 1931, thc conjecture
fOT (Ье specia! са5е was proved wherc lhe coefficients "
arc rca! numbers. For (!,е genera! case С. LoeWnCT showe3
in 1923 lhat аз Ьа. absolute "alue les5 lhan 3, Z. CIJarzynski
anд М. Schiffer dea!t wilh а4 in 1960, M.Ozawa with а6 in
1969, and R. Pederson and М . SchiffeT fiJ!ed in the gap Ьу
disposing of а5 in 1972. Ви! there was stШ а !ong way to
go.
Another appToach wa5 to hзпd!е а11 (Ье coefficients а!
(Ье same time Ьи! (о tighten the Ьоипд demanded for зп
а n . The first Tesu!t of this k;nd was John Litt!ewood's 1925
theorem that (Ье abso!ute уа!ие of а n /s а' mos, е х n
wheTe е i5 thc exponent;a! cOn5tant 2·71828... . Subsequent
work !owered thi5 bound. [п 1956 J. Mi!in reduced (Ье
bound оп а n to 1· 243 time5 n, in 1972 С. Fitzgcrald 10 l'
081 time5 n, and then Horowitz got it down to а tanla!is·
27
ingly cl05e 1Ш time5 n in 1978. Еуесуопе was c!o5ing in
оп Ihe conjectuce, Ьи! 5till the Гопаl 5tep was missing. When
the 50lution сате, it did 50 Ссот а most unexpecled quacler
(сторона) .
Louis de Bcanges, оС Purdue Univ~csity in the US, wa5
52 уеас. o!d in 1984, а ~ood 20 years beyond the age when,
accocding 10 populac Ье!lеС, the ability to suceeed in mathe-
malics slips away. Though а pecfeclly cespeclabIe mathema!i-
cian, Ье was по! regacded Ьу IЬе mathematical community
а. а \\'hole as having the kind оС ability cequired (it was
supposed) to solve а рсоЫеm like IЬе Bieberbach Conjeclure
which had resisled Ihe allempls оС 50 тanу оС те "greats".
50 whcn, in spring оС 1984, de Branges fust ,"п! оиl his
385-page (!yped) ртооС, his реет, (ровня; равный) assumed
thal il was wrong and попе о[ lмт in Ihe U5 bothered 10
read it! Fortuna!ely, de Branges was scheduled to visil the
Soviet Union·in the early ,иmтес а. рас! оС an academic
exchange prograrnme and, while there, Ье leclured оп ы.
proof to mathematicians а! те University оС Leningrad.
Among them was Milin, who had oblained опе оС the earli-
esl results оп the bounds of the coeCficients оС C(z). After
considcrabIe eCfort, de Brange5 per5uaded them that. соn­
lга,у 10 Iheir expeclalion s, his рсооС was сопесt. А 5Ьorl
ассоип! оС ы. (Ьи! now simplified) рroоС wa5 sent ои! Ссот
LeniJ1grad in а Соста! preprint, and now it was accep!ed.
Such is Ihe nature оС mathematics that, indeed, опее а
рсооС of а cesult has Ьееп propecly checked and Cound сос­
cect, there сап ье по question of апуопе seciou51y doubting
",'Ь а! i5 then а eertain fact. BC5ides demonstrating Ыs lше
mathcmatical abilily, de Branges also provided а !irnе!у те­
minder !Ьа! i! is al\\'ays dangerous (though рссЬаР5 in-
c,'itabIc а11 (Ье <arnе) 10 write ofC <отеопе оп {Ье grounds
of age ос pas! record (отзыв, характеристика).

• ТЬс article сап Ье divided iлtо two parts. Where would


уоиdivide it? \УЬу? \УЬа! is сасЬ part about?

• There were two approaches to solving thc Bieberbach


Conject ure. Whal i5 (Ьс dШсrспсе between them?

• Try to guess the mcaning of [Ье words given in italics in


(Ьеtext.

• Think and say about:


а) (Ье Bicberbach Conjecture and (Ье story of its solution;
28
Ь) functions of complex numbcrs are (Ье lifebIood of тапу
parts ос science and engineering;
с) (Ье Ьитan aspect of (Ье story.

НОМЕ EXERCISES (10 Ье done in wriling)


1. Translate into Russian. Рау special attention to (Ье word
оnе in different meanings,
1. We cou1d offer уои а number оС challenging prob-
lems, but this опе seems to Ье most attractiye. 2. Опе
shou1d find а simple and elegant solution оС the probIcm. 3.
No опе seems 10 Ьауе dealt wilh (шs probIem yet. 4. Опе
should mention (Ье probIem under inycstigation in our lаЬ.
5. No опе seems 10 Ьауе formulated this probIem in precise
terms. 6. This is опе оС the most confusing and puzzling
probIems we Ьауе eyer dealt with. 7. тшs probIem ,еет,
to ье тисЬ more complieated than aII IЬе previous ones. 8.
No опе has уе! presentcd it in аН its complexity.

П. Translate into English. Use the word оnе.


1. Следует понять, что математика - это абстрактная
наука. 2. Среди задач такого класса эта задача самая
сложная. 3. Следует упомянуть о загадке простых чи­
сел. 4. В течение почти двух столетий среди самых
вьщающихся нерешенных задач были задачи простых
чисел. 5. Никто не мог ни доказать, ни опровергнуть
предположение Мертенса (Mertens conjecture).

UNIТ FIVE

READING 5А

• Read the article carefuHy and intcrprct its title.

ТН Е OLD КJNG 0[- МATH!:МATI CS 15 DEAD

Ask апу mathematician to tеП уои the пате of the


greatest unsolyed ргоЫет in mathcmatics and, until No,'em-
Ьег 1984, the answer would Ьауе Ьееп "The Ricmann Ну­
pothesis". It sccms 10 tower аЬоуе 311 other probIems, а gi-
ant among giants, having surviyed numerous onslaughts
(бешеная атака) oyer the 125 years of its life.
29
The Riemann Hypothesis began lifc quietly enough, а5 а
Ihro\va\vay remark in опе оС Riemann's papers concerning
the distribution of Ihe primes. Апуоnе \vho starts 10 list the
prime numbers, starting with 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13 and 50 оп,
50ОП discover5 (Ьа! the highcr ир уои go in the numbers,
'Ье 'е55 Сгечиеп. Ьесоmе the primes. Ви! the \уау u! which
thc primc5 lhin ои! i5 not particularly orderly. There аге
arbitrarily long 5equcncc5 оС питЬеГ5 which ате по! pri111Cs,
апд Ihere are strctches of nU111bers where there аге тапу
оС them. Еусг since Euclid ртоуед that Ihere аге infinitely
тапу primes, mathe111aticians Ьа\'е wanted to perceive 50111(
kind of ordcr in the 5eeming chaos ['kel;)s] in the occur-
rencc оС primes. Мапу obvious questions are still unan-
swered (о this дау. For inslance, are there infinitely тапу
pairs оС "twin" primes, primcs separaled Ьу 2, such а5 5, 7
and 11, 13? (А prize $ 25,000 a\vaits the per50n who 501ves
thi5 tea5er.)
l! was Karl Fredrick Gau5s who, оп the basis of tablcs
оС prime5, ри! forward (Ье hypothcsi5 that if Р(п) is used
to denote the питЬег оС primes Icss IЬап 11, then (Ье largcr
n becomes, thc closer the dCn5ity function Р(п)/n gcts to
the уа!ие оС 1/log(n), thc reciprocal оС (Ье natural (Ьа5е е)
logarithm оС п . ThlS is in itself ап amazing result. After аl(,
what соппссйоп сап thcre Ье between (Ье prime numbers,
and the natural logarithm function, which is inуоlуед with
the matl!ematical infinite in ап intimate fashion? As it
lurncd out, IЬе prime numbers, those mosl concrete of
mathcmatical objects, аге closcly tied ир with по! just {оl
numbcrs and continuous functions of thcm, Ьи! thc who!e
paraphernalia (Л И'шое имущсство, припаДJl СЖНОСТЬ) of
complex numbers and [unctioIIS. ТЬе proof оС the Prime
Numbcr ТЬсоге т, а5 Gauss's observation сате (о Ьс
known. when it \vas final1y obtained Ьу Jaques Had amard
and Cl!arles de 'а Vallee Poussin in 1896, " '35 Ьу tl!cn just
опе more inslancc оС this hidden conncction betwcen primes
and (Ье most ab5tract атеа5 of mathematic5.
In 1740, " 'hilc grappling with prime numbcrs, Lе(шlJaгd
Euler [iu:lэ] introduccd the "zeta ,'unction ". This is defined
оп rea] numbers s grcater than 1 а5 (Ье 'ит оС the infinite
series
zeta (s) = 1 + 1/25 + 1/35 + 1/45 + ....
Eu]er sho"'ed that there is а closc connection betv;een
this strangc-looking function and the primcs.
In а papcr \vгiltcn in 1859 (in Gcrman) entitled " Оп
(Ье Number оС Primc5 Less than а G,ven Magnitude",
Bernhard Riemann took the zela function а !ong way for-
30
ward, extending it (Ьу тещs of highly sophisticated (есЬ­
niques) 10 ье defined оп аll complex numbers_ This turned
ош (о Ье the start of something по! just big but cnormous.
Entire books Ьауе Ьееп \vritten about this опе function. ТЬе
behaviour of the zeta function teHs us а \о! about the prime
numbers. For ехатр\е, а particu!ar!y strong connection exists
Ьеtwееп (Ье primcs апd (Ье complex пumЬегs оп which (Ьс
Riеmапп Zeta Function (а, it is поw caHed) takes- (Ье ya!ue
zero.
Ricmann observed (Ьа! аН tl,e zeros Ье calculated had а
теа! part equal 10 1/2 (that is, (Ьеу weTe сотр!ех numbers
of (Ье form 1/2 + ai, where (1 is а теа! пuтЬег and i =
-..1=1. Не сопjесtuгеd (Ьа! (т, must Ье so [от аН the zcros
of zeta. Riemann based т, hypothcsis оп remarkably liн!е
evidence (though а profoundly deep iпsight), but oyer (Ье
interyening years а great deal of саlcu!аtiоп tcnded (о соп­
flfm his suggеstiоп. Оует 1000 so!ulions \yere worked ои! Ьу
hand, and, with (Ье adyent of (Ье e!ectronic computer, (Ье
tota1 was еуепtuа1!у taken to oyer 300 тi1liоп. Еуету solu-
tiоп with zeta = О was indeed of (Ье form 1/2 + ai. But
with а known infinity of so!utions (о (Ье equation zeta (z)
= О, this was по! а! аН сопclusiуе. Perhaps, it was апоthег
Мегtспs Conjecture which wou!d [аП for some cnormously
!arge number beyond (Ье Tange of апу computer (Ьа! cou!d
сопсеivаblу Ье built.
Апd [Ьеп, оп 9 Noyember 1984, а! (Ье Uпiуегsitу оС
Paris, (Ье wor!d finally !earnt (Ьа! Riemann's 125-year-old
conjcctUTe was indeed (тие. ТЬе !ongest -standing ртой!ет in
а !ist of (Ье significant chaHenges facing mathematicians оС
(Ье 20th century had Ьееп so!ycd а! !ast. А Japanesc math-
ematician based in Paris, Hideya Matsumoto, had donc it.
ТЬе fina1 piece had Ьееп p!aced into the puzzle concerning
(Ье distribution of (Ье primes."
\Vith (Ьс o!d king of mathematica! puzz!es now dead,
who is (о take his placc?

• Fiпd subjects in (Ье left-hand column (Ьа! match thc


predicates in (Ье right-hand со!итп.
а) Апу whole number I is (not) I introduced Ьу Euler

• It should Ье made с1еас that тап у ntalhcmaticia ns remain scerlical


аЬоUl МЗlsumоl0 's cJaim (Q hCl\'e proved the Rjeman n 1I)'P0rhcsis. This
situation is Jikely 10 rcma in tJfl з ltсrсd \lПliI tllC proof.
31
divisible Ьу onIy itself are (not) а prime (number)
and Ьу one ... was primes
Ь) 4, 6, 8, 9, 10 are di- separated Ьу 2
visible and they ... 12, 14, 15, 16
с) 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13 are 11, 13, 17, 19
divisible onIy Ьу itse1f
and Ьу one, they ...
d) The zeta funetion .. .
е) А pair of "Twin"
primes ...
f) The numbers in the
"odd" class .. 0

g) The numbers in the


"еуеп" class 0.0

• Fi11 in the blanks with information taken from the text.


1. Unti1 1984, опе of the greatest unso1ved problems in
mathematics was ... . 2. The Riemann Hypothesis coneerns
... . 3. The higher ир уои go in the number5, the ... . 4.
The way the primes thin ои! is not ... . 5. The zeta func-
tion was introduced Ьу ... . 6. The behaviour of the zeta
function (еНБ us а 1о! аЬои! ... .

• For eaeh word or expression in А find the onc in В,


which has rough1y the Бате meaning.
А. 1. а throwaway remark; 2. to pereeive; 3. arbitrarily;
4. occurrence; 5. (о tease; 6. reciproca1; 7. to grapp1e
В. а) to 5ее; Ь) without order or system; с) thatwhich is
of по value (importance); d) happening; е) alternating; f) to
make а litt1c angry, especiaHy Ьу repeated aets of fun; g) to
scize and strugg1e with smth

• Answer (Ье foHowing questions based оп the information


found in the text or оп уош OViII expericnce and thinking:
1. Who of the great mathematicians was the first to
take noticc of the primcs? 2. What numbers do we CaIl
primes? 3. What did Euelid prove concerning prirnes? 4.
What do they саН "twin" primes? 5. Why do they say that
the Riemann Hypothesis is а giant among giants? 6. Who
of (Ье "greats" introduced the 7.eta function? 7. What was
shown Ьу this function? 8. What did Riemann observe? 9.
What did he conjecture? 10. Who was this problem solved
finaHy Ьу?
32
READING 58

• If уои were 10 see somewhere such Russian \\'ords as


"8селенная~, «разумная жизнЬ», «теория вероятностей»,
«теорема умолчания~ whal topic Сот discussion would уои
ехрес! to sec? Уоо are sure (о know somelhing aboul the
ртоЫст. What do уои know аЬоиl it? What would уои like
(о kno\v аЬои! it?

• ТЬе article Ьу Thomas Wilson, а Iheoretical physicisl а!


NASA in Houston, will ртоЬаЫу (еН уои some оС IЬе lhings
оп Ihe ртоЫет.
Read the article and try (о interpret Ihe title, which ех­
presses the main Ыеа (5 minutes ате ртеСетаЫе).

WНY ЕТ НAS NO НAlR

Whal is IЬе probability оС fmding intelligent lifе in the


Universe? Mosl people involved in Ihe search Сот extrater-
reslrial intelligence (SEТI) start {тот the probability р =
N/ N· , where N is Ihe питЬет оС galaclic civilizations сара­
Ые оС communication, and N' is the пшnЬет оС suitable
stars in IЬе Galaxy. ТЬеу then argue аЬоиl the ехас! vaIue
оС N, in an attempt to declare if the питЬет р is large
enough to mзkе the search worthwhile.
Во! this is а veтy limitcd арртоасЬ. It ignores Ihe passi-
bility of using data from previous searches to adjust (Ье
perceivcd probability. It is rather as if the gunпету (артил­
лерийская стрельба) control oCficcr оп а battle-ship [lТed а
sal,'o towards ал intended targe!, Ьи! thcn ignored the in-
formation аЬоо! Ihe fаП of his shot and (Ье response of his
larget when deciding whcre 10 fire IЬе пеХ! опе. Mathe-
malics has Ihe equalions (о do beller (Ьan this. The аррто­
priale lechniques Ьаус Ьееп used in navaI gunneтy since (Ье
Second World War; 1 suggest (Ьсу сап Ье applied 10 SEТI
as well.
ТЬе method is known as stalislical inferencc (вы вод) , от
hypolhesis testing, and dates back 10 the work оС Ihc Rev
Тhошаs Bayes iп England iп 1763. АП SEТI debales Ьауе
in\'olved classical probability (Ьсоту, but never [Ьс condilionaI
probability dcscribed Ьу Bayes. It occurrcd 10 те that therc
\\'cre t \ VO tllings wrong \vith (Ье 'Nay SEТI cnthusiasrs were
approaching 'Ье рrоЫеш.
ТЬе first difficulty concerncd IЬе word "sе З!·сl, ·' in the
аСJООПУШ . SETI cnth usiasts \Vere using \vhat i.s kno\vn as ап
2- l i fl 33
а priori probability (р = NjN*). This number is а sealar; it
is just а number and саппо! point, because it has по direc-
tion. So how could it help astronomers point their tele-
seopcs? ТЬс answer is that it couldn·t.
То solve this problem, 1 introduced а probability whieh
is а vector in probability Браес, or рЬаБе-Браее, аБ it is
known. 1 did this Ьу reinterpreting the probability known аБ
the а posleriorl p"obabililY, and proving (Ьа! it has direetion_
ВауеБ v"аБ IЬе fiГБt (о play v,ith thiБ idea, Ьи! it ЬаБ
sinee gone t1lfough several рЬаБеБ. Great патеБ in mathe-
maties ЬаУ'е used it, under different guises, Бuеh аБ relative
or iпvеГБе probability. Sir R.A. Fisher and Sir Н. Jeffreys in-
trodueed "likelihood" into ВауеБ' theory, and, in (Ье 194ОБ,
Norbert Weiner laekled the fire control problem using sta-
tistiea! "filtcrs" derivcd from it. Today, Weiner's filtcr (ееЬ­
niques Ьауе тanу аррliсаtiОПБ, ine!uding [Ье computcr pro-
grammcs (Ьа! control pointing algorithms for manned Браее­
craft.
Му contribution was 10 ри! аН thiБ togelher, based upon
(Ье obvious analogy between SEТI, [Ье astronomers and
battle-ships. 1 introdueed а likelihood filter into [Ье fire
controi equation, and the result is а probability that will al-
low astronomers to point their telescopes.
ТЬе beauty of this approach is [Ьа! it gives ап equation
in whieh the estimated probability of finding intelligent life
is constantly adjusted аБ [Ье results of searches соте in.
What is more, [Ье searchers ","н Ье аЫе 10 assess j иБ!
whieh of [Ье stars wilhin IЬе Ьеат of Iheir Icleseope is (Ье
most likely sourec of their sigoal. АБ а 5ingle c!uster of
51ars сап contain severa! hundred stars, this could prove
U5efu!.
1 ат по! Бше, however, [Ьа! [Ье SEТI eommunity ","!l
welcome ту proposal, ЬееаиБС, unlike their simple probabil-
ity equation, whieh саппо! change whatever new information
сотеБ in, ту version shows [Ьа! (Ье probability (Ьа! Боте­
опе "ои! Ihere" is Irying 10 get in 10исЬ v.ith us decreases
every limc we look for, Ьиl fail 10 find, а signal.
Ви! (Ьаl doesn't теап [Ьа! Ihere is по inlelligenl life
ои! Ihere. ТЬе 5econd point [Ье SEТI епthusiаБts igoore is
IЬа! iпtеШgепt life тау Ьауе по wish 10 communicate v.ith
us. We Нуе in а "star wars" cra оп our оwn planet, and it
i5 quite possibIe IЬа! galactic civi!izations are going [о fight
опе another. Апу aliens are going (о Ье vcry cautious аЬои!
using tеlееоштuпicаtiоп systcms which mighl threaten their
5ecurity ЬссаllБе (Ье signals соиЫ Ье picked ир Ьу remote
surveillaI1ce syslems elsewhere.
34
То accommodate this factor, 1 ha\'c introduccd а "по
hair" theorem for 50те galactic civilizations. We сап imag-
ine communication systems which ате impossible to "tap" от
eayesdrop оп (поделушивать), particularly if they атс half-
way across the Galaxy. Remotc ,шуеiПапсе is а (отт of
remote measurement, and "по hair" theorems occur when it
is поl possible 10 dislinguish ап object [rom ordinary maller
Ьу теаП5 of remote mea5uremerit. The analogy in physic5 i5
Ihe "по hair" Iheoтems for black hole5.
SEТI, 10 dale, is а classic са5е of repealed failure. Виl
IЬе failures have пеует persuaded the enthusiasls tJlat their
arguments атс faJse. In тапу ways, SEТI is similar 10 the
scarch Сот Ihe Loch Ness monstcr. No search has еует
found (Ье monster Ьи! тапу people still Ьеliеуе IЬаl it ех­
iSls.

• Look through Ihc passa~e and find the English сquivз­


lents [от the following Russlan phrases:
внеземной разум; имело смысл вести поиск; внести
поправку на осознанную вероятность; это выrлядит так,
как если бы; намеченная цель; статистическая дедук­
ция (вывод); пришло на ум; под разным видом (пред­
логом); подобие; в отличие от простого уравнения ве­
роятности; нстynить В контакт с нами; испытывать не­
удачу; чужестранцы; будут крайне осторожны; системы
слежения; чтобы принять ВО внимание ЭТОТ фактор;
теорема умолчания; дистанционное слежение; черные
дыры

• Find in А the equivalents от words meaning тоте от 'е55


the sаше as thc \vords in В.
А. 1. 10 asscss; 2. 10 accommodate; 3. surveillance; 4.
remotc; 5. to adjusI; 6. caulious; 7. aliens; 8. 10 intend
В. а) supervision (close watch); Ь) 10 адар! (10 риl in
working отдет); с) уету walchful (careful); д) 10 help (10
aid, to assisl); е) 10 judge (10 consider, (о evaluate); f) [ог­
eigners (уету unfamiliar апд strange); g) to aim at (to plan);
h) distant

• Answer the following qucstions based оп Ihe information


found in the Iсх! от оп your own knowledgc.
1. Whom does the ащЬот оС thc рарет crilicize? 2.
Why? 3. Why is Ihe approach used in SEТI liшilеd? 4.
Whal does IЬе author of Ihe arlicle compare lhis approach
2* ~
with? 5. What теап, does the aulhor use 10 convince his
opponenls of Ihe Iruth of his words? 6. Why is conditional
or relatiye (inyerse) probability more appropriate for thc
case than Ihe clasSlcal опе? 7. What second factor in the
enthusiasts' failure does the author poinl out? 8. What does
the aulhor su~est? 9. How could cnthusiasls take into ас­
соиПI "по hюг" factor in their future search? 10. What is
your attitudc 10 SEТI?

• Write а yery short summary оп thc article and advise (Ье


readers either 10 rcad it or поl (о. Give reasons of your
opinion. There are ,еуегаl questions of а critic, which тау
Ье useful for уои:
1. Is Ihe publication well reasoned? 2. Was (Ье stratcgy
good or bad? 3. Were the goals realistic? 4. Was (Ьс аи­
Ihor's advice reliable? 5. {' it still re1cyant?

• The problem of (Ье article is summarized in а block-


scheme below. Reproduce thc passage using this diagram.
г------ SEТI enthusiasts - - - - - - - - ,
а priori (classical) probability theory (р N/N')

(scalar qtlantity)
г------ The authoJ оС (Ье paper--
а posleriori (conditional) probability (vector qU,antity) =1
' - - -..... likelihood filter + "по hair" Iheorem

НОМЕ EXERCISES (10 Ье done iл writing)

1. Trans!ate into Eng1ish.


1. The first thing 10 Ье realized Ьу а11 of us is (Ьс ро­
lепйаl dangcr of lhis industry for environmenl. 2. What
measures should we lake for (Ье greenhouse effcct (о Ье
prevented? 3. The catastrophic consequences 10 Ье dealt with
are still poorly underslood. 4. ТЬе plans (о Ье developed
shou!d по! Ье adopled in panic. 5. Тhe concentration оС
CO z 10 ье released inlo IЬе almosphere Ьу the year 2050 is
expecled 10 Ье doubled. 6. The fuels 10 Ье used in fulure
should поl re!ease СО 2 concenlrations into Ihe almosphere.
36
п. Translate into English. Use the Infinitive. Follow the
model.
Model: Теория, которая объяснила бы эти изменения,
все еще не разработана. -+ ТЬе theory to account
for these changes has not Ьесп developed yct.
1. Механизм взаимодействий, который будет изу­
чаться, пока не понят. 2. Изменения в энергии, кото­
рые произойдут, хорошо объясняются нашей теорией.
3. Теория, которая будет проверяться в этих экспери­
ментах, вполне убедительна (convincing). 4. Основные
допущения, которые необходимо сделать, находятся в
хорошем согласии с нашими теоретическими исследо­
ваниями. 5. Данные, которые необходимо получить из
экспериментов, будут представлены в таблицах. 6. Под­
ход к проблеме, которого мы будем придерживаться,
сильно отличается от предыдущих.
PART 11

ТНЕ UNIVERSE PUZZLES

UNIТ ЫХ

READING БА

• Rcad the passage carefuHy and cxp!ain the phenomenon


of "phase cllange". Say \vhy this phenomenon is of interest
to physicists.

тЕ WORLD IS МADE OF SUBATOMIC PARllCLES


According to contemporary pllysicists, thc world is made
of scyera! types of objccts, coHcctiyc!y referred to а, ,иЬ­
atomic particles. (These particles сап also Ьс thought of а,
manifestations of somcthing yet more fundamenta!, known
а, quantum fields.) There тау Ье as тапу as 1089 idenlica!
copies of 50те of the5e particles iп the present uniyerse.
The forms of matter familiar to us, both !iYing and non!iy-
ing, оп the earth and in the heavens [Ъеvnz], are аН сот­
posed of various сошЬiпаtiопs of only thrcc types of ,иЬ­
atomic particles - protons, neutrons, and electrol1s. Dozens of
olher types of particle, сап Ье .,roduced momcnlarily in the
laboralory, howcycr, and arc thought to have existed iп
!a"ge пuшЬеrs iп the early universe.
АН subatomic particles arc defincd Ьу а Cew qualities
that they шау possess, such as шаss, ,рin, and e!ectric
charge. Two particles are of the sаше type, if а1l of these
qualilics agrcc. Otherw'ise, they arc considered to Ье differ-
ent particles. Particles of the same type are, as (а! а, we
kno\v, tru!y identica! iп these properties of mass, 5pin, and
charge rather than just very similar. If аll рhоtопs, the par-
ticles that makc ир !ight, wcrc not idcntical, lasers would
поt operate.
Tlle subatomic particles readily conv'ert into опе another
whcn thcy collide. The kinetic energy of motion of light
particles сап Ье converted into the energy associated with
mass (rest епеrgy) of heavy partic!es. In шапу cases, сусп
isolated particles сап convcrt spontaneously into others, if
thc latter are !ess massive. In аН such transformations, оп!у
а few propcrlics, such а, thc tolal clcctric chargc, rеmаiп

38
unchanged. The subatomic particlcs do поl ас! like the
change]ess building bIocks imagined Ьу _отс Greek philoso-
phers. In thc last (е\у ycaг~, physicists Ьаус realized thзt
еуеп which subatomic particlcs exist [Ьеу Ьауе changed radi·
саНу оуег [Ье lifetime of [Ье universc. It арреаг. that еуо·
lution takes place оп аН levels of matter, по! just оп the
тоте complex leyels of liYing things. ТЬе driying force Ье·
hind this eyolution is the expansion of the uniycrse, which
Ьу changing [Ье environment in which particles аге found,
changes [Ье paтticles themsclves. Only twenty ycars ago, the
idea that the properties of subatomic particles might depend
оп their environrnent would Ьауе Ьееп considered heresy.
Ne,·ertheless, [Ьеге is now сопsidегзЫе theorctical support
(01· !his conclusion.
Under !he conditions in which physicists usuaHy obserye
subatornic paтticles, !heir defining properties атс по! рег·
ceived [о уагу giving these properties ап iliusion of stability.
Howeyer, under thc irnrnense temperatures and densities
[Ьа! prevailed in [Ье early stages of [Ье uniyerse, the ртор­
erties, sueh as mass, of sorne particles would Ьа,·е Ьссп
ve,y dilТerent Стот what they аЕе now. This situation is <е­
lated Ьу naturc to [Ье variabllity оС а liquid ",исЬ а.> water.
Under а fairly wide range оС ternperaturcs 'o/arer remains
liquid and its propcrties do по! changc mисЬ \\'Ьаlсусг [Ье
tcmpcrature within this range. Ви! if [Ье watcr is subjeetcd
[о mисЬ lower [етрсгашге.>, ог is hcated to аЬоуе 100"
Cclsius, its properries сhапgс аЬЕирНу. ТЬе liquid becomcs а
solid (iee) от а gas (watcr уарош). This [уре of ehangc, in
whieh [Ье propcrtics of а substancc change drastically а. а
result of а small \:ariation in its спvirопшепtаl сопditiопs, is
calledа "phase changc" Ьу physicists.
ТЬе presumcd ehange in thc ргорегйе. of subaromic
particlcs аl уегу high tempcratures is also considered 10 Ье
а phase ehange, оnе [Ьаl involves tlle properties о[ 'расе, а.>
,,·еl1 а.> of [Ьс partieles il1 it. [п othe r words, lЬе particlcs
do по! геае! directly to а Icmpcrature change Ьш to some
altcration in 'расе, (Ьс шсиium , in " 'hich they find [Ьет ­
selves.
It is casy [о l10il ог [reezc \vater, but vcry difficult [о
duplieate in the lab [l1е cxtrcrne condilicns prescnt а! [Ье
birth oi' [Ьс univcrse. Уе! physicists Ь аус Ьесоrnе convinccd
of [Ье [Ьеогу [Ьа! atomic partic]es, апи space il sc]f, went
through rnornentous phasc еhзпgеs during and aftcr the Big
Bang. Thc rapid eooling lhat followed that primordial cxplo-
sion is thought 10 Ьауе gcneratcd ,~yeгal phasc changes.
After ап incredibly ,Ьог! timc (perhaps а microsecond), [Ье
39
subatomic stuff of [Ьс young univcrsc Ьссатс stabi1ized,
combining into IЬе partic1es [Ьа! make up malter today.

• Look Ihrough IЬе passage carefully and find IЬС En);lish


equiva1ents for IЬе foHowing Russian phrases:
известные под общим назпанием; действительно
(истинно); идентичные, а не просто схожие; материя
колларсироnaла бы; фазовые превращения; энерги}! по­
коя; рассматривалась бы как ересь; OrpOMHbIC тс~шера­
туры; невероятно короткий период; субатомный мате­
риал

• For сасЬ word in А find in В its equivalent having


roughly [Ье same meaning.
А. 1. abrupI; 2. immense; 3. rapid; 4. incredible; 5. dras-
lic; 6. [о prevai1; 7. 10 presume; 8. [о perceive
В. а) quick; Ь) unlimiled, immeasurable; с) very po\ver-
fu1; d) improbable, impossible [о be1ieve; е) sudden and
surprising; f) 10 understand (Бее or nolice); g) 10 Ье most
соттоп or gcncra1; Ь) 10 suppose 10 Ье true without ргооС

• Fill in IЬе blanks wilh informalion taken from [Ье text.


1. ТЬе world is made up of 1089 ... . 2. Тhese sub-
alomic parlic1es Ьауе characteristic properlies of ... , ... , and
... . 3. ТЬеБе parlic1es сап Ье converted into опе anolher
whi1c ... . 4. Dozens of other [уреБ of particles сап Ье pro-
duced only ... . 5. Scienlisls be1ieve IЬаl olher types of par-
ticles existed ... . 6. Under ordinary conditions subalomic
particles are considered [о Ье .... 7. Under immense lет­
peralurcs and densities оС [Ье Big Bang IЬеу might Ьауе
undcrgone ... . 8. ТЬе Big Bang process might Ьауе 1asted
only ....
• Rcad (Ье passage again and find answcrs [о 1110 follo\ving
questions:
1. \\'hal do contemporary physicists know for certain
about matter? 2. What do physicists assume concerning (Ье
other !ypes of subatomic particJcs? 3. Why do physicists in-
sist оп [Ье idcntity of [Ье partic1es? 4. What shou1d happen
if [Ье particles \vere по! idenlica1? 5. What рЬепотепоп do
!Ье physicists саН "рЬаБе change"? 6. What ехатр1еБ of
phase changes could you give? 7. СоиЫ subalomic particJcs
experience phase changcs? 8. Under what conditions could
[Ьеу Ьаус experienced рЬаsе changes?
40
• Think and ,ау abOUI;
а) Big Bang and ~ubatomic \vorld;
Ь) IЬе таНет make ир;
с) phase changes in еуетудау life and in subatomic world;
d) laboratory experimentation with subatomic particles.

READING 68

• Read !Ьс passage and explain \\'Ьу [Ье valuc of >2 is 50


fa!al [от [Ье Univcrse (3 minutes are preferabJc).

тЕ РАТЕ OF ПIЕ UNIVERSE


'Ву IЬе Greek letter Q cosmologists denotc [Ье ratio of
1Ье теап mass-densily, Р, in IЬе Universe (о 1Ье "cri1ica1
densi!y" Ре = 3H~/8"G (НО repre,ents !Ье НиЬЫе constant,
а measure оС IЬе rate ЗI which IЬе Universe is currently
expanding, anд G i5 1Ье Newtonian COnSlant of gravitation).
'П IЬе standard cosmological mode15, derived Ьу Fried-
таnn (USSR) in (Ье early 19205, [Ьс Universe expands /ог
ever, if Q is less (Ьan 1. If, inslcad, Q is greater IЬап 1, IЬе
expansion wi11 опе day Ьс reversed and IЬе Universe wi11
COnlract back inlo thc highly compacted state in which it
was born. (Тт, possibility i5 known а, [Ье "big стипсЬ" Ьу
analogy with [Ье "big bang".) 'С n = 1, (Ье Universe wi11
take ап infinite time to stop expanding.
А, Einstein denlOnstrated [Ьс geomelry of 5pacc-time оп
1Ье large ,саlе is related 10 >2. *In parlicular, if Q i5 exactly
unity, space-timc is flat, апд !Ье familiar Euclidean geometry
(Ьа! we learned а! ,сЬооl applies оп (Ье largest scalcs in
(Ье Univcrse.
For ,оте ycars, observationa1 cosmology, as pracliccd Ьу
Edwin НиЬЫе and 1ater Ьу his pupil, Alan Sandage, was
concerned main1y with attcmpts 10 dctermine IЬе valucs of
(Ье НиЬЫе constant, Но' and (Ье "deccleration paramelcr",
qo' '" IЬе simples! Friedmann modcl5 оС thc Universc, qo is
exaclly onc-half оГ (Ьс density parameler N. The 1"'0 quanti-
lies, qo and >2, соппес! IЬе gcomelry of IЬе Universe wi!h
its mass-densily.) *If aSlronomcrs could make independcnt
delcrminalions of (Ье 1\',0 quantities this would provide а
marvellous check оп whctber or ПОI Einslein's general rela-
livity is а correct thcory оС IЬс lale evolulion of IЬе Uni-
verse ln the /arge - something that few scientists doubt.
*Ву {/nd [агсе, IЬе observationa1 approach Ьа, по! еl1-
joyed the success IЬаl the heroic е ffощ put in10 it should
41
have merited. 'Astronomcrs аге still unccrtain of [Ье va!ue
of Но Ьу а factaг of two. Еуеп worse, attempts оуег [Ье
last 30 усаг, 10 detcrmine Ihe decclcration parameter ЧО
Ьауе Ьееп hiпdегеd Ьу Ihe facl Ihat galaJcies сhапgе Ihcir
properlics (/heir in/rin sic brigh fn ess, [ог example) as time
progresses.
Howeyer iпзссuгаtе а, Ihe сS limзlеs аге, it is significanl
Ihal аll "c!assical " delerminations yield а value оС !! Ihзt is
appreciably [ess [Ьап unily. We аге thus led 10 believe that
we live in ап "ореп" uni\·erse which will expand [ог еуег.

