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PHT 5933 1 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA

Advanced Level - Physics


RE-30 ;dmh - 03 Amith Pussella
jdhq kshu PHT5933 2020Re 2020-07-18

THEORY 01
jdhqkshu iïnkaO isoaOdka; igyka

jdhq mSvkh [Pressure of Gases]


jdhqjla ksid mDIaGhl tall j¾.M,hla u; wNs,ïNlj fhfok uOHkh n,h jdhq mSvkh kï fõ'

F F A = mDIaG j¾.M,h
P =
A A F = wNs,ïN n,h

mSvkh uekSfï tall


wka;¾ cd;sl tallh ⇒ Nm-2 fyj;a Pa ^meial,a&
fjk;a tall ⇒ Hg cm ^riÈh fikaáógr& Hgmm ^riÈh ñ,sógr&
torr ^fgda& bar ^nd& atm ^jdhqf.da,&

igyk
1 Hgcm = 0.01 x 13600 x 9.81 pa
1 Hgcm = 1334.16 pa
1 Hgmm = 1 torr = 133.416 Pa
1 atm = 76 Hgcm = 760 Hgmm = 760 torr = 101350 pa
1 bar = 105 Pa

jdhqjl mSvkh iïnkaOj ie,lsh hq;= lreKq


01' jdhqjla yd iam¾Yj mj;sk ´kEu mDIaGhla u; n,hla we;s fõ' fï n,h mDIaGhg wNs,ïNj we;s jk
w;r jdhq mSvkfhka we;s jkafka hehs ie,lsh yelsh' jdhq mSvkh wÈYhls' tfy;a bka WmÈk n,h
ffoYslhla fõ' fuu mSvk n,j,g uQ,sl jkafka fõ.fhka p,kh jk jdhq wKq tlS mDIaGh iuÕ
.eàfï § we;s jk .uH;d fjkihs'
m ialJOhla o C m%fõ.hla o we;s jdhq wKqjla n÷kl mDIaGfhys mQ¾K m%;Hdia: .egqula we;s lrk
úg isÿjk .uH;d fjki my; ±lafõ'
θ
sin
mC

mC c mC
os θ
θ θ
θ

mC
c
in

mC os
mC s

n÷k

.egq u g fmr .uH;djh .egq u g miq .uH;djh


n÷kg iam¾Yj yd ,ïnlj n÷kg iam¾Ylj yd
úfNaokh l< úg ,ïnlj úfNaokh l<úg
PHT 5933 2 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA
.egqfï § n÷kg iam¾Yl .uH;djfha úYd,;ajh fyda ÈYdj fjkia jkafka ke;' tneúka jdhq wKq
.eàfï iS>%;djhla tkï n,hla we;s fkdfõ' fï wkqj .efgk mDIaGhg iam¾Ylj mSvk n,hla
fkdue;'
jdhq mSvkh u.ska n, we;s jkafka mDIaGhg ,ïnlj muKs'
mDIaGhg ,ïnl .uH;djfha ÈYdj .egqfuka miq iïmQ¾Kfhkau fjkia ù we;'

mDIaGhg ,ïnl .uH;d fjki"


= mC cos θ - mC cos θ = mC cos θ + mC cos θ


→ →
= 2 mC cos θ fõ'

fufia wKq .eàfuka we;sjk .uH;dj fjkia ùfï YS>%;djh u.ska we;sjk n,fhka jdhq mSvkh we;s
fõ' mSvkfhka n, we;s jkafka mDIaGhg ,ïnlj muKs' mDIaGhg iam¾Yj mSvkfhka n, WmÈkafka
ke;'

02' jdhq mSvkhg uQ,sl jYfhka odhl jkafka wKqj, .egqï wdY%fhka WmÈk .uH;dj fjkia ùfï
iS>%;djhhs' Bg wu;rj jdhq mSvkhg jdhqjl by,ska we;s wKqj, nro hï m%udKhlg odhl fõ' tkï
123456
jdhqjl .eTqrg h;au jdhqjl mSvkh jeäfõ' 123456
123456
123456
l A
A,laIHfha mSvkh P kï" B ,laIHfha mSvkh = P + hρg fõ'

flfia jqjo jdhqjl >k;ajh fndfyda l=vd neúka idudkH n÷kla ;=,§ fuu hρg h
mSvk fjki b;d l=vdfõ' tneúka idudkH n÷kla ;=, .eUqr wkqj jdhq mSvkfha ρ
úp,kh fkdi,ld iEu ,laIHhlu tlu mSvkhla we;ehs i,lkq ,efí'
l B

03' jdhqf.da,h jeks fndfyda Wilg we;s jdhqjl iEfyk uÜgï wka;rhla ie,l+ úg jdhqfõ .eTqr wkqj
mSvk fjki ie,lsh hq;=fõ'
04' jdhq mSvkh iïnkaO ie<lsh hq;= lreKq
jdhqjla yd øjhla iam¾Yj mj;sk mDIaGhla i,lkak' tys§ øj mDIaGh ksYap,j iu;=,s;j mj;S kï øj
mDIaGfha§ øjfha mSvkh jdhqfõ mSvkhg iudk fõ' øj mDIaGfha mSvkh uekSug tu øjfhau Wila
fhdojd .; yelsh' fndfyda úg jdhqjl mSvkh øj l|l Wi f,i bÈßm;a lrkq ,efí'
igyk
(a). jdhqfõ mSvkh = jd'f.da'mS' + øj lf|a Wfika we;sjk mSvkh
π - jd'f.da'mS'
h
P = π +h
}

P π
riÈh }h (π + h) cmHg jdhqfõ mSvkh = jd'f.da'mS' P
P=π
P
jdhqj }h
jdhqfõ mSvkh = jd'f.da'mS' + øj lf|a Wfika
we;sjk mSvkh
P = π -h π
jdhqjl mSvkh uekSu
mSvkudk øjhla wvx.= uefkdaógrhla u.ska jdhqfõ mSvkh ueksh yelsh'
PA = P B P = π + hρg

mSvkudk øjhla f,i riÈh fhdod.ekSug fya;= jd'f.da'mS'

