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PRACTICE TEST 16
I. Find the word that has underlined part pronounced differently
1. A. measure B. treasure C. pressure D. pleasure
2. A. restaurant B. mausoleum C. cause D. audience
3. A. illusion B. permission C. television D. erosion
4. A. beautiful B. blouse C. cabin D. climber
5. A. visual B. actual C.casual D.equal
II. Find the word that stress pattern different
6. A. multimedia B. environment C. documentary D. education
7. A. memorable B. miraculous C. professional D. embarassing
8. A. investigate B. communicate C. eliminate D. manufacture
9. A. emergency B. photography C. geography D. accuracy
10. A. imprison B, endanger C. horrify D. develop
III. Identify the one underlined word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be
correct
1. Cotton used to rank first between Alabama’s crops, but it represents only a fraction of the agricultural
production now.
2. Salmon lay their eggs and die in fresh water, although they live in salt water when most of their adult lives.
3. Oceans of the world exerts strong influences on the weather over the Earth’s surface.
4. Wind is the motion that occurs when lighter air rises and cools heavier air replaces it.
5. In 1903, when the Wright brothers announced they had invented a flying machine his news was generally
ignored.
6. Rock music was original a mixture of country music and rhythm and blues.
7. In the 1840s, hundreds of families pioneer moved west in their covered wagons.
8. Many people say that California is a state of geographic remarkable diversity.
9. A million of tourists from all over the world visit New York every year.
10. The basic law of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are taught to all elementary school
students.
IV. Choose the best answer
1. The dampness of the walls caused the paint to_off.
A. flake B. splinter C. crumble D. scale
2. Unfortunately, our local cinema is on the_of closing down.
A. threat B. hint C. edge D. verge
3. The door hinges had all been oiled to stop them_.
A. shrieking B. screeching C. squeaking D. squealing
4. You should_at least three days for the journey.
.A. allow B. permit C. accept D. expect
5. This film_several scenes which are very funny.
A. depicts B. pictures C. features D. illustrates
6. From an early lead, the team_to an embarrassing defeat.
A. dropped B. fell C. declined D. slumped
7. I bought this fridge because I had confidence in the_name.
A. mark B. brand C. commodity D. maker
8. When it started to snow he ' his overcoat.
A. put on B. put in C. took off D. took out
9. We’re thinking of going_holiday to Spain.
A. in B. at C. on " D. for
10. The government hopes to_its plans for introducing cable TV.
A. keep on B. turn out C. carry on D. carry out
11. You’re late again - please try to be_in future.
A. accurate B. efficient C. punctual D. reliable
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12. The house is old and it’s in bad_.
A. condition B. state C. damage D. situation..
13. To be chosen to go to the moon would be the_of a lifetime.
A. fortune B. chance C. luck D. fate
14. He couldn’t afford to _ his car repaired.
A. get B. make C. do D. pay
15. If_develops in your new TV within six months of purchase, ...
A. damage B. an error C. a mistake D. a fault
16. ... you will be_to a replacement.
A. allowed B. guaranteed C. entitled D. permitted
17. I would_ you didn’t leave just at the moment. '
A. advise B. like C. ask D. rather
18. His parents were so__that he ran away from home.
A. struck B. striped C. strict D. severe
19. Some friends at school_him to steal the sweets.
A. dared B. threatened C. let D. made •
20. Can you_me to your parents when you next see them?
A. excuse B. remember C. forget D. remind
21. We regret to inform you that the materials you ordered are_.
A. out of work B. out of reach C. out of stock D. out of practice
22. They bought the land with a_to building a new office block.
A. purpose B. view C. goal D. reason
23. Of course he can lift that! He’s as_as a horse.
A. tough B. big C. heavy D. strong
24. I _be most grateful if you could let me have th e details as soon as possible.
A. should B. intend to C. ought to D. might
25. He was _thought of in the cut-throat world of competitive business.
A. high B. highly C. higher D. highest
26. He was awarded the medal for ‘displaying professional competence of the highest_in the rescue attempts.’
A. ability B. order C. position D. credit
27. People become less_to new ideas as they grow older.
A. attractive B. available C. hospitable D. receptive
28. Having made his first film earlier this year, he is_starring in a musical.
A. actually B. currently C. lately D. recently
29. The professor’s _theory is that singing preceded speech.
A. fancied B. fond C. pet D. preferable
30. She always_ the smell of fresh bread with her mother, who loved baking.
A. associated B. attributed C. exemplified D. remembered
31. He spent his entire life_round the world, never settling down anywhere.
A. roaming B. scattering C. scrambling D. transporting
32. The government’s new safety pamphlet_against smoking in bed.
A. advises B. declares C. emphasises D. stresses
33. If he tries to_ignorance as his excuse, just tell him we’ve got a copy of the authorisation with his signature
on it.
A. defend B. plead C. pretend D. protest
34. We were working overtime to cope with a sudden_in demand.
A. boost B. impetus C. surge D. thrust
35. The confidence trickster_the old lady out of her life savings.
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A. deceived B. misled C. robbed D. swindled.
36. Of Charles Dickens’ many novels, Great Expectations is perhaps__ to many readers.
A. the most satisfying one B. most satisfying one
C. more than satisfying one D. the more satisfying than
37. Children learn primarily by_the world around them.
A. experiencing directly of B. experience direct
C. directly physical experience D. direct physical experience of
38. The total weight of all the ants in the world is much greater than_.
A. to all human beings B. all human beings is that ,
C. that of all human beings D. is of all human beings
39. Tuna,_, may weigh up to 1,000 pounds.
A. is the sea giant B. can be giants of the sea
C. one of the sea giants D. the sea of the giant
