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Chapter I

INTRODUCTION

On today’s generation of students are developing in a technological world. Technology

creates a big role for students to deal with their studies as well as the teachers for their teaching.

With the use of technology, it is now easy for the teachers to disseminate their learning materials

and the students can access to get their learning materials easily. Through technology, education

develops to a great level and has now become a need for transforming education for better.

Learning Management System (LMS) is a software application or Web-based technology used to

plan, implement, and assess a specific learning process. Typically, a learning management system

provides an instructor with a way to create and deliver content, monitor student participation, and

assess student performance, (Rouse, 2013). As many people thought bringing computers into the

classroom would remove that human element that some learners need, but as time progressed,

technology has developed, and now we embrace smartphones and tablets in the classroom and

office, as well as using a wealth of interactive designs that makes distance learning not only

engaging for the users, but valuable as a lesson delivery medium, (virtual-college, 2012).

Nowadays the role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), especially

internet in the education sector plays an important role, especially in the process of empowering

the technology into the educational activities. Education sector can be the most effective sector to

anticipate and eliminate the negative impact of ICT. Technology (internet) in another side can be

the most effective way to increase the student’s knowledge. Being aware of the significant role of

ICT (internet) in our life, especially in the educational activities, education authorities should be

wise enough in implementing the strategies to empower ICT in supporting the teaching and
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learning process in the classroom. ICT is not just the bloom of the educational activities, but also it

will be the secondary option to improve the effective and meaningful educational process

(https://verykaka.wordpress.com/2008/07/25/the-role-of-ict-in-education-sector/). The main

purpose of the Learning Management System in Education is to provide the prospects and trends

of integrating information and communication technology (ICT) into the general educational

activities. There are some unavoidable facts in the modern education; First, the ICT has been

developing very rapidly nowadays. Therefore, to balance it, the whole educational system should

be reformed, and ICT should be integrated into educational activities through Learning

Management System. Second, the influence of ICT, especially internet (open source tool) cannot

be ignored in our student’s lives. So, the learning activities should be reoriented and reformulated,

from the manual source centered to the open source ones. In this case the widely use of internet

access has been an unavoidable policy that should be anticipated by schools’ authorities.

University students are mostly independent in their learning as lecturers usually give out

lecture notes which they spend a lot on buying the study materials, and further information are left

for the students to discover on their own, as it is not a one-way learning process which is practiced

in the primary and secondary school system as the current teaching method that students find

boring and less interactive. The learning process at the university level is a two-way process,

lecturers share their knowledge and students give their opinions or thoughts in return a topic in a

class discussion. Therefore, students need to constantly broaden their knowledge by searching for

information because there is time limitation for the student to communicate with teacher. Lecture

notes, white boards, presentation slides, and liquid crystal display (LCD) projectors are some of the

more commonly used tools used by teachers when delivering lectures. A student who is unable to

attend a class for any reason, experiences some difficulty coping with the lecture in subsequent

classes. By the same token, a teacher who is unable to attend his or her class for any of a variety
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of official or personal reasons must carefully plan how the material that was missed could be

delivered following the pacing dictated by the syllabus and the semestral schedule. Policy also

dictates that a make-up class should be scheduled by the teacher at a day and time that the class

is available. Even when a schedule has already been agreed upon, a venue and the appropriate

equipment also must be available. There are also days when classes are suspended. The syllabus

contains a detailed course delivery plan for the duration of the semester and generally does not

factor in disruptions such as those mentioned.

In this proposed system, the researcher believed that will help the students in obtaining

education, information, and working creatively with others Learning management systems (LMS)

such as Moodle, A Tutor, and the like are used by many educational institutions. The concept

behind LMSs is that teachers can hold online courses by way of posting lecture notes and slides,

quizzes, forum topics, announcements, and providing a facility for electronic submissions, and

other course- related activities. Moreover, the researcher believed that Information Technology is

necessary since it involves computer works, and computers enables people to work creatively and

lessen the burden and uneasiness of the students as well as the employees. Information and

Communications Technology plays a vital role in the development of manpower and shaping the

new and modern citizens to become assets in our community that is why the Leyte Institute of

Technology Tacloban City, Leyte become a university after ninety- seven years of its quest for

quality education, converting Leyte Institute of Technology (LIT) into Eastern Visayas State

University (EVSU) in 2005.