^1& wêl >k;ajh ksid jeä mSvkhla jqjo wvq øj Wilska uek.;
yelsùu'
^2& idudkH WIaK;aj j,§" riÈfha jdIam mSvkh b;d wvqùu ksid" P h
mSvkh ukskq ,nk wjldYhg ix;Dma; jdIam mSvkfhka we;sjk
n,mEu wjuhla ùu' Al l
B
^3& mdrkaO neúka uÜgï wka;rh lshjd .ekSu myiq ùu'
^4& ùÿre f;;a fkdlrk neúka k,fha fkd;ejÍ p,kh ùu'

PHT 5933 3 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA


fndhs,a kshuh
wp, jdhq ialkaOhl mSvkh;a mßudj;a w;r ksh; WIaK;ajhl§ mj;sk iïnkaO;djh frdnÜ fndhs,a
úiska 17 Y;j¾Ifha§ fidhd.kakd ,§' th fndhs,a kshuh f,i ye¢kafõ'

wp, jdhq ialkaOhl ksh; WIaK;ajhl§ mSvkh tys mßudjg m%;sf,dauj iudkqmd;sl fõ'
P ∝ 1/v
P = k 1 /V k hkq ksh;hls'
PV = k

fuu m%;sM, ,nd.ekSug fuys olajd we;s WmlrKh Ndú;d l< yel'

fndhs,a kshuh wjia:d follg fhdok whqre'


[m] [T] [m] [T]
1234567 1234567
1234567 1234567
1234567 1234567
1234567 1234567
1234567 1234567
1234567
1234567890123456789
1234567 P1 1234567
1234567890123456789
1234567 P2
1234567890123456789
1234567 1234567890123456789
1234567
1234567890123456789
1234567 1234567890123456789
1234567
1234567890123456789
1234567 1234567890123456789
1234567
1234567 1234567
1234567
1234567 V1 1234567
1234567 V2
1234567 1234567
1234567 1234567
1234567 1234567
1234567 1234567

P1 V1 = k P2 V2 = k
by; rEmfha mßÈ WIaK;ajh ksh;j ;ndf.k wp, jdhq ialJOfha mSvkh iy mßudj fjkia lrkq
,efí'
P1 V1 = P2 V2
w taldldr isria k,h ;=< wp, jdhq ialkaOhla isrlr we;' mßirfha mSvkh ksh;j we;s w;r jdhq
mßudj V iy mSvk ógrfhka mSvkh P ukskq ,efí' WIaK;ajh ksh; ùu iy;sl lsÍu i|yd moaO;sh
;rula fõ,d ;sfnkakg yer B<`. mdGdxlh .ekSug fjkia lrkq ,efí'
fmdïmh u.ska mSvkh fjkia lrñka mSvkh o" wkqrEm mßudj o lshjkq ,efí' miqj mdGdxl weiqfrka
mSvkh ( P ) g tfrysj 1/mßudj (1/V) m%ia:dr.; lrkq ,efí'

P
fndhs,a kshu WmlrKh

1
/V
m%ia:drh uQ, ,laIHh yryd hk ir, f¾Ldjls' tla tla WIaK;aj j,§ mdGdxl f.k m%ia:dr .; l<
úg WIaK;ajh jeäjk úg wkql%uKh jeä jk nj fmfka'

P iy V w;r m%i:
a dr

by; mdGdxl P ydV w;r m%ia:dr.; l< úg fuys olajd


we;s m%ia:drh ,efí'

PHT 5933 4 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA


1. (a) jdhqf.da,Sh mSvkh 75 cmHg jk Èkl riÈh wvx.= fødaKsldjl u;=msg mDIaGfha isg 25 cm la
.eUqßka msysá ia:dkhl mSvkh cmHg j,ska fidhkak'

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(b) c,dYhl we;s c,fha >k;ajh 103 kg m-3 o" riÈh j, >k;ajh 13.6 x 103 kg m-3 o fõ' c,dYfha
u;=msg isg 10 m .eUqßka msysá ia:dkhl mSvkh cmHg tall j,ska fidhkak'

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(c) jdhqf.da,Sh mSvkh Pa tall j,ska fidhkak'

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(d) mßudj V0 jQ l=vd jdhq nqnq,la riÈh ;=< 25 cm l .eUqßka


;sî ksoyia l<úg th wh;a lr .kakd mßudju c,h ;=<
h .eUqßka ;sî mßudj 1.2 V0 jQ nqnq,la c, u;=msgg meñKs
úg wh;a lr .kafka kï h .eUqr cm j,ska fidhkak'

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PHT 5933 5 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA


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2. (a) tla me;a;la ixjD; jQ flaYsl nghla


;=< 15 cm la È. riÈh l|la u.ska
30 cm la È. jdhq fldgila isrlr
we;' jdhqf.da,Sh mSvkh 75 cmHg
kï tys újD; fl<jr by<g isák
fia flaYsl ngh isria l<úg isrù
we;s jdhq fldgfia Wi fidhkak'

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(b) oeka tu (a) fldgfia we;s flaYsl ngfha újD; fl<jr by<g yd isriaj ;nd we;súg ta ;=<g hï
riÈh m%udKhla tl;= lr riÈh lf|a Wi fjkia lrk ,È' túg isrù we;s jdhq fldgfia Wi L
o" tu ngfha újD; fl<jr my<g isák fia th isriaj ;nd .;aúg jdhq fldgfia Wi 2 L úh' ta
;=<g w¨;ska tl;= l< riÈh lf|a Wi fldmuKo@

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PHT 5933 6 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA


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(d) oeka tu (a) fldgfia we;s flaYsl ngfha újD; fl<jr by<g yd isriaj ;nd we;súg ta ;=<g hï
riÈh m%udKhla tl;= lr riÈh lf|a Wi fjkia lrk ,È' túg isrù we;s jdhq fldgfia Wi L
o" tu ngfha újD; fl<jr my<g isák fia th isriaj ;nd .;aúg jdhq fldgfia Wi 2 L úh' ta
;=<g w¨;ska tl;= l< riÈh lf|a Wi fldmuKo@