40. Black, red, and even bright pink diamonds_. '
A. occasionally to find B. occasionally found
C. have occasionally been found D. have occasionally found
41. Under no circumstances_in areas where poisonous snakes are known to live.
A. one should not climb rocks B. one should be climbing rocks
C. should one climb rocks D. should be climbing rocks
42. Many historians believe it was never_to practice genocide against the Native Americans.
A. the government’s official policy
B. official the government’s policy
C. the government’s policy official was
D. been the government’s official policy
43. Not only_, it also performs an essential function in the reproduction of the plant.
A. the flower looks beautiful B. the flower is looking beautiful
C. does the flower look beautiful D. the beautiful flower
44. Although many people do not consider it harmful, alcohol is the__ in the United States.
A. drug commonly abused most B. most commonly abused drug
C. most abused commonly drug D. commonly most abused drug
45. Motorists heading north into Oregon from California should know_for the first hundred miles.
A. is accessing few major roads B. access towns by the major roads
C. that few major roads access towns D. few major roads to access towns
V. Complete the passage
1
Why don’t the British cycles? Only a quarter of the estimated twenty million bicycles in the country are thought
to be in (1) …….. use. In Denmark, which is flatter but no darker or rainier than Britain, twenty percent of all
journeys are made by bicycles, while in Britain the (2) …….. is only 5%. The government are trying to (3)
…….. this. It is hoped that a grant of millions of pounds from the National Lottery will (4) …….. more people
to use their bikes. The money will be used to (5) …….. for a 6,500 mile national network of cycle tracks.
Britain needs to (6) …….. environmentally friendly scheme such as this. The southern third of the country is
one of the most (7) …….. areas of the world. Environmentalists make it (8) …….. to build new roads, and (9)
…….. roads are overcrowded. One official committee described the growth of motor transport as “possibly the
(10) ……. environmental threat to the UK”. The (11) …….. of building the cycles tracks is to motivate people
to use their bicycles instead of their cars. However, the new tracks are being built (12) …….. cities and not
through them. This (13) …….. that only long distance journeys may be easier and safer. Those cyclists who
want to (14) …….. inside cities will still be in danger of (15) …….. their lives on busy roads every time they
use their bicycles.
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1. A. regular B. right C. normal D. proper
2. A. size B. portion C. figure D. part
3. A. succeed B. improve C. excel D. help
4. A. support B. activate C. boost D. encourage
5. A. cost B. pay C. give D. afford
6. A. do B. commence C. introduce D. make
7. A. full B. crowded C. occupied D. loaded
8. A. difficult B. uneasy C. stiff D. rough
9. A. left B. prevailing C. living D . existing
10. A. greatest B. hardest C. grandest D. strongest
11. A. design B. function C. aim D. course
12. A. from B. in C. among D. between
13. A. tells B. says C. means D. defines
14. A. travel B. wander C. tour D. follow
15. A. expiring B. losing C. missing D. terminating
2 Brent Cross Shopping' Centre in London recently celebrated its 30th anniversary, rewarding 36 staff
who have worked there since it opened with gifts. Brent Cross was the first large-scale indoor shopping centre
in Britain and many 1_ it would be a 2_failure. Instead, the centre, with its 75 stores, started a shopping 3_in
Britain.
‘They said it 4_no chance of becoming popular, but in the first week it was packed, you couldn’t move in here,
and that’s how it’s 5_on,’ said George Dorman, 68, who has been working as a fruit and vegetable sales
assistant at the Waitrose store since it opened. ‘It’s a 6_achievement and I’ve enjoyed every 7__minute of it,’
he said. ‘The company has been very supportive and they help you 8_ It’s a very secure job.’
Sisters Jeanette Harris and Lydia Neidus have both been working as sales assistants at the Fenwicks store since
the centre opened. Ms Neidus said: ‘The more you get involved, the more you 9_to love it because you’ve seen
everything and you’ve 10^_so much knowledge about it all.’ Her sister added: ‘It’s just the most wonderful
achievement. 1 mean, I 11_as if it was 12_yesterday when 1 started and I’ve loved every minute. The proof of
that is that I’m still here and still working.’
1 A estimated B awaited C assessed D predicted
2 A whole B complete C full D true
3 A novelty B alteration C conversion D revolution
4 A took B stood C ran D held
5 A stayed B carried C moved D stuck
6 A great B high C large D vast
7 A actual B single C individual D separate
8 A up B on C out D off
9 A develop B reach C grow D arrive
10 A increased B gained C raised D expanded
11 A feel B seem C sense D find
12 A quite B simply C hardly D just
VI. Read the passage carefully and complete it with ONE suitable word
1 Travel Insurance
When going (0) ___on___ holiday, it is always a good idea to take (1) _________travel insurance. This is just
in (2) __________something goes (3) __________ along the way. You could lose your luggage, you could (4)
_________robbed, or even become ill and need expensive medical treatment. For millions of holiday makers,
travel insurance is just a precaution (5)___________ will help them have an enjoyable and worry-free holiday.
But for (6) __________ , travel insurance is a way of earning money (7) __________ making false claims
against insurance companies. For (8) ____________ , some people pretend that they have had expensive
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equipment stolen which in (9) __________ never even existed, and then claim large sums (10) _____________
compensation. Such claims cost insurance companies a total (11) _________£50 million per year. But the
cheats’ luck is about to run (12) ________ . (13) ________to a new computer system, companies will be able
to tell at a glance (14) ___________ someone has made a claim within the last three years. Honest travellers
will no (15) ___________ have to pay through the nose for other people’s dishonesty.