• Т,у 10 guess Ihe mcaning of (Ье wo,ds g,ven ш ilalics in


(Ье text.

• Translate (Ьс senlences markcd with ап astcrisk.


• Think and ,ау about:
а)the fate of the Universe of n = 1; n > 1; n < 1;
Ь)Friedmann's models оС [Ье Uni\'crsc;
с)Ihe latest investigations in (Ье field.

НОМЕ EXERCISES (10 Ье done in 'Miling)

1. Т,зпslаtс into Russian.

The Properties of Space


Но,,' is it possibIe Саг 'расе (о changc, if 'расе is сап­
ceiyed of as nothing а! а!l? Actually, physicists по lon~cr
think оЕ 'расе in (Ьа! way. Einslein, in I,is general thcory
of relali\;ty, following ир оп (Ь е \vark of [Ьс ninctccnth-
century mathematicians Bcrnhard Riemann and William
Cliffопl, asserted (Ьа! [Ье propcrtics of any region 01' 'расе
depend сопsidсгаblу оп (Ье presencc and form of таНе,
пеагЬу. Fo, example, Ihe 'расе near [Ье sun is distorted in
its geomctrical prope'lies; it "curves" because of the 51аг',
great mass. А triangle drawn Ьу intcrsccting light rays пеаг
the sun would not оЬеу [Ье rules of Euclidean geomclry, its
anglcs would по! add ир !о 180 degrees. It is lЫ, distaгtioll
of space "nd а rclated change in the way time passes [Ьа!
ea,licr physicists identificd а, the force of gravity, and ",·тсь
in Einstein's [Ьеогу leads [о [Ьс motion of the planets in
orbits around the sun.
11. Translate into English. Use the Gcrund forms.
1. Стоит обсудить пр06лему субатомных частиц
подробно. 2. Мы не можем не попытаться J\aTh опре-
42
деление этим понятиям . З. Не стоит повторять эти из­
м ерения без высокочувствительного прибора. 4. Нельзя
не признать ценность ЭТИХ исследований. 5. Не имеет
смысла (не стоит) псре'IИСЛЯТЬ Бсе достоинства этой
работы. 6. Стоит учесть все се недостатки.

UNIТ SEVEN

READING 7А

• Read (Ье passage bclow looking [ог (Ье таш idcas соп­
cerning (Ье properties of space.

ТНЕ PROPERllES ОР SPACE


ТЬе attempts (о unify fundamental physies оп а mieTo-
scopic level with (Ье large-seale stгuеtше of (Ье Universe is
опе of (Ье heroie intellectual enterprises of (Ье 20th century.
[с deseryes (о Ье understood Ьу (Ье wider public of edu-
cated реор1е.
Reeent diseoyeries in subatomic physies Ьауе led physi-
cists (о (hink (Ьа! 'расе devoid of obserYabJe matteT, тау,
neverlheless, eontain varying amounts of entities known as
quantum fields. Quantum fields ате modcrn yeTsions of (Ье
classical fields introduecd in (Ье nineteenth eentury (о ас­
count Сог ,исЬ рЬепотепа as electric and magnetie foгees.
ТЬе classical idea was (Ьа! опе electTically charged paTticle
pToduced а fieJd in its Yicinity. This ficld, in turn, produced
а field slightly faTtheT а\уау [гот (Ье particle, whieh eyentu-
аНу reached (Ье vieinity of а second particle and inf1uenced
its motion. This scquence of e"ents produccd (Ье effect that
we identify а, forees. [п this way, fOTeeS eould Ье undeT-
stood а, having only 'осаl cfCects.
Such classical fic!ds, like all physical properties in рге­
quantum physics, had dcfinite numerica! values, either (Ьеге
was а fieW pTesent in some region of space and time от
(Ьеге was not. If по forees acted in (Ье region, (Ье field
had а numerieal yalue оС zcro. lf fOTces acted in (Ье region,
(Ье field had some measuTabJe nonzero value, and this nu-
meriea! value changed eontinuously through space and lime .
Classical physicists belie\'ed that еуегу еуеп! in (Ье physieal
universe \vas potentially шсаsuтаЫе and pTedictabIe.
Iп quantum physics, (Ье situation is по! so simple. То­
day's physieists hold (Ьа! it is actually impossibIe (О measure
43
а precise number for a1l physical quantities а! IЬе same
timc IЬа! (Ье knowl.edge оС certain quantltlcs prccludcs (Ье
kno\vledge оС (Ье others. This is [Ье general content оС \уЬа!
has соте [о Ье known а, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.
Опе consequence оС this principle is (Ьа! we саппо! specify
preciscly both what fields and which particles аге present in
some гсфоп of space. Either (Ье value оС (Ье field еуегу­
where can Ье known, in which .case nothing is knоwn оС
(Ье particle content, or we сап know which particlcs зrе
present and (Ье average value оС (Ье ficld ovcr (Ьс region,
Ьи! по! ils prccise уаlие а! еасЬ point. ТЬе particle content
and average field value is genera1ly [Ье more usefu! descrip-
tion.
In this new quantum description of fields, IЬе c!assicaI
field and (Ье particles Ьауе Ьееп fused into а single conccpt,
(Ье quantum field. It сап Ье said (Ьа! quantum fields зrе
(Ье COre reality, and (Ьа! everything else is а manifeslation
of 'Ьет.
Subalomic particles, \vhich are Ihemselves excitations of
quantum fie!ds оС various Iypes, сап ье used 10 probe [Ье
amoUnlS of [Ье various quanlum fields in а region оС 'расе.
This сап Ье done bccause (Ье properties of [Ье particles
depend оп (Ьс average 'е\'с! of (Ье quantum ficld in which
(Ьеу аге immcrsed. Several differenl subalomic parlicles
might display similar propcrtics in а region оС space where
а specific ayerage !суеl of quantum cxists. In another region,
\vhcre (Ье 'е\'еl оС field is different, (Ье particle properties
mау Ьесотс different from опе anothcr. For example, elec-
trons and quarks Ьауе а very differenl mass in our region
оС space-time, Ьи! would Ьауе had equal masscs in IЬе соп­
ditions Ihal prevailed in (Ьс early universe.
This is analogous 10 IЬе behaviour of colourcd objects
when iIIuminated Ьу different qualities of light. Imagine sev-
cra! objects IЬа! arc similar ехсер! IЬаl (Ьеу геЛесt light of
different colours. If IЬеу аге аll iIIuminated wilh white light,
ап cqual mixture of аll colours, IЬе objects will appear
equally bright. However, if (Ьеу are iIIuminaled "'ith light of
а single colour, red, only those objects Ihat гсЛеСI red light
will sho\v up; the others will Ьс invis;bIe.
The сiГСUПlstа11се ;11 w·hith particles that would оthеТ\visе
Ьауе the sаше properlies differ becausc thcy are immersed
;11 ,от с quаntuш ficld is о пе aspect of whal physicisls саН
''Ьг оkеп s)'mшеtгу" has tLIГ ПС'! о и! (о Ье а п importanl key
10 uг.d tшапdiпg the subatol\lic particles. /11stcad оС having
10 s: шlу та11У [ypes of par tick s and (о introduce а variely
of distinct propcl,ti cs} s\lch as {liffс r~лt ш аssеs, into the
44
equations tlJat describe them, we сап hope to ,ее these
differences arise in а simple theory, а, the result of ап
asymmelric environmenl.
Тhe broken symmelry of Ihc properties of particles is а
consequence of а broken symmelry оС the underlying quan-
tum field. The equations Ihal describe quanlum fields arc
thought 10 ье symmelric; thcrc are simple mathcmatical (е-
1ations between Ihe equations describing different fiel<ls, such
as Ihose associaled with quarks aпd those associated with
electrons. However, physicists Ьауе rea1ized over IЬе pasl
twenty years that тапу of Ihese equations Ьауе solutions
that are not symmetric. These solutions correspond 10 aver-
age levels of (Ье quantum field in some region of space
thal is different for опе field IЬan for anolher. When (ш'
silualion applies in ,оте region, IЬе symmetry for Ihose
fields is s3td 10 ье broken. Because Ihe average field values
influence the properties of апу parlicles presenl in (Ье (е­
gion, these particles тау a1so Ье observed to differ, еуеп
Ihough (Ьеу are described Ьу similar equalions.

• Look through the passage апд find (Ье English equiva-


lenls for Ihe foIlowing Russian phrases:
героическая предприимчивость человеческого разу­
ма; лишенный наблюдаемой материи; в свою очередь;
квантовые поля являются основной сущностью; l1РОЯВ­
лять сходные свойства; Dыделяться (на фоне)

• For еасЬ word in А find in В ils equivalent having


roughly Ihe ,ате meaning.
А. 1. enterprise; 2. enlity; 3. vicinity; 4. core; 5. dcvoid
of; 6. 10 ЬоЫ; 7. 10 preclude; 8. 10 fuse
В. а) neighbourhood; Ь) cmpty, Сгее Crom; с) acl; д) а
rnalerial subslance; е) 10 bclieve; 1) 10 hinder, 10 pre,'enl
from; g) 10 mell (а, melal) Ьу heal; h) Ihe hearl or inner
parl
• Find ans' vers 10 Ille Collo\ving questions:
1. Whal Ьауе (есепl discoveries in subatomic physics led
scienlisls 10 lhink аЬоul ,расе? 2. Whal was Ihe classica1
сопсерl оС ап eleclromagnetic field? 3. What is Ihc modern
idea of quantum fields? 4. Whal is Ihe main idea of
Heisenberg's uncertainlY principle? 5. Whal is thc conse-
quence оС lhis principle for the quanlum fields and sub-
alomic particles? 6. What рЬепornепоп is caUcd "broken
symrnelry"?
45
READING 78

• Prior (о reading (Ье passage, геад its headline апд ,ау


\уЬа! уои know аЬоиl IЬе ргоЫет. Diseuss (Ье ргоЫет
wilh уош paгlncrs. ТЬсп rcad (Ье passage and find (Ье
faets supporting уоиг ideas (4 minutes аге preferable).
HOW :-.IANY DI~IENSIONS EXISТ?

It is usually laken for granled that there аге three di-


mensions of space and а single dimension of time. ТЬа! i5,
апу еуеп! (Ьа! occurs anywl1cre in (Ье uniycrse сап Ье as-
signed а location in space using [Ьгее coordinates and а 10-
сайоп in time using опе. *Ви! physicists and mathematicians
Ьауе studied hypothetieal worlds in which more ог fewer
dimcnsion5 exist, and so qucstions arise as to whcther [Ье
usual belief аЬои! ош world i5 striClly сопесt, and if ,о,
whether we сап find апу reason for it being (гие. For ех­
атр1е, we might consider the possiNlity that (Ьеге аге геаНу
four dimension5 of 'расе, Ьи! that for ,оте reason, аН of
(Ье рЬепотепа (Ьа! \уе usually observe Ьауе (Ье ,arnе
уаlие for опе of [Ье space coordinates.
It has Ьесп known for а ce11tury (Ьа! if (Ье dimension-
ality of 'расе were other Ihan Ihree, and if frce motion
were. possible i11 а11 of the dimensions in the same way,
(Ьеп some of [Ье known laws of physics would по! obtain.
Newton's inverse square law for the foree of gravity is опе
sueh. Тт5 argumcntgives addilional eYidence that 'расе is
in fact three·dimensiona~ Ьиl docs по! ехрlаin \\'hy this i5
so. *Furthcrmore, it does nоl rule оиl the possibility that
ош world has тоге than (Ье expected питЬег of dimen-
sion5, Ьи! (Ьа! most рЬепотепа аге restricted in how they
сап уату in the extra dimcnsion.
Ош арргоаеЬ to (Ье qucslion is to consider how spaces
and timcs with different numbers of dimensions might Ье­
Ьа\'е. For ехатрlе, опе might find that the dimensionality
of spaee and timc сап itself undergo eyolution, and [Ьа! the
уаlие, familiar (о us атс (Ье present result of that evolution.
Sueh ап арртоасЬ would involye relations between IЬе пит­
Ьег of dimensions and other physical quantities such as the
lemperature of (Ье uniyerse. Through these relations, the
dimensionality would Ье determined Ьу these other quanti-
ties. Siпсс dimensionality is llsual1y taken (о Ье а whole
питЬег, it might по! Ье possible for а dimension 10 disap-
реаг through evolution. *Instead, what might Ьарреп through
cvolution is (Ьа! some extra dimensions could Ьесоте sup-
pressed in comparisons wilh othcrs. Our present picture of
46
the expansion of the univcrse makes tllis idea much more
p!ausIble (Ьап it was опее. Sinec evcrything was опее тиеЬ
eloser together, than it is now, we еап imagine that there
ате indced more dimensions than we think. The expansion
of the univer5e тау have takcn place a5ymmetricaHy, 50
that in опе of (Ьс dimen5ions [herc Ьа5 Ьееп little от по
expansion, and [Ье 5eale of distances in [Ьа! dimension
would still Ье а, ,таН as it was а! [Ье beginning of the
universe.
If this idea is correet, it would т е ап [Ьа! [Ьете тсаНу
ате тоте (Ьап [Ье familiar number of dimensions. 'Л is
IlIlrlgulng 10 thlnk [Ьаl it might ье pos5ibIe 10 find some
teehnological means 10 find and sludy 1Ье usually inacccssi-
Ые dimensions. Very likely somc рЬепотепа would Ье dif-
ferent in а universe Wilh тоте than four dimcnsiOn5, еуеп
if IЬете were по symmelry belween [Ье differenl dimen-
sions. I1 \vould Ье of great interest [о identify ,исЬ рЬе­
поте па and (о see if (Ьсу сап Ье observed.
'ТЬеотейса1 investigalion5 Ьауе 5ЬОWn [Ьа! if [Ье general
(Ьсоту of relalivity is ,е! ир in а 'раес-йте of тоте than
four dimensions, and if [Ьс cxtents of [Ье extra dimensions
ате таде ,таН and eonnccted like а cylindcr, [Ьеп IЬе те-
5ulting [Ьеогу describc5 по! only grayity, Ьи! also electro-
magnetism and other fields [Ьа! Ьауе Ьееп introduced [о de-
scribe subatomic particlcs. The exfra dlmenslons in [т, case
аге associa!cd по! with 'расе and Йте, Ьи! with the inter-
паl symmetries. Physicists аге actively trying (о uлitе 'расе­
!ime symmetries and internal symmetries in this way.
If other dimcnsions do еюst, \ve would still wanl (о ас­
count [от (Ье precise питЬег, Ihrough ,оте тоте basic
principles. 'П the typc of IЬеorу jUS[ described, the total
number of dimcnsions would Ье related thГO)Jgh ап internal
symmetry to !Ье number of quan!um fields that exist. Ви!
we ,ЬоиЫ slill need (о undcrstand why prccisely four di-
mensions Ьауе expanded while (Ье olhers remained ,таН.
*The question of the dimensiol1ality of space-time is ripe for
тоге serious invcstigation. 1 ехрес! (Ьа! some ne\v insights
inlo it will emerge in the coming ycars .

• Dividc the group into two par!s. Опе half of the group
rcads the text to find (Ье argumenls in (ауоит of (Ье (Ьтее
dimensional 'расе, (Ье other finds all IЬе supposilions in
favour of the тоге number оС dimensions of 'расе.

Facts Supposi!ions

47
• Тсу to guess the meaning of thc words glyen in italics ш
the text.
• Translate (Ьс ,cntences markcd with ап asterisk.
• Answer [Ье follo\ving quc,tions:
1. What scientific facts support (Ье idea of (Ье (шее
dimensionality of space we live in? 2. How do ,cienti,ts
check (Ье truth of this idea? 3. If there were щаllу more
dimensions (Ьап three what di,crepancie, could there appear
in our ,cientific knowledge of (Ье world? 4. If there were
[еаllу four dimensions of space, what should we assume
about [Ье extra dimension? 5. If we assume (Ьа! (Ье ехрап­
sion of (Ье universe in (Ье Big Barig proces, Ьад taken
place asymmetrically what conclusion should we соте (о? 6.
What did theoretical inyestigations concerning Einstein's gen-
eral thcory of relativity applied (о а four-dimensional space
show? 7. What is your attitude (о (Ье problem? 00 you
find it worth studying? Why? Give your reason,.

НОМЕ EXERC[SES (10 Ье done in writing)

1. Translatc into Russian.


1. ТЬе idea (Ьа! 'расе сап сшуе also applies (о one of
(Ье great unanswered questions in astrophY5ics. Is ош uni-
yerse finite or infinite? If (Ье uniyerse con!ains enough
matter, it would di5tort 'расе 50 much that [Ье univer5e
would Ье finite-much as [Ье surface of а sphere is finite
(whcrca, а plane surface is considered as infinite). ThlS Ьу­
pothctical dis!ortion in [Ье ,Ьаре of (Ьс univcrsc дие (о [Ье
presence of matter is similar (о (Ьс distortion in (Ьс ,Ьарс
of а ,иЬЬе, ,Ьсе! due [о а weight [Ьа! is lying оп it. ТЬе
аmОlшt of distortian increases as (Ье 'l'ieight of matter in-
creases.
2. lf [Ье uniyerse is finite, its ayerall size, compared (о
[Ье size of some objcct, it contains, сап vary оуе, Йте, ju,t
as [Ье size оЕ а Ьаllооп сап Ье inf1ated о' def1ated without
changing its basic shape. Thcre is conYincing evidence, from
study of (Ье ligh! emitted to и, Ьу dislant galaxics, (Ьаl оиг
univcrsc is expanding. This does по! prov'e [Ьа! [Ье universe
is fin;te, howcvcr, and merely inf1ating like а toy balloon.
3. Еуеп if lЬе univcrse \vere infinite, such ап expansion
cOllld Ьс understood а, а change in thc aycragc distancc
fjet',Jicen objccts \\'ithin the univ'crse. In either case, the ех­
pansion implies (Ьа! lЬе scale of the universe wa5 тисЬ
,шаl!еr in [Ье past, апд the objcC1S within it wel'e оп се
4.:'J
тисЬ closer together. This discoyery. сЬе cxpansion of the
universe. was first made Ьу Ihe American as[ronomcr Edwin
НиЬЫе in the 1920s.

П. Translate into English.


1. Мы предпочитае м интерпретировать эти данные
в свете новой фундаментальной теории поля. 2. А как
вы предпочитаете рассматривать эту проблему? 3. Мы
пр едпочитаем развивать эту идею с точки зрения по­
следних достижений в этой области. 4. Что вы предпо­
читаете: опубликовать ваши данные или проводить
дальнейшие испытания и исследования до публика­
ции?

UNIТ ЕЮНТ

READlNG 8А

• The probIem of the passage beIow is illustrated in а


bIock-sсhеmе. Look аl il and say what you know аЬои! thc
probIem. Then. read Ihe passage and find Ihe facls (о prove
or disapprove уош ideas.

Тhe Universc

.. field pro(ons!nclltrinos

1-_ _ _ _.... ::;:1 quarks/gluons


I c!cct(ons

ГЛ RТI СL Е S AND f1ELDS

. The number of Ihe r artic'es of еасЬ typ~ in the prcsent


uшvегsе is Ihe resuII о а compIicated history. Most of (Ье
particle types Ihat were aIJundanl in the earIy universe haye
long ago disappeared. We onIy observe Ihem \чhеп Ihey are
prod:Jced ЬгiсПу in laboralories. and then annihilate or de-
сау. Bccause of lhis 'уе атс uncertain of how т апу parlicIe
[УРСО nl ЗУ exist.
49
'П lЬС prescnl universe, quarks and cleclron5 Ьауе prop-
ertie5 [Ьа! allow [Ьст [о form the tighlly bound clU5ter5
[Ьас we саП nuclei and aloms. Photons and neulrinos саППОI
do lhis, and ,о exist шисl! morc diffllSe!y Ihroughuut сЬе
Unl'v'ersc.
Nevertheless, mosl оС lhc Ilniverse ,уе know is шаdе of
quarks and electrons, апд [Ьс prcsent picture we Ьауе of
[Ье world js largely ап expression of сЬ е properties о[ thesc
particles. ОС [Ьс t "О, чuаrks have а grcaler сепдепсу 10
cluster together. Indecd, lhis lendency is 50 prunounccd tl!at
most physicists bclic~'c that quarks are neycr found in isola-
tion, Ьис only in combinations cOnlaining eilher three quarks
о' опе quark and опе antiquark. Thcse are IЬе combina-
tions that make ир ш оs l of [Ье subalomic parlic!es сЬаl wc
observ'e, ,исЬ а; prolons and neutrons, сЬе particlcs [оипд
in thc nucJci of atoms.
ТЬ е reasons why quarks insist оп clustering in thi5 "ау
are пос comp1etcly understood. There is а gencral lheory,
kno\vn а; quantuт сhrошоdynатics (QCD) сЬа! аttешрts to
describe how quarks beha,·e. ОСО in"'olves the interaetions
of fields aS50ciated wilh quarks and field5 associaled with
апоСЬес \уре of particle called gluons (so пашеd beeause
they bind the quarks together). Most physicists believe (hat
whcn thc prcdictions of this theory are bctlcr understood,
we wiJI kllOW why quarks clusler а, thcy d, •.
Eyer since the first microsecond aflcr [Ье origin of Ihe
universe, quarks have Ьесп Ьоuпd together, in groups оС
three, into neutrons ОС proton5. А" of (Ье other combina-
йоп; of quarks О' the other quark typcs, which al,o сап
bind together, are unstable undcr present conditions. ТЬа! is,
if thcy асс produecd, сЬеу change spontancously ir.to less
massiye particlcs, and cvcntually into sоше combination of
the stabIe ones. Еуеп neutrons зrе unstabIc \уЬеп IЬеу are
found in isolation - as whcn ItlCY асе produced in пие!са,
reactors -and десау into prOlOnS in а fcw minutes. The ,еа-
50П that nClltrons exist ас аll in the present uniYcrsc i5 [Ьа!
whcn giYcn (Ьс сЬапсе they l>ind together into т осе сот­
plex and lasting objects. Ncutrons сап bind with protons
into atomic nuclei, and v..'ith one another in immensc пит­
Ье" inlO neulron 5lars.
Eleclrons also bind with nuclei and with eacl! olher into
(Ьс combinations tha! 'уе know а; зtот s and шоlесules.
This binding occurs through electr;c and magnclic faгces,
whicl! are manifestations оС lЬС ,ате (juantum field \vhosc
particle aspecl i5 thc photon. The det;;iled propertics оС this
fi eld асе summari7.Cd in а theory kno\vn а, qual1tum е!ее-
50
trodynamics (ОЕО), the most widely tested theory in quan-
tum physics. No inaccuracics Ьауе Ьесп found in the theory,
down to а leyel of error of less than опе part in а Ыlliоп.
Most physicists belieye, оп the basis of theoretical argu-
ments, that even protons and bound ncutrons are not rеаПу
stable, and that over sufficicntly long periods of time they
decay into electrons or neutrinos. Such decays Ьауе not уе!
Ьееп observed, although experimental searches are under
W'!Y. ТЬе time period oycr which this is thought to occur is
1(},l ycars or more, so that few of the protons and neutrons
produced in the early uniyerse would Ьауе decayed уе! in
this \уау. Howeyer, Ьу looking а! matter containing thou-
sands of tons of protons, а few proton decays should Ье
Бесп in а year. According to this theory, if (Ье universe
continues to expand for another 1031 ycars or more, matter
as we know it wiU Ьауе disappeared. ТЬе era in which the
univcrse is dominated Ьу the matter familiar to иБ wiU Ье
yery long Ьу Ьитап and Ьу galactic standards, Ьи! it тау
still Ье just ап instant in the whole history of the uniyerse.
• Look through the passage and find (Ье English equiya-
lents for the following Russian phrases:
современная вселенная; во всей вселенной; сложная
история; из-за этого; плотно связанные; выражение
свойств; тенденция столь ярко выражена; зарождение
(возникновение) вселенной; они спонтанно превраща­
ются в; через достаточно долгий период времени; экс­
периментальные исследования ведутся; всего лишь
мгновение; стремятся сrpуппироваться

• FШ in (Ье blanks with information taken from the tcxt,


or оп your own knowledge or thinking.
1. ТЬе matter of the universe is made ир of ... . 2. ТЬе
general theory describing the behaviour or quarks is ... . 3.
ТЬе ОСО inyolves the interaction of ... and ... . 4. Protons
and neutrons are made ир of ... . 5. ТЬе subatomic particles
existing in the universe diffuscly are ... and .... 6. Neutrons
can bind with опе another into ... . 7. ОЕО inyolyes the
binding of ... and ... into ... . 8. ТЬе subatomic particles
ncyer found in isolation are ... .
• Choose the facts from the list bclow, which уои could
consider as well established Ьу science. Giye rcasons for
your choice.
1. ТЬе number of distinct particle typcs in nature. 2.
Photons апд ncutrinos саппо! cluster. 3. Most matter of (Ье
51
universe is made ир of quarks and eleclrons. 4. Electron is
indivisible. 5. Quarks cannot Ье found in isolation. 6. Neu-
trons are unstable. 7. Protons ые unstable. 8. Neutrons сап
bind with опе anolher. 9. Quarks сап bind with опе ап­
other.

• Think and say about:


а) distinct particle types known in nature;
Ь) the nature of quarks;
с) ОСО and ОЕО theories;
d) protons and neutrons, lheir present and future.

READING 8В

• Read the passage (4 min.) and answcr the question:


What scientific discoveries made scientists change their
attitude to the problems concerned with the universe origin?

ТНЕ UNtVERSE ORIGI:-I


Тhe puzzle of (Ье birth and deaths of the Universe is
опе of the mosl exciling problems in science comparable in
imI?ortance with the puzzle of the origin of Ше. According
10 the Ьо! big bang theory which is widely accepted Ьу as-
Ironomers today, the Universe was born а! some time t =
О, аЬои! 15 bi11ion years ago, in а state of infшitеlу high
temperature and infinite energy density. ТЬе fпеЬаl1 ех­
рanдед anд сооlед, with its energy being converted into
particles that give rise to the materia1 from which al1 the
stars and planets were bui1t.
Cosmo!ogists Ьауе Ьееп аЫе /0 sketch the broad оu/­
lines of the evo!ution of the Universc from the fпеЬаl1 state
10 the present day. ТЬе resulting standard тоде! of the
Universe is only some twenty years old: in the mid 196Os,
the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation
final1y convinced astronomers and physicists that there rеаПу
was а Ы!\ bang. It was in 1965 that Arno Penzias апд
Robert Wi1son, а! the ВеП Research Laboratories, discovered
IЬiБ weak radio поiБе with а temperature of аЬои! 3К that
seems to fI1l the entire Universe. It was soon explained as
а relict of the fпеЬаП which the Universe was born ои! of.
Ви! a1though the out/ines 01 the standard model seemed
satisfactory, there were some remaining problems which
bothered тanу cosmologists during the 19705. ТЬе most im-
portant of thcse problems werc:
52
ТЬе singularity probIem. ТЬе state of infinite density
and zero volume а! time I = О is called а singularity. Опе
тау wonder, what was there before [Ье singularity?-or
putting it another way, where did the singularity соте
from" What is [Ье origin of [Ье Universe? Thc standard
modeI of eosmoIogy in [Ье 19605 апд 1970s таде по at-
(етр! [о answer this queslion, Ьи! started оиl from а stale
of уегу high ene.rgy densilY а fraclion of а second after Ihe
тотеПI of creallOn.
ТЬе flatness probIem. Accorwng 10 IЬе generaJ IЬеогу
of reIativity, developed Ьу AIbert Einstein, [Ье geomelry оС
ош U niverse тау ье differenl from IЬе Euclidean geomelry
of I1аl space. ТЬе U niverse тау Ье ореп in which саБе
paraIIcI lines diverge from оnе аnотег, or it тау Ье
cIosed, in IЬе way IЬаl IЬе surfaee оС а sphere is closed, 50
IЬаl paraIIel linСБ еГОББ ОПС anolhcr Iike IЬе meridian linеБ
оп а globe of [Ье Earth. АII IЬе observational evidence is
Ihat our Univer5e is Уегу close /0 be/ng Ла/. А question
arises-why is our Universe so l1al?
ТЬе homogeneity probIem and (Ье probIem of gaIaxies.
AstronomicaJ observations aIso show [Ьа! ош Universe is
homogeneous оп уегу large seales-matter is distributed
evenIy through the Universe. ТЬе Universe is aIso isotropie;
оп the Iarge seale, it looks [Ье Бате in аII directions. Тhe
size of IЬе observabIe Universe is аЬоиl 1()28 ст. Оп this
scaJe, the oeviations of 'Ье density of matter from а per-
fectly smooth Wslribution amount 10 по тоге lhan оnе рап
in 10,000. However, оп smaller scales, [Ье Universe is поl
homogeneous. I1 eontains galaxics made ир of stars, cluslers
of galaxies, and supergaJaxies. Whal smaII wSlurbances in
the earIy history of IЬе Universe couId have produced these
minor inhomogeneities in аn o/herwise уегу smooth Uni-
verse?
ТЬе probIem of IЬе dimensionality of spacelime. There
is а greal deal of interesl among mathemalicians today in
IЬе possibility IЬа! spaee тау Ьауе more Ihan Ihree dimen-
sions. *In the mosl intcresting of IЬеБе models, Брасе Ьзs
Iсп dimcnsions (Ihe 11th is for lime), aII Ьиl three of which
ha\'e Ьееп "compactified", shrunk into thin lubes. Ви! why
shouId IЬе compactificalion have stopped with Ihree effective
space diшепsiопs, not tv,ro, or five, or some other nurnber?
AIl IЬеБе problems (and some others whicIl зrс поl
given Ьсте) seemed for а Iong time тоте ШСlарhуsiсаl (Ьan
physical puzzlcs for philosopllers, по! scicntisls 10 debalc.
"Most physicists did по! take (Ье ртоЫст. seriousIy, ас·
cepl;ng (Ьа! science mighl псvеr lind ultimate ans\vers 10
53
such qucstions, or, а! lcast, по! [or а vcry long Йте. Jf [Ье
standard model of eosmology eould explain 15 billion ycar,
о[ eosmie cvolutiol1, therc was по grcat еопееrn that the
thcory could по! explain \уЬа! happened during [Ьс first
millisecond. But in recent years, [Ье attitude of physieists
toward these metaphysieal problems has ehanged radieaHy.
This shift in attitudc bcgan \уЬсп physicists studying tl1e in-
teraetions of the elementary particles began to develop [Ьео­
ries of the \vay particles interact under conditions of very
high energy densities, like those in [Ье big bang.

• Try [о guess the meaning of the words glven ш italies in


[Ье text.

• Translate сЬе sentenees marked with ап asterisk.


• Think and ,ау аЬоо! еаеЬ of [Ье рroЫет> posed Ьу [Ье
author and their importanee [ог seienee.

НОМЕ EXERCI$ES (to Ье done in writing)

J. Translate into Russian.


1. ТЬе beginning of the 1970, saw reaHy revolutionary
deve!apments in partiele physies. 2. Опе of [Ье major
aehiev'cments о[ [Ьа! time was [Ье development of а new
elass of unified theories (калибровочная теория) [о de-
scribe the forees aeting between clcmentary partieles. 3. Un-
ti! the grand unified theories (GUT) were introdueed, [Ье
fош abservable forees of nature sсешеd [о Ье indepennent
of еаеЬ ather. 4. ТЬе eleetromagnetic [агее governs [Ье in-
teraetion о[ e!eetrieally charged partie!es, [Ье wcak пое!еаг
[агее is responsible faг sueh proecss as the beta deeay of а
radiaaetive atomie nueleus, t11e strong nuelcar foree bo1ds
[Ье nueleus together, whi!e the gravity ha!ds [Ье Universe
together. 5. ТЬе authors of the GUT (Steven Weinberg, ЛЬ­
dus Salam and Sheldon Lee G!ashow) sueeessfully cstab-
lished а !ink ineorporating [Ье wcak and strang пие!еаг
[orees, and e!eetromagnetism ,,"thin апе mathematical
fгашеwогk. 6. ТЬе idea а! the Ьеаг! of the GUT is [Ьа! аН
[orees stom [гот а single alld тоге fUlldашепtаl property of
паtше-sушшоtгу broaking.

11. Translate into English. U 50 [110 Gorund aftcr [Ье уегЬ>


10 /nsisl оп / /0 objec1 10.
1. Мой руководитель настаивает на том, чтобы мы
приняли у'rастис в ежегодной (annual) научной конфе-

54
ренции. 2. Он не возражает против того, чтобы мы
подали совместный Ооiпt) доклад. 3. Однако он настаи­
вает на том, чтобы мы изучили новую методику про­
ведения эксперимента. 4. Мы возражаем против услож­
нения экспериментальной процедуры. 5. Вы не возра­
жаете, если мы используем данные ваших эксперимен­
тов в этой области? 6. Мы не возражаем, чтобы вы
упомянули о наших исследованиях в этой области.

UNIТ NINE

• There are а few hypotheses concernin~ the structure and


origin of the Universe. Опе of them W1U Ье presented in
the passage beIow. Prior to reading the passage Iook а! the
bIock-sсhеmе where some of the probIems in studying the
Universe are presented. Think what уои know аЬои! еасЬ
of the probIems. ТЬеп read the passage. Find the ideas that
werc по! knоwn to уои bcfore reading.