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(e) fjk;a Èkhl § jdhqf.da,Sh mSvkh fiùu i|yd by; isoaêhg iudk isoaêhla Wmfhda.S lr
.kakd ,È' tys§ 8.5 cm riÈh l|la u.ska flaYsl ngh ;=< jdhq l|la isrlr ngh ;sriaj ;nd
.;aúg isrù we;s jdhq lf|a È. 5 cm o" újD; fl<jr by<g isák fia isria l<úg jdhq lf|a È.
4.5 cm o jk nj fidhd.kakd ,È' tÈk jdhqf.da,Sh mSvkh cmHg tall j,ska .Kkh lrkak'

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PHT 5933 7 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA


3. (a) 1.0 m la Wi fome;a;u újD; isyska nghla tys Wiska 2/5 l Wila riÈfhka msg; isák fia th
isriaj riÈh ;=< .s,ajd we;' bkamiq tys by< fl<jr we`.s,a,lska fyd¢ka jid f.k th l%ufhka
isriaj by<g f.k uq¿uKskau riÈh u.ska bj;g .;aúg ta ;=< 25 cm l riÈh l|la b;sß úh'
jdhqf.da,Sh mSvkh 75 cmHg o kï" ta ;=< isrù we;s jd; lf|a Wi fldmuKo@

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(b) uq,a wdldrhgu ngh riÈh ;=< bka 3/5 la isriaj .s,ajd ;nd f.k tys by< fl<jrg we`.s,a,
;ndf.k l%ufhka riÈfhka by<g .;aúg ta ;=< isrù we;s jdhq lf|a Wi 70 cm la úh' túg ta
;=< we;s riÈh lf|a Wi fldmuKo@

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PHT 5933 8 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA


4. riÈh jdhq mSvkhl nefrdaógrh isriaj we;súg riÈhg by<ska we;s nefrdaógrfha Wi 1000 mm
ls' oeka ta ;=< we;s riÈhg by<ska msysá m%foaYhg jd;h iaj,amhla we;=¿ l<úg riÈh lf|a Wi
700 mm úh' ta ;=< riÈhg by<g we;s jd;h msg;g fkdhk fia tys my< fldgi riÈh ;=<g
mj;ajd .ksñka fyñka iSrefõ th ;sri iu. 300 lg wdk; l<úg ta ;=< riÈh lf|a È.
950 mm úh' túg o riÈhg msg; msysá nefrdaógrfha uq¿ È. 1000 mm u kï"

(a) tÈk jdhqf.da,Sh mSvkh mmHg j,ska fidhkak'

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(b) ngh isriaj we;súg ta ;=< wvx.= l< jdhq fldgfia mSvkh mmHg j,ska fldmuKo@

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(c) by; mßÈ ngh fyñka iSrefõ we, lrf.k hkúg tla;rd wjia:djl § ta ;=< riÈh lf|a È.
820 mm úh' túg ngh yd ;sria w;r fldaKh fldmuKo@

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PHT 5933 9 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA
5. fome;a ; u jeiQ 60 cm la È.
flaYsl nghla ;=< 10 cm la È.
riÈh l|la u.ska jdhq fldgia
folla isrlr we;' k<h ;sria
úg jïmi jdhq lf|a È. 20 cm
la úh'
oeka È.ska jeä jdhq fldgi by<g isák fia ngh isria l<úg my<ska we;s jdhq fldgfia È.
10 cm la úh' wjia:d fofla§ isrù we;s jdhq fldgiaj, mSvkhka fidhkak'

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PHT 5933 10 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA


10
6. rEmfha mßÈ 110 cm la È. L yevh we;s fome;a;u ixjD;
taldldr yrialvla iys; flaYsl nghl A fl<jr by<g isák
fia th isria l<úg AB jdhq fldgfia È. 40 cm o" BC riÈh
lf|a È. 20 cm o" CD jdhq fldgfia È. 20 cm o" DE fldgi ;=<
jdhqj 30 cm È.lg o we;' AB ;=< jdhq fldgfia mSvkh
80 cmHg fõ'

oeka AD fldgi ;sriaj iy DE fldgi isriaj mj;sk fia


ngfha msysàu fjkia lrk ,È' túg isrù we;s jdhq fldgia j,
È.j,a fidhkak'

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THEORY 02

pd,aia kshuh
wp, jdhq ialkaOhl mßudj WIaK;ajh wkqj
úp,kh ùu pd,aia kshufhka m%ldY lrhs'

wp, jdhq ialkaOhl ksh; mSvkhl §


mßudj ksrfmalI
a WIaK;ajhg wkqf,dauj
iudkqmd;sl fõ'
ke;fyd;a WIaK;ajh jeälrk yeu wxYlhlgu mßudj
jeäjkafka 0 0C WIaK;ajfha§ mßudfjka V0 " 1/273 la
ne.sks'
θ 0C § mßudj V = V0(1 + 1/273 θ)

PHT 5933 11 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA


11
pd,aia kshuh wkafõYkh lsÍu i|yd Ndú;d lrkq ,nk WmlrKh fuys ±lafõ'

flaYsl k,hla ;=< úh<s jdhq ialkaOhla idkaø i,a*shqßla wï,h flkaola u.ska isrlr we;' k,h mm
mßudKhlg isriaj iïnkaO lr we;s w;r th c, ;dmlhl .s,ajd we;' WIaK;ajudkh u.ska ukskq
,nk c, ;dmlfha WIaK;ajh jdhqfõ WIaK;ajhg iudk fõ' c, ;dmlh fyd¢ka uka:kh lrkq
,efí' jdhq lf|a È. l úúO WIaK;aj j,§ uek.kq ,efí' miqj jdhqfõ mßudj (l) WIaK;ajhg tfrysj
m%ia:dr.; lrkq ,efí'