2 Dinosaurs died out more than 60 million years ago, so _on earth can we tell what they used to eat? Find
out at the Cameron Museum, where you can step 2 _in time and join some dinosaurs enjoying their lunch. 3_
you enter the new Meet the Dinosaurs exhibition, you’ll meet four full-size dinosaur heads, 4_ of them
munching away all their favourite food. The model dinosaurs are 5___realistic that you could easily forget that
they’re 6_ real.
Scientists have pieced 7 _information from fossils to work out that dinosaurs with large claws and sharp teeth
ate meat, while flatter teeth were used 8_grinding plants. So Tyrannosaurus rex, with its prehistoric table
manners 9_and teeth as sharp as razors, might not have been the 10_relaxing dinner guest!
But, 11_ you’re a meat eater or a vegetarian, 12_not come along to the exhibition and 13_sure you don’t miss
an incrcdible day out!
VII. Give the correct form of the word
1. Detroit is renowned for the………….. of cars. PRODUCE
2. If you make a good……………… at the interview, you will get the job. IMPRESS
3. Teaching and medicine are more than…………………., they're professions. OCCUPY
4. My history teacher has a vast…………………. of past events. KNOW
5. You are never too old to go to college and gain some……………. QUALIFY
6. My greatest…………….. was graduating from the university. ACHIEVE
7. The weatherman said there is a strong…………… of rain today. POSSIBLE
8. Some old laws are no longer……………….. EFFECT
9. Athens is…………………. for its ancient buildings. FAME
10. He was caught shoplifting so now he has a……………….. record. CRIME
Organizing a holiday can be a very 0___task. Some people find the experience as 0 CHALLENGE
1__as the daily demands of work and family 2__If you are in this situation, you 1 STRESS
may find that taking an escorted holiday is the ideal 3____ 2 COMMIT
Escorted holidays offer a great balance between sightseeing, entertainment and 3 SOLVE
leisure time, with the added advantage that you have the services of a 4 COMPANY
professional tour manager, who 4__you throughout the trip, acting as your 5 PERSON
5__guide. From the first day to the last, tour managers make your holiday 6 MEMORY
experience even more 6__because of the invaluable information and 7 HELP
7__suggestions they provide. Your tour manager will give you many 8_into the 8 SIGHT
place you are visiting, including useful information on the 9__characteristics of 9 DISTINCT
the place, such as regional food and local entertainment. 10 TRUE
If you book one of the escorted holiday packages that we offer, you can be sure
that you will have a 10__authentic travel experience.
Nowadays, you are more likely to hear laughter than nervous comment when starrip-collecting is mentioned
because it's no longer.... (1. FASHION). But lots of people are......(2. ENTHUSIASM) about collecting things
and find it a .....(3. CREATE) way to spend their time.
Souvenirs from holiday......(4. LOCATE) , whatever the country, are...(5. PARTICULAR) popular with
collectors. So are household items with sth special in common which makes them ......(6. ATTRACT), such as
sugar spoons with engraved pictures, scarfs or.....(7. COLOUR) mugs. Collecting things is a ......(8. SOCIAL)
activity - great for meetin new people - which may be why it is said to have......(9. PSYCHOLOGY) benefits. It
is a relaxing and interesting ......(10. OCCUPY)
VIII. Fill in correct prepositions in each gap