Background of the Study


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The College of Arts and Science began as a College in 1982 with Prof. Gaudencia

Genotiva as Dean. Courage, risk-taking efforts as well as deep commitment for development

served as guiding principles in the pioneering stage of building a new college. The college started

from barely a small room with only table and chair as facilities, it took time to “build” not only the

human resources but also the physical resources. The college started with the supervision of two

programs namely Bachelor of Arts in Economics and Bachelor of Arts Accounting. (Moraña, 2015)

Integrating the supervision of the “Arts and Sciences” of the institute was an important

accomplishment made. The supervision of the first two year, the General Education Program; the

discipline in the Arts and Sciences took a lot of courage but streamline management for efficient

service resulted to the risk-taking efforts of the “pioneer” staff and faculty of the college building

confidence in the whole Institute to continue developing this service college.

With the “Arts and Sciences” assigned to the College of Arts and Sciences as the

Institute’s service college, the demands of a true college education were met; the generalist

orientation in the teaching and supervision of the generalized knowledge offerings in the first two

years, and the specialized orientation slanted towards passing the board examination governing

the professional courses in the higher years across all colleges. The essence of true education, the

widening of man’s vision, the broadening of his sympathies, leading him to higher thinking and

deep feelings constituted basically the philosophical reasons. The pragmatic rationale was also

evident in the streamlining of both human and material resources needed.

Since from its’ humble beginning from two programs that were being offered, at

present the College of Arts and Sciences offers seven programs; Bachelor of Science in

Economics by the Social Sciences and Economics Department, Bachelor of Science in

Environmental Science and Bachelor of Science in Chemistry by the Natural Sciences Department,

Bachelor of Arts in English Language and Bachelor of Arts in Filipino Language by the Languages
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and Literature Department, Bachelor of Science in Statistics and Bachelor of Science in

Mathematics by the Mathematics and Statistics Department. The following programs intends to

prepare students for professional works in their respective filed of specializations that will meet the

needs both local and international agencies and industries.

Objectives of the Study

General Objective

This study aims to develop a Learning Management System for the College of Arts and

Sciences of the Eastern Visayas State University. Further, this will provide an online learning

management system to the faculty, students and staff of the College of Arts and Sciences.

Specific Objectives:

The system specifically aimed to achieve the following specific objectives:

1. Develop a Learning Management System that contains the following core functionalities

a) User account management module where only from the IT unit personnel authorize to

access to perform activities such; approval and denial of account registration, user

role/level restriction and area of assignment designation per department.

b) Professors will have an account module that authorize them to approve the registration

of the students per subject, creation of subject code and description is also included

capability in creating evaluation exercises/assessment for their students. The grade

sheet module is only available for the professors’ part.

c) Students will have an account module that enables them to register to the subjects

that they are enrolled in the semester, they could also take the assessment online

(quizzes, assignments, seatwork and they could download instructional materials form

the subjects that the students are enrolled).


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2. Develop a system that has messaging and notifications by learners; which can send

reminders and notifications to teachers and students on upcoming training events or

deadlines. Users can also use the forum to promote existing eLearning courses to

encourage more registrations to the courses that are being offered.

3. Create a system that will lessen the work load of the professors taking into account the

four fold functions of the faculty thus giving them ample time and opportunity to perform

other tasks relevant to their functions as faculty.

4. Create a computerized grading system for the instructors.

5. Help the student in getting the right information provided by the teacher; Lessen the

expenses of students in terms of photocopy and printing of learning materials.

6. Create a system that can easily generates report that is needed by professors and

administrators.

Theoretical Framework

The proposed system utilized the following theories and concept in the development of the

proposed College of Arts and Sciences Learning Management System. This system will serve as a

medium of monitoring students list and distribution of information and learning materials. This

theoretical framework shows the efficiency and effectivity of the system.

Web-based System

Web based applications have evolved significantly over recent years and with

improvements in security and technology there are plenty of scenarios where traditional software

based applications and systems could be improved by migrating them to a web based application.
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Most web based applications are far more compatible across platforms than traditional

installed software. Typically, the minimum requirement would be a web browser of which there are

many (Internet Explorer, Firefox, Netscape to name but a few). These web browsers are available

for a multitude of operating systems and so whether you use Windows, Linux or Mac OS you can

still run the web application. (http://www.dbnetsolutions.co.uk)

Web based systems need only be installed on the server placing minimal requirements on

the end user workstation. This makes maintaining and updating the system much simpler as

usually it can all be done on the server. Any client updates can be deployed via the web server with

relative ease. Due to the manageability and cross platform support deploying web applications to

the end user is far easier. They are also ideal where bandwidth is limited and the system and data

is remote to the user. At their most deployable you simply need to send the user a website address

to log in to and provide them with internet access.