V g tfrysj θ m%ia:drh V g tfrysj T (k) m%ia:drh

m%ia:drh ir, f¾Ldjla jk w;r th WIaK;aj wlaIhg yuqjkafka -273.15 0C WIaK;ajfha§h' fuys§
mßudj Y=kH jk w;r th ksrfmalaI Y=kH WIaK;ajh f,i ye¢kafõ'

ir, f¾Ldfõ iólrKh" V = k(θ + 273.15) T (k) = θ + 273.15


V = kT ------------(1)
V
V ∝ T V/T ksh;hls' [ P ksh; jQ úg ] = k
T

pd,aia kshuh wjia:d follg fhdok whqre


123456 123456
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123456 123456
123456 123456
V1 123456
123456123456789012345678 V2 123456
1234561234567890123456789
123456123456789012345678 1234561234567890123456789
123456 123456
123456 123456
T1 123456 T2 123456
123456 123456
123456 123456
123456 123456
123456 123456
123456 123456
[m] [P] [m] [P]

V1 V2
=k =k
T1 V1 V 2 T2
=
T1 T2

PHT 5933 12 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA


12
7. (a) flaYsl nghla isriaj ;nd rEmfha mßÈ riÈh l|la u.ska jdhq
fldgila isrlr we;' WIaK;ajh T1 (K) fõ' WIaK;ajh T2 (K)
olajd r;a l<úg flaYsl ngh ;=< riÈh l| by< hk kuq;a
isrù we;s jdhqfõ mSvkh fjkia fkdjk nj fmkajd fokak'

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(b) tla me;a;la jeiQ flaYsl nghl 5 cm la


È. riÈh l|la u.ska jdhq fldgila isrlr
we;' WIaK;ajh 300 K § ngh ;sria úg
jdhq lf|a È. 40 cm ls' ta ;=< jd;fha
>k;ajh 2.0 kg m-3 fõ' oeka WIaK;ajh
320 K olajd jeäl< úg jdhq lf|a È.
fldmuKo@

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(c) 320 K § isrù we;s jdhqfõ >k;ajh fldmuKo@

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PHT 5933 13 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA
13
(d) tu nghu WIaK;ajh 350 K olajd jeä l<úg ta ;=< jd;fha >k;ajh fldmuKo@

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8. (a) jdhqjl ialkaOh 0.273 kg o" tys WIaK;ajh 25 0C isg 35 0C olajd jeä l<úg mßudfõ jeäù
1.25 x 10-2 m3 fõ' 0 0C § tu jdhqfõ >k;ajh fidhkak' ^mSvkh ksh; úg jdhqfõ mßud m%idrK;d
ix.=Klh γP = 1/273 fõ'&

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(b) 25 0C § tu jdhqfõ >k;ajh fidhkak'

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PHT 5933 14 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA
14
9. jd; neÆkhla uq¿uKskau jd;h msÍ we;súg whs;s lr
.kakd mßudj 1800 m3 la fõ' neÆkfha msg; jd;fha
uOHhl WIaK;ajh 300 K fõ' tys ish¿u Wmdx.j, iy ta
;=< isák u.Skaf.a nr 2700 N fõ' 300 K WIaK;ajfha §
jd;fha >k;ajh 1.27 kgm-3 fõ'

(a) neÆkh hdka ; ñka by<g tifjk fudfydf;a ta u;


l%shdlrk n, ,l=Kq lr tajd kï lrkak'

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(b) neÆkh ;=< we;s r;a jQ jd;fha WIaK;ajh fldmuKo@

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THEORY 03

mSvk kshuh
ksh; mßudfõ§ wp, jdhq ialkaOhl mSvkh tys ksrfmalI
a WIaK;ajhg wkqf,dau jYfhka
iudkqmd;sl fõ'

P
P α T → P = kT → /T = k
P1 P2
wjia:d follg fh¥úg P1 P2 T1 T2
=
T1 T2
[m] [V] [m] [V]

PHT 5933 15 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA


15
10. (a) ixjD; n÷kl we;s jdhqfõ WIaK;ajh 27 0C o" mSvkh 3 x 105 Nm-2 o fõ' n÷fka WIaK;ajh
127 0C olajd jeä l,úg th ;=< jdhqfõ kj mSvkh fidhkak' ^n÷fka mßud fjkila isÿfkdfõ
hehs Wml,amkh lrkak'&

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(b) tu n÷fka fl,aúka WIaK;ajh 20 % lska jeä l<úg tys mSvkfha Nd.sl fjkiaùu fldmuKo@

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(c) fudag¾ r: ghrhl jd;fha mSvkh 2.5 x 105 Pa fõ' th r¿ mdrl .uka lsÍu ksid ckkh jk
;dm Yla;sh ghrh wjfYdaIKh lsÍu ksid ta ;=< WIaK;ajh 27 0C isg 47 0C olajd jeäúh' ghrfha
mßud fjki fkdi,ld yßñka ta ;=< kj mSvkh .Kkh lrkak'

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PHT 5933 16 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA


16
11. 100 cm3 mßudjla we;s ùÿre n,anhlg isyska flaYsl
nghla isriaj iúlr we;' flaYsl ngh ;=< 25 cm
l riÈh l|la u.ska n,anh ;=< muKla jd;h
isrlr we;súg WIaK;ajh 27 0C la fõ' jdhqf.da,Sh
mSvkh 75 cmHg kï" 87 0C §;a" tu jd;h n,anh
;=< muKla r|jd .ekSu i|yd flaYsl ngh ;=<
wvx.= l<hq;= riÈfha lf|a Wi h .Kkh lrkak'

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12. jdhqf.da,Sh mSvkh H (cmHg) jk Èkhl J k<hla


f.k rEmfha mßÈ ldur WIaK;ajfha § (T1 = 300 K)
riÈh uÜgï iudkj mj;sk fia jdhq fldgila
isrlr .kakd ,È'

oeka k<h ;< isrù we;s jdhq fldgfia WIaK;ajh


T2 olajd fjkialr isrù we;s jdhq lf|a Wi h0 u jk
fia ol=Kqmi ndyqjg riÈh we;=¿ lrk ,È' túg
riÈh uÜgï w;r fjki h fõ'