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1. The coat has been sent..............the dry cleaner’s.........................the other things.
2.........................the other sights the tourists visited a glass factory where they watched.............admiration
sweating men making wonders............. ...........molten glass.
3............their way to the station they were caught.............the rain and before long were wet..............
4. During restoration work every effort was made to save the picture............. complete ruin.
5. Make.............the quarrel.............him, please,.............my sake, if not............. your own.
6. He searched his mind.............a possible course of action.
7. It was all your idea, I just went.........v..............it.
8. Where do you suggest we should go this week-end? Do you have any particular place.............mind?
9. The driver stretched.............his hand, pulled the hand brake and the car stopped half-way.............the hill.
10. I see no point.............your wasting time ..............rewriting your report; have it typed.
IX. Complete phrasal verbs
1. What are you getting _? I can’t understand what you’re trying to say.
2. I only get_ watching TV when the children are in bed.
3. Instead of being given a ticket, the driver got_ a warning.
4. She’s having trouble getting _with her sprained ankle.
5. Do you get_ with your colleagues?
6. If you don’t get those invitations___today, they’ll never arrive on time.
7. How are you getting_ at school?
8. He has a talent for getting the most complicated ideas_.
9. I’ve been trying to get _for ages but the line is always engaged.
10. This awful weather is really getting me_.
11. My father is always getting _me about my clothes.
12. If you aren’t well organised, you’ll never get_.
13. I don’t know how he gets___cheating on his tests.
14. Stop talking and get__your work, will you?
15. She has barely enough money left to get_.
16. I wish I could get_going to this wedding but I have no choice.
17. News of their “secret” wedding got_ fast.
18. She says she won’t help us, but we’ll soon get_her.
19. I don’t know if she’ll ever get _her husband's death.
20. What are the children getting _in the garden?
X. Think of one word only which can match with three answers
1. I can’t see the _______of all this paperwork, can you?
I was so frustrated that I was on the ______of giving up, but my piano teacher persuaded me to keep on
practising.
Now, let’s move on to the final ______for discussion at this meeting.
2. I think it’s ________to say that not everyone in the boardroom agreed with the decision
about the site of the new factory.
Rita complained that it was not _______that she had a smaller company car than her colleagues.
My husband looks nothing like his brothers and sisters because he is so _______
3. The workers at the car factory are at present ______in negotiations to improve their position.
As the business expanded and more staff were required, the company _____the services of a
recruitment agency.
When my brother and his new girlfriend announced that they were _____it took the whole family by surprise.
4. The instructions were written in such a complicated way that Joe had to spend a long time _____out how to
set up the printer.
First results indicated that the new drug was ______and had no side effects.
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John was annoyed to find the drinks machine was not _______yet again.
5. Lisa is in _____while I’m away from the office, OK?
They’ve introduced a small ______for parking outside the station.
The protestors moved back quickly in reaction to a sudden ______the police.
X. Writing
a) Although the play received good notices, not many people went to see it
Despite .........................................................................................................
b) My father speaks very' little English.
My father speaks hardly ...........................................................................
c) He said he was not guilty of stealing the car.
He denied......................................................................................................
d) I'm sorry now that I asked her to stay.
Now I wish....................................................................................................
e) They couldn't trace who had supplied the information in the first place.
The source ..........................................-.....- ..........................................
f) There is always trouble when he comes to visit us.
Whenever .....................................................................................................
g) Is this the only way to reach the city centre ?
Isn't there.....................................................................................................
h) He never suspected that the money had been stolen.
At no lime ....................................................................................................
i) I have never seen such a mess in my life (
Never in........................................................................................................
j| Is if essential to meet your aunt at the station ?
Does your aunt.............................................................................................
a) They don't mind which film they go to. (MATTER)