Web based applications also provide an added layer of security by removing the need for

the user to have access to the data and back end servers. Web based applications can

dramatically lower costs due to reduced support and maintenance, lower requirements on the end

user system and simplified architecture. By further streamlining your business operations because

of the web based application additional savings can often be found.

Web based applications can dramatically lower costs due to reduced support and

maintenance, lower requirements on the end user system and simplified architecture. By further

streamlining your business operations because of web based application additional savings can

often be found.

Mobile Application
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A mobile app is a computer program designed to run on mobile devices such

as smartphones and tablet computers. Most such devices are sold with several apps bundled

as pre-installed software, such as a web browser, email client, calendar, mapping program, and an

app for buying music or other media or more apps. Some pre-installed apps can be removed by an

ordinary uninstall process, thus leaving more storage space for desired ones. Where the software

does not allow this, some devices can be rooted to eliminate the undesired apps.

Native mobile apps often stand in contrast to software applications that run on desktop

computers, and with web applications which run in mobile web browsers rather than directly on the

mobile device.

Mobile application development requires use of specialized integrated development

environments. Mobile apps are first tested within the development environment

using emulators and later subjected to field testing. Emulators provide an inexpensive way to test

applications on mobile phones to which developers may not have physical access.

(https://www.lifewire.com)

Mobile user interface (UI) Design is also essential. Mobile UI considers constraints and

contexts, screen, input and mobility as outlines for design. The user is often the focus of interaction

with their device, and the interface entails components of both hardware and software. User input

allows for the users to manipulate a system, and device's output allows the system to indicate the

effects of the users' manipulation. Mobile UI design constraints include limited attention and form

factors, such as a mobile device's screen size for a user's hand. Mobile UI contexts signal cues

from user activity, such as location and scheduling that can be shown from user interactions within

a mobile application. Overall, mobile UI design's goal is primarily for an understandable, user-

friendly interface.
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Conceptual Framework

This study made use of the Input-Process-Output model. The conceptual framework below

represents all the actions required in the system which will lead to the idea of how the system

works.

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

 System
Developmental of
module materials
setting  CAS Learning
 LMS Information  Account Management
 User Registration application System
 System Log-in validation  Account
 Subject Creation  Account  Homepage Access
 Online verification  Resource Material
Assessments,  Learning Materials i Access
Assignments & Upload  Assessments,
Forum  Online Assignments
 Grade Input Assessments, Results
 Report Generation Assignment &  Grade
Forum Upload  Hardcopy of report
 Grade sheet
updates
 Report Printing

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

Figure 1: Input Process Output of the Proposed System


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Figure 3.1 shows the model how the proposed system will work. The input comprises all

the information to be possibly entered in the system (LMS) such as the user information, subject

information in its creation in the system, assessments and assignments uploaded by the teachers

and students, grades and reports. Once the information has been stored, it is subjected to

appropriate processing feature/s which can be generated to produce certain output.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This study focuses on the improvement of the current Learning Management System

utilized by the Faculty Members of the College of Arts and Sciences of Eastern Visayas State

University Tacloban. Respondents of the study include a total enumeration of all regular faculty

members of the College who have teaching loads for school year 2017-2018. Profile of the

respondents is also investigated in terms of age, sex, highest educational attainment, number of

years in service, and attitude towards the use of IT. Moreover, special consideration shall also be

put on the teachers’ perception on the use of Learning Management System for the College of Arts

and Sciences which shall be relevant input to the creation of a standardized Learning Management

System for the College of Arts and Sciences which can help lessen the workload of professors.

This system will not replace the traditional teaching techniques but can certainly help the quality of

education by making a collaborative way of teaching between the teachers and students.  The

study is limited to the College of Arts and Science on Eastern Visayas State University, only for

students and teachers of the said college. Only teachers have the authority to manage their

classes, subject and upload files; It is applicable both through the Local Area Network (LAN) and

the World Wide Web (Internet).