(a) h yd T2 w;r iïnkaOh f.dvk.kak'

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PHT 5933 17 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA


17
(b) T2 iu. h fjkiajk m%ia;drfha yevh my; mßÈ úh'

T2 = 400 K jkúg h = 25 cm kï" jdhqf.da,Sh mSvkh H i|yd w.hla ,nd.kak'

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(c) T2 = 600 K jkúg h w.h fldmuKo@

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(d) h = 60 cm jkúg T2 WIaK;ajh fldmuKo@

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PHT 5933 18 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA


18
13. yrialv j¾.M,h 2 x 10-4 m2 jQ is,skavrdldr n÷kla jdhqf.da,Sh
mSvkfha we;s jd;fhka mqrjd th u; 0.5 kg ialkaOh we;s
;yvqjla ;nk ,È' jdhqf.da,Sh mSvkh 105 Nm-2 o" túg WIaK;ajh
27 0C o fõ' oeka ;yvqj u.ska we;=<; jd;h msg;g fkdhEu
msKsi ;nd .; yels Wmßu WIaK;ajh .Kkh lrkak'

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THEORY 04

fvda,agka wdxYsl mSvk kshuh


jdhq fyda jdIa m ñY% K hla u.s k a θ,V θ,V θ,V θ,V
we;slrkakd jQ uq¿ msvkh" WIaK;ajh
l
o lx o x x x o o l

o o l
ksh;j ;sìh § tla tla jdhqjla fyda o lox l l x + o o + l

jdIamhla " ñY%Kfha uq¿ mßudjg iudk xol x o x x o o l l


l
mßudjla orñka ;ks ;ksj mej;sfha kï P P1 P2 P3
we;s lrkakd jQ wdxYsl mSvkj, ftlHhg
iudk fõ' P = P1 + P2 + P3

PHT 5933 19 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA


19
14. 300 K WIaK;ajhl we;s ixjD; n÷kla ;=< tlsfklg ñY%
fkdjk H2 , O2 , N2 jdhq ix>gl ;=kla we;s w;r tajdfha
wdxYsl mSvkhka ms<sfj,ska 0.2 x 105 Pa , 0.2 x 105 Pa yd
0.1 x 105 Pa fõ' n÷fka uq¿ mßudj 2.0 m3 fõ'

(a) n÷k ;=< 300 K WIaK;ajfha § jdhq ñY%Kfha uq¿ mSvkh


fldmuKo@

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(b) n÷fka WIaK;ajh 600 K l<úg tla tla jdhq ix>glfha wdxYsl mSvkhka ljf¾o@

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(c) by; jdhq ñY%Kfha ;kd .ekSu i|yd ta ;=< ;enQ tla tla jdhq ix>gl ldur WIaK;ajh jk
300 K j,g fjk fjku mßud we;s n÷ka ;=kl meje;s w;r tu n÷ka j, mßudjka y; olajd we;s
mßÈ fõ'

H2
N2
O2

0.5 m3 0.8 m3 1.0 m3

ñY% lsÍug fmr ta tla tla n÷k ;=< ;snQ tu jdhQkaf.a mSvkhka fidhkak'

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PHT 5933 20 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA
20
THEORY 05

jdhq ms<sn| wjia:d iólrK


mßmQ¾K jdhq" fndhs,a kshuh iy pd,aia kshu ms,m
s §' mßmQ¾K jdhq
iajNdjfha fkdmj;S' idudkHfhka mj;sk jdhq jk O2 , N2 , He
, H2 wdÈh my;a WIaK;aj j,§ iy by< WIaK;aj j,§ jdhq kshu
ms<m
s §' fuys fmkajd we;s mßÈ i;H jdhq mßmQ¾K;djfhka wm.ukh
fõ'
PV , ksh; WIaK;ajfha§ mßmQ¾K wp, jdhq ialkaOh P , V yd T
w;r iïnkaO;djh mßmQ¾K jdhq iólrKh u.ska fokq ,nhs'
rEmfha fmfkk mßÈ
(a) wdrïNl mSvkh P1 " wdrïNl WIaK;ajh T1 " wdrïNl mßudj V1 fõ'
(a) isg (b) olajd ksh; WIaK;ajfha§
fndhs,a kshuhg wkqj"
P1 V1 = P 2 V ------ (1)
(b) isg (c) olajd pd,aia kshuhg wod, neúka"
V V
= 2 ------ (2)
T1 T2
V V2 P 1V 1 P V
(1) x (2) , P1 V1 = P2 V x = 2 2
T1 T2 T1 T2

15. (a) ixjD; n÷kla ;=< we;s jdhqjl WIaK;ajh" mßudj" mSvkh yd >k;ajh ms<sfj,ska T1 , V1 , P1 yd
d1 fõ' tu n÷fka mßudj V2 olajd o" WIaK;ajh T2 olajd o fjkia l<úg n÷k ;=< jdhqfõ kj
mSvkh P2 o kj >k;ajh d2 o fõ'

(i) T1 , T2 , d1 , d2 yd P1 , P2 w;r iïnkaOh f.dvk.kak'

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PHT 5933 21 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA


21
(ii) jdhqf.da,Sh mSvkh 75 cmHg jk Èkl tla me;a;la ixjD; flaYsl nghla ;=< 10 cm la È. riÈh
l|la u.ska jdhq fdlgila isrlr we;' WIaK;ajh 300 K § ngh ;sriaj úg ta ;=< isrù we;s jdhqfõ
È. 30 cm ls' jdhqf.da,Sh mSvkh 75 cmHg o fõ' tys újD; fl<jr by<g isrk fia ngh isria lr
WIaK;ajh 350 K olajd r;a l<úg isrù we;s jdhq lf|a Wi fidhkak'

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(iii) 300 K § isrù we;s jdhqfõ >k;ajh 1.27 kg m-3 kï" 350 K § ngh ;=< jd;fha >k;ajh fidhkak'

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PHT 5933 22 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA


22
16. rEmfha mßÈ fome;a;u ixjD; taldldr
>klu we;s flaYsl nghl 5 cm l riÈh
l|la u.ska jdhq fldgia folla isrlr
we;' th ;sriaj we;súg AB yd CD jdhq
fldgiaj, È.j,a ms<sfj,ska 15 cm yd
30 cm o túg WIaK;ajh 27 0C o fõ' ngh
;sriaj ;sìh § jïmi jdhq fldgi 127 0C
olajd r;alr ol=Kqmi jdhq fldgi 27 0C
u mj;ajd .kafka kï riÈh l| p,kh
jQ ÿr fidhkak'

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17. rEmj, ±lafjk mßÈ isria ùÿre flaYsl nghla ;=<


T1 = 300 K ys§ 10 cm = h1 È. riÈh l|la u.ska
12345
30 cm = l1 È. jdhq fldgila isrlr we;' jdhqf.da,Sh 12345
12345
12345
riÈh 12345
mS v kh 75 cmHg fõ' ùÿrej, f¾Çh m% i drK;d 12345
12345 12345
12345 12345
12345 12345
ix.=Klh 10-5 K-1 hehs i,lkak' 12345
12345
12345
12345 h
12345 12345 2
12345 12345
12345 10 cm = h1 12345
12345 12345
12345 12345
(a) 300 K ys§ isrù we;s jdhq fldgfia mSvkh cmHg 12345 12345
12345 12345
12345 12345
12345 12345
j,ska fldmuKo@ 12345

jd;h
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30 cm = l1
l2
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(b) 300 K ys§ flaYsl ngfha wNHka;r yrialv j¾.M,h


1 mm2 kï" 400 K ys§ tu flaYsl ngfha wNHka;r
WIaK;ajh T1 = 300 K WIaK;ajh T2 = 400 K
yrialv j¾.M,h fidhkak'

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PHT 5933 23 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA
23
(c)(i) 400 K WIaK;ajfha § h2 Wi riÈh l| u.ska we;slrkq ,nk mSvkh cmHg j,ska fldmuKo@

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(ii) 400 K ys§ tu isrù we;s jdhqfõ uq¿ mSvkh cmHg j,ska fldmuKo@

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(d)(i) WIaK;aj fofla§ flaYsl isÿf¾ yrialv j¾.M,hka iq¿ jYfhka fjkia fõ' fuu fjkia ùuo

P1 V1 P2 V2
.Kkhg we;=,;a lr = u`.ska l2 .Kkh lrkak'
T1 T2

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(ii) mSvk fjki fkd,ld yßñka flaYsl ngfha yrialv j¾.M,h o ie,lsh hq;= fjkila isÿfkdjQfha
hehs i,ld" pd,aia kshuh u.ska l2 .Kkh lrkak'

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(e) WIaK;ajh jeäl< úg jdhqfõ mSvkh fkdfjkiaj mj;S hehs Wml,amkh lsÍu idOdrKh o hkak
meyeÈ,s lrkak'

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PHT 5933 24 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA


24
THEORY 06

mßmQ¾K jdhq iólrKh

P - jdhqfõ mSvkh
V - jdhqfõ mßudj
P V T - jdhqfõ ksrfmalaI WIaK;ajh
T
m m - jdhqfõ ialJOh
n N
M n - jdhqfõ ujq, ixLHdj
N - jdhqfõ wKq ixLHdj
M - jdhqfõ ujq,sl ialJOh

§ we;s m kshñ; jdhq ialJOhla i,lkak' fuu jdhqfõ mSvk mßud .=Ks;h ksrfmalaI WIaK;ajfhka
fn¥ úg ksh; w.hla ,efí' tu ksh;h' wp, jdhq ialJOfha jdhq ksh;h K kï fõ'
fï wkqj wod, jdhq ialJOhg"

PV
= K, ∴ PV = K T
T
fuu iólrKhu my; ±lafjk whqßka l%u ;=klska bÈßm;a l< yelsh'

^1& l%uh
^ jdhqfõ ialJOh wdY%fhka ksh;h bÈßm;a lsÍu&

PV
jdhqfõ i|yd /T = K ^ jdhq ksh;h &

fuys K hkq jdhqfõ m ialJOhla i|yd jdhq ksh;h fõ'


∴ jdhqfõ tall ialJOhla i|yd jdhq ksh;h

K
= R' fõ'
m
K = m R'

PV = KT , fuys K = mR' fh§fuka" PV = m R' T -------- (1)

fuys tall ialJOhla i|yd jdhq ksh;h R' § we;s jdhq j¾.hla i|yd muKla ksh;hla fõ' tneúka
th jdhqfõ ixhq;sh wkqj fjkia fõ'

PHT 5933 25 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA


25
^2& l%uh
^ jdhqfõ wka;¾.; ujq, ixLHdj wdY%fhka ksh;h bÈßm;a lsÍu' &

PV
T = K
jdhqfõ m ialJOfhys jdhq ujq, n we;ehs i,luq' jdhqfõ wKql Ndrh M kï'
m
n = M
fï wkqj jdhq ujq, n i|yd jdhq ksh;h K fõ'
fï wkqj tl ujq,hla i|yd jdhq ksh;h"
K
= R
n
∴ K = nR
PV = KT , fuys K = n R fh§fuka"
PV = n RT ---------- (2)

R ´kEu jdhq j¾.hla i|yd ksh;hla ùu jeo.;a jdishls' th id¾j;% jdhq ksh;h kï fõ'

^3& l%uh
^ jdhqfõ we;s wKq ixLHdj wdY%fhka ksh;h bÈßm;a lsÍu'&

i,ld n,k jdhqfõ wKq N we;ehs i,luq'


N = n A ( fuys A hkq wej.dfv%da wxlhhs')
wKq N i|yd ksh;h K fõ'