Origin --> timejcompositionjevoIution
ТЬе Universe Structure --> matter distribution
Matter --> principaI constituents

RЕАЩNG 9А

ТНЕ UNIVER5E IS А HONEYCOMB


What does our Universe Iook Iike? Does it conform to
the popuIarIy hcId сопсер! of а bIack abyss with isIands of
gaIaxies dispersed through it with по boundaries or ,Ьаре?
ApparentIy, it does not. "ТЬе Universe Ьа. а cIear-сut
structure," says astronomer D.Sc., Jaan EinaSto, who heads
the sector of the physics of gaIaxies а! the Institute of As-
trophysics and Atmospheric Physics of the Estonian
Academy of Sciences. Imagine а ЬопеусотЬ! This is по! а
hypothcsis: Einasto ,ау. Ье Ьа. (Ье evidcncc to provc it.
What do we know аЬои! Ihc Universe? First, it сате into
being as а resuII оС the "Big Bang" ,оте 20 bilIion years
ago. This creation was а fantasticaIIy quick, Ьи! preciseIy ас­
сшаtе process. In moments, the composilion of аIl matler
was formed: eIectrons, neutrons, protons, barions and other
particIes. Through subsequent expansion, this matter, which
originaIIy was in а state of superdense and superhot pIasma,
55
coolcd and condensed into' (Ьс galaJcies staTs and planets... .
Second, (Ье "Big Bang" process continues. We are stiIJ liv-
ing in ап cxpanding U niversc. This is proved Ьу (Ье galaJcies
"running" away in diCferent dircctions.
\УЬа! was there bcforc (Ье bang, beforc this "beginning
оС аll bcginnings"? Science still has по answer, becausc аll
the kno\vn la\vs оС physics оп!у Ьесатс meaningCu! instanls
after (Ьс bang.
\УЬа! is in storc? Shall we continue (о infinitcly cxpand,
о, "iII (Ье Universe, а! some point, begin (о contract again?
ТЬе answer lies hidden in (Ье matter contained in IЬС Uni-
verse.
What does IЬС "ЬопсусотЬ" Ьауе (о do wilh (Ье Uni-
vcrse? - ТЬе structure оС (Ье Universe discovered exp!ains а
great deal. А! (Ье beginning and in [Ье first stage оС схрап­
sion т.Не, was distributed uniCorm!y. Scientists сате (о
understand this in (Ье БОs, whcn (Ье (еНе electromagnctie
radiation which remained since (Ье bIast was discovered.
Тhi' radiation originally had the ,ате temperature as таНе'
and, IhcrcCore, cxpanded along with it. But now it has
coo!ed оСС, just as matter itselC, and (Ьс t стреrащте of this
radiation (weak radiowaves) (Ьа! pierces 'расе is (Ье ,атс
everywhere-something about 30 Kelvin (approximateJy
- 270 0 С). In other vo'Ords uniformity is а ffi~jor property of
the Universe.
Anд yel, аl (Ье уегу beginning, there werc ,оте рто­
cesses which led (о the Cormalion оС stars, gaIaxies, accu-
mulations, i.e. 10 (Ье condensalion оС matter. This non-uni-
furmities show (Ьа! а pattern something like а gigantie hon-
еуеотЬ with а diameter оС 100-200 megaparsec (а mega-
parsec is 30 milHon light years) has Ьееп created. ТЬе
"waUs" of IЬе сеПs аге made оС accumulations of gaIaJcies,
and where they meel, IЬе accumulations атс тorе numerous
and (Ье radiation in the X-range is тоте intensive. In olher
words, (Ье сотЬ is а real structure.
How is it (Ьа! (Ье freely moving galaJcics evolved into
(ш' particular formation? 15 lhis сЬапсе occurrence?-The
"rigidity" оС (Ье strueture indicates (Ьа! the "combs" them-
selves appeared initially and then ga!aJcies. How сап this
paradox Ье explained?-Most likely (Ье "combs" сате into
bcing when the (':alaJcies were still in thcir gascous state_ То
use ап analogy, lmagine two gas bubbIes expanding towards
еасЬ other. ТЬе more (Ьеу expand, 'Ье greatcr 'Ьс compres-
sion between (Ьет. А! а certain тотеп! (Ьеу collide. This
is when а certain Па! Cormation originates Ьеtwееп [Ьет ,
which Academician Yakov Ze!dovich called а "pancake" in

his hypothcsis which lcd to thc idea оС thc ccll\llar structure
оС thc НniуеГБе. ТЬс joining оС а multitudc оС these
"pancakcs" rcprcscnts tbc \va1ls оС IЬе gigantic "combs" in
which thc galaxics Ьауе accumulated.
If therc мс "combs", опе would assumc (Ьсге should
Ье "Ьопеу "? Could it Ье (Ьа! а11 the matter оС (Ье Uni.,ersc
went into (Ьс "walls" апд (Ьс cc11s themselvcs ме empty?-
There is по visibIe matter there. Ви! it is уегу difficult (о
eonceive оС а physical process which would· absolutely
clean5c (Ье5е trcmcndous eavitics оС everything. So, рсгЬаР5,
we jU51 доп'! Бее thi5 5ubstance. Wc Ьауе 10 аББите IЬе
existence of Боте invisible mass \vhose attraetion inf1uences
(Ье тоуетеПI оС galaxies, (ЬиБ maintaining the structurc оС
(Ье "combs ". This таББ should Ье тапу limes grcater Ihan
(Ье visibIe таНег in (Ье агеаБ of aecumulation, i.e. in (Ьс
"walls". ТЬс density of (Ьс "invisibIe" substanee should al50
ье far higher.
Do seientists теап (Ьс neutrin05?- Ycs, (Ьеу до. Until
reecntly it has Ьееп belicvcd (Ьа! (Ье neutrino Ьа5 по ге5!
ma5s and тоуеБ wiLh (Ье speed of light, without interaeting
with anything in its path. But (Ье scnsationa1 [mding5 оС а
group оС investigators led Ьу у. Lyubimov (the Institute оС
Experimental and Thcorctical Physics) show that (Ье ГСБ!
mas5 оС the neutrino i5 larger (Ьап zero. This теаП5 (Ь а!
(Ьс neutrino, which literaUy floods (Ье Universe i5, regard-
les5 of it5 negligibIe ma5s, IЬе principal таНег of the Uni-
УСГБе and Ьспее (Ье prineipal раг! of its cntirc та55. ТЬе
conventional matter in the Univer5c compri5cs but only
(Ьгес рег eent. It is П1О5! likely (Ьа! (Ье "eombs" (Ьст­
,elves anд (Ье entire ee11ular structure оС the Univer5c is
(Ье re5ult оС their foree оС gravity.
ТЬе future of (Ье Univcrse is in its structure. Wc Ьауе
10 know whcther it is finite . Within а "finite" Universe, (ЬС
ga1axies, aftcr thousands of millions or уеаГ5 Ьауе pas5cd,
wiU inevitably begin а геуеГБС proces5, and expansion will
give way to eontraetion. Our Uniyerse wi11 again Ьесоте а
"dot" and everything will Ье repeatcd. And 50 оп [ог сусг
and еуег ...

• Find (Ье English equivalents [ог thc following Russian


рЬга5еБ:

оБЩСПРI1IНI1"ОС IIРСДСТ3МСJlие; масса покоя ; буквалu·


Н О наводняет; сверхплотная плазма; распреДСЛЛJJзеh OД~
нородно; гигантски е соты; основное с ВОЙСТI30; со време ­
НИ взрыва ; в мrn овен ие ока; первая стадия расшире­
ния; на смену расшир ению придет сжатие; навсегда; во

57
много раз больше; появилась псрвоначально, невзирая
на пренебрежимо малую массу; неизбежно начнет об
ратный процесс; всего лишь 3%; оБLцспринятая КОН­
цепция; черная бездна

• Match еасЬ word in А with its synonym in В.


А. relic, evidence, momcnt, (о re\'crsc, to conform, m иl­
litude, 10 occur, (о соте into being
В. instant, to correspond, somcthing surviving from the
past, а great number, to turn in ап opposite direction, to
originalc, proof, to Ьарреп

• Match еасЬ word in А


with its antonym 1п В.
А. expansion, meaningful, conventional, relic, rigidity, to
contract, to disagrce
В. to expand, ипсоттоп, modern, flexibility, meaning-
less, contraction, to conform

• FiНin the blanks with information taken from [Ье (сх! or


оп your оwn thinking.
1. ТЬе passage dcals with ... . 2. According to Jaan
Einasto's hypothesis the Universe ЬаБ а ... structure. 3. ТЬс
Universe сате into being ... ago аБ а result of .... 4. ТЬс
matter of [Ье early Uni\erse was in а state of .... 5. Sci-
entists speak аЬОl1! the composition of matter in terms of.
6. Some scientists аБ,"тс (Ьа! а! [Ье тотеп! of thc ЫаБ!
matter was distributed ... . 7. ТЬеу find support (о this idea
in [Ье discovery of .... 8. Our Universe continues (о ... and
(Ье gaJaxie, ... . 9. ТЬе vis;ble matter of the Universe ас­
counts only for ... . 10. Scicnti,ts assume ... (о ассоип! for
[Ьс rest of [Ье mass.

• Think and find arguments [о prove that:.


а) one of (Ье major properties of [Ье Universe is its uni-
formity оп а large 5cale;
Ь) de5pite their neg!igible size, neutrinos сап account for (Ье
most of the Universe mass;
с) surveY5 show (Ьа! tl,e Universe ЬаБ а clear-cut structure.

• What wou1d уои say оЕ оur current knowledge of:


1. ТЬе structure of (Ье Universe? 2. ТЬе distribution of
(Ьс matter? 3. ТЬс hi5tory of the Universe evolution?
58
REAOING 9В

• Read the passage (4 min.) and answcr the questions:


1. What scientific discoveries аге needed [о say that 111e
uni"'erse will Ье devcloping according (о Scenario 1? 2.
What scicntific discoveries SllOUld thc intelligent beings make
[о avoid [Ье fate of ош universe according [о lhi, scenario?

SCENARlO J. А FINIТE SМALL UI'IVERSE

TI,e universe сan only Ье finite if there is enough та!­


[ег inside it 10 сиrvе space-Ilme 50 Ihal it closes ОП itse/f.
We do по! kno'N whether there is enough matter [о do
this. ' Wc do know that [Ье атоип! "r visibIe matter is а!
least one-tenth as тисЬ as wc ca!culate is nccessary for this
10 happen-and [Ьа! there тау Ье enough matler thal i.s
presently invisibIe 10 make ир fhe dijjerence.
Some of this invisibIe matter тау exist in the form of
neutrinos, neutral particlcs that intcract only уету weakly.
Neutrinos exisl in [Ье uni"'crsc in large enough numbcrs so
that if they have а 5тзJI та55 they could provide enough
encrgy density 10 closc the Universe. *The samc та}' Ье
Iгие about other, pre5ently ипknоwn, subatomic parlic!es.
If tllere is enough mattcr presenl 10 make [Ье шпvегsе
finite then there i5 al50 enough 10 cause the expansion 10
evelltually. stnp and Ье replaccd Ьу а contraction. If this is
[Ье actual condition in our uni"erse then we \vould like [о
know \уЬеп this chal1geOl'er will оссш. Wc саппо! say this
precisely, because of lack of information aboul IЬе actual
атоип! of тапег in (Ье universe, but we сап say that it
will по! happen for а long time, probably а/ leasf as long
as Ihe fime since the Big Bang-10 [о 15 billion years.
*Н is usually assumed (Ьа! the size of а tinite universe
would only Ье а few йт е, larger (Ьап й1е size of Ihal раг!
\уе аге presently aware of, about 1023 kilometer5 in radius.
Уе! therc is по good reason for be!ie\wg this cither оп the
basis of observation ог of theoretical cosmology. IС it ',;'ere
true, then the univcrse would bcgin contracting а! а [iше in
the future that is по! mucb longer (Ьаl it ha5 already livcd,
so (Ьа! о", universe could Ье said 10 Ьс mlddle-aged.
!п this scenario, which J саП ihe finite 5та!! univcrse,
[Ье fшuге of [Ье universe does по! depend much оп the
dctails оС particle physics. \Уе know (Ьа! nNhing тисЬ сап
happen [о cllange the properties and distribution of (Ье sub-
atomic particles in the universc оусг the пех! few (еП5 of
billions оС уеаГ5, ипй! the del1sity of таНег bccomes very
59
high through [Ье prolonged contraction of spacc-time. For
example, we know [Ьа! if protons аге unstable, their lifctimc
is а! !cast 1()20 timcs greater [Ьап [Ье present agc of [Ье
universe, so [Ьа! in the scenario under discussion, усту few
protons would Ьауе time [о decay before thc universe соп­
tracts back to [Ье Big Crunch. Еуеп the bel1aviour of тисЬ
larger constituents of [Ье universe, ,исЬ as тапу stars and
galaxies, would remain pretty тисЬ as [Ьсу ате now during
[Ье remaining expansion time for [Ье univcrse.
ТЬе study of partic1e physics as it re1ates to the future
of [Ье finite sma]] universe is interesting оп1у а! two points:
when the expansion is reversing [о а co]]apse, and when the
coHapse reaches its Гта1 stages.
Long before [Ье coHapsc тсасЬе, its final stages, anу оГ
[Ье large materia1 str\lctures such а, stars, p1ancts and thcir
inhabitants, [Ьа! exist in [Ьс сuпепt universe wi11 Ьауе Ьееп
destroyed Ьу [Ье increase in temperature and dcnsity [Ьа!
wi11 take р1асе during [Ье period of contraction. РстЬар, [Ье
most significant question аЬои! anу finite universe is
whether there is some way [Ьа! intelligellt beings cou1d
avoid being caught ир 1/1 Ihe evenlual Crunch. Еусп opti-
mistic writers, ,исЬ а, [Ье American physicist Freeman
Dyson, Ьауе asserted that this is probably hope1css. У с! 1
think [Ьа! еуеп in this scenario. [Ьс u1timate future for in-
telligence тау по! Ьс comp1ctely bleak (мрачный). ТЬе Ьа­
sis for ту optimism is [Ье notion [Ьа! [Ье spacc-time that
ViC inhabit is по! а11 [Ьете is, а view [Ьа! а number of
physicists Ьауе considered serious1y, both for fmite and infi-
nite spacc·times. *For ехатр1е, it is intc11cctual1y iпеsistiblе
[о think of а finite universe а, embedded in some 1arger
univcrse, with а higher питЬет of dimensions, just а, [Ье
t\vo-dimensiona1, finite surface of [Ье earth Не. in three-di-
mensiona1 'расе. *Indeed, [Ьс mathematica1 description of а
finite universe makes use of ,исЬ ап embedding into а Ilуе­
dimensiona1 space-tirne. *This арртоасЬ [о [Ье idea of extra
diтепsiопs is different from [Ье опе discusscd previousIy,
because Ьете [Ье extra dimcnsions are по! tiny in extent.
*Conceivably, bot11 types of extra diшепsiопs might exist. If
[Ьеге are large exlra diтепsiопs we are free [о speculate
[Ьа! other realrns Не in this 1arger universe, and [Ьа! their
c\'O'uti011 need по! paralle1 [Ьа! of ош o\vn.
Аl prcscnt, this is по more tl1аП а sci(~ncc~fiction plot.
HOVv'ever, if there are more dil11ensiol1s than t1юsе we
krlO\V, or four-dimcnsional spacc-limcs in асlditiоп [о [Ьс опе
"с inhabit, [Ьеп 1 think it vcry 1ikely that tлеrе are r11ysica1
plH~!10тena t11at proviJe (овnесtiолs bct\\'e~n them. '~H

60
seems plausibIe that if mteUigenee persists in the universe, it
will, in much less tirne than 'Ье тanу billions оС уем. Ье­
fore 'Ье Big Crunch find out whether there is anything to
this speculalion, апд if so how to take advanlage of it.
• ТЬс passage could Ье divided into two par!s. Where
would you divide it? Why? What is еасЬ раг! aboul?

• Try 10 guess 'Ье meaning of thc words given in italics in


the !ext.
• Translatc thc scntenees markcd with ап asterisk.
• Make statement aboul lack оС knowledge, insufficient
know!edge т (Ье field оС astrophysies. Use 'Ье follo\\ing
phrases (о introduee your s\atemcnts:
1. Until now we don't know whether . 2. We sli1l
don'\ know where ... . 3. We don't know уе! how ... • 4.
Unti! now we know almost nothing aboul .. , . 5. We sli1l
1ack precise knowledge оС .. , .

• ТЫnk and ,ау about:


а) the fa!e оС а fшitе small universe;
Ь) lack of scientific Cacts in favour оС this seenario;
с) IЬе fate оС the intellectual beings.

НОМЕ EXERCISES (10 ьс done in wriling)

1. Т ranslate
mto Russian.
1. Alongside the Саmiliаг fош fie!ds mentioncd аЬоуе,
the unified theories include another kind of fields, so-callcd
scalar fields which Ьауе ,оте interesting and unusua! ргор­
erties. 2. AIl the fош known forees оС nature are vector
fields having both magnitude and diree!ion 3\ every poinl of
'раее. 3. А scalar field has only magnitude and we ш ight
think of а property sueh а. temperature ог density оС а liq-
uid as being represcnted Ьу а scalar field associated with
еасЬ рот! through (Ье volume оС (Ье field. 4. А uniform
homogeneous scalar field is almost unobservable bu\ fiШпg
\Ье whole universe i\ effee\s (Ье properties of alI elemen\ary
partieles. 5. ТЬе idea of scalar fields is useful in cons\ructing
unified theories Ьесаше it helps (о deterrnine masses оС eI-
ementary particles and !Ье way 'Ьеу in!eraet \vilh other
particles.
61
П. Trans!ate into En..g!ish. Use the conjunction whether.
1. Я не уверен, стоит ли заниматься этой проблс­
мой. 2. Они сами не знают, будет ли она представлять
интерес для промышленности. 3. Никто не знает, при­
менима ли данная теория к решению широкого круга
(range) проблем. 4. Мы не уверены, достаточно ли на­
дежна методика этой серии экспериментов. 5. Не ясно,
имеет ли только что разработанный метод какие-то
преимущества.

UNIТ TEN

READING IOА

• Read IЬе passage carcfuHy and find facts (о prove or


disapprove the idea that the ЬопеусотЬ structure of. the
Universe сап Ье exp!ained in terms of the chaotic inflation
hypothesis.

CНAOTIC INFLAПОN

Since 1980, cosmo!ogists have modified considerab!y their


thсогiеs of the earliest stagc5 of thc evo!ution of (Ьс Ulli-
verse. This modification is based ироп the so-саНеd
"iпflаtiопагу" Universc scenario. The most рготisiпg versioll
of this idea "chaotic inflation" is described be!ow Ьу Alldrei
Linde, опе of the architects of the new тодс!.
The essence of the inflationary hypothesis i5 that we !ive
iп а sing!e domain of thc Univcrse, а region соrrеsропdiпg
10 опе crysta! domain, which ha5 схрапдед 50 much
("inflated") that thc domain walls are far beyond the range
of our te!escope5. The few monopo!es present in the origina!
smaH уо!пте of the Univcrsc that has Ьееп Ь!оwn пр 10
the sca!e of 1028 саппо! р!ау а significant ro!e in the еуо!и­
tion of ош local ЬпЬЬ!е of spacc·time, so Ihal Ihe сопсер!
rcmOye5 the топоро!е ргоЬ!ст. Ви! how а11д why did the
Uniyerse as we know inflate in this way?
Thc flrst \'ersion of thc inflationary Universe was sug-
gested Ьу АlIап Guth (MIТ, USA) in Ju!y 1980. His 5се­
nario was based оп the idea of high-temperature phase tran-
sitiol1S, which provided the energy for а rapid bur5t of ех­
pansion ear!y in the life of (Ье Universe. Like water giviпg
ир its !atel1t heat of fusiol1 as it freezes, Ihose phase transi-
62
lions, Guth suggested, might givc up energy, wmch went [о
make the Universe expand exponenlially Cor а shorl liте.
Ви! а, Guth mmse!C pointcd out аl Ihe time, IЫ. ear!y
version of inflation predicted ап extreme!y inhomogeneous
5tate Cor the Uniyerse aher the phase transition.
In October 1981, 1 риl forward ап improyed version оС
the inf1ation idea, which, for obvious reasons, Ьесатс known
а. the "new inflationary scenario". This reso!ved some оС
the diCficultie5 in GU!h's original version. This new inflation·
ary scenario eaused а slir among eosmologists and physieists,
and was very widely discussed. New inflalion resolycd тапу
оС thc large discrepaneics bctwcen the predictions оС field
theory and the observalions оС thc real Universe, and sug-
gested that we were оп the right way towards ап under-
standing оС the Universe birth. But еусп this "'ariation
proyed impossibIe to reconeile eomplctely wi!h the mos! re-
a1istic theories of elementary particles developed. 'п 1983,
howeyer, I was аЫе (о reso!ye most оС those remaining dif-
ficullies with another variation оС the inflationary scenario,
ealled "chaotic inflation ". This abandon5 the idea (Ьаl high-
tem perature phase transitions provided the push behind the
infla!ion in the very early Uniyerse. 'П ту opinion this ,се­
nario is much simpler and more natura! than othcr yersions
of the inflationary Universe.

Order ои! of Chaos


According 10 Ihe unified Iheories of particle physics, Ihe
Uniyersc is filled with тапу types of uniCorm , homogeneous
5ca!ar fie!ds. The nalure of еасЬ field is determined Ьу the
position оС а minimum in its poten!ial energy Cunction, the
ficld rolling down to it5 minimum а. thc Universe coolcd.
Ви! а! !he very early stagcs оС the Universe evolution, when
попе of the fields had уе! had time [о roH down into its
minimum state, each field could Ье homogeneous and haye
а differenl value in diCfcrcnt parts of Ihe Uniyerse. 'П Ihat
split second after Ihe тотеп! of creation, Ihere had по!
Ьееп enough time Cor Ihc field 10 Ьесотс homogeneous.
Thi, is what I reCer 10 as а "chaotic" distribution of [Ьс
ficld and it has interesting and unexpccted consequenccs.
If [Ье field in опе region is initially almost homogencous
and is far from i!s equilibr;um state (thal is, it Ьа. а !arge
potcntia! energy) then il "roll.s down " into the шiпiтuт
"ery slo\vly. Ви! а, Ihe U nivcrsc expands, the cncrgy dепsitу
of all Ihe parlicles in Ihe Univcrse decreases very rapid!y.
So, Ihe (о!аl encrgy density оС the cooling Universe quickly
63
Ьесоте> equal (о (Ье slowly changing potcntial el1ergy of
(Ье scalar field.
According to the general theory of relativity, the rate а!
which (Ье Universe expal1ds depends оп (Ье energy density
of (Ье matter that fi11s the Universe. If the energy density is
constant (or changes уету slowly) (Ьеп (Ье equations tell us
that (Ье Universe must expand with cver increasing speed\
ехропепЙа11у.
This period оС inflайоп is longer if (Ье field started ои!
further away from its minimum value, because it takes
longer (о ro11 down (о (Ье minimum. ТЬе simplesl theories
of (Ье scalar field suggest (Ьа! during (Ье exponential expan-
sion the size of the Universe was blown пр Ьу а faclor of
101000000, and that IЬе largest domain must Ьауе grown
from the region origina11y fi11ed with the field (Ьа! was in а
state furlhest away from its equilibrium valuc.
When (Ье field го11, down to it, minimum Уа1ие it 0'-
cillates 10 and fro аЬоиl (Ье minimum and energy from (Ье
oscillating field is converted into elementary particles. Ву the
lime (Ье o,cillation Ьа, dam ped itself out, (Ье U niverse (or
а particular domain) Ьаs Ьсеп fi11ed with Ьо! particles and
(Ье subsequent evolution оС that domain сап Ье described
adequately Ьу IЬе standard model оС (Ье Ьо! big bang. ТЬе
only differcnce is (Ьа! (Ьеге was а phase of exponentia1 ех­
pansion inflating а йпу seed оС the Universe Ьу а factor of
101000000, before (Ье outburst from the Ьо! big bang itself.
Ви! this sma11 difference leads (о уету important conse-
quences.
Supposc, for ехатрle, (Ьа! (Ье exponentia1ly expanm
domain started ои! very curved. After expanding 101
times, howevcr, the gcometry of space inside ,исЬ а domain
scarcely differs from (Ье Euclidean geometry of flat 'расе,
just as (Ье surface of а Ьа1100П expande(! Ьу а simi1ar
атоип! would look very тисЬ like (Ье sшfасе of а flat
plane. Similarly, апу irregularities are smoothed away Ьу (Ье
cxpansion (inflation) 50 (Ьа! (Ье domain becomes very Ьо­
mogeneous and isotropic. Imagine how flat and smooth еусп
(Ье Himalayas would seem if IЬе radius оС the Earth grew
10 101000000 limes ils present size.
(10 Ье contil1ued)

• Look through IЬс passagc and find the E:1glish equiva-


1cnts for (Ье following Russian phrascs:
самые ранние стадии эволюции; сыграть значитсль·
ную роль; выдвинул улучшенную версию; исходная

64
версия; вызвала сенсацию; разрешил многие из круп­
ных противоречий; вряд ли отличается от; 110 явной
причине; крошечное семя; суть гипотезы; высокотемпе 4
ратурные фазовые превращения; экспоненциально рас­
ширяющаяся область

• Malch each word iп А wilh ils sупопуш in В.

А. 1. 10 bursl; 2, [о blow ир; 3, (о abandon; 4, 10 point


out; 5. to reconcile; 6. to resolve; 7. to .stir; 8. essence; 9.
scarcely; 10. discrepancy
В. а) hardly; Ь) iпсопsislепсе (difference); с) 10 шаkе
agree; d) 10 inflate; е) 10 dccide firшlу; f) 10 show direc-
lion; g) 10 giye up wholly and finaHy; h) Ihe ycry being or
power of а lhing; i) 10 break inlo pieces; j) 10 Ье еШОliоп­
аПу шоуеd

• Answer the foHowing questions:


1. What problem does the artic]e concern? 2, What is
опе of the most promising hypothesis concerning the origin
of the Uniyerse according [о thc author? 3. What is the
essence of this hypothesis? 4, Who was the first yersion of
this hypothesis suggested Ьу? 5. When was it suggested? б.
What were the inconsistencies of this yersion? 7. Whal was
Ihe ]ast yersion of this hYPolhesis саПеd? 8. What main idea
was introduced into chaotic hypothesis? 9. How does the
author exp]ain the first instants of the origin of the Uni-
yerse? 10. What consequences did the first phase of схро­
nential expansion of а tiny sced of the Uniycrse lead 10?

• Think and 5ау about:


а) IЬе historica] а5рес! of scientific hYPolheses оп Ihe origin
of Ihe Uniyerse;
Ь) thc hypothesis of inflalionary Uniyerse;
с) IЬе e5scnce of the hypothesis.

REAO'NG 10Б

• Prior [о reading the passage bclow, 'е! и. rетешЬеr 5се­


nario 1-а finilc sшаН Uniyerse.
3-179 65
Condition Conscquences

Enough matter (о close оп 1. Ош Univcrse is middle-


itself aged
2. expansion --+ stop --+
contraction --+ Big
Crunch
3. Protons wi11 по! Ьауе
!ime !о dccay (1031
years)
4. ТЬе [а!с of (Ье intelligent
life

• Now, read !Ьс passage and find аН (Ье similaritics and


differences with those in Scenario 2 (5 minutes шс prefer-
аЫс).

SCENARIO 2. А 1,ARGf FlNlTE UNIVERSE

From what we presently know аЬои! cosmology, it is


possiblc (113! (Ье Universe is finitc Ьи! immensely larger
(Ьап we сап observc а! this limc. 'This possibility would
require (Ьа! (Ье density о[ energy in (Ье Uni\ierSe Ье
slightly larger (Ьап (Ье атоип! needed (о causc (Ье Uni-
verse (о closc.
If this is IЬе ас/иаl siflla/ion, (Ье Universe ",Ш continue
(о cxpand [от уегу тисЬ longer (Ьап it has aiready cxistcd.
Al!hough it will eventually stop and bcgin (о соп!гас!, ош
сипеп! space-time is in its infancy. ТЬе 10ng-term [ишге of
(Ьс Universe would (Ьеп depend оп (Ье behaviour of mat-
(ет, so (Ьа! ,иеЬ а Universe is оС тоте intercst (о physicists
(Ьап tha! оС Scenario ].
'П а large finitc Univcrse, усту slow proccsses that could
change (Ье character оС (Ье matter in (Ье Universe would
Ьаус time (о ас! during (Ье 10ng period оС expansion.
"Physicists Ьауе identified а питЬег of ,исЬ hypothctical
pгocesses, аН оС which ас! оуег timc scales that аге much
grcater (Ьап the present age of (Ье Universe, Ьш which
could Ье considered short compared to its ultimate life 'рап.
Опс ,исЬ process is (Ье decay оС protons into li§h!er parti-
cles, which, if it occurs, would rcquirc а! least 10 1 уеаг, оп
the average. "Another possibility is tllЗt quantum mechanical
сНее!, wiH lead relativcly small bits of matter 10 'роп!а­
neously eollapsc into black holes. It is difficult (о make рге­
cise es/ima/es 01' how тисЬ time ,исЬ аl1 event would
66
(зkе-Ьи! it is likely (о [зkе extremely Iong, тисЬ Iongcr
еуеп [Ьап for protons (о decay. Somc matter will end ир in
black hole5 more quickly, а' gravity makes some stars апд
galaxies соllаР5е .
•Although (Ье uIlimate fate оС lЬе black holcs is ип­
known, as (Ьеу sIowly evaporate, most оС [Ье maHer lЬа!
was caught in [Ьет will Ье transformed into radiation Ьу
(Ье process conceivcd of Ьу Нз\vkiпg. -Therefore, whether
or по! isolated prolons decay inlo Iighter particles, if (Ье
Universe continuous (о ехрапд for long enough, тисЬ of
(Ье matter presenlly in it \чill ultimately Ье changed into
photons and апу other massle55 particle5 IЬаl тау exist.
Тhere is 51ill another possibility, which is relevanl if lЬе
Universe contains Iarge numbers оС neutrinos and antineu-
trinos, or olher weakly intcracting particles with ,тall mass.
Like electrons and positrons, these neulrinos and antineutri-
nos сап, when IЬеу collide, convert ;nlo pholons, а process
known а, annihilation. Although lЬе rate а! which Ihis Ьар­
реns is low, if [Ье Universe lives Iong enough, тапу neulri-
по, and antineulrinos will annihilale. 'There is а IЬеоту [Ьа!
the energy density оС Ihese weakly inleracling particles pro-
дисе, [Ье gravity IЬа! holds galaxies and clusters of galaxies
togelher. ' If [Ы, is true, [Ьеп their annihilation could lead
(о IЬе inslabI1ity of galaxies, (Ье most characteristic objecls
ir! our present Universe. II seems Ukely, [Ьеп, [Ьа! (Ье most
familiar objects ;п (Ье present Un;verse, from atoms through
galactic clusters, зrе по! eternal. ТЬеу wiU disappear in (Ье
fщurе, if (Ье Univcrse Нче, long enough.
This scenario should по! surprise us. If (Ье most im-
portant constituents of (Ье present Un;verse are destlned 10
disappear, (Ьеу will sureIy Ье replaced Ьу something new.
From what we kno\v of IЬе past evolution of IЬе Universe
this has happened several t;mes in (Ье past а, (Ье Universe
went from опе dominated Ьу тапу dislincl parlicle species
(о опе dominaled Ьу photons 10 опе dominated Ьу protons.
Some physicis!s Ьаче tried 10 describe (Ье Universe (Ьа!
would develop aftcr the protons Ьауе decayed or (Ье black
holes Ьауе swallowed up maHcr а, 'уе know it. These соп­
siderations \vould apply eilher (о [Ьс largc finite Universe of
the presenl scenario (so long as it is still expanding) or 10
(Ье пеХ! scenario, in which (Ье Universe [' finile and ех­
pands for cver. The analysis is по! complete, Ьи! [! suggests
Ihat ,оте forms of matter other Ihan photons would pers;st
(continue (о ас!) [п such а future Universe.
The protons (Ьа! are present in our Universe would de-
сау into positrons. These posilrons сап annihiIate with the

3* 67
electrons already present (о yield pho!ons. *Howeyer, the
extent [о whieh this happens depends оп the rate of ехрап­
sinn of the Univcrse, ""hich Ьу inercasing !he avcrage dis-
[апее between partic1cs, decreases thc chance of аппihilаtiоп.
The analyses that ha"e Ьееп given suggest [113! тапу of the
positrons will find thcmselves [оо far away from ап еlесtrоп
[о annihilate. Conscqucnlly, ,оте positrons, алd ап equal
лuтЬеr of e1ectrons, wiH rcmain iпdеfiлitеlу. The same ар­
peaгs /0 Ье /гие for леutгiпоs of finite та55, if thcsc аге
апу such partic1es. /n аnу even/, these partic1es that remain
could form more complex stable structures, bound together
Ьу graYity ог elcctromagnetism. These strllclurcs wi11 Ьс
immenscly larger than the familiar зtотs, indced, some т ау
Ье larger thал the prcscnt observable U niverse!
How сотрlех these structures сал Ьесоте is ап uл­
solved problem. It is dil'ficult [о analyse it iл detail, becallse
о[ /he ех/геmе disparity in scate Ьеtwесл thc structures Ihal
аге familiar (о lIS алd anything that тау evolve iл the late
Universe. Howeyer, this change in scalc i5 по! lIлрrесе­
dentcd iл thc history of the Universc. * Iл its carlies! то­
телts, Ihe whole геgiол that еvепшаНу evolved iлtо Ihe
рrеsслl Univcrsc was much smaHcr than ап atom or сvел а
subalomic particle. *If there could h3\'c Ьесп ал inlelligcnce
tha! fuлс!iопеd in the early instants of thc U niverse, the
famil;ar struclures of ош prescnt Uлivсrsе wOllld secm as
grossly cxtcnded а, the supergalactic atoms of the lare Uni-
verse would арреаг [о us. "It is по! beyond Ollr ability !о
understand complexity in !he lale Univcrsc, опсе we sc! our
minds 10 it. 1 believe Ihat ulldCrSI<lnding rhat eomplexiry,
and solving its rеlзtеd probIcms, will reprcscnl а novcl
branch of sсiелсе in thc fUlure.
*No mattcr how large, if tl1C Universe is fiлitс, evenlU-
аllу the expansion will ccase and conlraction will take оусг.
Thc dctails of \Vhat will happcn during lhis contraction
would Ье rather different from Ihose in Scenario 1, becausc
the conten!s of thc llniverse \vould Ьс different in сасЬ
casc. ' Yet, thc outcome is по less mysterioll';, so роогlу are
the phases оГ turnover and contraclion uлdсгstооd. *If we
lеаrл Ihat Ihe Universe is fiлilС, lInraveling v,'hat will lakc
place during these phases \\ill Ьесоте опе of the important
endeavours of futurc scicnce .

• Try 10 gucss thc mсапiпg оГ [Ье words given 10 italics 10


Ihe !ext .
• Translate the sent cnces ш а rkсd "ilh ап aster·isk.
68
• Look through Ihc lех! and try (о an5wer the follo,ving
que5tion5:
1. Wha! conditions are needed for (Ье Univcrse (о Ье
larger (Ьan (Ьа! in Scenario 1? 2. What will (Ье fu!ure of
(Ье Uniyer5e depcnd upan according to Scenario 2? 3. \УЬу
is Scenario 2 of grea!er iпtеrеst (о sсiеп!ists as compared
with Sсепаriо 1? 4. What do sсiе п[ists hypothesize concern-
ing !hc рrеsеп! forms of matter?