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The proposed system is web-based with integrated mobile application with the following

functionalities:

1. Professors and Students Account Module – is the module of the system where all

information and subjects is being stored in the database such Professors Profile (ID

Number, First Name, Middle Name, Last Name, Age, Date of Birth, Address, Contact

Number, Contact Number, E-mail Address and Highest Educational Attainment) and for

the student’s profile (Class ID, Student ID, Last Name, First Name, Middle name, Age,

Date of Birth, Address, Contact Number, E-mail Address, Parent’s Name, Parents Contact

Number)

2. Learning Management Module – the most highly important part of the system where

recorded. This includes the learning materials that are being uploaded by the

professors/professors, online assessments (quizzes, seatwork et al), class schedules,

subjects are being offered in current semester and school year. And the module provided

monitors and tracks the progress of the students while they are enrolled in the subjects.

3. Online Assessment Module – this module of the system monitors and track the progress of

the enrolled students through online quizzes, seatwork and homework, they could access

the online assessment as long there would internet connection or through mobile data on

their mobile phones.

4. Report Generation – the system can generate reports that you can enhance performance

through tracking and reporting tools. New users’ progress can be tracked, records can be

reviewed, and users can register for more than one course. Learning can be done through

web based training. Management can access the records and calculate which area needs

improvement. The learners also become aware of the areas that need improvement and
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additional efforts, as the weak performance areas, can be identified easily, the said report

can be downloaded and printed by the professors or administrator.

The researcher started the study in February 2017. The CAS Learning Management

System will be customized and installed in a web-hosting server location in the Philippines, while

the back-up server will be installed in the Academic Building Room 17 (CAS Computer Laboratory).

This study does not cover issues such as power outage, internet connection issues and other web-

related issues.

Significance of the Study

Results and output of this research are deemed beneficial to the following:

Administration. The study may provide them information relating to the IT needs and the

needed IT related training for Faculty Members. Moreover, this will encourage them to provide

appropriate ICT needed to enhance the learning environment of the University. Administrators will

be better able to implement tighter controls on course content and delivery as they can also access

the site.

College of Arts and Sciences. The proposed system shall provide a standardized Learning

Management System to be used across all departments belonging to the College.

Faculty. Teachers may maximize the use of technology by employing a more efficient and

convenient learning management system, that they can use as an alternative venue for their

discussions and sharing or resources it is a virtual extension of the classroom that accessible via

the internet, thus give them more time to accomplish other tasks assigned to them.
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Students. This system will offer learning experience and it will capture students’ interest to

learn. Students’ shall have an easy and convenient access to the different learning resources

utilized by the teachers, thus, help them improve their academic performance. Further, it will

broader their perspective in technological advancement.

Proponent. This study will give the researcher a chance to apply the knowledge he

acquired in his years of studying. It also gives the researcher opportunity to enhance and practice

his ability and creativity.

Future Researchers. This study my serve as a basis for researches for further study,

especially that improvement and upgrading of the system must be continual. This may also give

direction and relevance to related areas to be developed and will serve as a reference for the

future projects in relation with the learning management system.

Definition of Terms

The following terms are operationally defined to help the readers have a better

understanding of the study;

Beta Version. A version of a piece of software that is made available for testing, typically

by a limited number of users outside the company that is developing it, before its general release.

College of Arts and Sciences Faculty. This refers to regular faculty members of the College

who have actual teaching loads for the first and second semester of school year 2017-2018.

Computerized Assessment System. A computerized battery of cognitive tests designed in

the late 1970s by Professor Keith Wesnes at the University of Reading in Berkshire, England, for

repeated testing in clinical trials. Task stimuli are presented in a laptop computer and participants
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respond via 'YES' and 'NO' buttons on a two-button response box, which records both the accuracy

and reaction time.

Database. Is a collection of information that is organized so that it can be easily accessed,

manage and update. Data is organized into rows, columns and tables, and it is indexed to make it

easier to find relevant information. Data gets updated, expanded and deleted as new information is

added. Databases process workloads to create and update themselves, querying the data they

contain and running applications against it. (https://searchsqlserver.techtarget.com )

Facilitating Communication. Refers to the perceived usefulness of the system as a digital

communication tool between the teachers and students, both at home and school, thus in different

time and space.