K
wKq tlla i|yd jdhq ksh;h /N = k
∴ K = kN

PV = kT , fuys K = N k fh§fuka"
PV = N k T ---------- (3)

fuys k ´kEu jdhqjla i|yd id¾j;% ksh;hls' th fnda,aÜiaudka ksh;h f,i ye¢kafõ'

ksh; w;r iïnJO;djh


tlu jdhqjla i|yd"
K = mR1 = nR = Nk

mR1 = m R = m Ak
M M

R R
R1 = k =
M A

PHT 5933 26 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA


26
fuys M wKql ialJOh o A wej.dfv%da ixLHdj o fõ'

ksh;hkays tall SI l%uh"


(I) PV = m R' T
PV
R' =
mT
m-2 N x m3
w R' ys tall =
kg x K
= N m kg-1 K-1 = J kg-1 K-1

(II) PV = nRT
PV
R =
nT
m-2 N x m3
w R ys tall =
mol x K
= N m mol-1 K-1 = J mol-1 K-1

(III) PV = NkT
PV
k =
NT
m-2 N x m3 = Nm molecule-1 K-1
w k ys tall =
molecule x K
= J molecule-1 K-1 (JK-1)

wej.dfv%da l,ams;h (Avogadro's Hypothesis)

tlu WIaK;ajhl yd mSvkhl mj;sk úúO jdhQkaf.a iudk mßud ;=< tlu wKq ixLHdjla mj;sk nj
wej.dfv%da m%ldY lf<ah' fuh wej.dfv%da l,ams;h kï fõ'

ujq,h (mol)
msßisÿ ldnka - 12 iuia:dkslfha 0.012 kg ialJOhl wka;¾.; ldnka mrudKq ixLHdjg iudk tall
ixLHdjla ujq,hla f,i ye¢kafõ'
fuu tall ixLHdj 6.023 x 1023 muK jk w;r th wej.dfv%da ixLHdj A f,i ,shkq ,efí' hï øjHhl
wKq fu;rï ixLHdjla f;dard.;a úg th tu øjHfha ujq,hla (mol) kï fõ'
iïu; WIaK;ajh yd mSvkh hgf;a mj;sk ´kEu jdhqjl ujq,hl mßudj 22.4 l ^,Sgr& nj mÍlaIK
u.ska ;yjqre lrf.k we;' fï lreK uq,a lrf.k jdhq ksh;j, jákdlï fidhd .; yels fõ'

jdhq ksh;j, jákdlï ( S I l%uh ) Values of Gas constants


by; oelajQ o;a; wkqj"
iïu; WIaK;ajh T = 273 K
iïu; mSvkh P = 101350 m-2 N
mßudj V = 22.4 x 10-3 m3
ujq , n = 1 mol
PV = n R T
PV 101350 x 22.4 x 10-3 m-2 N x m3
∴ R = nT = 1 x 273 mol x K
R = 8.31 J mol-1 K-1
fuh ujq,sl jdhq ksh;hhs' th ish¨ jdhq i|yd id¾j;% ksh;hls' (Universal Constant)
fnda,aÜiaudka ksh;h" tkï wKqjla i|yd jdhq ksh;h fufia .Kkh lr.; yelsh'
R 8.31
k = =
A 6.023 x 1023
k = 1.38 x 10-23 J molecule-1 K-1 (JK-1)
PHT 5933 27 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA
27
tall ialJOhla i|yd jdhq ksh;h jdhqfjka jdhqjg fjkia fõ' tkï th id¾j;% ksh;hla fkdfõ'
WodyrK jYfhka yhsv%cka (H2) 1 kg l jdhq ksh;h fidhuq'

yhsv%cka 1 mol i|yd ksh;h = 8.31


tkï yhsv%cka 2 g i|yd ksh;h = 8.31
∴ yhsv%cka 1 g i|yd ksh;h = 8.31 / 2
8.31
∴ yhsv%cka 1 kg i|yd ksh;h R = x 1000
2
∴ R' = 4155 J kg-1 K-1

18. (a) O2 wvx.= is,skavrhl mßudj 0.083 m3 o" WIaK;ajh 300 K o" ta ;=< we;s iïmSä; O2 j, mSvkh
5 x 105 Pa fõ' O2 hï m%udKhla Ndú;d l< miq is,skavrfha WIaK;ajh 300 K u jk w;r mSvkh
2 x 105 Pa olajd wvqúh' i¾j;% ksh;h R = 8.3 J mol-1 K-1 o" O2 j, ujq,sl ialkaOh 32 g o fõ'
Ndú;d l< O2 ialkaOh fldmuKo@

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(b) O2 Ndú;h iu. iEuúgu is,skavrfha WIaK;ajfha 300 K ysu mj;s hehs i,ld tu is,skavrfha
Ndú;d l< yels Wmßu O2 ialkaOh fidhkak'

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PHT 5933 28 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA
28
19. (a) 27 0C WIaK;ajfha mßmQ¾K jdhqj" mßudj 1.0 cm3 jk n÷kla ;=< jdhqf.da,Sh mSvkh jk
1 x 105 Pa hgf;a wvx.= lr we;' tu n÷k ;=< we;s jdhq ujq, .Kk fldmuKo@
(R = 8.3 J mol-1 K-1)

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(b) WIaK;ajh ksh;h ;ndf.k n÷k ;=< mSvkh 1 x 10-11 Pa olajd pQIK fmdïmh u.ska mSvkh wvq
lrk ,È' oeka n÷k ;=< we;s jdhq wKq .Kk fidhkak' (NA = 6.02 x 1023)

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(c) O2 is,skavrhla 27 0C WIaK;ajhla we;s mßirhla ;=< 8 x 105 Pa mSvkhlg iïmSvkh lr mqrjd
we;' is,skavrfha mßudj 0.05 m3 fõ' tys isÿjk ldkaÿ ùula ksid udihl ld,hlg miq is,skavrh
;=< mSvkh 6 x 105 Pa olajd wvqúh' ldkaÿ jqKq O2 ujq, .Kk fldmuKo@ ^WIaK;ajh ksh; fõ&

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PHT 5933 29 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA


29
(d) jdhqf.da,Sh mSvkh fuka 9.5 jdrhla úYd, mSvkhlg iïmSvkh lrk ,o Tlaiscka jdhqj 19 kg
wvx.= is,skavrhla WIaK;ajh 7 0C la jk .nvd ldurhl ;nd we;' tu is,skavrh 27 0C la
WIaK;ajh we;s mßirhlg f.k .sh úg tys we;s wdrlaIdldÍ lmdgh l%shd;aul ù jeä mSvkh
we;s lrk jdhqj bka msglr ta ;=< mSvkh jdhqf.da,Sh mSvkh fuka oi .=Khla jQ w.hl mj;ajd
.kS' tys§ is,skavrfhka bj;aj .sh O2 ialkaOh fidhkak'

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20. (a) iudk mßudj we;s A yd B ùÿre n,an folla mßudj


fkd.eksh yels isyska nghlska iïnkaO lr we;'
300 K WIaK;ajfha § ta ;=< 2 x 105 Pa mSvkfha we;s
jd;h we;' bkamiq A n,anh 400 K WIaK;ajhl;a B
n,anh 600 K WIaK;ajhl;a mj;ajd .;aúg n,an
;=< kj mSvkh fidhkak'

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(b) by; n,an fol ;=< 300 K WIaK;ajhl 105 Pa mSvkhla hgf;a úh,s jd;h 3 g m%udKhla wvx.=
lr we;s wjia:djla i,lkak' A ys WIaK;ajh 300 K ysu mj;ajd f.k B ys WIaK;ajh 600 K olajd
by< kexjQ úg tu moaO;sh ;=< kj mSvkh fidhkak'

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(c) fojk wjia:dfõ § A yd B ;=< we;s jd; ialkaOhka fldmuKo@

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PHT 5933 31 2020Re A/L PHYSICS - AMITH PUSSELLA


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21. ne¨ka fnda, úl=Kkafkl= ne¨ka msrùu i|yd yS,shï jdhqj msrjQ is,skavrhla Ndú; lrkq ,efí'
is,skavrfha mrsudj 0.1 m3 jk w;r" th wdrïNfha oS 1 x 107 Nm-2 mSvkhl mj;S' fkdwefok iq¿ ;=kS
ma,diaála øjHhlska ne¨ka ;kd we;s w;r tys 1 x 10-2 m3 Wmrsu mrsudjg t<UqKq úg th ;=< mSvkh
1 x 105 Nm-2 fõ' ^He j, id' m' ia' 4& moaO;sfha WIaK;ajh 270C mj;sk nj i,lkak'

(i). is,skavrh ;=< jdhq mSvkhla we;sjkafka flfiaoehs meyeos,s


lrkak'
1.0
(ii). ne¨khla tys Wmrsu mrsudj olajd He jdhqfjka msrjQ úg
ne¨kh ;=, we;s jdhqfõ ialkaOh .Kkh lrkak'

(iii). 270C oS fuu jdhq is,skavrh Ndú;fhka kshu whqrska mqrjd .;


yels ne¨k ixLHj .Kkh lrkak'

(iv). oeka fujeks jdhq msrs ne¨khla 70C ys mj;sk jdhqf.da,hlg


ksrdjrKh lrkq ,efí' ne¨kfha kj mrsudj .Kkh lrkak'
jdhqf.da,Sh mSvkh 1 x 105 Nm-2 mSvkfhau mj;sk nj i,lkak'

(v). ne¨kh idod we;s øjHfha ialkaOh 2g kï by; (iv) i|yka jdhqf.da,h ;=, uqod yershfyd;a by,
k.skq we;snj fmkajkak' jd;fha >k;ajh 1.2 kg m-3 fõ' ( R = 8.3 J mol-1 K-1)

22.(a)7 0C WIaK;ajhla we;s .nvd ldurhl ;ekam;a lr we;s O2 is,skavrj, mßudj 0.2 m3
ne.ska jk w;r tajdfha 9.1 x 105 Nm-2 mSvkhlg iïmSvkh l< O2 we;' fuu is,skavr
27 0C WIaK;ajhla we;s mßirhlg f.k wd úg tajd ;=, O2 j, mSvkh fldmuKo@

(b). fuu O2 j, Wmßu wdrlaIdldÍ mSvkh 10 x 105 Nm-2 jk mßÈ Bg jE,ajhla ^lmdghla&
iïnkaO lr we;' tkï mSvkh tu w.hg jvd jeäjk úg lmdgh újD; ù mSvkh
wdrlaIdldÍ w.h t<fUk ;=re O2 bj;a fõ' tu is,skavr ;=< O2 bj;a fkdù tajd
;nd.; yels Wmßu WIaK;ajh fldmuKo@

(c). lsishï WIaK;ajhl we;s úg is,skavrh Wmßu wdrlaIdldÍ mSvkfha mj;ajd .ekSu i|yd bka O2 " 0.1kg
m%udKhla bj;a lsÍug isÿúh' tu WIaK;ajh .Kkh lrkak' ^R=8.3 J mol-1 K-1& ^O2 j, ujq,sl
wKql ialkaOh = 32 g&

(d). .nvd ldurfha mßudj 50 m3 la jk w;r is,skavr 50 la tys .nvd lr we;' WIaK;ajh 7 0C § is,skavrh
;=, O2 j, mSvkh 9.1 x 105 Nm-2 ne.ska fõ' .nvd ldurh we;s f.dvke.s,af,a we;sjQ yÈis .skakla ksid
fuu ldurfha WIaK;ajh (c) fldgfia .Kkh lrk ,o w.hg t<ôKs kï túg is,skavr Wmßu
wdrlaIdldÍ mSvkfha mj;ajd .ekSu i|yd bka msg;g bj;a lrk O2 ialkaOh fidhkak' ldurh ixjD;
hehso uq,a mSvkh 105 Nm-2 o ldurh ;=<g O2 we;=¿ ùu ksid O2 j,ska we;s lrk mSvkh fkdie,lsh
yels ;rï l=vd hehso i,lkak'
^W;a #- (a) 9.75 x 105 Pa (b) 307.69 K (c) 320.5 K (d) 5 kg &

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