НОМЕ EXERCISES (,О Ье donc in wriling)

1. Translatc into Russian.


1. Iп опе specific c05mological model, recently proposed
Ьу an Атеriсап physicist Alan Guth, known as (Ье infla-
tionary universe, all of the visibIe universe and а great deal
of spacc·time beyond it, originated in а tiny ЬиЬЫе in IЬе
yery carly univcrse. 2. Thi5 bubbIe contained з high level of
quanlum ficlds which caused it 10 undergo зп expan5ion
much more rapid than thзt expecled according 10 (Ье 51ап­
dзrd Big Взпg Iheory, whcre the cxpansion is influenccd
only Ьу Ihe рrеsепсс of subalomic parlicles. 3. ТЬе rapid
expansion diluted (Ьс material contents of ош uпivеrsе 10 а
very low densi!y, and поп е of Ihe parlicles рrсsепt iп IЬе
universe before this " iпflаtiоп " began зrе presen! today. 4.
Instead, Ihe matter iп Ihe presenl Universc was produced Ьу
а phasc trапsitiоп аl (Ье end of the iпflаtiоп, in which
'атс of the епеrgy !Ьа! was contained in background ficlds
Ьссате сопуеrtсd (о parliclcs. 5. \п the inflationary Uni-
yerse, space-!ime Ьеуопд the volume of ехрапsiоп of the
original ЬиЬЫе would Ье diffcrent from 5pace·time insidc i!.
6. \п this model, (Ье diffcrent regions of the Univcr5e are
somewhal like diffеrспl cultures, developing independently of
опе апоthеr, and uпаwаrе of cach 0[ller'5 еxis[епсе . 7. Wc
arc prcsen[ly unaware of condilions bcyond ои, own ЬиЬЫе,
because there has по! уе! Ьссп enough lime since Ihe Ьс­
ginning of the Univcrse [о, апу light originating outsidc 10
reach us. 8. If the U niversc со пliпuеs 10 exist indefinilcly,
we would eventually Ьесотс a'vare of these foreigl1 rcgions
of 5расе-[ imе-апd find Ihal таНе, and energy in these re-
gion5 have vcry diffcrent propertics from Ihose familiar to
us.
11. Tral1slatc ;"10 English.
1. Этот журнал прсдетаПJlЯСТ PAII патей н а данную
тему. 2. Если бы U3M УД,UIOСh ДОС"I"ать его, м Ы могл и

69
бы получить много ценной информации. 3. Одна и?
статей дает интересную трактовку (treatment) дан нои
темы. 4. В ней дается обзор (review) данной темы в
целом. 5. Я думаю, что она представляет собой цен­
ный вклад в науку.

UNIТ ELEVEN

READlNG IIA

• Read the pa5sage and answer two questions:


1. What does the Univer5e look like according [о the
chaotic inflation hypothesis" 2. What cosmologieal problems
does this hypothesis account [ос?
CНA01lC INFlA110N

Like all inl1ationary scenarios, chaotic inl1ation removes


the monopole рсоЫет. No new топороlеs асе created зftес
the inl1alion, ,о апу Ihat originaUy existed асе sepacated
Ссот опе апоthеr Ьу ап amount in proportion [о the mag-
nitude of Ihe exponential increase in Ihe size of the Uni-
verse. Тhe inlerior of each domain looks like а mini-Uni-
verse wilh а Iypical size grealer thап thc distancc we сап
5ее, 1()28 ст., апd Сос аН practical риСР05е. our domain is
the Universe. Bul according 10 this scenacio there асе тапу
such mini-Universes separaled [гот еаеЬ other Ьу domain
walls in which the scalar fields take diCCerenl values апd in
which, (ЬесеСосе, different laws of physics operate. We live
in а domain in ,",'hich Ihe interactions jusI happen 10 have
Ьсеп broken into [Ье strong and weak force' апd electro-
magnelism. This has cleacly influcnced (Ье development оС
Ые а, weH а. the evolution оС lhe Universe аБ we knO\V it,
and life ос ош !уре тау ье impossible in other domains
with differenl laws оС physics.
Thc division of thc Universe into тапу mini-Universes
also makes it possible [о suggcst ап answer [о the question
оС \vhy ош 5расе is three-dimcnsional. ТЬе process оС сот­
pactification (shrinking and rolling ир of ,оте ос the origi-
паl dimensions) тау оесис differently in domains (Ьа! асс
Сас enough арас! from опе anothcr. And, опее again, life, а.
we know it, тау only еЮ5! in those domains which асе
three-dimensional. The phY5ici5tS Раиl Ehrenfest pointed out,
70
as 100g ago as 1917, that the three-dimeo,iooality of 'расе
i, intimate1y connecfed with the way matter ЬеЬауе,.
Both gravitatiooa1 aod electromagnetic force, оЬеу in-
verse ,qшце law, in our Univer,e and, Ьу generalizing the
equatioos that describe thesc ioteractions and solving them
in other dimensions, mathematicians have shown that in
'расе \vith n dimeosions the resu1t is always ап n-1 power.
law. 10 four dimensioos, the laws would both Ье inverse
cubes and, it turns ощ, there would ье по stable orbits for
either planets in solar systems от electrons in atoms_ The
saтe is true for all higher dimensions. In а two-dimensiona1
Universe, things ате по better, because n-1 is 1, and nei-
(Ьет gravity пот electromagnetism is affected Ьу distance а!
аll. So atoms and planetary systems тау опlу exist together
in а domain with three dimensions of space, like оит do-
main оС the Universe. So the chaotic inflation ,сепапо рто­
vides а simple solution (о most of the ртоЫет, with the
standaтd big bang model.
ТЬе inflationary Universe ,cenario is now опlу five years
оЫ, and is ,till rapid1y changing and developing а, new
ideas соте to the fore. We do по! know which рат! of the
scenario will survive еуеп for the пеХ! five years. But аl­
ready it has proved аЫе 10 solve about ten major cosmo-
10gical problems in опе ~imple model. Ideas which would
have sounded like fanlastic science-fiction only а decade ago,
such as the creation of а11 the matter in the observable
Universe (lО~Ю tons) Ьу gravitational forces operatin~ insidc
а domain which originally contained less than 10- g оС
matter and was Iess than 10-33 cm across, now ,еет (о Ье
necessary ingredients iп апу complete theory of the Uni-
verse.
Апd how loog did а11 that activity take? 1 have saved
(Ье most startling Cact until )ast. ТЬе phase оС ехропепtiаl
inflation that is critica) 10 our modern understanding оС Ihe
Universe probably lasted for 1ess than 10-30 seconds.

• Look through the passage aod fшd {Ье English equiva-


lents Сот the fol10wing Russian phrases:
достаточно далеко отстоять друг от друга; подчи­
НЯТЬСЯ закону обратных квадратоо; степенной закон; то
же справедливо и для; ситуация не лучше и для; по
мере ныдвижения новых идей; дает простое решение;
являются, по-видимому , необходимыми составляющи­
ми; поразительный факт; принимают различные значе­
ния; для решающего (переломного) понимания

71
• Match еасЬ word ш А with it5 5ynопут in В.
А. 1. (о 5Uf\'ive; 2. ingredient; 3. (о 5tartlc; 4. [оге; 5. to
5hrink; 6. (гис
В. а) component; Ь) 10 a5toni5h; с) (о remain ali\'c; d)
10 contract; е) exact; f) in Сгоп!

• м а[сЬ еасЬ word in А with it5 ап!опут in В.


А. 1. to 5[ОР;
2. [о shrink; 3. [аг араг! [гот; 4. 51о\у; 5.
true; 6. inverse; 7. to sUf\'ivc
В. а) direct; Ь) (о cxpand; с) rapid; d) пех! (<);е) false;
f) (о die; g) (о last

• Answer [Ье following qucstions based оп the text or ОП


your own knowledge ог thinking:
1. What is [Ье Univcrse according [о the chaotic infla-
tion 5cenario? 2. What ргоЫетs does [Ье chaotic hypothe5is
гетоуе and why? 3. What does еасЬ domain of (Ье Uni-
уег5е look like? 4. How docs this hypothc5i5 explain (Ьс
dimensionality of ош systcm? 5. How does (Ье author ас­
соип! [ог the first instants of (Ье origin of (Ье Uni\'erse? 6.
What геаНу fantastic science-fiction figure5 do 5cien!i5t5 Ьауе
to realize in developing а complete theory оГ the Universe?
7. Which of the fact5 impress уоог imagination most?

READING 11В

• Prior to reading (Ье passage below, 'е! us «тетЬег Sce-


narios 1 and 2 of а finite small and large Uniyerses.

Scenario 1 Scenario 2

COndition
Enough matter [ог (Ье Uni- ТЬе den5ilY оС energy in (Ье
УСг5е to cl05e оп itself. Univer5e i5 51ighlly larger
than needcd [ог the
Univer5e 10 c105e.

72
Scenario 1 Scenario 2

Consequences
1. Middle·agcd Uni\'crsc. 1. ТЬсUniverse is in its
inCancy.
2. Expansion .... stop ..... 2. Very long expansion ....
contraction -> Big stop ~ contraction ----.
Crunch. Big Crunch.
3. Protons will по! Ьауе 3. Оесау оС protons into
time 10 десау. lightcr particles, sponta-
neous collapse of matler
inlo black holes. Annihi-
lations of псщгiпоs апд
antincutrinos. Instability
of galaxies.

• Now, read (Ье passage апд speak оп (Ье Catc of (Ь е


Uniyerse according (о Scenario 3 (3 minutes are preCerabIe).

SCENARIO 3. A~ I N~'INГП' t.:~YERSE

*If (Ье dcnsity оС matter wcre less (Ьап а critical


amounl, corresponding (о about 10-29 grams per еиЫе ееп­
timeter-about (еп milligrams in а region (Ье sizc оС the
Earth- 'Ьеп (Ье Uniyerse is infinite, апд will ехрапд Cor
eyer. ' Objects in (Ье Uniyerse will оп (Ье aycrage, gct Car-
Iher anд Carlher aparl, ехсерl Cor thosc sueh as 'Ьс eonlen!S
of 'Ье solar syslem, whieh are hcld logelher Ьу Corees sueh
as gravily. As in Seenario 2, 'Ье eon!enls of (Ье Univcrsc
will ehange, апд their even/ual [огm will дерепд оп
presently unknown prop"rties оС subatomic particlcs апд оп
(Ье cnd state of bIaek holcs. ОП (Ье whole, !Ье future оС
'Ье Uniyerse in Scenario 3 is аЬоиl (Ье same as in Scenario
2, ехеерl (Ьа! (Ь е expansion ncyer slows (о 7.ero and rc-
yerses. ТЬе Uniyerse оС Scenario 3 becomes опе in which
protons, e!cclrons, neutrinos апд Iheir antipartieles are
sprcad cyer more !hinly through larger апд larger rcgions of
space. 'Опее again, however, wc до поl know whethcr
gra\1ty апд electromagnctism would allo\v Ihese objeels 10
form complex structures аЫс 10 persist indefinitely.
However, ,Ьете is а m/ss/ng pie,'c in our рuпlе, опе
that might apply 10 the large finilc Universe. Most cosmo-
logical models have assumed IЬа! (Ьс Universc is homoge-
neous-Ihat all parts of il arc (Ье ,атс, including Ihosc Ье-
73
yond (Ье reach of our telescopes and hence uпknоvlП. ТЬе
assumption of homogeneity Ьа, Ьееп made in order 'о ,im-
plify 'Ье mathematical de5cription (Ьа! phY5ici5t5 give (о (Ье
Univcrse.
*Recently, this а55итрйоп Ьа, Ьееп que5tioned. We
Ьауе ,ееп 'Ьа! physicists Ьеliеуе (Ьа! ,оте features of 'Ье
present Universc dcpcnd оп 'Ьс broken symmetry (Ьа! ос­
curred in (Ье early Universe. Уе! this symmetry breaking
need nоl have occurred uniformly over (Ье whole of 'расе­
time. Just а:; а lake in winter сап Ье liquid in some regions
and solid in other5, 50 might different region5 of 5расе Ье
in different рЬа5е5, which would imply different phY5ical
properties for 'Ье matter in it. For example, tJW surp/us of
what we саН matter in our visibIe Universe might Ье re-
placed Ьу equal amounts of matter and antimatter or а 5ur-
plus of antimatter in parts of space-time beyond our present
horizon. But now let us return 'о 'Ье view 'Ьа! (Ье proper-
ties of particles will change slowly а, (Ье Universe expands.
Somc scientists Ьауе predicted (Ьа! rapid phase transitiOn5
similar (о thosc 'Ьа! took place in (Ье early Universe wiH
occur in 'Ье future. This could Ьарреп if (Ье present соп­
figuration of quantum fields in our region of ,расе Ьзs
more energy 'Ьап another configuration, and is therefore un-
stabIe against trапsfопriаtiоп into the lower cnergy configu-
ration.
*Н such phase transitions оссш, (Ьеу are expected (о
begin in опс place, perhaps а, IЬе resu!t of а random fluc-
tuation, and (Ьеп spread outward а! (Ье speed of light,
eventuaHy encompassing every point in 'расе. • As (Ье tran-
sition passes through any point, those properties of matter
that depend оп the background quantum fields present
thcre, would have 10 changc sudden!y because of the new
condilions. *А sudden changc in IЬе properties of subatomic
particles would Icad [о tremendous changes in апу structures
composed of them, and it is unlikely that these structures
would persist. It has еу(:п Ьееп suggested that such а phase
change Ьа, bcgun in another seclion of the U niverse, and is
now approaching us а! 'Ье speed of light. Bu! thcrc is по
evidencc for this possibility, and we need 'о ana!ysc it fur-
ther before adding it 'о the list of environmental catastro-
рЬе:; (Ьа! we need 10 worry аЬОll/.
If the Universe continues [о expand long enough for [Ье
mattcr 10 change its form drastically, then iпtеlligепt crea-
tures тау havc а greater role (о play in the distant future
than (Ьеу would in а Universe (Ьа! eventuaHy contracts.
ТЬеу would Ьауе [о grapple with two probIems: [Ье disap-
74
реатanсе of thc protons and bound neutrons (Ьа! form (Ье
materia! bases for most structures in the present Universe,
and (Ье ever sтаПеr amounts of free energy that wou!d Ье
availabIe (о prescrve order in whatevcr structures might re-
р!асе (Ьет. *No good so!utions (о these probIems havc уе!
emerged, but since we have Ьсеп studying them for оnJу а
few years, and wiП по! need thc answers for 10з0 years or
,о, we need по! despair.

• Тсу to guess thc mcaning of (Ье words given in italics in


the text.
• Trans!ate (Ье sentences marked with ап asterisk.
• Look (hrough the text and try (о answer (Ье following
questions:
1. What conditions are necded for ош Universc 10 Ье
infinite? 2. What factors will р!ау (Ье key ro!е in (Ье fatc
of ап infinite Universe? 3. Wha! fata! consequences cou!d
(Ье inhomogeneiry of (Ье Universe !ead (о? 4. Are there
anу reasonabIe so!utions (о the probIems tbcy тау facc? 5.
Why does the author (hink (Ьа! human bcings nced по!
despair about the future of the Universe?

НОМЕ EXERCISES (10 Ье done in wriling)

1. Trans!ate into Russian_


1. То а physicist а !iquid is "ery symmetric- whichever
way you !ook а! it, it !ooks the ,ате. 2. But whn the liq-
uid соо!. and begins to crystallize, differcnt regions of thc
!iquid тау begin to crystallizc with different orientations of
their growing crystal !attices. 3. Whcn these different cry,ta!
lattices тее! опе another (Ьеу join together аs bcst а. (Ьеу
сап and inevitabIy produce boundaries callcd defccts. 4.
Within еасЬ domain (Ьеге is " preferred orientation of (Ье
crysta! !attice, Ьш adjacent domains separated Ьу " dcfect
тау havc very different oricntations. 5. ТЬе overall ,утте­
try Ьа. Ьееп destroyed. 6. During (Ье phase transitions of
the coo!ing еаг!у Univcrse, something similar (о (Ье cryst"l-
lization of а liquid тау Ь ауе Ьаррепед . 7. А. the universc
continued to expand and cool, (Ье quantum fields went
through several dislinct phase transitions. 8. Е"сЬ of these
!ed (о а change in (Ье оуегаll level of quantum fields еу­
erywhere in 'расе and ап <issociated change in (Ье proper-
ties of ,оте subatomic particles. 9. ТЬс last of (Ье рЬзsе
75
ehanges is thoughl 10 have laken place when the Iстрета­
tUTe оС the UniveTse \vas аЬоиl 1013 times as greal as 10-
day. 10. AfleT thal, аll subalomic p&Ttieles had IЬе ,ате
рторетйе. thal we find (Ьет to have now. 11. According to
Ihcorelical analyscs, аll оС Ihcse eXlraordinary changes took
place wilhin а very short period оС time-pe,haps in the
уету microsecond от 50 аНе, the expansion оС the Universc
began. 12. In othcr words. IЬе main subatomic Ceatures оС
ош UnivcTse were detcrmined in а flash of time, and the
consequenees Ьаус Ьееп \vorking themselves ои! сус, since.

11. Tran51ate into English. U5e ,иеЬ phrases as /11 queslioll


(progress), ullder cons/dera//on (discussion, sludy).
1. Открытие, о котором идет речь, пока широко не
известно. 2. Исследуемая проблсма может повлиять на
развитие всей отрасли. 3. Обсуждаемые сейчас данные
тесно связаны с этой проблемоЙ. 4. Рассматриваемый
подход кажется Dполне удовлеТDорительным. 5. Иселе·
ДОDательекая работа, ПрОllоДимая в нашей лаборатории,
дает хорошие ре зультат ы.
PART 111

ТНЕ COMPUTER REVOLUTION

"The C"omputer. \\i!h its рrошisе of а 111illionfold i!l-


crcase iл man's capacir}' to handle informat ion , \\.;11 ип­
doubrcdly have the most fаr-п:асhiпg social сопsеquсл се s
ос злу СОПlеmроrаry tесlшicа! dc\;elopment. ТЬ е potential
(от good in ( Ьс computer апд 'Ье danger inllcrcn t in its
mЬusе exceed OUT аЬШtу 10 imag:i nc ... . We havc actuaJly
entered а new ста оС e"'oJutionary hislOry, оле in ",'hich
rapid сhi3пgе is а dominant cQt}sequence. Our only Ьорс i~
ю undersland tllС forces з t v,:Qrk and 10 lakc advantagc оС
'Ье kllo..,.:1edge 1,I.'e find to guide the Cl/OJurionary process. ,.

Dr. JerQmt! Д fVеi.Пler

UNIТ ПVЕL\' [

READING lJA

• ТЬе рарег ,ау' (Ьа! (Ьс 21st Cel1lUfY would [,е impossiblc
witllOUI (Ье сотршсг. Оо y~и think (Ье ,ате way? What
reason, does the author gi_ e ш favouг of ш. opinion? Read
(Ь с passage below attentively and find а11 (Ье [act, in favouг
of tllC idea.

ЛiС COMPUTER REVOLtJТlON

Without the computer орасе programs would Ьс impos-


sibIe aJld thc 21st сепшгу \vould Ьс impos,ibIe. ТЬе incrcdi-
Ые technology we аге building, (Ье complexilY and the
knowledge \ve аге amassing оп t Ье \vay toward thc сгеайоп
of that ПОl-sо-fаг-оff 21о! ceJltury, аге а11 Ьеуопд the ип­
aided mind and muscle of тап. Моге (Ьап аJlУ other single
invenlion, perhaps evcn тоге (Ьап whcel, tlle computcr of-
fers а promisc 50 dazzling and а (Ьгеа! 'о a\vful that it wiJl
forever change the dircction апд meaning of ouг li,'e,.
Computers today аге running оиг factoric" plaJlning оиг
cities, teaching оиг childrcn, and forecastillg the possible Си­
ture, we тау Ье heir 10.
77
In the new age of exploration the computer is solvin~ in
milliseconds the probIems а generation of mathematic13nS
would need years to solve without its help. ТЬе ,таН, fifty-
ninc-pound computer, which takes ир only опе сиЫс Соо! of
'расе in (Ье vehicle will do аН оС (Ье mathematics needed
10 solve опе billion diffcrent space-manoeuvring, navigation,
aпd re-rentry problems_ Moreover, it traпslates .the answer
into simple numbers апд teHs (Ьс astronaut (Ье attitude (о
which Ье must bring (Ье spacecraft bel'ore firing (Ье
thrustcrs, aпd indicate (о him exactly how long (Ьеу must
Ье fired.
Еуеп before а rockct is launched, it is flown from (сп
(о а hundred times through spacc-computer-simulated
space-on flights constructed of mathematical symbols, оп
trajectories built of information bits, encountering hazards
(Ьа! are numbers without тспасс. For опе of [Ьс сот­
putcr's greatest assets is its ability (о simulate опс or а
million variants of (Ье same [Ьеmе. "What it'?" is (Ьс qucs-
tion (Ье computer сап answcr accuratcly, swiftly, and over
апд over again. From this variety of possibililies, а trip frош
(Ье earth (о (Ье тооп сап Ье simulated а, often а, neces-
sary, with every possible trajcctory plottcd and cvcry mile of
(Ье journcy through space marked with symbolic signposts
tl>at '""Ш provide assurance that, mathematically at least,
тап has travelled this way before.
ТЬе computer сап do far more (Ьап simulate (Ье те­
chanics of 'расе flight; it сап furnish accurate models of Ые
itself. In computer simulation, (Ьеп, there тау соше (Ье
great brcakthrough needed (о convcrt (Ье inexact socia! sci-
cnces-the studics of тап а, а 50cial being-into exact sci-
епсс. For (Ье 50ciologist (Ье problem Ьа5 always Ьссп (Ъс
lack of an adequate yardstick Ьу which (о mcasurc апд
count. ТЪе опе absolute!y essential tool of science is (Ье
П1саsuring device. Anything (Ьа! сап Ье counted, measured,
quantified, сап Ье studied \vith scientific ассшасу. Now it
Ьссоmе5 possiblc (о perform controHed experiments, in
which every factor (Ьа! goes in i5 known in advance and
the answers (Ьа! соте ои! are (Ьеп valid.
With computer simulation уои сап Ьауе а series of
problems in which уои сап figurc ои! аН (Ьс ramifications,
аН (Ье permutation5 and combinations, and do it vcry
quickly and know IЬе different combination5 (Ьа! are а!
stake. So уои сап use it reaHy а, а теап, of controHed ех­
periment. Уои сап get а computer model of а city and play
ои! аН (Ье different ef[ects, 50 that if уои decide, for ехат­
ple, to rclocate traffic in опс way уои сап аасе ощ "cry
78
quickly, оп the mode~ [Ье eCCeets оп industry loeations,
residential densities, and the Jike. Лпd more important,
when уои Ьауе alternative plans оС tms kind уои сап [Ьеп
choose, and [Ьа! is [Ье fundamental aspect of all ,исЬ по­
tions of p1anrting. It аllо\у. уои [о Ьауе а sensc of wider
choice, [о ,ее therefore, [Ье сопsсqиепсеs of it апd ,ау, 1
prefer [ш. ,сЬете rathcr than anolher.

• Look through [Ье passage carefully and find [Ье English


equivaJents for the following Russian phrases:
неоероятная технолоmя; невооруженный разум и
мышцы; ослепительные обещания (надежды); ужасаю­
щая угроза; смысл нашей жизни; задачи маневрирова­
ния, задачи возвращения в атмосферу; столкнуться с
опасностью (риском); безопасно; олно из величайших
цеНIIЫХ качеств; даст уверенность; показ ывает утловое
пространствснное положение; до запуска двигателей ре­
активной системы

• Read the passage and find зns\vеrs [о the Collo\ving


queslions:
1. Оо уои think [Ьа! [Ье 21st century would Ье impossi-
ble \vithout computers? 2. Why do уои think 'о? 3. Why is
the 21st century irnpossible \vithout space programs? 4.
Wh.t does the ащЬос те.п Ьу incredible tесlшоlоgy Ьеуопд
[Ье unaided mind? 5. What does [Ье author теап Ьу aided
ос unaided musc1e? 6. \Vhat doe5 [Ье computer promise in
fщurе? 7. Why сап the [Ьсеа! of computers Ье 50 awful? 8.
Сan уои give ,пу examp1es оС , сотрШес hazard? 9. Wha!
\valks of 1ifc has the compu!er found app1ieations in? ]0.
What contro1 ореrаtiопs does !he computer provide in air-
craft апд space flights? 11. What possibilities does [Ье сот­
puter provide in sirnu1ating the mechanics. of space Шghts?
]2. Why is [Ье computer ап cssential [оо1 in social sciences?
13. What probIems сап [Ье computer simulate and solve in
city planning?

• Write а short suштаrу оп passage 12А.

READlNG 12В

• Read the passage as fas! а' you сап (2 minutes arc


preferable) and say abou! the computer applications шеп­
tioned in the text.
79
Some nе>У \WJrds: microfiche FmаlkrouflОЛ n uнформ.
микрофиша (карточка с несколькими кадрами микро­
фильма); descendanl n п отомок; Ihief [6И] n вор

COMPUTc RS CONCI:'RN УО\.:

*\\'hcn Charles BalJbagc, а proCcssor оС mathcmatics а!


Cambridge Uruversity, iп,'епtеd (Ье first cakuJating machine
in 1812 Ье could hardly Ьауе imagined (Ье situation we fiпd
ourselvcs iп today. Nearly еvсгythшg \ve do in (Ье mоdегп
wor!d is hclped, ог (vсп сопtгоВеd, Ьу computers, [Ье сот­
plicatcd descendants оС his simplc nтachine. Computers аге
bcing used тоге апd тоге ex(cnsively iп {Ье world today,
Саг [Ье simple reason [Ьа! (Ьеу аге Саг тоге еffiсiепt thап
humall bt,ings. 'ТЬсу have much better memories and сап
Ыorс huge "mounts of inCormation, and [Ьсу сап do са!си­
lations ill а Craction оС (Ье (ime taken Ьу а Ьитап mathe-
matician. No man alive сап do 500ДОО sums in опе second,
but ап advanced сотри(ег сап. lп fact, сотри(ег, сап do
тапу оС the things we do, Ьи! Саысг and Ьснес. ТЬеу сап
рау wages. re5crve seats оп planes, control machines in
!'actOl'ics, Ivork ои! tomorrow's Iveather, and суеп play chcss,
writc poetry, ог compose music. Lct's !ook now а! 50 тс of
tllC I\iays in " 'hich tOтрщ е гs сопсеrn pcople in their daily
livcs and \vork.
Chief inspector Harston talks about \'!ау' in \vhich сот­
puters с~п help (Ье policc fight crime. Members оС (Ьс
pubIic oClen think оС detective work а5 Cast and exciting
\vhen mosl of it is slmy and boril1g. "For example, а detec-
tivc оп а sto/cn саг casc тау hav'e [о check through long
li5t5 оС inform ation, ~nd in [Ье time it takes him to do this
[Ье thicC тау well escape. With (Ьс ne\v Nationa! Police
Сотршег wc аге no\v аЫе 10 find ои! detail, оС саг о\уп­
ership and driving lieences in а Craction оС (Ье timc it takcs
Ьу tradilional mct!lOds. /п policc work speed is oflen esscn-
tia!, 50 сотршегs зrс ideal [or helping us catch criminals.
Мапу people associatc compu!ers vvith IЬе \\'orld оС 5ci-
спсе alld maths, Ьи! (Ьеу аге ,,150 а great help (о scholars
il1 othcr subjccts, iл history, literature and 50 оп. /t's no\v
possibk for а scholar to find а book ог arlicle Ьс necds
усгу quickly, which, whcn а millioo ог morc new books аге
pubIi511Cd еасЬ уеаг, i5 quite аn advantage. There's а sys-
[ет, controlled Ьу computcr, оС giving books а code num-
Ьсг, reducing [Ьет io size Ьу putting (Ьст оп microfichc,
and t hen Sloring 3,000 о, пюге in а container по bigger
tl130 а washing maehine. Уон [еВ (Ьс computer which sub-
80
ject уои'ге interested in aпd it produces апу microfiche уои
nced in seconds. 'It's rather like going (о ап ехрег! who
has read aIl the works оп your subjeet and сап гететЬег
where 10 fшd the сопееt information, which few Ьитап ех­
perts сап! ТЬеге аге also systems being deve!oped (о Iraпs­
!ate artic!es from foreign magazines Ьу computer, aпd (о
make ир (Ье тапу lists of information (Ьа! аге nceded in а
modern !ibrary. So eomputers сап Ье!р us (о dea! \\'ith (Ье
kno\v!edge exp!osion in тапу ways.

• ТЬе artic!e сап ье divided into (Ьгее parts. Where wou!d


уои dividc it? What is еасЬ раг! about? Title еаеЬ of (Ье
three paragraphs.
• Тгу (о guess (Ье meaning of (Ье words givcn in italies in
IЬе lext.
• Translale the sentences тагкед wilh ап asterisk.

НОМЕ EXERCISES (10 Ье done in \\'riting)

1. Translale (Ье following sentenees into Russian. Рау special


attention to rather than «а не; fiMCCTO ТОГО, чтобы» .
1. 1 prefer this techniques rather IЬап IЬаl eommonly
used before. 2. Most researehers prefer (Ье proccdure w(:
followed ralher IЬап (Ье опе used earlier in similar sludies.
3. ТЬеу таде this experimenl \vith а vie\v (о determine (Ье
агеа of COnlact rather (Ьan (Ье rate of these exchanges . .4.
ТЬе cxperiments were planned 10 сЬеск IЬе hypothcsis
rather (Ьап (о demonstrate IЬе results obtained. 5. Experi-
menls of this kind аге highly reliabIe ralher than. jusI уегу
simp!e aпd e!egaпl. 6. We will use IЬе new!y deve!oped
proeedure rather (Ьап IЬе eonventional опе. 7. Only опе ех­
planation olher thaп given originaUy Ьу other authors has
Ьееп ри! forward 10 explain this рЬепот споп. 8. We prefer
10 deal wilh lhis ргоЫет ralher (Ьan апу other.

П. Trans!ate сЬе fo!!owing sentcnces into Eng!ish. Fo!lo,,' (!1е


тоде!.

MaJeZ: Я бы предпочел остаться дома, а не идти в ки­


но. -. 1 would rather ,сау а! Ьоте сЬап go 10 IЬс
cincma.
1. Я бы предпочел поговорить с вами лично , а не
с вашим дрyroм. 2. Я бы предпочел слсдооать ваШIIМ
4-179 81
советам, а не чьим-то еще. 3. Я бы предпочел встре­
титься с вами лично, а не говорить по телефону. 4. Я
бы предпочел присоед иниться к вашей научной груп­
пе, а не к какой-то другой. 5. Я бы предпочел рабо­
тать под вашим руководство м, а не под чьим-то еще.
б. Я бы предпочел работать над этой проблемой, а не
н ад какой-то др)той.

UNIТ THJRTEEN

READING 13А

• Read the passage carefully. Choose (Ье КСУ word or sеп­


( еп се (Ьа!best sum, ир the таш idea of еасЬ paragraph.
Title the paragraphs.
There аге hvo types of computcrs, the analogue and thc
digital. Basically, today's analogue computer is а device for
measuring such physical quапtitiеs as lengths and voltages
and, through а mechanical linkage, exhibiting the measure-
теп! as а numerkal value. Hoviever, thc analogue computcr
is limited to special classes of problems апd \vhen most
people say 'computer' today, they теап the digita1 computer,
which is а marvcl оС precision anд .(сшасу, Сог it \vorks
"ith spccific units rathcr than approximations.
The тодеrn clectronic digital computer counts with in-
credible speed using on!y two пumЬегs-tl1С опе and zero of
what mathematicians ca1l (Ьс binary system. ТЬе counting
abllity оС the computer is used to fced it infоrшаtiоп. But
first the information is tгапslаtеd into а соде.
ТЬе information is then stored in а тетогу bank made
of magnets. ТЬе direction in which electrica1 signa1s run
through Ihe m.gnels теans опе or zero, yes ог по, off ог
оп. Each таgnе! contains опс piece оС informalion called а
bit. А large computer systcm сап store hundreds оС millions
оС such information bits.
Bul information Ьу itse!f is useless. ТЬе computcr шust
Ье told what 10 do with it-Io add, subtract, multiply, ог di-
vide [Ье coded pulscs stored in its тетогу. Parts оС IЬа!
т е т огу contain instructions, preparcd Ьу а human brain,
that providc the compulcr with the road to follow in order
(о so!ve а ргоЫет. Thcsc instructions arc саПед the рго­
gram.
82
What makes the computer different {тот an adding та­
chine is that (Ье computer сап modify its instructions.
If а ртоЬ\ет саппо! Ье Бо1уед Ьу following оое route,
the computer сап search its тетоту for another set of in-
structions until а solution is {оипд. Anд it does all this а!
superhuman БреедБ. The on-off switching of the computer's
10gic circuits ЬаБ Ьееп c10cked а! а billionth of а second.
That is (о опе second what опе second is (о thirty yeaтs.
Ви! the computer cannot actua1ly think. It performs а11
of its functions Ьу route. Опсе an answer is асшеуед, an-
other program within the тетоту tens the computer how
to disp1ay the solution, to !уре it ои! оп рарет, disp1ay it as
piclures от words оп а le1evision Бстееп, от perhaps еуеп 10
speak the answcr in words а тan сап hear.
'П еуету fie1d of human endeavour the Ьоду of know1-
edge is being swollen to the bursting point Ьу а flood of
пе\ч facts, which Ьу their existence help (о generate still
тоте facts unti1 the mass of information threatens (о engulf
иБ. Ви! the ртоЬ\ет сan Ье controlled and тедисед (о us-
аЫе proportions Ьу the computer. AII that is required is а
human mind а! опе end of the system with enough sense
(о say "Ha1t! Гуе 1еатпед just аЬои! all I want (о know
аЬои! wickets." ТШБ will Ьесоте the touchstone to the
computerized 1ibrary of the 21Б! century, in which requests
for information v<ill Ье ans\\'ered instant1y апд аБ fully аБ
the user wants.