Graphical User Interface. A computer program designed to allow a computer user to

interact easily with the computer typically by making choices from menus or groups of

icons

Hardware. Any tangible devices that can be seen and touched by the user.

Learning Management System. Is a software application for the administration,

documentation, tracking, reporting and delivery of educational courses or training programs. They

help the instructor deliver material to the students, administer tests and other assignments, track

student progress, and manage record-keeping. LMS support a range of uses, from supporting

classes that meet in physical classrooms to acting as a platform for fully online courses, as well as

several hybrid forms, such as blended learning and flipped classrooms.

(https://www.commlabindia.com)

Mobile Application. (also known as mobile apps) are software programs developed for

mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. They turn mobile devices into miniature

powerhouses of function and fun. Some devices come preloaded with some mobile apps courtesy
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of their manufacturers or the mobile service providers with which they're associated (for example,

Verizon, AT&T, T-Mobile, etc.), but many more apps are available through device-specific app

stores. (https://www.lifewire.com)

Perceived ICT Competence. It refers to the understanding of abilities, skills or capacities of

the respondents to be effective in interaction with ICT.

System Development Life Cycle.  Is a conceptual model used in project management that

describes the stages involved in an information system development project, from an initial

feasibility study through maintenance of the completed application.

(https://www.coleyconsulting.co.uk)

System Requirements. Are the configuration that a system must have for a hardware or

software application to run smoothly and efficiently. Failure to meet these requirements can result

in installation problems or performance problems. The former may prevent a device or application

from getting installed, whereas the latter may cause a product to malfunction or perform below

expectation or even to hang or crash.

Teachers’ Acceptance Towards IT Use in Learning Management. In this study, this covers

the factors influencing the teachers’ acceptance of ICT use, reflected in part of the research

instrument.

Web Based Application. Is a computer program that utilizes web browsers and web

technology to perform tasks on the world wide web


Chapter II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents the various literature and studies which are considered vital in

providing adequate background information and facts to establish a more comprehensive basis for

the current study.

Related Literature

In the past ten years, online course management systems have replaced other alternative

means to deliver class contents such as live satellite or closed circuit television (Falvo & Johnson,

2007).

Simonson (2007) provided a practical definition of LMS: Course management systems,

also called learning management systems or virtual learning environments, are software systems

designed to assist in the management of educational courses for students, especially by helping

teachers and learners with course administration. The systems can often track the learners’

progress. While usually thought of as primarily tools for distance education, they are also used to

support the face-to-face classroom.

The introduction of learning management systems, along with increased computer use in

the home and in business has brought an increasing number of students and teachers to the online

learning environment (Falvo & Johnson, 2007). Learning management systems allow for increased

focus on the learning needs of the student and needs of the e-learning instructor regarding tasks

(Iqual & Qureshi, 2011).


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Learning Management Systems (LMSs) have been widely used due to their many

advantages including flexible learning times and unlimited distance education (Hamuy & Galaz,

2009). Since the increased development of the Internet, the LMS concept has been broadly applied

at various higher education institutions around the world. LMSs helps instructors and learners

discuss the course content by posting and responding to each other, maintaining student learning

tracks, and managing learning activities in an online environment (Falvo & Johnson, 2007).

Currently, LMSs improve instructor teaching and student performance across various fields of

study (Boggs, Shore, & Shore, 2004).

Higher Education is one of the important factor contributing to the progress of an

individual, social change and economic growth which leads to the holistic development of the

nation (Chaubey and Bhattacharya, 2015). Looking at the demands of changing needs of 21 st

century learners, the popularity of LMS among HEIs or higher education institutions is very high,

emphasizing to save time and money and effective delivery of instruction.

One of the most important features of LMS is to provide an environment for learning and

teaching without the restrictions of time and distance (Epping, 2010). According to Morris (2004),

Allen and Seaman (2015), as cited by Chaubey and Bhattacharya (2015), if any institutions are

planning to operate traditional courses online, a Learning Management System is the top most

necessity in order to properly organize content, courses, grades, faculty and students.