b) He continued his story, even though no one was listening. (WENT)

c) If 1 were left alone. I'd finish the job quickly (INTERRUPTING)

d) The notice said that you could not smoke in class. (FORBIDDEN)

e) My mother did not like my new shoes. (DISAPPROVED)

f) She was dismissed because her typing was poor. (LOST)

g) He spoke confidently and that impressed me. [WHICH)

h) She doesn't know the difference between margarine and butter. (TELL)

i) He is famous for his vast knowledge of primitive religion (AUTHORITY)

j) He took no part in the discussion. (CONTRIBUTE)

Fill in suitable words or phrases


a) 'You're late again!.....................................................caught an earlier bus?'
b) "If you don't stop the car at that red light, you ..........................................the law'
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c) 1 am pleased to say that we've always ........................................... ........terms with our neighbours.
d) When the (ire stoned. Barbara was the first person ................................... the alarm.
e) Ham- explained to the police that he had ..........................................stolen
f) it s high..............................................................effort to look after yourself
g) You just stepped on my foot! Why................................................................. where you are going?
h) AH the restaurants were closed so it was......................................................... well we had taken a packed
lunch with us.
i) The thief was believed -.............the building through the upstairs window.
j) Despite several warnings, the swimmers didn ............................................... of the danger-flag flying on the
beach-
k) Mark Spitz is the only person ever................................................................. seven gold medals at the
Olympic Games.
1) I was surprised at..........................................................many people on the train.
m) What have you been doing? You ......................................................................... job ages ago!
n) Only after 1 had read the figures a few times.................................................. what an awful mess the
company was in.
j) ................................. the meeting that it was hardly worth hinng such a large hall.
P) Members..............................................................for the conference in April must do so by January 31st at the
latest
q) If you want to get his support, you'd..............................................................antagonise him by mentioning the
last project he was involved in.
r) Didn't you have a meal last night?” "No By the time ! got home, the family......................................................
XI. Reading
The Tower and the Glory
Chris Wilson starts at the bottom when he joins a Spanish team making competitive human pyramids A large
man jams his fool in my car and jumps on to my shoulders. Me is quickly followed by another only slightly
smaller gentleman who grabs my belt and shimmies up me like a pole. Another follows. My face contorts with
pain as the fourth tier mounts on to my back and 1 begin to sway dangerously.1___
‘Castelling’ (making human castles) is a family sport in Catalonia. Groups normally consist of everyone from
tiny children, through awkward adolescents and wiry women, to well-built men at the bottom. 2_____I had also
heard that being overweight and unfit would not count against me. Sure enough, when 1 turned up for my first
training session, I could sense that, for the first time in years, my ever-expanding physique was being
appreciatively looked at.
Castelling began almost 200 years ago near Tarragona, just south of Barcelona. Out of nowhere, it seems that
people suddenly began forming themselves into human towers. Since then the sport, if you can call it that, has
become an expression of Catalan identity, with groups competing to build ever higher and more elegant
structures.
3__Once or twice it has managed a six-tier tower. The top teams regularly manage eight or nine. It was my
intention to add a little British beef to the group to help them reach the next level in time for the competitions to
be held tomorrow in Barcelona on (lie National Day of Catalonia.
At first 1 had thought that I might like' to go on top to bask in the glory, but the club’s president soon put me
straight, lie indicated a spindly little girl who looked as (hough she had been raised entirely on broccoli, and not
much of it at that. It is she who has pride of place on top of the pyramid.
4___For my first try-out I was given the role of scq ones mans (second hands), which meant that 1 supported
the wrists of the man who supported the buttocks of the first rank of the pyramid.
Oner 1 had assumed my position, people began lo scramble up me and on to the tower without warning. 5_
Still, my hard work must have been appreciated because 1 was quickly promoted to be primcres mans and