• Look through the passage anд [юd the English еqшvа-


1enls for the following Russian phrases:
механическая связь; численные значения; чудо ТОЧ~
насти; точные единицы, а не приближенные значения;
певероятпая скорость; следуя по одному маршруту; си­
стема команд; синхронизироовапно; как только получит
ответ; оселок (пробный камень)

• Find in В the equivalents or words mcaning тоте от 1ess


t1,e Бате аБ the \vords in А.
А. 1. digil; 2. linkage; 3. store; 4. brain; 5. marvel; 6.
тоше; 7. to perform; 8. 10 swell; 9. (о engulf; 10. accuracy
В. а) intellect; Ь) anything wonderful; с) to до; д) а
system of connections; е) to ехрапд; t) integer ипдет 10; g)
way to Ье followed; Ь) to swal10w ир; i) тетоту; j) preci-
sion
4* 83
• Fill in Ihe Ыаnk, wilh Ihc informalion lakcn from Ihe
texl.
1. There are t\VO typcs оС computers-lhc ... and lhe
2. ТЬе ... computer is limiled 10 special classcs of problems.
while the ... compuler is \videly шед. 3. The digital сот­
puler counls wilh incredible speed using the ... systcm of
!\vo numbers-!he ... and .... 4. Before feeding the informa-
lion is translaled into а .... 5. The informalion is storcd ina
... bank. 6. The mathematical opcrations performed Ьу а
computcr are ...•...•...• and .... 7. А pi ece of inform ation is
called а .... 8. А program is а se! оС ... [о Ье folIo\\·ed. 9.
А сошрutеr pcrforms all i!s fuctions Ьу ... . 10. Оп ее ап
ans\ver is achieved. it шау Ь с displayed eithcr ... о' ... or ....

• Think ащ\ say about:


а) types оС computers and their applications;
Ь) тстоту оС а computer and computerized library;
с) programs and their routes;
d) means of displaying the output

READtNG J3D

• Translate the passage а! sight.


Some ncw 1vords: retrie\'e v отыски вать ; justify v под­
тве рждать; schcdule v составлять график, таблИI\У; set-
!ing n зд_ окружение; ruIe оС thumb праКП1'lеское пра­
ВИЛО , Jмпирическос правил о

АRППСIАL IC\ТELLJG El'cr:

Expert syslcms are а class of computer programs that


сап advise. analyse. design, diagnose. exp!ain. expIore, forc-
cast. form concepts. identify. inlerpret. justify, !carn, managc.
m onitor, р!an. prescnt. retrieve. scheduIc. lesl and lutor.
Th~y address problems normally thought 10 requirc human
specialists for Iheir solution. Some of these programs Ьаус
2cIlic"cd cxpert Icvcls of performancc оп (Ье problcms [or
which IЬеу \vcre designed.
Expcrl syslems are usually dcvc!oped \vith tllc hclp of
Ьот а п ехрен, \.,Ьо solvc specific probIems and reycal thcir
Ihought processes а, they proceed. If tllis process ос proto-
со! analysis is successCul. the compuler program bascd оп
thi s anal)'sis \vill Ье ablc to soIye [l1 е п апо\vIу dclil1ed
probkms as well as an expert.
84
Expcrts typically solve problems that are unstructured
and ill-dсfшсd, usuaHy in а setting that involves diagnosis or
рlщшiпg. ТЬеу соре with the lack of structurc Ьу employing
hcuristics, which are the rules of thumb (Ьа! people use to
solve problems whcn а lack of time or understanding pre-
vents ап analysis of аН thc parameters involved. Likewise,
expert systems етрl0У programmcd heuristics (о solve
problems.
Experts engage in several different problems-solving ас­
tivities: identify the problem, process data, gencrate ques-
tions, collect information, establish hypothesis space, group
aпd differentiate, pursue aпd test hypothesis, explore and re-
[ше, ask general questions, щnd тзkе а decision.
As researchers of the domain point out а robust expert
system that сап explain, justify, acquire new knowlcdge,
adapt, break rules, detcrmine rclevaпce and ЬеЬауе as hu-
тап experts do, will have to use а multitude of knowledge
representations, that lie in а space whose dimensions include
deep and surface (representations), qualitativejquaпtitative,
approximatejexact, specificjgeneral aпd descriptivejprescriptive
representations.
Expert systems, like human experts сап Ьауе both deep
aпd surface represcntations of knowlcdge. Deep representa-
tions are causal models, categories abstractions aпd analo-
gies. fn such cases, we try to represent ап understanding of
structure aпd funсЙоп. Surface representations are often ет­
pirical associations. With surface representations, аН the sys-
tem knows is that ап empirical association exists; it is ип­
аЫе to explain why, Ьеуопд repeating the association. Sys-
tems, that usc knowledge reprcscnted in different forms
have Ьееп termed multilevel systems.
Work is just beginning in building such multilevel sys-
tems, aпd they will Ье а major research topic for this
decade. Work needs to Ье done in studying and reprcscnting
in а general way the different problem-solving activities ап
expert does. When you build expert systems, you realize
that powcr behind them is that they provide а regimen (уп­
равление): for experts to crystallize and codify their knowl-
edge and in tlle knowledge lies the power .

• Answer the foHov.ing questions based оп thc tcxt:


1. What problems do expert systems usually solve? 2.
How do they solvc such problcms? 3. Who сап develop ех­
pert systems? 4. What do they саН multileve! systems? 5.
Why are multi1cvel systems of special intercst?
85
НОМЕ EXERGISES ((о Ье done in wriLing)

'. Trans!ate i1lto Russian.


ТЬе Importance of Но" \Ve Calculate
1. lп ,оте bra1lches of sciencc, progress dcpends таiпlу
оп linding new ways 10 ca!culate, that is to detcrmine [Ье
consequences of \vh at we already luю\v iл principle. This is
presently [Ье situation in the field of p]asma physics, "Ъiсh
is used botl1 [о study the conditions iлsidе of stars and (о
aHain controlled nuclear fusion оп [Ье earth.
2. А plasma is а state of таltег in which some of [Ье
clectrons агс permaneI1l1y separated [rom atoms, and both
tl1e electrons and the cl1argcd зtотs гоат around [гсеlу.
The behaviour of plasmas is governed Ьу vicll-luto\vn ечиа­
tion that havc Ьссп studied in "arious contcxls [ог тапу
ycars. Howcver, in thc spccific context of plasmas cspecially
\vhen magnetic [огее; аге а150 present, it is OftCII difficu]t to
extract [гот these equations ассшаtс predietions about ho\"
thc p]asma \vill ЬеЬа,'с.
3. Physicists belie\'e tl1at this is а problcm in mathemati-
са] computation rather than ,отс Ilaw (недостаток, порок)
iл the equations thcmse!ves. Но\уеуег, this distinction is
,та!] corn[ort (о thosc trying (о predict the right conditions
needed {от usefu! nuclear fusion to оссиг.

П. Translate iлtс Eng1ish using due /0 ог /0 Ье due /0.


1. Квантовая теория была создана Планком. 2.
Медь (соррет) широко используется из-за ее высокой
про вод имости. 3. Проблема была успешно решена бла­
годаря тщательным исследованиям. 4. Благодаря этому
прибору все замеры были сделаны очень точно. 5. Все
ваши ошибки прои сходят за счет небрежных БЫЧИСJIС­
ний.

UNIТ FOURТEEN

READING 14А

• Rcad thc passagc and answer thc question:


НО\У тапу and what steps \уеге there in the cornputer
tcchnology de\'elopment?
86
GREAT SГRlDES IN COMPLТER ТECHNOLOGY

Still faster means of gctting а! computer-stored iп[оrmа­


tion must Ье deve!oped. The problems of соmmuniсаtiпg
with the computer are becoming increasing!y apparent.
Punch cards, typewriter termina!s, and paper tap~s аН de-
mand spccial codes and compuler !anguages. Such а situa-
tion сап по !onger Ье accepted, for computers a!ready са!-
cu!ate а! а blinding расе, and their speeds are steadi!y in-
creasing.
The great !еар forward in computer tcchno!ogy was at-
tained in 1947 with the deve!opment of the transistor. Tran-
sistor сап perform аН of the functions of уасиum tubes but
are flea-sized Ьу comparison and require only а fraction as
much power 10 operate. Тhe transistor is madc of а scmi-
conductor, а crystal that conducts e!ectricity better than
g!ass, though not as \vell as metal. The manufacture of а
transistor starts with а sing!e рше crystal of semiconductor,
such as germanium. The addition of very smal! amounts of
а chemica! impurity such as arsenic introduces excess с!сс­
trопs into the crystal !attice. These e!ectrons сап тоуе eas-
i!y (о carry e!ectricity. Other atomic irnpurities such as
boron soak up electrons from (Ье !attice and thus create
deficiencies, or ho!es, where there are по e!ectrol1s. ТЬе
ho!e, in effeet, is а positivc charge, (Ье oppos;te of (Ье neg-
ativc!y charged electron. Во!Ь holes and electrons skip
through the materia! with ease.
Arscnic- and boron-doped crysta!, arc s!iccd iпtо wafers
and then sandwichcd together so (Ьа! а!tеrпа!iпg layers
сопtаiпiпg ei!her free e!ectrons or ho!es face еасЬ o!hcr.
Но!е, and elcc!rons, carrying opposi!e e!ectrica! chargcs, are
attracted (о еасЬ other апd а [е\у drift acro,s the juпсtiоn,
crcating an electrica! field.
Ву adding electrical contact роiпts (о еасЬ of (Ье laycr,
in (Ье sandwich, а transistor is crca!cd.
Сuпеп! flowing between !\уо of the contact points сап
Ье controHcd Ьу sending an electrical signa! (о а third роiпt.
The s;goa! can thus Ье amplified from fifty (о forty thou-
5and time5. Moreovcr, (Ьс сuпепt keeps step with (Ье in-
coming signa!, 50 (Ьа! when it is pumped back out again,
the signal is а precise!y amplified image of (Ье origil1a! sig-
па!.
Ву 1955 (Ье transi5tor was rcp!acing the vacuum tube in
computers, shrinking their 5ize and increasing their speed.
ТЬе tral1sition from vacuum tube5 (о transistor5 was but (Ье
fif5t step however. Integrated circuits that combine both ат­
p!ifiers and other electrica! components оп s!ivers of material
87
far sтаПеr 'Ьan СУСП transistor ате shrinking сЬе size of (Ье
compU\er still further. ТЬе integrated circuits (IC) COnScrye
Брасе, and they also Бауе tim~ and the effort of linking ир
indi,'idual components. This means that а quarter-inch chip
containing five or six complete circuits сап тоуе information
across its route faster (Ьап а transistorized circuit because
every е1етеп! within it is closer (Ьа( ате (Ье elements of
transistors. Оп (Ье horizon is уе! another shrinkage, which
will Ье made possible Ьу а process, still undeyeloped, cal1ed
large-scale inlegration, о, LS!. Ап LS! chip will Ье only а
tenlh of an inсЬ square and will сапу as тапу as опе
hundred circuits. ТЬе difference between ал LSI chip and an
IC шр тау Беет like hairsplitting, Ьи! оп such negligible
differences ате built great strides in computer technology.
ТЬе limiting speed оп computcrs is (Ь е speed of light.
Computer engineers used this fact (о crcate а standard теа­
sure-the light-foot-by which (о clock computer speeds. It is
defined as (Ье distance, аЬои! twelve inches, (Ьа! light (ray-
els in а billionth of а second. Miniaturization wiU папоw
IЬе gap bel\veen circuils and so reduce (Ье питЬег of ligh(-
fect (Ьа! mus( Ье trayersed through the logic circuits. Ни!
(Ьеге are slill other limitations ,Ьа( mUSI Ье overcome Ьс­
fore сотри!е, processing will Ье rapid enough (о satisfy IЬе
dcmands of perfectionists.

• Look· through (Ьс passage and find (Ье English equiya-


!ents for 'Ье following Russian phrases:
с ослепительной скоростью; постоянно возрастают;
большой скачок вперед ; размером с блоху; химическая
примссь; избыточные электроны; крис таллическая ре­
шетк а; кристалл, легированный мышьяком; разрезать
на ПОЛ)l1рОВОДНИКОВЫС пластины; перемежающиеся
слои ; ЭКОНОМИ Т время и усилия; мелочный педантизм;
пренебрежи момалые различия; большие успехи в тех ­
нолоrnи; предельная скорость; ЛЮД И , занимающиеся
совершенствованием

• Match еасЬ ""ord in А with (Ьа! in Н which mеапs (Ье


opposite.
А. excess, off, purity, subtract, di\iide, pure, nonsense
Н. оп, iтршity, deficiellCY, sense, адд, multiply, doped

• Ans\ver (Ье follo"ing qucstions based оп 'Ье information


found in (Ье text or оп уоиг оwn experience and thinking:
88
1. How тапу great leaps forward were таде in the de-
ve!opment of the computer techno!ogy? 2. What \vas (Ье
techno!ogy of (Ье first gencration of computers? 3. Why
were (Ье first computers so bu!ky апд spccd-!imited? 4.
When \Yerc transistors invented? 5. What ,ycrc (Ье адУan­
tages of transistor techno!ogy? 6. What is (Ье techno!ogy of
а transistor? 7. Wha! further still greater !еар forward in
(Ье computer tcchno!ogy was made after 1955? 8. \УЬа! still
greater opportunities did (Ье 'С techno!ogy provide? 9. What
do.es LSI means? 10. How тапу circuits does а single LSI
ChlP сапу? 11. What other problems do there remain in
computer techno!ogy? 12. Но\" could thesc problems Ье
so!ved?

• Think and say about:


а) (Ьеhistory of (Ье computer techno!ogy;
Ь) theprocess of tran.sistor manufacturing;
с) thcadvantages of modern 'С and LSI technologies.

READING 14В

• Read the artic!e carefully апд answer the following ques-


tions:
1. What is the princip!e of the асйоп оС ап optica!
switch? 2. Но\" Car are we from an optica! computcr?
EUROPE Lr:.ADS RESr:.ARCH IN OPТICAL COMPU11:-iG
Until now, (Ье switches inside computers have Ьееп
electronic. European scientis!s are going (о demonstrate thc
wor!d's first optica! computer. This demonstration \vill соте
22 years aftcr thc thcory behind optica! computers ,,>'а, first
predicted Ьу researchers from the computcr сотрапу IВM.
*How,,·er, thcre is still а !argc gap between what theoretica!
physicis!s be!ieve сап Ье допе, апд what e!ectronic engineers
knо\" is possible.
*In thcory, optica! switchcs !eave their e!ectronica! соип­
terparts standing. It is !ike comparing the specd of !ight
with the speed оС electricity. 'Optica! switches are so Cas!
апд ус! so smal! that ап optica! device of опе square сеп­
timetre сan reso!ve 107 separate spots of !ight апд еасЬ сап
Ье s\vitched оп anд off а! а speed оС 30 nanoseconds. This
means that an optica! device опе square ccntimetre in area
could, in theory а! !east, hand!e 3 х 1014 bits pcr second.
89
This rarc is equivalenl 10 everybody in IЬе \vorld having а
lelephone eOl1versalion аl IЬе same time.
ТЬе oplical sv,itch works оп IЬе principle of optical
"biSlabilily". Usua1ly, when а Ьсат of Jigbl is passcd
through а transparenl maleria~ IЬе relationship bctween IЬе
intensities of ligbt entering and (Ье Jighl leaving is linear.
How'ever, under certain circumstances а non-linear rc1ation-
ship oeeurs. А ,таll inerease in (Ье intensity of ligbl enler-
ing (Ье material leads 10 а тисЬ greater increase in [Ье
inlensily of light leaving IЬе malerial.
Iп optical swilches, IЬе material is placed inside а reso-
nanl cavily. In practice, this means (Ьа! (Ье edges of (Ье
material are highly polished апд para1lel (о еасЬ other.
·With such materials some of IЬе light enlering becomes
"trapped" inside as il bounces back and forth against еасЬ
polished surface. Iп other \vords, " resonates. This сhалgеs
IЬе refraclive index of IЬе malerial, with IЬе resull [Ьа! for
а given intensity of Iight entering IЬе switeh arc two pnssi-
Ыс intensilies of Iigbt leaving it.
*In other \vords, (Ьеге is [Ье equivalel1t [О ал "оЕЕ" ро­
sition and an "оп " position because thcrc are Iw'o slable
51ales and IЬе material shows oplical biSlability. Up to now
а switching spccd о[ 10-13 sceonds has been achieved, al-
though [Ье power лееdеd 10 generate this i5 in (Ье ki!owatt
range. А ,реед of оле nanosecond (10-9) i5 p055ible i" tIJC
milliwatt po\ver range .

• Translate (Ье semenees markcd wilJ1 аl1 asterisk.


• Think and ,ау about:
а) tl1eoretieal supposition5 behind optiea! computcrs;
Ь) practical achievements in lhc fic!d.

НОМЕ EXERCISES (10 Ьс done in \\' ritiл g)

1. Translatc into Russian.


The Impor1ance 01 Но,у 'Уе Calculate
1. In lheoretica! physics. (Ье distinetion bct\vccn а [Пl1-
darпе"lal ,nnоуай0n and mere (простой) progre5s i" calcu-
Jating thc eonsequcnecs of ап exist in~ lheory is subt1c (нсу­
ловимый). It i5 rare (Ьа! а scient1St bcgins а theoreLicaJ
analysi5 wilh Ihe nOlion that it \уill require revoJutionary
90
new ideas. Usually scienlisls WiII begin \vith accepled knowl-
edge and Iry to work ои! its consequences. When the result
of а calculation differs from what is observed, it is difficult
10 decidc whether to change the theory or the method of
calculation, unless \vc knO\V that thc calculation offers ап
accurate picture of whal the underlying Iheory implies.
2. Рот example, physicists betieved for тапу years that
Iheir inability to make тисЬ progrcss toward а theory of
subatomic particles was дие 10 the lack of good calculational
methods [or dealing \vith their equations. After the equations
were changed to сопСотт v.ith new ideas, however, it was
[оипд that the old calculational methods were ade-
quatc-provided they were applied to the right equations.

11. Translate into English. Use either the vlOrd ехрепmеnl


or experience.
1. Я полагаюсь (to rely ироп) на свой собсТnСIlIlЫЙ
опыт. 2. Опыт обычно длится несколько часов. 3. Я
это знаю по (Ьу) опыту. 4. В результате наших иееле­
допаний мы приобрели (to gain) большой опыт. 5. У
нас большой опыт научной работы. 6. Результаты опы­
та будут опубликованы. 7. Повседневный ОПЫТ показы­
вает, что вы не правы. 8. Нам не удалось провес ти до­
полнительные опыты.

UNIТ FIFTEEN
READING 15А

• Read the passage earcfully and answer the question:


Ho\v тапу and what means of increasing computer
spccds are mentioned in Ihe text?
ПlЕ FUГURE ОР CO~!PUТERS

During thc past decade development \vork Сот extremely


po\verful anд cosl-effective computers Ьэs conccntrated оп
new architecturcs. Iп place оС "scalar" processors, IЬе ст­
phasis Ьэs moved lowards ''vector'' and "parallel" proces-
sors, соттоnlу referred 10 а. "supercomputers". These та·
chines ате now in fairly \videspread use in тапу branches
of science. Vectorization of quark ficld calculations in par!i-
cle physics Ьэs improved performancc Ьу faclors оС lеп or
I\venty compared with IЬе traditional scalar algorithms.
91
Computers must still Ье programmed [о, cvery action
Ihcy lake v.'hich. is а great limitation. How quickly the pro-
grammer сап (еll it \уЬа! (о do bccomes а major drag оп
computer speeds. ТЬе time lag сап Ьс shortened Ьу linking
ир difТerent computers and designing more eCficient deviccs
10 jam information in and риН it ои! of the machine, Ьи!
the basic limitation of the step·by·stcp program remains.
А means around this roadblock is called parallel pro-
ccssing. !nstead of soking а problem Ьу CoUowing step·by-
step instructions оС (Ье program (Ье arithmetic and memory
units will break (Ье main problem dov.'Il into а number оС
smaller problcms that will Ье solved simultaneously. Parallel
processing was introduced into (Ье fourth generation сот­
puter caUed !LL!AC IV named Со, ,Ье UniversilY оС lllinois
where it \vas designed. '
ТЬе incredibly rapid speeds we are approaching will Ьс
оС little yalue without а corresponding increase in (Ьс speed
wilh which Vie сan get а! (Ье computer-gcnerated informa-
tion. Опе new approach, called graphics, uses (Ье cathode-
,ау tube-the рiсtше lube оС уош ТУ set-to display (Ьс
information pictorially. А light реп-асtuаНу an eleclronic
poinler-can Ье louchcd 10 the scr(cn, and conycrsalion
belwccn тап and тасЬinе сап Ье accomplished. For схат­
ple, the computer сап flash а series оС орйоns оп ils
screen. ТЬе scienlist seJects (Ье опе Ье wants Ьу touching it
\vith а light реп. ТЬе great ad\'antage оС thesc so·called
graphic computers is in solving design problems and in
coping with anу trial·and-crror situation.
ТЬе graphic computer o[Cers (Ье m ost flexible meaпs оС
communication bet\veen тап and тасЬinе ус! deyeloped.
For example, (Ье dcsigner сап draw а са, ,оо! оп (Ье
screen wilh his lighl реп. ТЬе computer will do (Ье mathe-
matics required (о slraighten ои! (Ье !ines and, in cCCcct,
prescnt з draftman's version of the designer's idea. ТЬе
computer wiU then ofCer а variety оС options 10 (Ье de-
signer- «front view", rear \-'iС\\i", "cross section", and so
H

оп. АН lhe dcsigner needs 10 do is (о (оиеЬ his light реп


(о (Ье appropriate choice, and (Ье computer does (Ье r(sl.
Similarly, thc designer сап circle зпу part of thc drav.'ing оп
IЬе screen \vith his реп and requesl а blow·up-a large-seale
drawing of just lhat part Ье Ьа, circled.
Thc end product of lhis тап·таетпе design (еат is
по! а scrics of drawings оп рарс, but а set о[ equalions
(Ьа! prcciscly define every point оС design. Е\'епluаПу, these
symbols will Ье fed 10 йlе produetion line machinery, which
wШ lranslate (Ье symbols into stecl and glass Corms о[ аи­
tomobiles.
92
• Look through IЬе passage and find the English cquiva-
.lents Сог IЬе Collo\\wg Russian phrases:
акцент смещается на; обычно называемые; очень
широко используется: повысим производительность в
10-20 раз: основной тормоз: запаздывание: потаКТQвая
проrpаммз : одно из средств обойти это препятствие;
мало чего будут стоить без: серия вариантов выбора;
справится с любой ситуацией подбора (методом проб и
ошибоК): rибкие средства коммуникации; множество ва­
риантов: вид спереди: вид сзади; вид в разре зе: соот­
ветствующий выбор: запр оси ть увеличить в размере;
rpуппа проектироnщиков ; человек-машина; серии '.ер­
тежей; ПРОИЗВDдственная ЛИНИЯ

• Find iп В the equivalenls ог \vords meaning тоте or less


IЬе same as IЬе words in А.
А. 1. 10 drag: 2. 10 lag; 3. 10 jam; 4. 10 flash; 5. option;
6. 10 соре wilh; 7. 10 blow up; 8. roadblock
В. з) 10 pack lighlly inlo а small space; Ь) righl оС
choosing (choice); с) 10 деа! successful1y; д) an obstruction
placed across а road 10 slOP someone; е) 10 iпсгеаsс in
size; 1) 10 delay; g) 10 give out з suddcn brighl light; Ь) 10
pul1

• Fill iп IЬе blanks with the iпСогmаtiоп laken Сгот IЬе


lext or based оп your оwn knowledge or thinking.
1. ТЬе text concerns the problems оС ... 2. Furlher im-
provements in Ihc perCormance and speeds оС compll(crs аге
achieved Ьу means оС ... . 3. "Scalar" processors in super-
compulers ате replaced Ьу ... anд ... ones. 4. "V CClorization"
оС calculalions iп high energy physics Ьзs improvcd IЬе
perCormance Ьу .... 5. А major drag оп computer speeds is
Ihe problem ос ... . 6. This problem сап Ье coped Wilh Ьу
... . 7. Paral1el processing is done Ьу ... . 8. Мап-mасhiпс
communication сап Ье greatly simplificd anд speeded ир Ьу
.... 9. Graphic compu!ers arc very useCul in solving .... 10.
'П а graphic computer !Ьс information is prcsented оп ...
and IЬе scientis! communicatcs wi!h the compu!er Ьу mcans
of an ... .

• Think and say аЬош:


а) !Ьс progress in incrcasing dala processing;
93
Ь) graphie computers as (Ье most ЛеxiЫе means of СОт­
munication bctwccn тап and machine.

READING 15В

• What is your idea оС computers-translators? Is (Ье prob-


lem feasibIe today or not? Read the following passage and
,ау whcther the author is optimistic ос sceptica! about it?
Find [Ье Cacts to ртоуе уоис idea.

COMPUТERS-TRAI'ISl.AТО RS

*Foreign-Ianguage translation тау provc [о Ье just а Ы!


more than computer сап handle. *From the Tower of Ва­
bel (вавилонское столпотворение) оп there Ьауе Ьееп
соиn!!еss examples of man's inability to understand тап.
\Vhat Ьоре is (Ьесе (Ьеп for а machine [о understand тап,
or еуе п another тастпс? Maemnes translators would Ье ап
enormous Ьооп (благо), espccially to 5cicnce апd technology.
А machine translator v.'Ould obviously Ье а grcat aid.
In the 80, а тастпе wa5 developed that сап optically
5сап .the written сh ага с!ш'S and print ои! the translation. It
has а program that translates СтПС5е into Engli5h and Еп­
glish into Chincsc. А! а pre5s dcmonstration the program-
mer a5ked for а p!Jfase (о tran51ate and а reportcr said:
"Ои! о/ sighl, 0111 о/ mind." ТЬе phra5e \уа5 dutl/ully fed
into the compulcr, whieh replied Ьу printing "и! а s!ring о/
Chincsc characters. *"Thcre," ~aid the рrоgramш еr, "that
mcans 'out of sight , out of mind',17
'Т!,е reports" was sceptical. "1 don't know Cmncsc and
1 don't know t!шt that теа!!5 'ои! of sight, O\lt of mind'. "
"Well, " replied the cngineer, "it's really' quite simplc.
We'lI ask the othcr program [о tran,late [Ье Стпе5е into
Engli5h. "
And 50 опее again а string of cilaracters, tms time Chi,
ncsc, was fed into thc computer. ТЬе tran,lation was typcd
ош almost immcdiately and it read: "iflvi5ible tdto/".

• Try to g\less th e meaning of the \\'ords gi\'en il1 italics IП


tlle te.xt.

• Transl"tc the sentenee5 marked \Vitll ап aSlerisk.


• Enj oy опе more cxam plc of computcrs' abilitie5 [ о 5peak.
94
Iп ordcr to make communication bel\veen тап and та­
chine а$ painless and casy а> possible, (Ье computer is Ье­
ing taughl по! only (о speak but also 10 listen. ТЬе Auto-
netics Corporation has built а SYSICffi complclcd wi!h audio
analysers and аН of (Ье cornplex clcctronics needctl \0 give
а compu(er "cars" (Ьа! WiII actually hear (Ье words spoken
into its rnicrophone. Tlle '.'ocabuIary is stilI limited.
During а demonstration, (Ье engincer spokc slo\\'ly antl
distinctly а handju/ of (Ье computcr's \\'ords, anд (Ье Iatter
dutifuIly typed [Ьеrn back. But оп оп<; word it failcd. \Vhilc
counling "опе, (WO, three," the computer !yped hack, "опе,
(wo, four." Whe~eupon (Ье dernonstrator snapped "idiol, "
and IЬ е cornpu!er, in а \'eritable rnac!rine version of British
aplomb, calrnly replied, "Not in vocabuIary. "

• Try [о gucss (Ье rnеапшg of IЬе \vords givcn 111 italics in


(Ьс I ОХ!.
LABORATORY WORKS

LABORATORY WORK No I

1. Listen to the speakcr. Rcpeat the modc! reading.

[е] : event, head, e\'cr, present, (hгсаtсп , augn\ent, iлсгсdiЫе,


dеstiлу, inlellectua!, cnterprise, endea\'our, endeavouring
[eJ): danger, create, dangerous, creation, civi!ization, sophisli-
cation, annihi!ation
rа!): ~'i!a!, horizon, a!ive, precise, survive, sur\'i\'a!
Ы: exist, existence, distillguish, typica!, capabi!ity, c!iminate,
parlicuJar

l
i:~. piece, conceivc, conceivable, unconceivablc, vehic!e
~:: absurd, circuit, virluaIly
re : salellile, challcnge, elaborale, exaggerale, ауа!anсЬе
:r: automobile, assault, explore, broad, afford, launch, с.и­
lion

П. Mcmorize tlle words Ihal тау present ,оте difficu!ty in


reading. Lislen 10 the speakcr. Repeal the model rcading.

annihi!ate [a'nalalelt]; annihilation [a,naJa1elJn] ; charac-


lerize r;kreГlktдгщz) ; characleristic r,kreГJkt~'лstJk); chromo-
,оте [' kroiJmasoum); chronologlcal [ ,kг:ша l~q31kal); control
[kan'troul]; target [tO:glt]; vehicle [vi:lkl); voyage ['V~J(~)
Read these words оп your о\vп. Сошраге your rcading with
thc mastcr-tape. Repeat Ihc тодсl reading.

IП. Trans!ale thc 5Cn!CnCes into Russian. Рау special a\ten-


tio!l 10 the Passive Voice.
1. Ош !ife is more апд more inDucnced Ьу natural sci-
ences. 2. The wor!d surrounding us сап Ье said 10 ha\'e
Ьееп malerially and illtcllcctually created Ьу scicncc and
tcchnology. 3. This idea сап Ье il!ustrated Ьу тапу ехаш­
p!es. 4. Апу of the countless deviccs gi\;ng comfort 10 и,
have Ьееп invented Ьу scicncc. 5. There is hardly ап article
in ош l10mes that has по! Ьееп modified Ьу !echno!ogy
based оп science. 6. High qualily life could hardly Ье pro-
vided \vithout modern industry апд agriculture.
96
IV. Provide answers (о the following questions. Use the
\\'ords in brackets. Follow the model. Comparc уош answers
with the master-tape.
Model: Sp.: \Vhat attractive рrоЫешs do they consider? (А
higbly important ...)
S/.: А higbly iшроrtапt pJ'oblem has just Ьееп
considered Ьу them.
1. What scientific рrоЫеш do thcy deal with? (Ап ех­
tremely interesting ...) 2. What ideas do they ри! forward?
(А high!y vitaI ...) 3. та! ncw hypothesis does the scientist
advance? (А higbly specific... ) 4. What new information do
ош economists consider? (Higbly vita! ...) 5. .та! new
methods до the researchers deve!op? (Extrеше!у сошрliсаtеd
...) б. What new devices до the scientists invent? (Extrcmely
sophisticated ...)

У. Trans!ate into English using the Passive Voice.


Model: Sp.: Многие насущные (pressing) задачи нашего
премени решаются в этом институте.

S/.: Мапу of the pressing problems of our days are


so!ved а! this college.
1. В нашем институте постоянно решаются жизнен­
но важные (vital) проблемы. 2. Выдвиraются интерес­
ные гипотезы. 3. Рассматриваются различные пуги ис­
следования. 4. Конструируются высокочувствительные
(ШgЫу sensitive) приборы. 5. Развиваются новые методы
исследования. б. Изобрстаются жизненно необходимые
материалы.

VI. Listen (о an extract frош Reading 1В. Rcad the cxtract


with the speaker.
УН. Have а taIk \vith the speaker. Read the foIIowing
questions апд listen (о the speakcr's answers.
1. Who are уои? 2. What до уои do? 3. та! year
student are уои? 4. та! coIlege are уои at? 5. How тапу
faculties are there а! уош coIIege? 6. Which faculty are уои
at? 7. Which department до уои belong (о? 8. Are уои spe-
ciaIizing in апу subject?

VHI. Now, exchange your roles with thc speaker. Listen at-
tentive!y (о his questions and try (о answer them.
97
LАВОRЛТОRУ WORК No 2

1. Memorize lhe wOIds lhat m ау pJ'escl11 50mе difficu]ty il1


reading. Lislcn 10 lhe spcakcr. Repcat lhe mode] reading.
plague [pl el g]; 11Osti]e ['h:J s tюl]; hoslilitics [h:JS'tllltlZ];
wasle [welst]; diшiпish [d!'m1l1 1Л; lюilа!?е lЪепtld3} ; rreju-
dice ['pred3udl s]; jUSiicc ['d3Astl S]; fin ancIal [fЮ'l1rel1 01
Rcad lhcse words оп yuur о\\'п .. Compare yuu r reading \\;111
lhe шаst ег-tаре . Repcat the шоdсl reading.

11. Read after the speakcr.

~
el] : рlзg1.1е, \\'35tc, дсеау, аvзil , prevail, dO'ain, gracc
е]: re5ent, ехрепсе , prcvcnt, heritage, prejudiee
1Т: dimin.ish, miscry. con\/icLion, v/isdom
'uэ): рше, purity, р шify, purification

ПI. Tran51atc lhe following phra5cs into Russian. Рау specia]


attention (о Participlc 1 and Parliciple II forms.
thc рrоblеШ5 ycl unso]ved, the 50i] lhJls e1car,ed, lhc
water-bodie5 50 far purified, thc air still unfiltcrcd, lhe га ­
dioacti\'e \Vaste5 lhus 5tared, the re50ureeS thus eycled
each рзssiпg уеаг, the problcms plaguing {]1е world, thc
rcsources diminishing wit11 cach pa5sing уеат, lh e cities de-
caying from the multip]ication of our \\'astes, the declining
qua]ity of lifе

IV, Trans]ate the follo\ving phrases into English. t.:se !he


Presen! Participle.
Mo(/el: Sp.: решенин, отвечаЮ Lцие нашим потребностям
S/.: the dccisions meetil1g оиг demands
1. страны, решаюut.ие ГJlобальные ЭКОЛОПР-J,е ски с
проблемы ; 2. характе рные черты , О'fЛИ'Jaющие наш е
общество; 3, средства коммуникации, связывающие на­
ши континенты; 4. наука, Обеспе' lИваю щая высокий
уровень жизни общества; 5. текуще е столетие, не лаю­
щее ответа на мноте вопросы

V. Translate the fol1owing phrases into English. U se the


Past Participle.
Model: Sp.: развития, упом ннутые выше
S/.: the dеvе] оршспt s mentioncd аЬоуе
98
1. мир, созданный наукой; 2. при боры, изобретен­
ные нашими инженерами; 3. производственные про­
цессы, преобразованныс совремеJlНОЙ технолоrnей; 4.
технолоrnя, основанная на современной науке; 5. мето­
ДЫ исследований, хорошо известн ы е ученым

VI. Read а dialogue with the speaker. Begin reading (Ье


questions. Listen attentively to the speaker's answcrs. -
5р. : Оо уои liye with your Сатilу ог alonc?
51.: 1 liyc in hall. Му family liycs far {гот Mosco\v.
5 р.: Аге уои а large family?
51.: No, there are only four of us: ту father, ту mother,
ту clder sister and те.