As a result of increased competition and advanced technology, higher education

institutions now have a wide variety of options to manage their learning curriculum. Each LMS

offers specific functions and management approaches, so choosing the appropriate system

becomes an important concern for educational institutions. In addition, an LMS does not offer

enough finalized functions to satisfy the demands of the institutions. As a result, institutions must

spend valuable time and effort comparing each LMS system individually to ensure that the one
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chosen meets their demands. Although LMSs have become increasingly popular, several

drawbacks and limitations exist. There is a lack of social interaction. Social interaction encourages

high learner motivation, which has the potential to improve users’ teaching and learning

performance (Chou & Chou, 2011). In addition, (Huffman and Huffman, 2012) suggested that

students utilizing the appropriate technological tool improved learning performance.

Implementing a learning management system is a large decision for a higher education

institution. A large consideration of this decision is the financial cost. Most vendors offer a robust

learning management system product, but require upfront costs and yearly site licenses. These

costs may be especially cost prohibitive if it is a single department or even a small university which

is considering purchasing the learning management system. To overcome these issues, some

schools have developed their own learning management open source system, such as OpenUSS

(Grob, Bensberg & Dewanto, 2004). Institutions should consider exactly what objectives they wish

to achieve through the LMS before acquiring a system.

Iqbal and Qureshi (2011) suggest the following factors as the most important

considerations when selecting a learning management system: organizational goals and

objectives, technical specification and support, design specifications, clear and user friendly

graphical interface, well designed course repository, course administration capability, capability of

interaction among users, evaluation and feedback, student’s profile, and pedagogy. Whether

developing an in-house system, opting for an open source solution or purchasing a large system,

these issues shape the learning management system decision.

(ADL Scorm, 2003) suggest the precise specifications vary from system to system, they

typically provide tools for course administration and pedagogical functions of differing

sophistication and potential:


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 Asynchronous and synchronous communication (announcement areas, e-mail, chat, list

servers, instant messaging and discussion forums);

 Content development and delivery (learning resources, development of learning object

repositories and links to internet (resources);

 Formative and summative assessment (submission, multiple choice testing, collaborative

work and feedback); and

 Class and user management (registering, enrolling, displaying timetables, managing

student activities and electronic office hours).

According to Araújo Júnior and Marquesi (2009) a Learning Management System, widely

spread as LMS and, hence the use of this acronym in this study may be defined, in the user

perspective, as a virtual environment that aims to simulate face-to-face learning environments with

the use of Information Technology. In an LMS, the interaction happens through devices that enable

communication either synchronously or asynchronously, allowing the creation of different strategies

to encourage a dialogue and active participation of students. According to Lonn and Teasley

(2009) Learning Management Systems are web-based systems that enable teachers and students

to share materials, to submit and return assignments and to communicate online.

Meanwhile Almrashdeh et al., (2011) point out that an LMS is software used to plan, implement

and evaluate a specific learning process.

In LMS, mediation involves both the acquisition of competences and communication skills

of all teachers and students, and a greater concern to create interaction moments and practical

application possibilities of collaborative work, with that learning process happening in a

participatory manner. For that, the teacher relies on communication devices, such as chat rooms,
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forums, blogs, video blogs (Souza, 2005; Sartori & Garcia, 2009; Rosini, 2013). To these authors, it

is necessary to consider that an LMS must seek to get the best advances in technology available

today, for reasons of efficiency and for enabling the maximum degree of interactivity and

communication among users. Learning and collaborative work have become fundamental and

technological advances should lead to the achievement of high interaction levels.

The first LMS appeared in the nineties, along with the first web browsers. According

to Silva (2013), Learning Management Systems are often criticized, due to the belief that these

technologies simply virtualize non-virtual classrooms. However, according to the author, they are

not the main problem, but the way they are designed, structured and crafted. Furthermore, the use

of an LMS requires careful studies.

Bof (2005) states that e-learning is complex and requires efficient management so that

educational outcomes can be achieved. It is crucial to establish strategies and mechanisms by

which one can ensure that this system will effectively work as intended, once the following

components are defined: educational goals, instructional design, steps and activities, mechanisms

to support the learning system, technologies to be used, evaluation system, formal academic

procedures and functioning of the system, E-learning is made up of many components that must

operate in an integrated manner. It is about the formalization of an operational structure since that

involves the development of the course design, the production of didactic materials or information

sources and the definition of an evaluation system, including the establishment of operational

mechanisms for the distribution of subjects, the availability of learning support services and the

establishment of academic procedures.