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support the bottoms of the first level of the pyramid that we were making under the watchful eye of the artistic
director.
My performance in the ‘hands’ section had obviously been satisfactory because at the third training session 1
was called forward and given the very great honour of the President’s Belt.
6_____Being offered this belt, still warm from the very waist of the President, was a clear gesture that me and
my bulk had been accepted. Finally, I had made it to the bottom of the pile.
Being a pillar in a castell is much like being a bass player in a band. You know that everyone in the crowd is
cheering for the singer or the lead guitarist, no matter how important the rhythm section. When we take I he
stage tomorrow, no one in the crowd will know who 1 am, or even be able to sec me down at the bottom. All
their cheering will be for the little girl on top. 7____It felt great.
A The best I could hope for was to be at the bottom, but even that honour has to be earned.
B So I knew that everyone at the training session that night would have cheered with good-natured delight if I
had done that.
C But that memorable night in Figueres, despite the incredible strain, I held steady and the applause was all for
me.
D I had been attracted to castelling because I had been told that it requires almost no skill or co-ordination.
E Within seconds I had assisted in the formation of a three-tier tower without really noticing what was
happening.
F It’s not easy being the bottom man of a human pyramid.
G Each casteller is wound into a large strip of material worn around the waist to support the back and to help
the other castellers grip when they climb.
H The group I had joined in Figueres, near the French border, is very much a second-division outfit.
Match the suitable answer (A-D) with each questions
you are going to read a magazine article about the history of the bicycle. For questions 8-22, choose from
the sections of the article (A-D). The sections may be chosen more than once.
Mark your answers on the separate answer sheet.
In which section of the article are the following mentioned?
8 features that were not added because they were considered problematic
9 a design that is exactly the same as that of current products
10 a product that became popular despite its price in comparison with an existing product
11 a dramatic reaction to a particular sight
12 a design feature that it was felt would not appeal to men
13 a warning that affected the appeal of a certain product
14 a design that required more than one person to operate the vehicle
15 an attempt to get publicity
16 the possibility of injury because of where the rider sat
17 products that were introduced to compensate for a disadvantage of another product
18 an aspect of design that limited the number of people who could use a certain product
19 a design that some manufacturers felt would not become popular
20 people riding a certain product in order to impress others
21 the motivation of one set of people for changing bicycle design
22 an account of a remarkable achievement
Wheels that changed the world
A The bicycle was an absolutely extraordinary creation. Inventors had first begun to wrestle with the challenge
of coining up with a human-powered vehicle in the 17th century. In 1696, a French doctor used his manservant
to power a pedal-driven carriage while the master sat up front and steered. The beginnings of the modern
bicycle emerged in 1818 when Karl von Drais, an eccentric German baron, invented what we now know as the
hobbyhorse. It was bicycleshaped with wooden wheels but had no pedals: the rider had to push it forward with
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his feet. At £8 - equivalent today to £500 - the hobbyhorse could be afforded only by true gentlemen, and it
soon became a much sought-after status symbol. But the craze died out after a year following a statement from
the London College of Surgeons, which said darkly that the hobbyhorse could cause 'internal injuries'.
B Brilliant minds continued to wrestle with the mechanical horse but made slow progress. Even Britain's top
engineer, Isambard Kingdom Brunei, could come up with nothing better than a hobbyhorse that ran on railway
tracks. Finally, in 1887, a Parisian blacksmith called Pierre Michaux added a pair of pedals to a hobbyhorse,
and the bicycle was born. The Michaux bicycle had pedals fixed directly to the front wheel, just like a child's
tricycle today. Made largely of iron, it weighed as much as a fridge but was easy to ride and took a man up to
five miles with the effort he would use to walk only one. Michaux's first newspaper advertisement in May 1867
offered 'pedal velocipedes' for 250 francs.
At this price only the wealthy could afford one and a group of 20 young men spent their days showing off their
'steeds' before fascinated crowds in the Bois de Boulogne. Michaux was soon producing 20 bicycles a day, and
decided to organize a women's race as a stunt to boost his sales further. A racecourse in Bordeaux was roped
off, but when the four lady racers made their appearance in short skirts, the crowd of 3,000 burst through the
barriers. Nevertheless, the ladies raced off. A contemporary report recorded that Miss Louise took an early lead,
but Miss Julie made a 'superhuman effort’, passing her on the home straight and winning by a nose. Within a
year, there were 50,000 bicycles in France.
C Not to be outdone by their French counterparts, British engineers set about improving bicycle design with
wire-spoked wheels and solid rubber tyres. The weight was reduced to a mere 441b, only twice the weight of a
bike today. Gears and chains were still thought too heavy and complex to be fitted to a bicycle, so designers
could increase top speed only by increasing the size of the front wheel. Eventually front wheels grew until they
were 5ft and the penny farthing was born. Speeds of 20 mph were now possible, but the rider's seat was directly
above the front wheel, which made riding in a skirt impossible, so women were effectively barred from
bicycles.
To make up for it, manufacturers developed tricycles with low seats. The penny farthing's biggest drawback
was its danger: the high seat was difficult to climb into, and once up there the driver had a long way to fall.
D In 1885, John Starley launched the Rover Safety Bicycle, the first model to adopt what we now think of as
the traditional design. The bicycle industry was unimpressed, as it had a chain-driven rear wheel, which added
weight, and a low seat, which made male riders look a bit ridiculous. But it turned out to be faster than a penny
farthing because it was more aerodynamic. More importantly, the Rover could be ridden in a skirt. At £22, it
was more expensive than a penny farthing, but its practicality was just what the public wanted.
Soon there were half a million bicycles in the UK. Between 1890 and 1900, the bicycle was refined until the
basic design became very similar to the feather weights that modern champions ride in the Tour de France.
Lightweight steel tubing, the diamond-shaped frame, gears and pneumatic tyres with separate inner tubes all
became common. Top speeds of 25 mph could now be reached. At last the cyclist could outrun a galloping
horse. The bicycle was found in every walk of life: policemen and postmen had them and several European
armies issued them to their soldiers.
Read the passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correq answer to each of the questions.
Communication between humans is largely based upon language. Learning a new language involves
many different processes. One step is to learn and build a vocabulary. Vocabulary is comprised of the
different words used by speakers to express themselves. Linguists recognize two different types of
vocabulary: passive and active.
The term passive vocabulary refers to the set of words that one has learned or is familiar with. Words that
comprise a person‘s passive vocabulary are used infrequently for several reasons. First, their definitions
are not always completely known. In other cases, speakers avoid certain words or terms that they do not
need to use often in conversation. For most people, their passive vocabulary is much larger than their
active vocabulary. This is because passive vocabulary continues to expand throughout a person’s lifetime.