УН. Науе а taIk v.ith [Ье speakcr. Read (Ье following


questions and listen [о (Ье speaker's answers.
1. Where does your family liye? 2. Науе уои got а large
family? 3. Who does уоиг family consist ос? 4. На\'е уои
got brothers ог sisters? 5. How old is your brother (sister)?
б. " уош brother (sister) clder ог younger than уои? 7.
\Vhat docs уоиг brother (sister) do? 8. Who аге уош раг­
cnts?

УIII. Now, exchange уоиг roles with the speaker. Listcn а!­
tentively to his questions and (ту (о answcr them.

IX . Listcn to the extract from Reading 2А. Rcad the cxtract


with [Ье speaker.

LABORATORY WORK No 3

1. Memorizc (Ье words (Ь а! mау prescnt ,отс difficulty in


reading. Listen (о (Ье speakcr. Repcat the model reading.
,еуеге [sI'Vla]; yawning [jg:nlJ:)]; pr,ol?ellent !pra'pelan.tJ;
irreparably [{reparabll] ; nucle.c [ПJu:kll1k ' ргоtешs
['Prouti:nzj' chlorine ['kl:э;гi:п] ; spread [spredj; interccpt
Lшtа'sерt' У, !'шtа(:)sерt) n; eventually [I'yentJuall]; chlo-
гоПuоrосагЬоп ,klarou,fluarOtl'kaban]
Read (hese words оп your о\vn. Сотраге уоиг reading with
(Ьс master-tape. Repeat (Ье model reading.
99
п. Read IЬе follo\ving phrases аНег (Ье spcaker. Тту 10 ил­
derstand their meaning.
harmful effects, harmfu! ehemiea!s, offcnsivc gases, in-
dustrial agglomerations, пис1саг expiosivcs, eonsiderable рог­
tion of (Ье g1obe, protective lауег, ozonc !аусг, а ya\vning
Ьоlе, а y~l\vning ozone Ьоlе, the first sign, th~ major eausc,
strong eVldenee, (Ье иррег atmosphere, nue!elc aClds, а!атт
bel1, skin еапеег, chlorine compound, ргореllеПI gas, acroso!
sprays, ozone produetion

IП. Translatc Ihe аЬоуе phrases. Сотраге your trалs!аtiоп


v.;th the master-tape.

IV. Translate Ihc follo\ving sentenecs into Russian. Рау spe-


eia! attenlion (о the eonstruction the CompJcx Subject mth
thc Infшitivе. Follow the mode!.

Model: Sp.: А yawning ozonc holc is repoгted 'О have Ьееп


identified over the Antarct'c.
SI.: Сообщают, что над Антарктикой обнаруже­
на зияющая озонная дыра.

1. Atmospherie pollution is known (о Ьау·е Ьееп а


pressing problem for eaeh industrialized country. 2. Harmful
effcets of pollution seem (о have Ьееп in 'Ье news for а
!ong time. 3. They are expected (о Ье in the news for а
long time (о соте. 4. Arlicles оп smoke and offensive gases
re1eased Ьу !оеal faetories аге said 10 арреат daily. 5. Опе
тоте (УРе of polIution proves (о Ьауе appeared reeently. 6.
Ozone holes аге assumed 10 Ье threatening (Ье globc as а
whole.

У. Agrcc mth the speaker's idea. Usc thc Сотр1ех Subjeel


mth the Infшitivс. Follow the model.

Model: Sp.: It is knO\\l1 that thc ozonc lаусг ae's as а ш­


'ег.
SI.: Yes, the ozone lаует is known ,О ас! !his "ау.

1. It is supposed that the ozone lаует is 'Ьс thinnesl


оуег the Anlarctic. 2. It is assumed that the size of the
Ьо1е is increasing. 3. It is believed thal the cause of 'Ье
ozonc ho1e is harmful chemicals. 4. It is expecled that 'Ье
ozonc 'ауст thinning will cause ал increase of harmful radi-
ations. 5. It is suggested that harmfu! ultraviolet radiations
100
will eause skin сапеет. 6. 1i is found (Ьа! опе chlorine
atom destroys 100,000 molecules of ozone.

VI. Lislen (о IЬс speaker's reading а probIcm situation.


Oleg Romanov works in ап office 5 days а week. Не
usually gets up а! 7.30, has а showcr and then has break-
fast. Не starts work а! 9, eats lunch а! 1, and then goes
home а! 6. 1n the evening he usually reads or watches tele-
vision.

УН. Now, ans\ver IЬе speakcr's questions.


1. Where ... (work)? 2. When ... (up, shower, breakfast)?
3. What ... in [Ье evening?

VШ. Ask the speaker about the same events. Listen atten-
tively 10 his answers.

IX. Now, do the following:


Yesterday was а typical working day for Oleg Romanov.
Теll Ihe speaker what he did. Use [Ье following prompts:
1. up а! 7.30; 2. а shower and then breakfast; 3. work
а! 9; 4. luneh а! 1; 5. home а! 6; 6. in the evening-a book
and telcvision

Х. Listen [о the extract fTOm Rcading ЗА. Read the extract


with the speaker.

LABORATORY WORK No 4

1. Memorize the words that тау present some difficulty in


reading. Listen [о the speaker. Repcat [Ье model reading.

touch [tлtJJ; finite rfamalt]; infinite rшflщt]; manage


[mreш<\)], manager; actual rrektjual], асшаllу; journal
['<\)anal]; infer [m'fa:]; average ['revan<\)]; height [h31t] ,
heighten; ignore [lg'n~:]; erratic [l'гretlk]; ultimately
['лltlmltll]; verify rvenfal]

Read these words оп your own. Compare your reading with


[Ье master-tape. Repeat the model reading.
101
11. Translate the Collowing scntences. Рау speeial аttепбоп
to:
• Опе as thc subject of а scntence is по! translated.

Model 1: Sp.: Опе could ехрес! thc valuc (о change.


S/.: Можно было бы ожидать, '!то эта вели'!и­
на IIЗменится .

1. Опе соuЫ think that this is ап attractive pfoblem. 2.


Опс should Ш1d егstапd, howevcr, Ihat the problem is ех­
tremely difficult. 3. Опе often wonders how he eould avoid
these diCficulties. 4. Опс should rcmember,. however, that
they are unavoidable. S. Опс must think of al10ther а р­
ргоасl1 (о solving the probIcm.

• Опе а, а suЬsliШlс for а prcviou,Jy menlione,! поип


\vhich is translated.

Modcl 2: Sp.: Науе уои dcvelopcd апу proeedurcs? Wc


need ап cffeetiye опе.
S/.: Вы разработали какие-то процедуры?
Нам нужна эффективная (11роцедура).
1. We еan adYise уои scycral proeedurcs, Ьu! this is (Ье
most rcliable опе. 2. ТЬе old methods оС in\'estigation агс
regarded а, inadequate опе5. 3. Thc nc\vly developed lесЬ­
nique has certain advantages оуег the old ones. 4. Could
уоu пате anу probIems as fundaтental опе5? S. I could
пате the role of the DNA i11 genetics as the mos! ehal-
lenging опе.

111. Translate the follo\\;ing sentellecs into Russian. Рау spe-


eial attcntion (о (Ье Complex Objeel with (Ьс Inlinirive.

Mode/: Sp.: No шаthстаtiсiап expectcd Ihis ртоЫет 10 Ье


soJved.
St.: НИ ОДИН математик не ожидал, ЧТО эта за·
дача бу:\ет решена.

1. No тan could predie! this suecess to соте in а


year. 2. No опе doubted U5 10 have doпе the job well. 3.
No опе expeeted our work 10 Ье recognized in scientilic
eommunily. 4. No тап might ехрсе! Ihe situalion (о
change so drastieally. 5. No seientist eould suppose this е5-
timalion 10 ье true. 6. No mathematician could prove Ihis
number (о exi5t.
102
'У. Lislel1 10 IЬе speaker's readil1g а ртоЫет situation:
OJeg Romanov is а journaJisl. Не was in London Jasl
week ~UI Ье is in Mosco\v now. Не is lalking 10 а friend.
Н" fпепd ,vants 10 know about the city, (Ье wealher, the
food, IЬе hotel, (Ье polirica! situation, etc. These ате the
questions he asks:
What was IЬе London Cily Jike? What wcrc (Ье El1glish
peopJe Jike?

У. Ans\ver IЬе spe;>ker's queslions:


1. Where ... lasl week? 2. Now? 3. Who ... talking 10?
4. What ... his friel1d ... (о know? 5. Whal ... the wealher/
Ihe food/the hoteJ/lhe poJilicaJ situation ... ?

Vl. Now, ask the speaker about the same things. Listen at-
lel1tivcJy 10 his answers.

УН. Listen 10 an cxtract from Reading 4А. Read the extract


with the 'резkет.

LABORATORY \VORK No 5

1. Memorize IЬе \юrds that тау presenl ,оте difficulty in


reading. Lislen to IЬе speaker. Repcal [Ье тodеl reading.
percci"c [pu'si:v]; chaos ['keJ;Js]; chaolic [ker;Jtlk]; gianl
['ЩЮдпt]; ОСС\lfтепсе [а'kыuпs]; inlimate rll1tlmeJt]; cnor-
mous [rn;J:mas]; techniques [tеk'пi:ks]; survive [S;Э'Vа!V]; оп­
sJaught [';Jпs lg:t]

Rcad these words оп уош оwn. Сотрате your reading ,vilh


(Ье master-tape. Repeal IЬе тоде] reading.

11. Answer [Ьс speaker's qucstions. Use IЬе Infinitive ш


уош ans'''crs. FоПо\v IЬе modeJ.
ModeZ: Sp.: What probIem will you деаl wilh? (cosmic та­
diation)
S/.: The probIem 10 Ье dealt \vilh is cosmic ra-
diation.
1. Whal sludics will IЬеу involve? (сопсеrn eJemen!ary
particles decay) 2. What informalion асе уои going 10 оЬ-
103
lain? (aboul ionizing cCCccts) 3. What techniques will уои
use? (ion-exchange chromatography) 4. \Vhat experimenls
wiU уои сапу out? (simple and elegant) 5. What hypothcsis
will уои verify? (ри! forward ]ast ycar) 6. What dala do
уои hopc (о obtain? (оп the energies rekased) 7. What
Iheory зtе уои going (о support? (рщ fOf\vard Ьу ош
working lеат)

ПI. Translatc thc follo\ving sentcnces inlo English. Use the


]nfinilivc. FoUow tlle model. Compare your trans]alion with
the master·tape.

Model: Sp.: Проблема, над которой мы будем работать,


довольно необычна.
SI.: The ргоЫет 10 Ье dealt with is rather unusual.
1. Рабочая гипотеза , которую необходимо ПРО8ерить,
была выдвинyrа D прошлом году. 2. Основное предпо­
ложение, которое необходимо доказать, связано С дис­
балансом энергий. 3. Современные приборы, которыми
мы будем пользоваться, достаточно чувствительны. 4.
Информация, которую МЫ надеемся получить, крайне
необходима. 5. Результаты, которые мы будем обраба­
тывать (to process), мноrooбещающи. 6. Теория, кото­
рую мы будем проверять, ошибочна (faulty).

IV. Ask the speaker what conditions are needed for their
work 10 Ье а success. FoUow the model. Compare уоиг
questions \vith the master-tape.
Model: Sp.: \Уе саппо! interpret this problem in terms of
current concepts.
SI.: What concepts аге needed for this problcm 10
ье interpreted?
1. We саппоt vicw this problem in terrns of this the-
огу. 2. We саппоt obtain true information Ьу these means.
3. We cannot provide direct evidence with th;s assumption.
4. Wc саппоt obtain good agreement wilh su~h experi-
ments. 5. We сапоо! develop а fruitful thcory withoUl rel;-
аЫе observations. 6. Wc саппо! gain knowledge without se-
nous researches.
У. Listcn 10 the speaker's reading а probIem siluation. Sludy
the situation. See if уои сап ask the right questions, and
answer them.
104
Vadim Ivanov is а уоuлg faclory·worker. Evcry еvеniлg
аl 5 o'ciock exaclly 'Ье same Ihiлg happens. А Ьеll rings а!
5. ТЬе теп stop work, lurn off their machiJles, ruл out, put
their overcoats оп and hurry Ьоте. It is now 7 o'clock, and
IЬе faclory is empty. Two hours ago а Ьсll rang. ТЬе теп
slopped work, turned off their machines, ran out, put their
overcoals оп and hurried Ь отс.
VI. Answer [Ье speaker's quеstiолs ол [Ье situаtiол.
1. What always hаррелs at 5 o'clock iл (Ье factory?
(bell? /work? /machines? /OUI? /overcoats? /home?) 2. What Ьар·
pencd а! 5 o'clock tms е\'епiлg?

VII. It is now 7 o'clock. Ask quсstiолs with "How Iong ago


did ... ?).

VIII . Now, ехсhалgе your roles with (Ье speaker. Ask the
speaker аЬои! (Ье Бате thiлgs. Listсл аllеЛlivеlу 10 ш. ал·
swcrs.
IX. Listел to ал extract from Rеаdiлg 5А. Read the extract
with (Ье speaker.

LABORATORY WORК No 6

1. Memorize thc words [Ьа! тау ргеsелt somc difficulty in


геаdiлg. Listen to the speaker. Repeat the modcl rеаdiлg.
Ьеауеп Q)eVnJ; immense [l:mens/; ~eresy rher;JSI]; 1're-
Бите [рn ZJu;m; рrеsumрtюп РГl zлmРJп]; солvmсе
[kаn'vшSJ.· identicaI [a{dentlkal]; primordial [pr31'm~:djal];
duplicate rdjttpllkIt]; spontaneously [sр~n'tеInjзsll]; analogy
[а'пrelаф) ; analogue [anrel~g) ; алаlogоus [a'nrelagas)

Read these words ол уош оwn. Compare your rеаdiлg with


the master-tape. Repeat the model reading.

11. Read the fоllоwiлg clusters of words. Рау аttелtiол 10


'Ье preflxes and suffIxcs. Repeat [Ье modeI rеаdiлg.
-presume, presumption, prcsumptive
-conclude, солсlusiоп, conclusive
-identify, identity, idспtiflсаtiол, identical
-солviпсе, сопviлсiлg, convincible
105
-collide, colliding, collision
-analogy, analoguc, analogous

III. Translate the following sentenccs into Russian. Мето­


rize sorne expressions used with the Gerund.
1. Опе саппо! help attcmpting 10 dеtеrП1inе thc атоип!
of the energy needed. 2. It is worth stimulating lhis work.
3. It is по good speaking аЬои! stimulation. 4. Ви! опе
саппо! help. recognizing (Ье iП1рortапсе of this study. 5. It
is worth-while carrying ои! ,еуесal experimental studies. 6.
It is по use undertaking this research without initiating pre-
liminary studies of the observational data.

IV. Answer the speaker's questions. Say, that It is ,var/h


do/ng what he asks уои about.

Model: Sp.: Shall \ус consider the problem?


S/.: Уcs, it is worth considering it.
1. Shall we regard the problem а, thc main опе? 2.
Sha1l we analyse all the aspects of (Ье problem? 3. Shall we
discuss (Ье рсоЫст in а1l its complexity? 4. Is it necessary
(о involve (Ье biological aspecls of (Ье problem? 5. Is it
necessary (о suggest ап allernative (Ьеосу? 6. Shall "'С рсоуе
(Ьс rcliability of our data?

У. Answer (Ье speaker's questions in negative. Say, Ihat it


/s по use doing ,,'Ьа! Ье suggcsts 10 do.

Model: Sp.: Will уои interpret these рЬепотспа?


S/.: No, 1 won't. It is по use interpreting them.

1. Will you explain the mcchanism of tГJs process? 2.


\Vill you treat all (Ье sidc cffccts? 3. Will you consider all
tl1e previous results? 4. \УiJl you apply this (Ьеоту (о other
systems? 5. Wi!l you dcmonstrate (Ье validity of уош fшd­
ings? 6, Wi!! )iou providc (Ьс e~idencc in favour of (т,
concept?

VI. Answer (Ье speaker's questions аЬои! your likcs апд


dis!ikes.
Model: football
Sp.: ОО уои enjoy watching football?
SI.: УCS, 1 do. 1 enjoy watching it.
106
Sp.: Do уои enjoy playing football?
St.: N6, 1 don't. 1 don't enjoy playing it.
1. television; 2. in (Ье garden; 3. detective stories; 4.
classical music; 5. [Ьс English language; 6. home\vork

УН. Now, exchange your roles with [Ье speakcr. Ask [Ье
same questions.

LABORATORY WORK No 7

1. Mcmorize (Ье words thal т ау prcsent some difficulty in


reading. Lislen 10 [Ьс speaker. Repcat (Ье mode! reading.
plausible rp!~: zabl] ; p!ausibility [,р!;J;Z<lЪ,iIt,]; devoid

!
d!'V~ld]; entity ['entltl]; identify [а{dепtlfюJ; immcrse
{ma:s]; excite [lk'salt]; cxcitation [,ekSl'telfn]; excitative
ek'saltatlv] ; circumstance rsa:kamstan s]
11. Read after [Ье speaker [Ье follo\\ing clusters of words.
Рау attention [о (Ье dcrivationa1 sufflxes. Rерезt IЬс model
reading.
-idenlify, idcnlilY, identical, identically, idenlification
- excitc, ехсitеmепt J excitable, excitencss, excitation, exci~
[an!
-fuse, fusible, fusibililY, fusion
-уму, varying, varied, various, variabIe, variabililY, varia-
tion, variance, variety

III. Read these cJusters of words оп your own. Сотраге


уоиг reading \vilh (Ье mastcr-tape. Repcat IЬе model read-
ing.

IY. Translate inlo Russian. Рау specia! attention 10 IЬе


Gerund а. а subjecl. Follow IЬе model .

Model: Sp.: His having formulated Ihe ргоЫет lhis way


seemed rather unexpecled.
St.: Казалось довольно неожиданным, что он
сформулнровал проблему такнм образом_

1. His having advanced his idea seemed strange а! IЬаl


йmе. 2. Оиг having failed in underslanding (Ье соге оС his
107
idea ""as evidenl. 3. His having prescnled Ihe probIem in
cvcry delail helped и, 10 grasp his idea. 4. Our bcing аЫе
10 соре wilh the problem seemed unrealistic а! that time. 5.
His lJaving found thc key (о the solution of thc probIcm
seemed improbabIe. б. Нis having succccdcd in solving it
was quite unexpccted for our scientific community.

У. Answer the spcaker's questions. Use the Gerund after


thc verbs 10 fail and 10 succeed.

Model J: Sp.: Who has succeeded 111 cxplaining this рЬе­


nomenon?
SI.: Nobody has. Everybody faiJcd in cxplaining it.

1) carrying ои! the cxperi-


ment?
Who has succecdcd 111
2) estimating this value?
3) analysing (Ъе composi-
tion?
4) detcrmining the variabIe?

Model 2: Sp.: WЪo has failed in revealing this interaction?


SI.: Everybody has. Nobody Ьа, succccdcd in
revealing it.

1) detecting these collisions?


2) evaluating thc particle еп­
ergy?
WЪo has failed in 3) devcloping good experi-
mental proccdure?
4) obtaining good agreemcnt
with (Ье theory?

VI. Науе а talk with the spcaker. Ask him/her аЬои!


his/hcr likes and dislikes. Follow thc model. Listcn аltеп­
tively to his/her anS\vers
Model: рlау tennis/watch а tennis рlау
Sp.: Which do уои prefer: playing tennis or
watching а tennis play?
S/.: 1 prefer ,vatching а tennis рlау. 1 hate 10 play
tcnnis.

play chess/watch а chess play


108
di5cuss music/listen to music
catch fish/eat fish
study English/speak English
eook food/ еа! niee food
play the piano/listen to the piano play

УН. Now, exchange уоит roles with (Ье speaker. Answer the
saтe ques!ions Ьи! to your оwn likes and dislikes.

LABORATORY WORК No 8

1. МетоПzе the words (Ьа! тау present some' diffieulty in


reading. Listen to (Ье speaker. Repeat (Ьс model reading.
isolropic [al's~trJplk]; homogeneity [,h~mouq,a'niatl];
homogeneous [,h~md'q,i:njas]; deviate Fdi"Vlelt]; eventual
[l'yentjual]; err [о:]; error Геrэ]; erroneous [I'rounjas]; er-
ratic [I'rretlk]; diyerge [dal'va:q,]; bother [Ъ~i\d]

11. Read IЬе words of Exercise 1 оп your оwn. Соmрате


)'our reading wilh IЬе master-tape. Repeat IЬе model read-
mg.

III. Read afler the speaker the following clusters of words.


Рау allenlion to the рrсБхеs and suffIxes.
-10 diyergc, divergence, divergcncy, divergent, diyergently
- 10 deviate, devialion, deviationism, deviationist
crror erratic, erratical er-
J
ralically
-10 crr
СПОl1еоusпеss erroneous, епо­
neously
-even!, eyenlual, evenluaUy, cyentuality, evenlful, cyenl-
less

IV. Read lЬе words of Exercise III оп your оwn. Compare


)'our reading wilh IЬе masler-Iape. Repeal the model read-
mg.
У. Translate IЬе foUowing sсiепtiБс terms inlo Russian.
Сотрате уош yariant with !Ье master-tapc.
1. tightly Ьоuпd elustcrs of particles; 2. а elearly pro-
nounced tendency 10 cluslering; 3. smoolbly distribuled
109
curves; 4. diffusely. distributed спогs; 5. never found in iso-
lation; б. ficlds ass'ociated with high energy particles; 7. (Ье
matter eyenly distributed through (Ье Universe; 8. (Ье theory
most vlidely accepted Ьу astronomers

VI. Translate into Russian. Рау attention (о t!le уеСЬБ 10


object 10/10 insisl оп.
1. We object (о initiating experiments \\>ithout sufficient
experimental basis. 2. ТЬеу don't object (о ~iewing (шs (Ье­
осу as va1id. 3. Моее (Ьan that, (Ьеу insist оп applying this
(Ьеогу (о а wider range of рЬепоmепа. 4. However, our
scicntific adviser insists оп developing а тоее constructive
and fruitful (Ьеосу. 5. We don't object (о developing an aI-
ternative theory аБ this one БеетБ unsatisfactory. 6. Do уои
object (о joining ош efforts in developing it?

УН. ЕхрсеББ your attitude (о (Ье рсоЫет. Give yes/no an-


swers. Рау special attention (о (Ье verbs 10 insist оп / 10
object 10.

Мodеl J: Sp.: Do уои objecl 10 discussing (Ье рсоЫет?


(No/Yes.)
SI.: No, 1 don't. 1 insisl оп discussing it.
(УеБ, 1 do. Iobjecl 10 discussing it.)

1. Do уои objecl 10 joining ош efforls in solving (Ье


ргоЫет? (No.) 2 Do уои objecl 10 holding а meeting?
(УеБ.) 3. Do уои object 10 supporting our idea? (No.) 4. Do
уои object 10 foemulating IЬе ргоЫст in lerms of (Ье IЬе­
огу deveJoped Ьу us? (УСБ.) 5. Do уои objecl (о putting
forward ан alternative IЬеогу? (No.)

Model 2: Sp.: Does уош (сат insist оп putting foгward


anothcr idea? (NojYes.)
SI.: УеБ, (Ьеу do. ТЬеу insisl оп pUlting foгward
а new idea.
(No, (Ьеу don't. ТЬеу object 10 putting foгward
а ncw idea.)

1. Does your scientific head insist оп investigating (Ы"


ргоЫет? (УеБ.) 2. Does Ье insist оп interpreting IЬе ргоЬ­
lem in terms of his (Ьеогу? (No.) 3. Do you insist оп соп­
ducting а new series of experiments? (Yes.) 4. Do your
110
colleagues insis! оп applying this theory to other systems?
(No.) 5. Оо уои insist оп treating the theory reliabIe?
(Уеэ.)

LABORATORY WORK No 9

1. ~emori.ze thc words that тау ргеэеп! ,отс difficulty in


геаdшg. LlSten to the speaker. Repeat the model reading.
, abyss [аыl]; •. Ьопеу fЪЫl1]; coт~ [koum]; ЬопеусотЬ
hbll1koum]j' uшvегsе [JU:ШVд:S]; plerce [PIaS]; glgantic

!
<!3~{grentl~ ; .flood [fL;d]; negligibIe ['negI~<!3abJ]; entire
ш taIa]; шеVltаЫу [ш eV1t~bJl]; assert [а эах]; realms
relmz]

П. Read the words of Exercise 1 оп your о\\·п. Сошраге


your reading \\;th the шаstег·tаре. Rcpeat the model read-
ing.

ПI. Translate IЬс scntcnces into Russian. Рау attention [о


the conjunction whether wruch corresponds to [Ье Russian
ли. Всgш translation ,vith thc prcdicate.

Model: Sp.: We атс по! sure whether lrus hypothcsis is


true.
S/.: Мы не уверены, верна ли эта rnпотсза.

1. Questions arisc аэ to whcthcr оит иэиаl belief аЬои!


our Universe is strictly eorree!. 2. For example, опе migbt
ask whether the dirnensionality of эраее and time сап ип­
dergo evolution. 3. Whether our Universe is finite ог infinite
is still по! eleaт. 4. Until now scientists Ьауе по evidcncc
whether there еюэ! апу invisibIc matter in the Universe. 5.
ТЬеге is practically по evidence аэ to whether protons аге
stabIe ог сап dccay. 6. Мапу scicntists doubt whether (Ьс
ЬопеусотЬ hypothesis of the Universe structure is valid.

IV. Answer the spcakcr's qucstions. Say (Ьа! уои lack


knowledge оп the ргоЫет ог doubt it. Use phrascs:

dOl1't know
1
I doubt
ат not sure
whclhcr
111
Model: Sp.: Is this probIem worth investigating? (doubt)
SI.: 1 doubt whether it is worth inуеstigаtшg.

1. Does the probIcm deal with your field of interest?


not sure) 2. Has IЬе probIem altracted тanу scientists?
по! know) 3. Is this hypothesis reliabIe? (по! sure) 4. Is
further research needed to ассоun! Cor aII aspects? (ПОI
know) 5. Is there а Iot of information оп the probIem?
(doubt) 6. Is the subject оС great interest 10 уои personally?
(по! sure) 7. Оо уои read тисЬ оп the probIem? (doubt)
8. WiII уои do research in the field? (по! sure)

У. Listen to the speaker's statemcnts. Say IЬа! уои are по!


certain аЬои! the probIem. FoUow the model.

Model: Sp.: The Universe is Гшitе.


SI.: We have по evidence whether it is fшitе.

1. There is some invisibIe matter in the Universe. 2.


ТЬе expansion оС the Universe мll eventually stop. 3. The
expansion WiII Ье replaced Ьу а contraction. 4. Тhe contrac-
tion мll lead to а Big Crunch. 5. ТЬе protons тау decay
after а long period оС time. 6. ТЬе stars and planets will Ье
destroyed.

VI. Listen to the speaker reading а probIem situation. Study


the situation. See whether уои сап ask the right questions
anд answer them.
It is lunch time and 2 students want to еа! somewhere
in town. Опе of Ihem has an idea. Не wants to know if
the olher student thinks it is а good опе. Не says: "Shall
we Ьауе а sапdwich anд а сир оС coffee in а сзfе?"

УН. Answer the speaker's questions оп the situation.


1. How тапу ... ? 2. What ... 10 do? 3. Where ... to
eat? 4. Whal ... to cat? 5. What idea ... ?

УIII. Exchange your role with the speaker. Ask the speaker
аЬои! the same things. Listen attentively to his answers.

IX. Answcr the speaker's questions аЬои! уош way of Ьау­


ing а lunch.
112
LABORATORY wORК No 10

1. Memorize the words that тау present some difficulty in


rcading. Listen to thc spcakcr. Rcpeat the model reading.
chaos ('kel~S~; chaotic [kel~tJk]; essence resns); transi-
tion [tг.епSl3;:Ш; reconciIe trekensali]; scarccly [skresllj;
infапсу fшf'ШSl; evapora!e [l'v",perelt]; eternal [i'te:nl;
destiny [dеstlШ]

11. Read the words оС Exercisc 1 оп уош оwn. Compare


your reading with the masler-tape. Repeat the model read-
ing.

Ш. Lis!en 10 ,оте highly doubtful suppositions по! proved


Ьу scicnce or experiment. Translate them into Russian.

Model: Sp.: Should thcorctical research ртоуе this, it would


Ье the case.
SI.: Если бы теоретические исследования под­
твеРДИJ1И ЭТО, ТО так бы и было.

1. Should there Ье enough matter inside the Universe, it


would close оп itself and Ье finite. 2. Should there Ье апу
invisible mattcr in the Univcrse, the latter would тзkе up
the difference needed Cor the Universe to close. 3. Should
neutrinos Ьауе а sтаП mass, they could provide energy
density to close the Universe. 4. Should there Ье апу other
presently unknown subatomic particles, the saтe might Ье
[ruс. 5. Should the Universe Ье finite, its expansion would
еvепtuаПу stop and Ье replaced Ьу а contraction. б. Should
it really Ье the сзsе, we would like to know the time of it.
7. Should the size оС а finite Universe Ье 1023 kilometers in
radius, ош Universe could Ье said to Ье middle-aged. 8.
Should the pro!ons Ье unstable, their lifetime \vould Ье а!
'езs! 1031 years оп the average.

IV. Say, that doubtCul as it is, but iC а certain condition is


fulfllled, there will Ье the results achieved. FоПоw the
model.

Model: Sp.: We саппо! сеасЬ ап agreement оп the problem


and по resulls are obtained.
SI.: Should you rear.h the agrecment, the rcsults
would Ье obtained.
5-l79 113
1. ТЬеу do по! make апу attempts to rcconcilc thc lwo
conflicting \iews and the situation дое, по! ehangc. 2. ТЬеу
do по! рш forward anу working hypothesis and \ус саппо!
dC"elop anу sound approach. З. ТЬеу do по suggcst anу а1-
ternativc interpretatioll of [Ьс рЬеПОn1епоп and we еanпо!
O?tain ncw inform~tion. 4. ТЬеу до по! present anу еоп­
\1ncIllg arguments IП fayour of lheir approacl1, and we сап­
по! understand !heir "icw 011. сЬе probIem. 5. ТЬеу do not
take апу measures to improve {Ье situation and we don't
know what to do. 6. \Уе do по! plan апу new cxpcrimcnts
and по studics arc bcing undcrtakcn.

У. Say, [Ьа! if сЬе conditions of Excrcise IУ had Ьееп ful-


filled, сЬе results \vould Itзvе Ьееп obtained Ьу now. Follow
the model.
Model: Sp.: We еanпо! reach ап agreemcnt оп !Ье probIem
and по results are obtaincd.
S/.: Над уои reac.hed ап agreement оп !Ье probIem,
the results \vould have Ьееп obtained Ьу now.

VI. Translate in!o English. Begin сасЬ sentcnee with sho"ld.


Modcl: Sp.: Если бы БЫ ПОМОГЛИ мне, я был бы вам
признателен.
St.: Should you help те, 1 \yould Ье thankful to
уои.

1. Если бы эта проблема обсуждалась на конферен­


ЦИИ, я выступил бы с докладом. 2. Если бы вы пове­
рили нашему опыту, вы избежали бы мноrих затруд­
нений. 3. Если бы вы провели наблюдения за темпе­
ратурами, результаты были бы совсем иIlыми. 4. Если
бы ПОявились рзсхо;-УJtения между нашими данными,
мы могли бы обсудить их. 5. Если бы БЬUJa разработа­
на новая методика, вы могли бы воспользоваться ее
преимуществами. 6. Если бы вы потерпели неудачу в
испытаниях, мы могли бы ПОМОЧЬ вам. 7. Если бы
было ДОСТИПI}'ТО соглаUlеНIfС о СОDместной работе, мы
могли бы гарантировать успех. 8. Если бы ПОЯБИЛИС[,
каЮfе·то разногласия, МЫ могли бы их обсудить.

VH. Read the questions bclow anд listen attentiyely to the


speaker's answcrs.
1. What faculty do уои belong to? 2. Who is сЬе dean
оС your faculty? З. What branch оС industry does уош fac-
114
ulty trзin 5pecialists Cor? 4. Whзt subject are уои going (о
deal with in your Сщurе rеsезrсh? 5. When are уои going
(о stзrt уош rеsезrсh?

VШ. Now, excban~e your roles ,vitll the spcakcr. Listen to


the speaker's questlOnS and answer thcm.

LABORATORY WORК No JJ

1. Translate into Russian. Рау special зttепtiоп to the words


given in italics. Compare уощ translation with the master-
tape.
Mode/: Sp.: The theory 'N queslion was fust advanced Ьу
Professor L.
St.: Теория, о которой идет речь, впервые бы­
ла вьщпинута профессором Л. (Интересующая
нас теория впервыс ... )

1. ТЬе idea оС inflаtiопзrу Universe under dlsclIsslon


was first advanced Ьу ап American physicist Alan Guth. 2.
ТЬе paper under d/scuss/on was pubIished in the journa\
"New Scientist". 3. Тhe hypothesis In questton was deve\-
oped Ьу the Soviet scientist Andrey Linde. 4. ТЬе hypothesis
under cons/deratlon is callcd chaotic inflation. 5. ТЬе subject
under s/udy is of grcat interest and scientific importance. б.
ТЬе rеsезrсh In progress in (Ье field must Ье payed special
attention to.
11. Translate into English. Use the saтc expressions of Ех­
ercise 1 for the Russian words given in italics.
1. Рассматриваемая проблема имеет большую науч­
ную ценность. 2. Доктор Л.-один из крупнейших спе­
циалистов по 06сУ:l..'дс/еМОА'У вопросу. 3. Статья, о "ота­
рой идет ре'/ь, была опубликована в прошлом году. 4.
Исследовательская работа, проводимая в этой лаборато­
рии, обсуждалась на последней конференции. 5. Изуча­
емый вопрос представляет большой интерес для физи­
КОВ. 6. Расскажите нам об исследованиях, которые ве­
дутся в вашем институте.

Ш. Agree with the speaker. Use the Complex Subject with


the Infinitive. Follow the model.
5* 115
Model: Sp.: The hypotЬesis of the inflalionary Universe is
convincing. (to Беет)
SI.: Уes, this hypothesis seems (о Ьс convincing.

1. The Universe is much larger than we сап observe.


(certain) 2. The Universe will continuc (о ехрanд iпdеfшitсlу
long. (to Беет) 3. Ош currcnt Universe is in its infaney. (10
Бау) 4. Thc future of Ihe Universe wiU depend оп the Ье­
haviour of mattcr. (to аББите) 5. The дееау of protons will
require 1031 усатБ. (likely) 6. Small biIS of matter will col-
lapsc into black holes. (to predict) 7. Much of Ihe mattcr
will Ье changed into photons. (to assume) 8. According (о
Scenario 2, the cxpansion will finally сеаБе. (to sирроsе)

IV. Read the qucstions bclow апд listen atkntively 10 Ihe


speaker's anSWCTS.
1. When was уоит COllege established? 2. Who of its
founders could уои пате? 3. Where is it siluated? 4. How,
тапу facultles ате there а! your collcgc? 5. What ате they?
6. Is· уоит coUege а rccognized ecntTe of training specialists
in thc ficld? 7. Ате there тапу outstanding scientists а!
уоит collcge? 8. Who of them would уои like 10 пате?