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The origins of educational management, specifically of e-learning management, are

related to the General Theory of Administration consolidated in the twentieth century. According

to Sobral and Peci (2008), administration consists in the efficient and effective use of resources in

an organization, so that its objectives can be achieved. In this regard, the process of contemporary

administration involves four interrelated activities called administrative functions: planning,

organization, managing and control, arising from the primordial definitions from French

administrator Henri Fayol, early twentieth century (Fayol, 1990).

Planning means setting goals and developing strategies and actions to achieve them,

organization means determining what should be done, how it should be done and who should do it,

managing, on the other hand, implies to lead and motivate members of the organization and,

ultimately, control involves monitoring performance to ensure that goals are achieved ( Sobral &

Peci, 2008). All administrative functions (planning, organization, managing and control) and

resources (facilities, space, time, money, information and people) are present in educational

management in general and particularly in the management of e-learning.

In e-learning management, as in regular educational management, refers to the action of

planning, organizing, coordinating and controlling space, time, money, facilities, people and

information, not losing focus on pedagogical principles, which is the purpose in both management

systems. But in this case, their specificities must be analyzed carefully, because the regular

educational management (public, in particular) is based on scientific management (business

management), but it keeps certain specificities that deserve special care from managers (Mill &

Brito, 2009).
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For being an institution of peculiar nature, the ways to plan, organize, manage and control

a school or a university must be different from the traditional ways business managers make

decisions. By the type of institution, the management of higher education differs from the

management of basic education. Likewise, the management of e-learning must be treated

distinctly. As well as in regular education, managers of e-learning should not disregard the

pedagogical nature of their decisions which are turned into actions, but it should be clear that

teaching and learning are distinct processes. The educational management of e-learning also

provides planning decisions, organization, direction and control, like those of regular education in

higher education and concerned with facilities, space, time, money, information and people.

However, it is necessary that e-learning managers are aware of the differences between both ( Mill

& Brito, 2009).

It is understood that, by combining an LMS and the management of e-learning, it is

possible to improve the planning, organization, management and control of managers and enhance

e-learning processes. In this regard Belloni (2001) highlights that a significant trend is the

investment in IT, not only in equipment, but also in research of appropriate methodologies and in

training for their application. This emphasis reflects the need for studies either in improving the

efficiency and effectiveness of the existing methods of management, and in the creation of new

mechanisms for improving e-learning processes.

Adding to this idea, Vaz (2007) says that an LMS is a well-defined and well-built pattern

when it becomes a learning management application used in planning, execution and evaluation of

a specific e-learning process. For her the focus of an LMS is on the learner and on the

organization, and its main purposes are the management of learners, learning activities, the

process of evaluation of e-learning and mapping skills of the organization providing education. The
23

environment may also assist in the monitoring and management of relations between users and

learning activities.

The application of IT in e-learning has enabled possibilities that include, from the

administrative to the pedagogical elements, expansion and management contexts (Souza, 2005).

The development of technology has made changes in the way of planning devices that allow the

interaction, the content delivery, the offer of communication devices, which increase the complexity

of an LMS developed to achieve educational goals. Educating in the Information Society is not only

the discursive update of the educational paradigm, but also a deeper understanding of the

contributions of technological devices of information and communication for the development of

distinctive pedagogical practices, according to the social and cultural context (Sartori & Garcia,

2009).

Macfadyen and Dawson (2010) complement that significant students’ information can be

extracted from an LMS and may help educators to extract and visualize real-time data on student

engagement and probability of success in their courses. Nevertheless, there is a strong concern of

researches in e-learning about the technological aspect, notably the use of Information

Technology, and also about an LMS being able to exchange, dialogue, collaboration and joint

elaboration (Oliveira, 2012). Although, McGill and Klobas (2009) point out that LMS research is

characterized by a diversity of studies conducted in a wide variety of contexts, considering different

variables and explanatory models. For them, on that basis, it is difficult, if not impossible, for

research results to be generalized in the field.