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thầy tuấn ôn thi chuyên và luyện thi đại học 01663247755
Active vocabulary is the set of words that a person can produce, such as when speaking or writing. Many
linguists agree that a person’s active vocabulary is usually smaller than his or her passive vocabulary.
This is because words are only added to the active vocabulary as they are needed. In other words, a
person will not add a word to active vocabulary unless he or she needs it to communicate.
1. The word comprised in the passage is closest in meaning to
(A) learned
(B) used
(C) formed
(D) selected
2. The word infrequently in the passage is closest in meaning to ■
(A) not correctly
(B) not often
(C) not in a useful way
(D) not in all situations
3. The word expand in the passage is closest in meaning to
(A) grow
(B) understand (G) undermine ■
(D) overtake
Angiosperms are the most common type of plant on the planet. All plants classified as angiosperms share
a number of traits. The most distinguishing feature of angiosperms, however, is undoubtedly that they
produce flowers. At one point, angiosperms cohabited the globe with the dinosaurs. However, unlike
dinosaurs, angiosperms not only survived, but thrived.
By studying the fossilized remains of older plants, scientists know that angiosperms evolved to their
current form over millions of years. The earliest angiosperm fossil is estimated to be 130 million years
old. Other evidence suggests that angiosperm traits existed in plants 250 million years ago. The fossils
come from a type of plant called gigantopterids, which resembled ferns. Like angiosperms, the
gigantopterid fossils were found to contain a chemical used to protect flowers. This led some scientists to
believe that the gigantopterids are the early ancestors of angiosperms-a "missing link” between ancient
plants and modern flowers.
The fossil record of angiosperms demonstrates how they diffused across the globe by the mid-Cretaceous
epoch, about one hundred million years ago. During this period, the varieties of angiosperms also
increased. With the help of bees to spread pollen, angiosperms became the most common type of plant on
Earth by the Campanian stage, eighty million years ago.
1. The word cohabited in the passage is closest in meaning to
(A) lived together
(B) did often
(C) journeyed
(D) continued
2. The word epoch in the passage is closest in meaning to
(A) variety
(B) age
(C) climate
(D) change
3. The word pollen in the passage is closest in meaning to
(A) a common plant disease
(B) powder from flowers
(C) early types of flowers
(D) leaves and stems
In economics, inflation is the process that leads to increased prices for all goods and services. Generally,
inflation is seen as negative because it lowers the value of money. For example, after inflation, one dollar
cannot buy as much as it did before inflation. Many factors contribute to inflation, and economists have
formulated several theories to explain why it happens. Two popular theories of inflation are demand-pull
inflation and cost-push inflation.