У. Now, exehangc your roles with the speakeT. Listen (о thc


speaker's questions and (ту (о answcr thcm.

LABORATORY \VQRK No ]2

1. Memorize thc words that тау present some difficulty in


reading. Listen (о the speaker. Repeat the model reading.
assct freset]; атаББ [a'mres]; awful ['~:flll]; heir [са];
inherenl [шЪraгапt]; ~uide [!ja!dl; тшс!е ['mлsl]; aslronaul
,restra'n;r.t]; hazard hrezadJ; тепасе ['menas]; assuranec

!a'Jllarans]; Ihreat eret]; vchiclc ['viakl]; manoeuvring


mа'пu",аШJ]; essential [l'senJal]

11. Read Ihc words of Exercise 1 оп уоит own. Сотрате


уоит reading with the master-tape. Repeat Ihe model read-
ing.

111. Read after the speaker clusters of words. Рау attenlion


10 the prefIXes anu sufйxes.
116
-10 awe, awful, awfully, awless, awlessness, awsome
-10 аssше, assured, аssшiпg, assuredly, assuredness
- hazard, bazardous, hazardousJy, hazardousness
-essential, essentially, csscnlialness
-to guide, guiding, guidance
-тспасе, menaces, menacing. menacingJy, menaced
-to manoeuvre, manoeu\'fing, manoeu\'fable, manoeU\'fa-
bility

IV, Translale IЬе follov.;ng phrascs into Russian. Compare


your variant with [Ье master-Iape.
without тепасе ; [Ье greatc5t asset; inc,·cdible technology;
unaidcd muscJes; а threat so awful; а promise so daи.ling;
to cncounter bazards; to figure ои! аН the ramificalions; to
furnish accurate modcls

У. Supporl tbc speaker's idea. Say, Ihal 'Ьа! v.·as reaHy the
only way 10 obtain thc results nceded. FoHow the models.

Model 1: Sp.: Оnlу lhis method provided accurate mеа­


surcmenlS.
51.: But for this method the measurements
wouJd Ье inaccurate.

1. ОnJу tbis idea helpcd 10 find appropriale solulion of


!Ье problem. 2. Only his hypolhesis prcdicled adequale Ье­
Ьа\;ош of the system. 3. Only this idea oU!lined cfficienl
ways of s!udies in the ficld. 4. Only this theory allowed 10
obtain adequate description of the problem. 5. Оnlу these
aulhors provided efficient теап, of soiving the problem.

Model 2: 5р.: Only these studies Ьауе furnished rcliabIe


dala.
51.: Were il по! (ог Ihese studics the data
would Ье unreliabIe.

1. Оnlу their experiments resulted in reliable evaJuation


of the particle encrgy. 2. Only this procedure provided
workable laboratory conditions. 3. Оnlу [Ье new techniques
resuJled in reliable estimation of this value. 4. OnJy this ар­
proach (esulted in satisfactory measurements.

VI. Translate IЬе following scntcnces into English. Usc Ьul


117
for in уош trans1ation. Сотрагс уош yariant with the
master-tapc.

Лiоdеl: Sp.: Если бы не нашз ПОМOIЦЬ, я П~iчего не CTJ;e-


;шл бы.

St.: But fol" YOllr assi::;tance 1 'VOliJJ do nothing.


1. Если бы Ее мой Н3У-IНЫЙ РУКОПОДИТЕJiЪ, я бы не
принял участие в Этой PZ:60TC. 2. Если бы не его совет,
я бы работал П3,fl. другой проблемоЙ. 3. Если бы не
его помощь, мы не разраБОТd.i1 и бы ПРОЦСДУРУ экспе­
римента. 4. Если бы не эта процсдура, мы не ПОJIУЧИ­
ли бы желаемых результатов. 5. Если бы не эти ре­
зультаты, мы не напис<?..ли бы эту статью. б. ЕСли бы
не наlпа статья, я не DЫСТУПа..! бы сейчас на конфе­
ренции.

УН. Lislen to the speaker's rtadil1g а рroЫст ,ituation.

Controllcd Herself
Му friend w!is 1аlс [аг waгk 1ast week, and hcr ЬО"
was уегу sarcastlC. S11e Ьесате уегу апт. She wanlcd 10
say something уегу sarea,tie, too, Ьп! she didn't. Shc сап­
trollc.d hcrself.

VI!I. AnS\ver thc spcaker's qucslions.

1. Why did ту friend gel апт? 2. \Vhat did she want


10 ,ау? 3. ОЫ shc ,ау il? 4. What did she do? 5. Whal do
уои say 10 уоиг f"icnd ",-11О often gets angry?

I.AHORATORY WORK No J3

1. Memorizc Ihe words that тау presenl -'отс difficulty ш


гсаdiпg. Listen (о th~ spcaker. Rcpeat the тодеl rcading.

,analogue J'~Il?Ьg]; ana]ogy [а'шеlац,lj; ana1ogous


[;ш",!аgаs]; diglt [dH~lt]; route [ru:tJ; flood [flлdJ; integer
fj~~31]]; endeayour [ш'dеуаJ; шапаgе ['mrenHtJ; schedu!e

118
П. Rcad the words of Exercise 1 оп уош own. Сотраге
уош reading with (М master-tape. Repeat (Ье model read-
tng.

111. Translate thc following sentcnces into Russian. Рау ,ре­


cial attention (о the exprcssion (о Ье дие 10 быть обус­
ловл еЮ-lЫ.М, являться следсmв!l ~.ч . быть ра:зра60!1ZQU­
НЫ)"

Model: Sp.: ТЬе interaction of а neutron with matter is due


(о nuclear forces.
St.: Взаимодействи е нейтрона с веществом обус ­
ЛОВ.ilено ядерными силами.

1. The density of energy !cvels is due (о (Ье та" num-


ber of the nucleus. 2. The conductive properties of semicon-
ductors are due (о their impurities. З. The electric discharge
of the uranium compound is due 10 а-гау' mainly. 4. The
emanation of thorium was due (о (Ье presence of radioac-
йуе matter. S. The discovery of radioactivity was due more
ог !ess 10 pure accident. 6. The blue appearance of the sky
is due (о the scattered short \уауе !engths in the sun's rays.

IV. Ask about the reason of the intcrest (importance, ctc.).


Follow the mode!.

Model: Sp.: The ргоЫет seems (о ье interesting.


St.: What is its intercst dtle 10?

1. The problems оС atmosphcrie pollution аге оС gJoba!


importance. 2. ТЫ' subject scems (о Ье оС primary interest
(о еуегу country. 3. The energy souree оС the 5Un corona
has !ong Ьесп а уегу puzz!ing ргоЫет. 4. The disco"ery of
ncutron was оС great value Сог nuclear physics. 5. Human
brain is а structure оС great complexity. б. One оС the hy-
po(heses ,еет, (о Ье уегу attractive.

V. Trans!ate the Collo\ving sentences into English. lJse either


10 Ье due 10 (МоМ! 1) or d uc 10 (Model 2).

Model J: Sp.: Теория относительности БЫ_lа создана


Эйнш тейном.
St.: Re!ativity theory \vas due 10 Einstein.
119
1. Эта гипотеза обязана своим существованием про­
фессору Н. 2. Свойства элементарных частиц опреде.,Я­
ются рядом параметров. З. Эти явления происходят за
счет электромагнитных эффектов. 4. Неудачи (failures)
эксперимента оБУС,lOвлены отсутствием современного
оборудования. 5. Открытие радиоактивности произошло
б.~агодаря чистой случайности.

Model 2: Sp.: Б.lагодаря спектроскопическому анализу


был открыт ряд новых элементов.
S/.: Due 10 speclroscopic analysi, а number of
new clcmen!s were discovered.

1. Вследствие плохой погоды эксперимент был от­


ложен (put of!). 2. Физика сделала огромные успехи
благодаря теории относительности. З. Из-за неточных
измерений результаты ока зались неправильными. 4.
Благодаря общим усилиям вам удалось решить эту
проблему. 5. Из·за разногласия (diffcrencc) мнений про­
блема осе еще остается верешенноЙ.

VI. Listen to tllc speaker', rcading а problcm situation.


Nick пеУег believes whal the critics ,ау about а Шm.
Не a1ways asks his fricnds instead. Не wants 10 know if
IЬе new Fellini ft1m is апу good. Не is talking to а friend
now. His fust question is:
Науе you 'ееп the пс\у Fcllini Шm?
ТЬе answer is: Ycs, 1 have.
Nick then asks differcnt questions, like:
When did уои ,ее it? Where did уои ,се it? What did
you think of it? Was it good?

УН. Answer the speaker's qucstions оп thc situation.


1. Why doesn't Nick simply геад the rcviews in the ра­
рег? 2. What дое, ре want to know now? З. WЬa! is the
first thing Ье asks' 4. What is thc ans,"cr?

VHI. Now, уои want to know аЬош ТаШпп. ТЬе speaker is


certain 10 know much аЬои! thc town. Ask questions with
thcse words:
1) ever?; 2) ""hen?; З) Ьу train or plane?; 4) vicather
likc?; 5) how long/lhcre?
120
LABORATORY WORK No 14

1. Memorize the words (Ьа! тау present some difficulty in


reading. Listen (о (Ьс speaker. Repeat IЬе mодеl reading.
arsenic Fо:sшk] n; arsenic [о:'sешk) adj; preciset
[рn'sюsll); horizon [hа'гюzп]; соmропеп! [kam'pounant;
sli:v~r rS.11va); b~tabililY f,ьаlstаЪJl!tl); Iraverse rtrreva(:)s ;
mU11аluлze ГтJI1Jа1j"агюz

П. Read IЬе words of Exercise I оп уош оwn. Сотрэrс


уош reading wilh (Ье masler-Iape. Repeat IЬе model read-
mg.

111. Answcr (Ье following questions in ncgative Ьу using (Ье


vcrb 10 fail. Follow the modcl.

Model: Sp.: Не succecdcd in obtaining new data, didn't he?


St.: No, Ье didn't. Не failed to obtain them.

1. Не did this job, didn't he? 2. They observed that


slrange effecl, didn'l (Ьеу? 3. ТЬеу succeeded in soJving (Ье
prob1em, didn't Ihey? 4. Their hypothesis accounts for (Ье
energy emit!ed, doesn'! il? 5. Уои managed (о compJete
уош work in (imе, didn't уои? 6. The (Ьеогу in question
expJains (Ье gain in cnergy, doesn't il? 7. Уои succeeded in
fолnulаling (Ье concepl, didn't уои? 8. Уои understand те,
don't you?

IV. Translate (Ье foUowing sentences into English Ьу using


IЬе verb /0 fail.
1. Н а ши эксперименты не дали желаемых резуль­
татов. 2. Мы не СМОrли решить эту проблему. З. Полу­
ченные данные не подтверждают (10 confum) нашу m-
потезу. 4. Теория, которой мы придерживались, не
объясняет MHome наблюдения. 5. Мы не можем датъ
ответы на MHome вопросы. 6. Нам не удалось прийти
к каким-либо выводам.

У. Answer IЬе following queslions Ьу expressing some de-


gree of certainty. Use IЬе words in brackets.
Model 1: Sp.: Whal do уои IIJink of this probJcm? (rather
attractive)
St.: This probJem seems 10 Ье rather attractive.
121
1. Do уои believc in this idea? (absoIuteIy faIsc) 2.
What is уош opinion of this paper? (rather interesting) 3.
Vihat do уои think of (Ье hypothesis accepted? (perfectIy
reasonabIe) 4. What do уои think of (ЬСБС obscrvations?
(vaIuabIc) 5. What is your opinion of (Ье theory advanced?
(quite satisfactory)
Model 2: Sp.: What do уои think of profcssor N.'s inуеБЙ'
gations? (of great importanee)
St.: His invcstigations ргоуед 10 Ье of grcat
importance.
1. Do уои know anything of his experiments? (quite suc-
cessfuI) 2. What do уои know of his discovery? (of great
vaIue) 3. What do уои think of (Ье information obtained?
(perfectIy reIiabIe) 4. Do уои know (Ье aIternative [Ьеогу?
(rather contradictory) 5. How do уои estimate (Ьс rcsuIts
presented? (vaIuabIe)

LABORATORY WORK No 15

1. TransIate into Russian (Ье folIowing sentences. Соmраге


уош variant with (Ье mastcr·tapc.
Model: Sp.: 1 wonder whether there is any soIution (о this
probIem.
St.: Хотелось бы мне знать, есть ли какое·то ре­
шение этой задачи?

1. 1 wonder if thcrc are any papers сопсеrnед with this


probIem. 2. 1 want (о know whether there is any reIation
between [Ье two sets of numbers. 3. 1 would Iike (о know
as welI whether there is апу evidence in favour of this Ьу­
pothesis. 4. It would Ье interesting (о ask if thcre is anу
way (о soIve this confIict. 5. 1 wouId Iike (о know as welI
if there are anу discrepancies between (Ье experimentaI re-
suIts апд (Ьс predictions of (Ье theory. б. It is of interest (о
sce if there are апу achievements in this fieId.

11. Answer (Ье speaker's indirect questions (Excrcisc I) in


(Ье negat;ve.

Model: Sp.:· 1 wonder whether (Ьеге is any soIution (о this


probIem.
S/.: As far as 1 know (Ьегс is по soIution (о lhis
probIem.
122
Ш. Ans\vt'r (Ье speaker's questions Ьу ап ind.irect question.
Say, t11at уои vюuld like (о have this information yourself.
Follo\v (Ье modcl.

MQdc/: Sp.: Is this т ап а physicist? (1 wопdег шуsеlf


whether ... )
S/.: 1 \vonder myself whetllcr Ьс is а physicisl.

1. Is Ье an experimenlalist? (1 wonder if ...) 2. Is Ье а


thcorctician? (1 ат по! Бше if ...) 3. Does Ье study molec·
ular physics? (I'd like to know lf ...) 4. WiII Ье speak at
the confercnce? (Who knows whether ... ) 5. Has Ье соте
(о апу conclusion? (Do уои know if ...) 6. ме his сопсlи·
sions d.ifferent Егот ours? (I'd like 10 know if ... ) 7. Аге his
data il1 favour of thc hypothcsis? (It would Ье interesting to
know if ...) 8. Did his conclusions prove right? (I wOl1der if
...) 9. Did his conclusions prove wrong? (1 am interested to
knO\V whether ...) 10. Аге уои intcrested in his work? (1
myself wonder if ...)

IУ. Translate into English Ьу using indirect questions.


1. Интересно было бы узнать, проводит ли эта
группа исследования n области ядерной физики. 2. Хо­
телось бы мне знать, работают ли ОНИ В вычислитель­
ных центрах нашей страны . 3. Я "е уверен, есть ли в
этой области какие-то нсрешенные вопросы. 4. Было
бы интересно знать, опубликовали ли они какие,то ИII­
тересные рабоThI за последние roды (Iately). 5. Хоте­
лось бы мне знать, занимаются ли ОНИ исследованием
той же проблемы, что и мы. б. Хорошо было бы по­
смотреть , достигли ли они каких·то успехов n :жспери­

ментах.
МОДЕЛЬ УЧЕБНОЙ <,НАУЧНОЙ" КОНФЕРЕНЦИИ

Задача учебной конференции-полностью смодели­


ро вать настоящую научную ветре"у как одну И З форм
нау'{ной коr\lмуни:кации.
Вопросы подготовки и проведения научной встречи,
как правило, находятся u ведении ОРГdНИзационного
комитета (Organizing Committee). Поэтому рекомендует­
ся D каждой учебной группе создать организационный
комитет по проведению конференций.

1. Работа организационного комитета

Организационный комитет определяет форму пред­


стоящей <<на ЦИО НaJ 1ЬН ОЙ » И Л И «(международной » ветре·
чи (scienlific meeling) и процсдуру се проведения . Фор­
мы научных вст реч МО!)'Т быть разнообразными и
ва рьироваться: conferences (round-table conferences),
symposia (symposium), colloquia (colloquium), seminars или
\\'orksllOps, sessions, gencral asscmblies, congresses, studies,
schools, teach-ins.
Организа ционный комитет определяет тему конфе­
ренции (theme оС the соnfсгепсе), формулирует основ­
ную тему (centraljmajor tneme) и широкий диапазон со­
путствующих вопросо" для обсуждения (topics for
discussion). Орга.н изационныЙ комитет выбирает предсе­
дателя конФерен ции (chairman of thc conference), опре­
деляет количество докладOD (рэрегs) и назначает до­
кладчиков (speakers), оппон е нтов (opponents), участников
в прениях, а также выбирает научный комитет
(Scientific Committee) и художественный комитет (Jury
for Аг!) (2-3 ч еловека в зависимости от числа студентов
в групп е).

11. Памятка докладчику

Докладчики (speake.,.) предварительно предстаwIЯЮТ


председатслю конференции тему своего выступления
(titlc) 11 краткие 7еЗIIСЫ (short abstracts) для составлен ия
пр ограммы веде ния конф е р ен ции.
Выступающий с докладом должен помнить ПрI!Н­
цилиальное отличие стать и ОТ доклада. Статью чита­
ют , н при чт ен ип есть ВОЗМОЖНОСТЬ задержать ся на
интерес ных ИJJИ СЛОЖНblХ для поним а Нltя местах. вер­
нуться назад или забежат:, вперед, изучать схемы , та6-
124
ЛИЦЫ, графики и т.д. Доклад же слушают, и упомяну­
тых выше возможностей у слушателя нет. Поэтому к
докладу предъявляются следующие требования:

1. логичность изложения и четкая структурная орга­


низация содержания: введение, основная часть, заклю­
чени е;

2. использование визуальных средств: на доске сле­


дует написать номер ВЫСТ)1lЛения, название темы, свое
имя, страну, иллюстрации к докладу, цифры , формулы
и уравнения, если они при водятся в докладе;
3. ЯЗык доклада должен быть простым и понятным
присутствующим.
Свое выступление докладчик, как правило, начина­
ет с обращения к председателю заседания и присутст­
ВУЮЩИМ коллегам, и ОН может подчеркнуть, что вы­
ступать на данной конференции-большая для него
честь: "Mr. СhШтап. Ladies and Genllcmen. 1 ат greatly
honoured to ье inviled 10 address Ims conferencc." Затем
следует объявить тему СЕоего сообшения: "1 would like
10 lalk in lhis paper ahouI ... " /"ТЬс object of Ims рарсг is
10.. ." Затем докладчик переходит к вводной части
своего доклада посредством одного из следующих об­
разцов: "As тапу of you kno\v ... "/"FirSI of all 1 would
Iike 10 ... "/"In [Ье inlroduclion of ту paper 1 should like
[о ... "/"Let·me Ьеgin wilh ... "
Перейти от вводной части к основной целесообраз­
но с помощью фразы : "Now, a[ter а short inlroduClion, 1
would Шсе 10 lum 10 IЬе main рагl of ту рарег." Содер­
жание ОСНОВНОй части доклада полностью определяется
его конкретной тематикой. Сначала дается более или
менее обобщенное представление об обсуждаемом воп­
росе, а затем внимание заостряется на отдельных дета­
лях. Ниже приводятся некоторые типичные речевые
обороты, обеспечивающие логические СВЯЗи и перехо­
ды внутри текста доклада, а также позволяющие уп.

равлять вниманием аудитории: "According to this


Iheory"/"I wanl 10 emphasize Ihal "/"Allow те 10 call уоиг
attenlion to"/"As ап example 1 сап suggest"/"As far as 1
am concerned"/"As far а, 1 know"/"As 1 have already
mentioned. JI

В заключении доклада Вblступающий подводит итог


сказанному, например. такой фразой: "Now Iet те
review whal 1 have said about." В заключенне докладчик
может обратить внимание на IIсторическое значение
данной проблеыы и закончить свое Ubl ступление фра­
зой: "Thank you for уош апепЙоп."
125
111. Памятка оппон ен ту

~ача оппоне нта-отм етить сил ьные и слабые мес­


та выступления и llыска зать свое QТН(НIJение к п релме ­
ту. Иногда О lш о н е нт наход ит НУЖ IIЫМ предстаu итhCЯ, а
зате" уже RЬ/сказать СВО И соображения по обсуждаемой
проблеые: "Му пате is John БГО\\'rl. 1 ат from California
Univcrsity and I want (о takc two minutes [о react_ (о some
of (Ьс things [Ьа! \уеге said Ьсге today оп Professor
Petrov's рарег. 1 \vould likc to give уои ту vie\vs оп this
subject."
Оппоне нт может сдел ать ком плимент пО повод)' до­
клада: "1 ат уегу impresscd \vith Ог. Ivanov's flueot and
forceful presentation."
Идею IJ оддержки по з иции автора можно вы разить
следующими слоnaми: " 1 \vould likc to cxpress agreemcnt
\vith (Ье speake.r " или "1 want 10 support усгу strongiy (Ье
p05ition of Ог. Ivanov."
Если Dы сказываются сомнения ил и возражен ия, то
учас тники конфсренции предпочи тают осторож ные
ФОРМУЛJ'РОR"": "1 ат по! ,ше (Ь а! this арргоасЬ is
justified" j"Unfortunately, 1 саппо! agree vvilh уош Гтal
statement "j"l ат усгу 50ПУ (о Ьауе 10 say (Ьа! 1 do по!
agrcc with Ог. Jooe5."

IV. Задачи Hay'lНoгo и художественного комитетов

Эти задачи состоят в оценке качества докладов и


выявлении победителей со гласно р азработанному кри­
терию оцен ок. Каждый из комите тов состоит из трех
ч еловек, не выс тупающих с докладами. Б случае не­
многочисленности группы эту функцию могут выпол­
НЯТЬ члены OPlal-lИзационноro комитета и председа­
тель. Комитет выбирает сваего председателя. Перед на­
чал ом конфсренции председатели комитетов пер едают
председателю конференции список комитетов с указа­
нием фамилий членов комиссий, их ученых званий и
стран, из которых они прибыли.

КРlIтерии оцеНКII докла.10В научным комитетом


1. логичн ость (последова тельностu) изложения
2. ДOCТ)ТlHOCTЬ (простота) высказы вания
3. информативность и новизна информации, содер·
жа щейся в докладе
4. соответствие выступле ния теме конференц/1И
126
5. интерес аудитории (определяется по количеству
вопросов, заданных докладчику, " числу сопутствую·
щих выступлений в прениях)

Критерии оценки дакладов художествею!ым комитетом

1. оригиналыюсть И:.JложеНИЯ-У1\1сние докп:а;..(Чllка


свя зат ь тему выступлени я с рсалы:;ой сиryaцисЙ. Так,
БLIступаЮLЦИЙ может попросить ауд иторию представить
себе, что сказали бы по поводу ifJC)'ждаемой проблемы
}"lаСТIIИJШ конференции физиков ПОЛDека назад: "То
begi!l \.1th Iet's imagine [Ьа! оис cC'nfercnce took place
some blty years ago. The· speaker а1 such а mceting \vould
havc described the entire Universe in term s of the actions
оС two forces, gravitation alld electromagnetism. "·
2. широкое ПРИМСIlСНИС наглядности (схемы, rpафи·
ки " т.п.)
3. чупство юмора, которое должно присутствовать В
каждом докладе

4. ЯСНОС ТЬ, информати вность и краткость заглавия и


его соотве тствие содержанию доклада

5. умен"е докладчика держаться непринужденно

При.черная речь nредседаmеля научного комитета:

"Dear friends! After а long(hot discussion we have


соте (о the conclusion thal thc best рарес was presenied
Ьу ... from ... . The second placc is given 10 ... Ссот ... .
And IЬе Ihird place is given 10 ... Сгот ... . The Committee
would Ье glad 10 nole ап active participalion in Ihe
discussion of the representative of ... -Mr. Smith, who
showcd his great interesl il1 the subjcct. Tllank уои for уоис
attention. "
Речь председателя ХУДОЖССТDСШЮГО комитета при­
мерно такая же, кром е следующих слов: "We are glad
to declare Ihat Ihe author of Ihe best iПuslrаliопs 10 his
рарсс is Mr. Danilov (USSR). 1 would like 10 пС'!е specially
а greal sense of humour in thc illustrations of Мс. Wi!son.
Ош congralu!ations 10 the winners and thank уоп а!! for
your 3ttention."

У. Памятка председате ~lЮ конференции о ведении


;ж,искуссии

Предссдатель (chairman of the sessiun(sessiol1 chair·


man) руководит дискуссией на данном заседании, пред·
ставляя каждого выступающего. Он называет страну, из
127
которой тот прибыл, организацию, в которой тОт рабо­
тает, и сообщает тему доклада. Обычно председатель
дает краткий личный КOl\lментарий, в частности, ука­
зывает Ija вклад докладчика в исследование обсуждае­
мой проблемы: "The nех! speaker is Dr.lvanov from the
USSR. Thc title of his paper is ' .. .'. Dr.lvanov is well-
known among the physicists for his numcrous ЬооЬ оп this
subject. "
Председатель в своем вступительном слове не дол­
жен использовать фрагменты предстоящего доклада и
раскрывать его «секреты,>. По окончании доклада (или
нескольких) прсдссдатель благодарит ораторов, говорит
несколько СЛОВ ПО ПОВОДУ их выступлений и открывает
дискуссию: "1 want to thank our speakers for their
interesting and higWy stimulating prescntations. And now let
те ореn the discussion по! with opinions or statements but
with questions."
Он может конкретно указать, какой доклад предпо­
лагается обсудить: "And now 1 \youId like to ореn the
discussion Ьу asking for your commcnts оп the paper given
Ьу Professor Green. Are there аnу questions to Profcssor
Green?"
Если председателю заранее известны участники, жс­
лающие ПОДСJIИТЬСЯ своими соображениями по затро­
нутым вопросам, то он прямо называет имя первого
выступающего: "The discussion will Ье opened Ьу а
contribution {rom Dr. Johnson from the University of
London." Если вопросы подаются в письменном виде,
то председатель знакомится с ними, оценивает их
адекватность теме данной дискуссии и передает до­
кладчиl-.')': "1 have t\yO questions here. 1 have just reccived
thcm and 1 think they are \vorth of considcration."
Дискуссия должна быть ограничена во времени, вы­
ступления должны быть краткими, вопросы-конкрет­
ными (их следует подготовить заранее), стиль обще­
ния-уважительным, как бы ни отличались мнения
сторо!!. Председатель может попросить выступающнх
высказываться В краткой форме: "Time is rather short,
'о we would invite Ihe speaker 10 Ье brief." При отходе
выступающего от темы председатель просит: "1 wouId
like (о ask the speakers 10 keep to the point in their
remarks.)) В исключительных случаях председатель MO~
жет прервать дискуссию: "1 аш afraid we must break off
the discussion."
Завершая дискуссию, председатель еще раз благода­
рит докладчиков за интересные сообщения, предлагает

128
прекратить дискуссию и подводит итоги: "If Ihere те
по more questions we once again Ihank Dr. Jones for his
excellenl presenlation. Thank уои very much, Dr. Jones. And
now il is lime 10 sum ир Ihe disсussiоп and make
suggeslions for the conclusions."
Председатель может выразить свое мнение по об­
суждаемой проблеме: "1 shall поl lake advanlage of ту
posilion as chairman in order 10 commenl, point Ьу poinl,
оп аН Dr. Brown's remarks, Ьиl 1 would like 10 mention а
few. Let's take the relationship between temperature and
pressure. 1 think Dr. Brown IS right/wrong when he
emphasizes this point."
В заключение председатель благодарит выступаю­
щих и присутствующих за участие в дискуссии, под­
черкивает важность объединения усилий для решения
научных проблем и передает слово председателям на­
учного и художественного комитетов: "We have аН felt
during this session that it is iтроrtапt [о join ош forces
and try to solve problems together. 1 would like (о thank
everybody here for their active participation in ош
discussion. Iп the course of our Conference two committees
were working and now we shall listen [о the results of their
work."
После отчетов председателей комитетов прсдседа­
тель конференции закрывает конференцию: "1 would
like [о Ihank once again all of уои and with this 1 declare
Ihe Confcrence closed. Thank уои."
VOCABULARY

СОКРАЩЕНИЯ

11 - поuл - v - verh - глзroл; а - adjecti . . ·e -


существительнос;
прИJIагателыюе; 00." - ad"'c rb - наре'-:ие; proll - pronoun - место­
и~,{еiIИС; cj - conjunction - со юз ; nцт - numeral- Ч1fс..rnrтс.льнос; p,~ ep­
plcposition - пред.rюг

UNIT 1 cndcJVour Iш'd е \'~] ,1 ПО Г!1.IП: .а;


СТЗjXlЮI с.

~bt:.ndl!nl lаЪАnd~ntl а I! МСЮ­ ~flterpri se (,cntJpral1':] ': 1.


ЩИЙСJl В изо6и.:1ии пре;:х приятме; 2. пре ,1Пр ию.! ­
afford [<Ii'f;:,:dJ V (быть в. состоя­ <QtБОС Т Ь , И~И11i13ПfВ3

нии) г.озво..1ить себе схaggегаtiол 11 (l,ZEeща'rС IJг:] /1


annihilatc [~'nal;}lelt] v УННЧl'о ­ лреувелкчение

Ж<!ТЬ fatc [felt] 11 С Уjjьба


алk!е l'o,"k11 1/ предмет (тор­ fecd [f~d] v mrтзть(ся). к ор­
ro в.1И) МИTh(ся)
assault I~'~]t) n на падение, forcscc [f;r'si:) v (rores<!w. Coг~·
атз~г, штурм scen) п реДRидеть
augment (Y.g'mentj v уведи'l'И- Ьмт Ibo,m! n 1. вреД, ущерб;
&аТЬ(СЯ); усилив.ать(ся) 2. з.ло. обидэ
avalanchc !,rev~lа;nЛ n .13ВИН3 Ьеар [Ы:р] n груда, I<)'ча; v Ha~
bind [bamd] v свя'!!ывать громож;:{ать ; наКОПJL1ТЬ
bIanket [ыreою t]] v покрываТ ь goal [gou1] n цедь; задача
(ОДСЯ-ТJОМ) grasp [gra:sp] у охватить; по­
bIes.sing [ыlslJJ]] п б.l3.гослове ­ нять
ние impact ('lmprekt! n TOJ1'iOK, ич­
b!ucprif!t ['ыl\:рпlll) ) II наметка ; п ул hC

f! poeKT . ..
п ,ан inconcc ivabIc 1~ lnkan's i:.v,)ы) и
сги!!оП l'kхIп l 11 осroР сПЮ: ОС-ГЬ непостижимый, !lсiЮOбр.шt­
с.hаik'лgс ['tJrehnЩJ n С.l0iЮI;"!Л мьпl
за;:,ача, пp0i5ле,ма: вызов; v incredibIe fш'J.:rеdlbl] а неправ­
б роса т ь БЫЗОВ ДОПОlI об ны ii, невеРОЯПlh!Й
clothe [klou6] v O;::l,eB3Tb innovation Lшэ'усJjn] Il НОВОБВС­
commUl1it)' [k;{mju:шtl] 11 1. об · де }iИ~, новш ест во; нсват о р­
щина ; 2. thc с. общес пю СПЮ
conce i"e [k~n'si"'V] v постигать, iщ(аIJ ~liо п Ltnstэ'l~1fn] n уста­
п они~з ть; прсдстаI~llfТЬ себе ПОDка ; р/ сооружеlше
сопсегп {k~ n's~: n] n забота, тсге lпu ,)] (J простой; mc:,cly
бе-спокойств() ооу To,., hKO; просто
СОП51еllаtiоп Lk:>nst;}lelfn] fl со· орiпiоп !OJ'рщj,..n] n мнение;
ЗВСЗЦ1tе pubJic 0_ обществен~ое MHe~
curse [k~: sJ n ПРОКJIятие: lIие
dazzJ e I'~H v ослеплять бле· outcome ['aulk..,;11] 11 реЗУ_lьтат,
СКОМ, sе.1Иколеrшем ИСХОД

deSl iny ' ['dcsunl} 11 судьба рау [реl] v П-'IЗТИТЪ


elaborate [11ceb.mt] а тщо.те.'tЬ· plumb [PLun! v вск рывать; про-
НО p<:I з раt50таН!iЫЙ ; с.l 0ЖНЫЙ ника тъ вrлуGь ( ТО1йн ы)
eliminale [l11nunt,·t t) v YCTP"~ ро Н (poul) tl ГOJ1осоеа н ие
иять, исключг.ть (Сгот) : price {pralSl 11 иена
~'ШКlшm1РОватJ. prior [pralOJ! (tD) adv до
130
pursue 1P.a'sju:] v IJреС.1едовать, exp~nse Ilks'pens} 11 TPJTa, рас·
гнаться XOJ; цена; а! the cxpense
гооl [ru:t] n корень; v' .пускать or за счет чегcr.'1., ценой
КОРНИ, укореняться чеГО- ..l.
rush [rлЛ v бросаться; M"IaTb· haughty ['h::t.u] а lIа..1 ~{ен ныЙ.
ся. нестись ftЫСОf<омерный
,Ьие ~elk) v (shook, shaken) hosU!e Ir.:>stul) а (10) Вр"Ж­
трясти. [j(:ТРЯХнr.aть J.сбныЙ
slide [slid] v (slid) СКО.1ЬЗИТЪ justice !'щ"\Sш] 11 СС'!РМСJ,.'1И·
targct ['ta:glt} n uел ь, мишень вост ь

Ihreaten ['eretl'l] v ГJЮзить. )'Г· misery I'ЛlIzап] /1 1. невзгода,


рожать неС\iЭСТье; страдание; 2, ни·
1001 Itu;J] n 1. Р"ОО'П(Й инстр},­ щета. бе.з.ность
мс:)гг, 2. ОРУДI1С m1s!ile l'ml5allJ 11 рак е та. реак­
Itcl1d [trcnd] 11 обшс:с направ­ тивный снаряд
ление, тенденl.lИЯ; v отк.'10- peevish ['рi'V1.Л а СRЭр.тrивыЙ,
нятъся, СКЛОНJIться В ка­ раЗДр3ЖИТeJIЬНЫЙ
ком-л. направ..lении
plaguc [ple1g] 11 1. бедствие;
tЛ1th [tru;€lJ n правда. испrnа бич; 2, неприятн:ость; даса·
"inuaJly I 'vа:ljuэh) шlу фаК11I­ да : З. чума; v 1. насылать
\iески , в суr..цности бедствие, мучить ; 2. досаж­
vital ['yaHl] а жизненный: на­ дать, бсспококrь
супщый, существенный prejudice l'рrещudlS] n 1. пред·
voyage [У:;ШЬ] n плавание, мор­ рассудок; ПРС.1убеждеIDiе; 2.
ское путешествие: v Ш1а­
ущерб
&аТЬ. путешествовать (по prevail {pn'vell] у 1. преoб.rlа·
морю) дать, ГQ<подствовать. прева·
.1ИIX>ВЗТЬ; 2. прс.воз могать,
UNIT 2 одо.,с::в.а.ть; з. быть расп~
ardour ['a:d;;l] 11 жар. рвение , страненным

пыл
prevelH [pn'vent] v 1. преДОТ­
avaiJ {;)'vell] n ПО.1Ъ1а, ВЫГОJ.З: вращать, пре.1.0хранять, пре­

v быть полезным. Bblro,:t- дупреждать; 2. мешап., пре­

ным: помогать плтствовать

conviction [k;;ln'V1kfn] n убеж ­ pride [рrшd] n гордость


деШiе
purify r'рju~лfЭl] v (of. Сгот)
decay [dI'kel] 11 разложение, очиwaть(ся) от чего-л.
распад: упадо к: v nmть.
resent [n'zent] v негодовать,
разлагаться; приходить 8 воз~ушатъс.я; обижаться

упааок. распадаться
rCverse Irl'va:s] а обратный,
decline [d.l'k1a.!n} tI ПЭ,1еIlИС, проnmoпо.l0ЖНЫЙ; v пере­
упадок; v приходить Б упз· flc.pTЬТf~aTЬ

док. ухудшаться; y~eHЬ­ slur 151;:1 11 пятно (на рспута­


шаться, идти на убыль; спа­ ЦlПl)
да ть
snurr [sn.oJ] v нюхать
dimini.sh [ш'nшun v умень· sweep (swi:p] v зд. мести. ПО,l].·
метать; чJ.lс11fть, прочюцаТL
шать(ся) . убаМЯТЬ(СЯ); ос­
лабл ять viable ('VЭJ.~blJ а ЖИ3l1еспос06-
drain [drеш] v 1, дренироват ь. НЫЙ
осушать; 2. стекать: опо­ waste Iwe1stJ 11 отбросы. отхо­
ражнивать ды; а JПШJНИЙ, неIlУЖНЫЙ;
enrorcc {Ш'f;): S] V 1. оказывать отработанный
давление. принуж.аать; 2. wеароп l'we~nJ n оружие
УСИ,..1И8аТЬ wisdom (\Vlzdэш] " мудрость
131
UNIT 3 erratic (l·rretJ.kl а оrшООЧНЫЙ
error "cral I1 ошибка, заб.1УЖ­
acid ('Э!Sld) 1I КИС!10та; nucleic дсиие

а. нук..1еиновая кислота еуеп ['i:van] а .зд. четный


зJагт !0I'1o:m] n СЩ1i3Л тревоги; fзlsс [Ь:1s! а :IОЖНЫЙ; ошибоч­
а. Ьеl1 набат, набатный ко­ ный, неправильныi'i
лакал hold [houldJ v (hcld) зд. иметь
с,апссг ['krens~J 1l .'leд. рак си..1У (о ЗЗfШllе)
смЬоп l'ka:banJ n УГ.lеро;:\ hugc 11Ijux(s] а огромный. гро­
ссВ [sel] 1J ЮIетка мадный, rnг.lIIТСКИЙ
compound ['k;)mpёl.undl n смесь, imply (Im'рl,п l v 1. 3<lкл:ючать в
соста в ; сосдннснис себе; зна"m'Ь; 2. подраЗ~'~fе­
hoIe (houJ) n дыра. дырка вать

jnlensify fш'telшfaJ] v уеми­ iпfеr Iщ'fа:J у 1. зак..1ЮЧать:


ваrь(ся) BЫВOДIfГЬ ; 2. означать; поа­
разумеЕаТЬ
intercept ~lПt4'sерtJ v 1. пере­
Хв.J.nпь; 2. прерв.ать, 01'ре­ investment [ш 'vеs tn1аnt] 11 КЗJП{­
зать; преградкrь путь тало(м ожение), инвестиp<r
melanoma ПОПУХОЛЬ вание
protein I'prouti;nl n белОК manage l'mamHtil v зд. справ-
relea'e 1ri:1i:sl v 1. (from) ос- mпься; ухитряться
вобождать, избав.lЯТЬ: 2. ОТ­ odd l;xll ан ечетный
пускзть; сбрасывать page (ре1l:Ь;) ,r с траmща
герагс [п 'р[;)] v ЧИНИТЬ. ремон­ prime {praJт} n мат. простое
n1posaTb, испрзв,,1ЛТЪ число

severe [Sl'\'1~I а строrий. суро­ product ['pndaktJ 11 1. .~lam.


вый ; жестокий; тяжелый ПРОИЗБсдение; 2. продукт,
skin [s1anl n кожа результат

spгcad (spred] v 1. ра зве рты­ stride [straldl n большой шаг


ваТl>(СЯ), просrnpaТЬ(СЯ); 2. tend [tend] v 1. н аправлятьс я;
раСПРОС1'РЭИЯТЬ(СЯ). ра зно­ вести ; 2. иметь ck..-10НJlОСТЬ.
сmъ(ся) ТСН,1е нцию
Ihrow \Broul у «hrew. thrown)
брос,зп.. отбрасьшагь; (зwау)
UNlТ 4 трапtТь

tremendous [trJ'mcnd;}s} а 1_
annual" 1'<f!rUual] а ежеro.:хны Й. страшный: 2. ра..1ё. ужас­
годовой НЫЙ. rpo~,зДIfЫЙ
(опесг" [k;ш'sа:nJ n 1. ззбота. verify ['verlfiUJ V 1. проверять:
беспокойство; 2. значснис. 2. п о;пверж .1ЗТЬ
r.aЖ}ЮСТЬ; v 1. касаться:
иметь 01' ношение; 2. II"Te-
pcCOВJTЬ; забоUJТЬСЯ : бес~ UNIT 5
покoJ.1ться
conrirm [kan'fa:m) у 1. подтвер­ ad\'ent l 'cedv~ntl 11 прих од. при­
Ж.1зть; 2. ПОДКРСll.тJЯ1Ъ , 110.:1- шествие: nОJlме.llие

держивать arbirrary !'c:bttr;m] а ЛJХШЗ­


conjecture [ka11'~ektJ;)] 11 дога;t­ ВОЛЬНЫЙ
ка. прсдпо.l0жсние conclusi\'e [k.m1<l u:SlvJ а 1. З;\-
convention [k~n'venJn] 11 1. зо­ IU1ЮЧifТе .1 1.Н ЫЙ: 2. ОКО!lЧ,з-
говор. соr;Jзшение . KOIIIJCH- ТС.'JьныЙ. рсtu3Юll.IИЙ
1lИЛ : 2. YC.10B fIOCTb dепоtс Id) 'noutJ v означать.
err [~:J v Оllшбаться . ззб."уж­ обоЗ llачать; указывать Н3
Ч ТО-..1 .
.1атъся

132
enormous ll'nз:mо>s] а rpoмаn­ fairly ('fEahl adv ДОJЮ.'IЬНО;
ный, огромный сносно; весьма

(шl [fell] v потерпеть НСУ,J,ачу frceze [fri:z] v «(roze, (rozen)


giапt ['dза1аnt] n ве.lИКан, П)­ замеР3.1ТЬ; ~юрозитъ., замо­
гант. испо.'IИН; титан раживать

grapple l'gr~pIJ 11 схватка heaven (Ъеvn] 11 небо. н ебеса


вnлоrnую. борьб3; v сх8.а­ identical 1.u'dепtJk-.1I а ТОТ жс
nrrься. сцепиться самый ; одинаковый
instancc ['шst<>nsl n отд:е.1ЬНЫЙ immensc {t'mens] а бе з мерный,
пример; for i. например необъятный; ОГРО\4НЫЙ
inlervene Lшы'vi:n] v 1, праис­ isolate (';usdlelt] v ИЗО:1Ировать,
У-ОДКТЬ. иметь место; 2. нз­ оцt:ЛЯТЪ . обособлять
ХОШffься , .'1ежать меЖ.1У; 3. ргсооте {Рп'~о",,1 v 1. предпо­
IIRИТЬСЯ помехой ; 4. вмеши­ ,'laraTb; сo.uпзть доказанным;
ы ться, вступаться 2. upon (оп) слишко м по­
occurrence [~'k..\1'..ns] n случай, лагаться на что-л.
происшеСТБие primordinI [рrш'np:шаl] а изна­
perceive [pa'si:v] v восприни­ ЧIl.1ЪНЫ);, исконный

мать. поmrnать, осознавать


rathcr f'ra:~a] шJv скорее, пред-
profound (pг.i}'faundJ а глубокшl почтительнее, лучш е; (.
гесiргосш [n':51pr.Jk.,lJ 11 .мат. (Ьап а не
обратная дроБЬj а 1. вза:rn­ spontaneous [sр:m'tf!lлjаs] а са­
нъrй, обоюдный; 2. 3КВИМ­ мопроизвольный
,1СНТНЫЙ 5tu(( [stлfJ n материал, вещест-
remark [n'ma:k] " замечание; 80
заметка; v замечать. отме­ yield tiИdl v произво;nпь; при­
чзтъ
НОСИТЬ, ;::щвзть (n''10.J.bI, уро­
teascr I't~za] n Ра3г. трудная жай и т .д. )
задача
Не ltal] v 1. (up) связывать;
2. завязывать в узел
tower l'taua) v выситься , юды­ UNIТ 7
матЬ<:я ; (up) rpo~ОJlllfГЬC.II

assign !а'saшl
v 1. Н3ЭН~ Ч3ТЬ ,
UNП 6 определять;2, IIРИП:ИСЫвать
circumstance ['sa:k~ms~r.s] n
аЬпlР! {аЪrлрt] а скачкообраз­ обстоятельство, случай; pl
ный; резкий; внезапный обстоятеm,ства, УCJl ОSИЯ
bang (lиeol n взрыв; Ы! Ь. content ['k.:I'nt~nt] 11 содерЖ3 4
большой взрыв Iше ; с.уть

collide [k~1aldl v сталкиваться core [k:r.] n 1, сердцеВЮlа,


contemporary [k~n'tempar<ilrl] а внутренность; ядро; 2, суть
1. современный; 2. одновре­ deserve ldI'za:v] v заслуживать;
менный быть достойным чеro-л,
convince [k;ш'vlnS] v убеждать devoid [w.'v:I'ld] а лишенный
dozen I'd.un) rr 1. дюжина ; 2. чего-л.; соободный от че­
blHOJ!(ecтвo го-л .
drastic ['drresuk] а решите,1Ь­ disptay [d1s'plel] v 1. выстав­
ный; крутой (о мерах); d. .'ппь, 110казывать; 2. "рояв­
changes коренные изменс­ ,1ЯТЬ, обнаруживать
ния entcrprise ('ent.3pra.1z] n 1.
duplic"te l'dju,!,W<elll v 1. сни­ предприятие; 2. nре 11 ПРИИМ: 4
мать коmoo; 2. ':1 дваИf\3ть ЧИВQCть, ИНItЦ}".3тива

133
entity ['entltl] n 1. СуЩНОСТЬ, insist [Ш'Slstl .., (оп) 1. настаи­
существо; 2. I!ечто реально вать на чем-л., настойчиво
существующе~ утверждать; 2. настойчиво
eventuaIly [l'ventjuahJ аа'у в ко-­ требовать
нечном счете, в конце кон· instant ['шstantJ n мпювение,
цо. момент; а настоятельный;
excitation ~ekSl'~1Ir.] :1 f>ОЮУЖ· неме;:{.lенныЙ:, 5еЗОТ:Jэгате.lh­
;J:ение НЫЙ
fusc [fju:z] v п:;а:шпь(ся); manirestation Lmreшf(:s'tСlfn] 11
сn.13ВЛЯТЬ(СЯ) 1, прояв...1СliИС; 2. мзнифе­
idcntify iaJ.'dcntlfa.1] v 1. уста­ стация

наюивать тождество: отож­ pronounced fpra'naul15t] а резко


деСПLlЯТЬ; 2. опознавать, ус­ выраженный; ясный
танавливать л".{'шостъ .shrink [(rl:ok} v (shrank,
imтcrse [l'm~;S] v (in) погру­ .shrunk) сокращаться; са-
жать, окунать дшъся (о матерШl)
plausibIe {'pl;).:zabl] а 1. правда· sпюоth [smu:&] а 1, Г.'lадКИЙ,
ПО;;:J:обный; 2. умеющий вну­ ровный; 2. плавный, спокой­
шать доверие ный; v СГ.lзживать
preclude [pri'k1u:d] v предот­ tight [taIt] а плотный, компакт­
вращать, устранять; (fcom) ный; сжатый
мешать
to Ьс undcr way быть на хо­
рroЬе [рroиЬ] n ]. зонд; 2. ЗОН­ ду; иметь место, щюисхо­

дирование; v зоаcrироватъ днть

turn [~:n] v (out) оказываться


vicinity {vl'S1nlt11 n 1. окрестно­
СТИ. соседство; 2. близость UNIТ 9
to Шkе foc granted допускать;
СЧlпа.ть доказанным; считать abyss [аЪ1S] il бездна, пучина
само собой раЗУ\i'еюurимся вccumulate [a'kju:mjulelt] V на­
I\апливать(с.'l), аккуму,'1ИРО­
вать(ся)
advantage [.d'va'ntlЦj] n пре­
UNIТ 8 имущество; выгода, ПО.'1Ьза
apparently [a'pa!T;;mtb] adv оче-
81ЩНО, по-видимому
attitude ['retTtju:d] n позшJ,VJ.Я;
assert [a'sa:t] V 1. утверждать,
отношение

blnd [ballld] v (bound) связы­


заявлять; 2. отстаивать, за­
щищать; доказывать
вать; привязыв.ать
зwаге {;J'WEa] а predfc сознаю­
cluster ['k1лs.tа] n 1. группа; 2.
щий; 'знающий, OCBeДO~lCH­
скоп.lсtше, сгусток; з. кон­
центрация
ный; to Ье а. or (thaO
знать, сознавать, от;щвать
compact [kаш'pcekt] а кш.шакт­
себе полный отчет в чеМ-.1.
ный, JLlIOТНЫЙ; v сжимать,
)'-IL"lOТНЯТЬ bIast [bla:stl n зд. взрыв
deviate ['di"Vlelt] v ОТI(.!IQВЯТЬСЯ, ЬиЬЫе [ълыJ n 1_ пузырь; 2.
уклоняться пузырек воздуха или газа (В
divcrge !dЭJ.'v~:ct] v расходип.- жид;косrn)
ел; отклоняться, уклоняться catch [kretJI v (caught) ЛОВJfГЬ,
flat [fketJ а плоский, ровный поймать, схватить; (up) 1.
glue [glu:] n клей ПОДНЯ:1Ъ, подхваnпъ; 2. до­
homogcneity L~moud.se'ni:ltJ.] II гнап,; 3. прервать
однородность сеll [sel] 1l 1. ячейка; 2. клетка

134
а меточный;
cellular ['seJjulal pcrsist (P.,'SlSt] v упорспювзть.
ячеистый, сотообразный; по­ настойчиво продо.lжатъ
ристый piercc 11>,.,) v 1. (through.
collap,e [k.1reps) 11 1. разруше­ into) пронзать, прошшать;
ние; 2. oca;JKa, оседание; 3. 2. прорыватъся, ПРОХОДИТЬ
ЗJ.XJtопывашte (пузырьков сквозь (что-.,.): 3. разгады­
ЖИ,,1КОСТИ); асmрофuз. КО.'­ вать (тайну)

ларе; 'v КО....Lл:апсироваТь prolong [рrаЪu] v ПроДЛИТЬ,


естЬ {koum] n соты продолжить

comprcssion [kam'pre!n] n ежа­ universe ['ju:ru.vOil:s] 11 мир, псе­


nte; уплотнение ленная; космос

сопСогт [k,ш'f:l:m] V сообрз3(r


вать(ся); согласовать(ся); со­
ответствовать
conslituent [k.;ш'stJ.tjuапt] n 1. UNIТ 10
составляющий часть целого;
2. составная часть сеше [s~s] v переставать, пре­
сопуепйопаl [k.ш'vеnfапаl] а кращать(ся); лриостанав.'1И­
условно принятый, ус,,10В­ вать; without с. непрестан­
ный; общепршulТЫЙ, обыч­ но

НЫЙ, обычного типа contraction [k.m'tra!klnl " сжа­


destroy [ch'tГo>l) v уничтожать, rnе, сужсtше; УПЛОТНСfШе,

стяnmafШе; уменьшение: уп­


истрсб.rtять; разрушать
рочеfШе; сокращение
discrcpancy [chs1crepans,) n 1.
раЗНОГдасие, проnmoречис; damp [dcemp] v демпфировать:
расхождение; 2. раЗ,;1Ичие, заглушать; аморmзировать

несходсТlЮ essence ['esns] n сущность,


dot [d,t) n 1. точка; 2. кро­ существо; in е. по сущест­
шечная вещь .у

embed [,mЪed) v встраивать. evaporate [l'vreparelt] v 1. выпа­


встав.1ЯТЬ, ВIЮдmЪ, внед- ривать, сгущать; 2. исna­
рять; погружать РЯТЬ(СЯ}
епйге [ш'wаJ а 1. полный, со­ chaos ['kel:ls] n хаос
вершепный; 2. целый, цель­ innate [ш'flеlt] v надув.ать(ся);
НЫЙ, смошной накачивать; вздувать(ся)
ever r~\'a] adv всегда; far е. outburst ['autbOil:stl n 1. взрьm;
навсегда; вечно 2. ВСПЬПlJка, всплеск
evolve [t'v~lv] v 1. разви­ (Ссоnсilе ('rekansallJ 'V прими­
ватъ(с'я), ЭВОЛЮЩfОНИJЮ8аТЬ: рлть(ся); улаживать
2. разрабатывать (теорmo); relevant ['relI~nt] а уместный,
З. выделять (газы) относяпцийся к делу
extent [lks'tent] n 1. протяже­ resoJution Lrez~1uJn] n 1. pe~
ние, размер; 2. степень, ме­ шеImе; 2. разрешение (про­
ра бnемы); З. разложение на
flood [flлd) n поток; прИЛИ1!; v составные части, анализ

заТОШ1Ять., наводнять: хлы­ resolve [n'z;llv] 11 решени.е; v


нуть потоком, устре~ся 1. решать, прюшмать рсше~
honey ['hлru) Il мед; h. сотЬ ине: 2. побуждать; З. раз­
медовые СОТЫ решать (сомнения и т.п.)
inevitable [ш'еV1~bl] а неиз­ ,сзrссlу ['sk<asb) шlУ 1. едва.
бежный, неминуемый как только; только что; 2.
negligibIe fпеghЩ.bl) а незна­ не; e~ ЛИ, вряд ли
чителъный: пренебрежимый, seed [si:d] 11 1. семя, зерно; 2.
пренсбрсжимо малый зародыш, начмо (чего-л.)

135
'рап [spren] I! 1. (короткий) данно) встретить(сл), столк­
промежуток времени, пери­ нуться; иметь столкновение;
од времени; 2. короткое 2. наталкиватъся (на труд­
раССТОЯ1ше HOCrn и т.п.)
swaflow I'sw:эlоu] v глотать, furni,h [·r.,n1Л v 1. (with)
ПРОГ.'1зтывзть; S. ир погло· снабжать; 2. предостав.1ЯТЬ,
щать доставдлть
transirion [tпen'slЗ;Ш] 11 пере­ guide [gЭJ.d] Il 1. направ.тrяIO­
ход, перемещение щая, направляющее приспо­
tuглоvеr I't~:nzouvd] IJ 1. обо­ собление; 2. ВОЛНОВОД; 3.
рот: 2. точка перехода ориенrnр
unravet [лn'rrev~lJ v 1. распу­ bandle [Ъ"mdl] v 1. де.lать
ТЫ5аТЬ; 2. разгадывать; объ­ что-л. руками; 2. обходmъ­
яснять сл, обращаТЬСJl С кем-л.;
чем-л.; 3. управлять, реryди­
ровать

UNIТ 11 hazard ['hrez<:Idj n риск, опас­


ность

c:rea1Ure ['kri:1faJ n 1. создание, inherent [шm<:lr.mt] а 1. прису­


творение; 2. живое сущесТ­ щий. неотъемл:емый; 2. при­
во рожденный, врожденный
despair IdIsipE<~] n ОТЧЗ.lпше, launch [b:n1fl v 1. бросать, ме­
безнадежность тать; 2. начинать, пускать в
cncompass [щ'kлm~] v ...OKPY- ход; 3. запускать
жать, заключать тспасе ['mепзs] 11 угроза.
etcrnal [i:'t4:nlj а 1. вечный; опасносп.
неизменный; 2. беспрсрьш­ muscle ['m.лsl] Il MYCKY,"I, мыш­
ный, ПОСТОЯННый ца; Ilерен. сила

outward ['autwad] а 1. внешЮlЙ, permutation Lpa:mju:'teI!n] n 1.


наружный, поверхностный; перемена, изменеtше; 2.
2. направленный наружу; З. мат. перестановка
ви.цимый ramiIication LrrenufI'kelfn] 11
power ['раиа] 11 ./ttam. степень; разветвление, ответв..,ение

р. lзw степенной закон 'J ВХОД (раке4


re·entry lri:'entn}
startling ['sto;th:ol а потрясаю­ ты) в IVютные слои атмос·
ЩИЙ, поразИТCJIЬНЫЙ феры
surplus ['sa;plas] n излишек, ос­ signpost ['sашроust] n указа­
таток; а иЗJIИJ.IIЮfЙ, избыточ­ тельный столб
ный simulate ['sllnju1elt1 v моде.'IИpO­
ватъ, искусствC1iНО воспро.
изводить; и:миrиpoваТL
UN/Т 12 stake [stelk] n ставка, заклад (В
пари); 10 Ье at s. быть ПО­
amass [~'rn<es] 11 собирать; на­
ставленным на карту
коплять, KOrnrrь
thruster ['ОrлstaJ 11 двшатель
attitudc ['reu.tju.-d] 1. позиция,
'l
реактивной системы управ ...
отношеЮlе к чему-."I.; 2. ав.
ления
ПО."Iожение са\fолета в воз­
trace [trelS] V 1. черrnть, тща4
духе
телъно выписывать; 2. про­
awful ['~ful] а 1. ужасный; 2. сле;:щть, выследить
внушаюIl..UiЙ страх. благого­ vatid ['v~lJ.d] а 1. действитель­
вение; 3. внушающий глубо­
ный. имеющий силу; 2. вес­
кое уважение
КИЙ. обоснованный; З. креп­
encounter [ш'kаunta] v 1. (НСОЖИ- КИЙ. 3iXоровый

136
wheel (wi;J] n КOIIе<О swltch fsWltJ) n перек.лючате.'Iь,
yardsuck ('ja,dsuk] I! 1. И'Зжри· коммутатор; ключ ; v пере­
тельная лkиейкз; 2. n.tptH. ключзть

мерка, мерило; критерий:;


масштаб
UNIТ 14

arsenic ['a:snJk] n хим. мышь­


UNIТ 13 як; [a;'seruk] а мышьяковый
bIind Iblашd] а е.,споЙ
r
analogue а!ПiJlэgl 11 1. аналог; dcficicncy IdJ'f1/~nSJJ IJ недоста­
2. моде..1Ь; З. МОДeJD:IРУЮЩЗЯ ТОI<, <m:утствие чеro-л . , де-

система ФИU>п
brain [brE:ln] n 1. ),{озr, 2. рас­ dope [doup] n (леПlРУЮЩ:lJI)
судок. ум при:месь, диффузант; v леrи­
clock (kl.k] v засекать BjJCWI. ровать
хронометрировать; СШfхро-- drilt [dnft] n дрейф; YXO.!l:
низировать смещение; v дрейфовать;
digit ('ch<13,t] " ",ат. единиц.1; смещаться
оnнозначи~ число effect [l'fektJ n 1. С.1едствие,
engulr IШ'QЛЩ v поглощать (о результат; 2. действие , ВJIИ.R­
пучине) ине; 3. действие , сила; 4.
halt fh:>ltJ n остановка ; оста­ цель, намерение; in с. в
нов; v останaвmmать(ся). де­ дейсТБИГCJJЬНОСТИ, в сущнcr
лать привал о".

linkagc ('h~k,<13] n 1. связь; 2. Пе. (fЩ n 11,,0,"


устаllовление связи; 3. воз­ gap [grep] n 1. запрещенная
врат; 4.. согласующее УСТ­ (энергетическая) зона: 2. за­
ройство :юр; промежуток; mпервал

marvcl {'ma:ViflJ n 1. замеча­ hairsplitting ['htэsрhtц») 11 ме-


тельная вещь.; 2. диво. чудо лочный пеазНТИ7М
memory I'тет~п] n па:чять image [',nшllJ ,. обра,; изобра­
mO<tily fmodlf&l! v (видо)иэме­ жение ; рисунок

нять; модифицировать impuriry [lm'pjuantJ.] n 1. (лсm­


nonsense ('n:>IlSiJnS] n 1. бес­ рующая) при:месь; 2. загрll3-­
смыс.mща; вздор, ерунда; 2, нение; нежелате,1ЬНая при­

сумасбродство месь

numerical [nju:'menkal] а чис­ junction r<1;л~kJn] n 1. (р-п)


ловой. цифровой переход; 2. сосцинение; епо­
perform ~;b:т] v исподилть. соб
выполилть; совершать latLice ['hrtJs) n (криста..'L'IИЧс.­
precision [pn'slJn) n TO'IНOCТЬ ская) решетка
requesl [n'kwestJ 11 з.1ПРОС; leap IIi:pJ n прыжок , скачок
требоазнис: расе (pe1S1 n 1, шаг; походка,
store [st:t.l n запоминающее ус­ поступь ; 2. скорость. темп
тройство, ЗУ; peVK. па:мяп.: perfectionism (р,}'fеk,[;}шzm) n
v 3Э.по~ать: хранить высокая требо5ате.1ЬНОСТЬ к
5ubtract [sOtb'tnekt] v мат. вы· себе и дрyrmt:; стремление
ЧIП.ть добиваться совершенства во
swell ~wel] v (swelled. всем

5wollen) 1. налув.ать(ся). pump (рлmрl n насос; помпа; v


разлуватьс.R: nYXHYTb: набу­ накачивать; выкачивать

хать; 2. уreличиватhC.R, раз ­ punch (p.\ntJ) " пробивка, пер-


рзстатьс'I фориров.аfllJОС отверстие:

137
перфор:щия; перфор.тор; v bIow [blouj v (bIew, bIown)
псрфорироватъ, пробиватъ J.)'ТЪ; nе.я:н., ра:;всвзть; Ь.
(OTвepcrnc); punchcd card up ра :::ду вать; flЗРЫ&;1ТЬ;

nерфокарта вз.'1стать на воздух

skip [sюр] v 1. ска кать, пры­ соре [koup} \1 сnрав...'1JПЬСЯ; с о­


гать ; 2. пе~скаЮ1'1,ать; про­ мзд:пь
пускать drag: {сШеу} Jt 1. то р~fOЗ; 2.
s1ice Isla.IsJ n n''13СПflЩ (J :шта; Тl)рможсние; З. обуза, бре­
КРИСТалл мя; 4. ав. лобовое ConpOTI1B-
sl ivcr ['sh\'a] 11 щепка, лучина; леrН1е (С~I МОЛСТЗ)
v отка..1ЫnaтЬ{ся); расщеп­
draftsman !'d:ra:ftsm.JП] 1/ чер­
лять(ся)
тежник, рисовалЫЦИJ\
soal< [soukj v 1. (ир in) BnКТЫ­ drawing ['dп:цэJ Il 1. p.IC08aHHC.
вать(ся) . всасыsaть(ся) ; про­
чеР"IСЮlе ; 2. риСУНОJ\. чер­
ПJffывать(ся); 2. "роса'ш­
теж; и зображе ние
ватьсл
jam t<bremJ n заедание, закли­
stride [straId] II большой шаг; mm.aние; затор (n мехзниз­
v (strodc. .slridden) шагать >lе)
(бо.'IЬWИМJI шагами) lag (lreg) 11 1. .запазды~нис, за­
!аре [telpj плента; p"per L держка, отставание: 2. ИН­
бумажная леllта тервз", (времени)
Iraverse ['trceva:sJ 11 псрем еще ­
IПlе, движение, ход; v 1. пс­ option (''Эрfпl " 1. выбор: ПpJ.ВО
ресеУ.зть(ся); 2. перем е­ выбора ; 2. вариант, ве рсии:
ща Т i>СЯ, двагаться; проха­ Э;1емент RЫборз, (фа.I<ульта­
J,ИТЬ: а поперечный тивнзя) ВОЗМОЖНОСТЬ
typewriter ('шр, r а.ааJ n п ечата­ rear (Пd) n m;'l: З3J\НЯЯ сторо­
ющее устройство; пишущая н.

МЗl.L1И1tка road-bIосk ['l"Оud, ЬЬk} 11 ПО~lе­


wafer ['welf~] Il ПО.1УПРОВОДНИ­ ха, ПJ,..>еnЯТСТВИС

ковал пластина; пластина ,


roof fru:fl n )(рыша
плата; подложка; кристал.'l
trial ['trю;аIJ 11 испытание,
опыт; проба; Ьу t. and ес­
UNIT 15 ror У.стозо}{ подбора. :\{ето­
appropriate (<t' prouPnltl ([ 00;1- ло~t п роб И ОJ Шroок
ХОд.ЯUn-fЙ, сооnетствуюший
CONТENТS

п реДИСЛОDие ......... .................................................. ""'"'''''''''''' 3


Рап I. Science, Technological Progress
апд Society

Read/ng lА. Scicncc anд Technological Progress in


Modern Socicty ................................................................. . 6
Read/ng 1В. Tomorrow is Now ........................................ .. 9
Reading 2А . ТЬе Scientists' Responsibllity .................... .. 13
Read /ng 2В. .. " ................... """"'''''' ........................................ .. 16
Readtng ЗА. Pressing ProbIems ........ "" ......" .... " .. " ...... " .... . 19
Reading ЗВ. Is the Earth Getting Hottcr? ............ " ...... .. 21
Read/ng 4А. ТЬе Golden Age оС Mathematics ......... .... . 24
Reading 4В. Bieberbach Conjccture " ...."""""" ...."" .... "". 26
Read/ng 5А. ТЬе 01d Кing оС Mathcmatjcs is Dead ..... 29
Readlng 5В. Why ЕТ Нзs No Нш """""""""""""""'" 33

Part П. Тhe Universe Puzzles

Readlng 6А. ТЬе World is Made of Subatomic Par-


ticles" ........................... " ...."" ". " ..................... " ............ ". ....... 38
Readtng 6В. ТЬе Fate of the Universe .. " ...... " ......"........ 41
Readlng 7А. ТЬе Properties оС Space ......"" .. "" .......... "". 43
Readlng 7В. How Мanу Dimcnsions Exist? " .... " .. "....... 46
Readlng 8А. Particles and Fields """ ...."" ...." ......"............ 49
Readlng 8В. ТЬе Universe Origin " .. "" .. .. " .............. "........ S2
Readlng 9А . ТЬе Universe is а НопеусоmЬ "" .... " ...... " SS
Readlng 9В. Scenario 1: А Finite Small Universc ........ S9
Reading ЮА. Chaotic lnflation """"" .. " .. " .. " .. """ ... "........ 62
Reading 10В. Scenario 2: А Large Finite Universe "... 6S
Readlng llА. Chaotic lnflation "" .... "" ...... " ......" .... "......... 70
Read/ng llВ. Scenario 3: An Jnfmite Unive.rse 72

Part lll. The Computer Revolutiol1

Read/ng 12А. ТЬе Computer Revolutiol1 " ...... .... " ....... ".. 77
Rcad/ng 12В. Computers Сопсесп Уои .... "" ................. " 79
R ead/ng 1ЗА. ".".... " .... "" ... ""............ " ...... " ......... "'''''''''''''''''' 82
Readlng JЗВ. Artificial Intellij:ence " ..........................."..... 84
Readlng 14 А. А Great Stпdеs in Computer ТесЬ-
nology ....... ""... " .... " "" ....... "" .. " .. " ...... " ...."" .. " ................ ". 86
Read/ng 14В. Europe Leads Research in Optical
Computing ." ........ " ...... " .... " ..... .... " .......... "".. ...................... 89
139
Readlng 15А. Thc Future of Computcrs ......................... 91
Read/ng 15В. Computers-translators .................................. 94
Laboratory Works .................................................................. 96
Модель учебной .научноЙ» конференции .................. 124
Vocabulary ................................................................................. 130
Уч.е6,юе издание

КурашвИJ1И Екатерина Ивановна

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

Пособие по чтению н устной речи ДЛЯ технических вузов

Зав. редакцией л.н. Кравцова. Редактор Л.Н. Белая. Художественный

редактор В.А. Щер6ахов. Старший корректор З.Ф. Юреск)·л.

ИБ N' 9078

Изд. ~ Л-165. Сдано в набор 09.10.90. Подп. в печать 19.11.90. Формат

84х108/32. Бум. тип. N!! 2. Гаршrrура Тайме. Печать высокая. Объем


7~6 УС.'I.-печ.л. 7,77 усл.-кр.отг. 7~З УЧ.-ИЗД-'I, Тираж 84000 ЭЮ. Заказ
N!! 179. Цена 70 коп.

Издательство ~(Высшая школа», 101430, Москва, ГСП-4, I1еГ;UШНaJI ул.,

29/14.

Набрано на переоналъном компьютере в издательстве «Высшая

школа».

Отпечатано на ЯрослаВСfl:ОМ полиграфfl:омбинате при ГОСКQмпечаru

СССР. 150049, Ярослав.'IЪ, УЛ. Свободы, 97.


Курашвили Е.И.
К 93 Английский язык. Пособие по чтению и
устной речи для технических вузов: Учсб.
пособие. - М.: Высш. шк., 1991. - 140 с.

ISBN 5·06·002017·7
Пособие предназначено для студентов П курса и
рассчитано на 50 часов аудиторных заНЯТИЙ. Цел[, ПОСО 4
бия - да.'lънеЙшее совершенствование навыков чтения, а

также устной и письмеююй ре'Ш, характерной для


лодъязыка научной .литературы. Пособие разработано на
основе ориnrnальftых статей по наибо;IСС актуалЫIЫМ
проблсмам современной науки н техники: темпы разви­
тия НТР, выдающиеся открытия последних лет, атомная
энеРГСПD<а, лазерная техника, лроб.'1СМЫ эколоrnи и др.
В пособие включены лабораторные работы, прсдпо­
лагаюI.ЦИС ИСПО.'lьзовзиие ТСО для обработки речевых
стсреОПfПОВ, свойственных нау'шому стилю рсчи.

4602020102(4309000000) - 078
К __________________
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