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thầy tuấn ôn thi chuyên và luyện thi đại học 01663247755
The theory of demand-pull inflation is associated with John Maynard Keynes. Keynes was an important
20lh-century economist. According to Keynesian economics, demand-pull inflation occurs when the
demand for a product, or good, increases. Increased demand means that the product will eventually
become scarce. With less of the product available, it costs more for people to purchase it. Thus,
consumers effectively bid up the price of the product. Indeed, demand-pull inflation is usually described
as a situation in which "too much-money is spent chasing too few goods." Economists have isolated
several factors that cause demand-pull inflation, such as increases in the supply of currency, in
government purchases, or in exports.
Cost-push inflation also originates in Keynesian economics. The theory holds that inflation occurs when
the price of production rises significantly. If it costs more to make something, companies must increase
the price they charge the consumer in order to remain profitable. This situation is commonly seen when
companies increase their employees’wages, If businesses must pay their workers more, they must in turn
charge more for the goods or services they produce. Another cause of cost-push inflation is seen when the
price of raw materials rises. For instance, if it costs a company more to import metals used in
manufacturing, it must pass this increase on to the consumer.
1. The word formulated in the passage is closest in meaning to
(A) researched
(B) decreased
(C) conceived
(D) argued
2. The word scarce in the passage is closest in meaning to
(A) expensive
(B) frightening
(C) popular -
(D) not easy to find
3. The word wages in the passage is closes in meaning to
(A) price of materials
(B) money paid to workers
(C) number of employees
(D) kind of workplace

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