Bach, Domingues and Walter (2013), in turn, performed a systematic review of the

Brazilian scientific production on the use of IT in education between 1997 and 2011 and verified
24

that there are large concentrations of studies on implementation and management of distance

learning courses, use of IT in education, quality evaluation and satisfaction in using an LMS,

pedagogy and didactics in the distance learning content, evaluation of professional skills and

competencies related to distance education and contributions of IT to teaching and learning. For

them, it reflects the transition of many universities to distance education as well as the existing

arguments over their advantages and limitations. The authors also state that surveys could be

carried out to guide higher education institutions and teachers to explore the resources that only IT

can offer and, therefore, qualitatively improve education. It is worth highlighting that it was

observed that the literature has made efforts with an emphasis on pedagogical (Santos,

2003; Gonzales, 2005; Souza, 2005; Araújo Júnior & Marquesi, 2009; Sartori & Garcia,

2009; Matucheski & Lupion, 2010; Macfadyen & Dawson, 2010) and technological aspects

(Belanger & Jordan, 2000; Roque et al., 2004; VAZ, 2007; ROMERO, VENTURA & GARCÍA,

2008; MCGILL & KLOBAS, 2009), from the perspective of teachers/tutors and/or students

(Derouin, Fritzsche & Salas, 2004; Coates, James & Baldwin, 2005; Mackay & Stockport,

2006; Mcgill & Hoobs, 2008; Lonn & Teasley, 2009; Almrashedh et al., 2011).

Related Studies

ClassNet            

The management system for

Internet-based instruction is

called ClassNet and provides

the following services: creation

of a class by an instructor,
25

enrollment in the class by students, creation of tests and assignments, student submission and

automatic grading of materials, student and class scores, discussion forums and chat rooms, e-

mail between students and instructors, and portfolio development by students.

ATutor Learning Management System

ATutor is an Open

Source Web-based

Learning

Management System

(LMS) used to

develop and deliver

online courses.

Administrators can

install or update ATutor in minutes, develop custom themes to give ATutor a new look, and easily

extend its functionality with feature modules. Educators can quickly assemble, package, and

redistribute Web-based instructional content, easily import prepackaged content, and conduct their

courses online. Students learn in an accessible, adaptive, social learning environment.

Learning Management System for LPU- Laguna

The term Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment (MOODLE) or simply

Moodle is a growing system in the information technology education field. It is a learning

management system that uses the web. It is also now a verb that describes the process of doing

an online course. Anyone who uses Moodle is a Moodler.  This study was initiated to determine the

potential of using an institutional learning management system that will serve as the standard tool
26

for use in the virtual classroom.  The learning management system contains features on enrolment,

roles, course management, course report, and modules on assignment, chat, forum, glossary,

lesson, quiz, survey, and workshop.  A series of initial tests was conducted to advance the

knowledge of the researchers about Moodle and propagate the learning to the end users (the

institution). The establishment of a learning management system is composed of the Moodle

software, a server, and a webhosting site. The LMS was evaluated by the student respondents in

four areas: the system, the technical support, functions and capabilities, and the tools and were

found to generally good and acceptable, (Dellosa et. al, 2012).

Electronic Pupil Interactive Learning System

The study was conducted to support the preschool classroom management through developing an

LMS, entitled Electronic Pupil Learning System (EPILS) tailored to meet the level of understanding

of a kindergarten; a convenient way for teachers to give and assess activities; for the principal to

post announcements, news, and events; and for parents to monitor their children pertaining to their

classroom activities. The users need a computer or a phone to use the system. The problem

system that enabled the researcher to come up with EPILS, as the solution, are: in the traditional

classroom setting, it is time consuming for teachers to prepare and create a template for pupil’s

activities; lack of classroom interactivity tool in supporting learner centered education suited for

kindergarten pupils; parents cannot fully track the performance of their children pertaining to

classroom activities; lack of information to parents regarding school events and news, (Serion,

2015).

Moodle
27

Moodle is an active and evolving work in progress. Development was started by Martin

Dougiamas who continue to lead the project. As a young IT professional at the Curtin University of

Technology in Perth, Australia, his frustration as system administrator of the university’s WEBCT

installation inspired him to take on the challenge of developing a system better than Blackboard TM,

and making it available for free for teachers to creatively and seamlessly move their teaching skills

into the internet. His passion in the field also led him to complement his career in Computer

Science with a Master and then PhD in Education.

Today Moodle is being used more widely. It is used in universities, high schools, primary

schools, non-profit organizations, private companies, by independent teachers and even

homeschooling parents. Moodle also has gained an international following as people from all over

the world are now also contributing to the evolution Of Moodle in many ways. Moodle.org provides

a central point for information, discussion and collaboration among Moodle users, who include

system administrators, teachers, researchers, instructional designers and Of course, developers.

Like Moodle, this site is likewise always evolving to suit the needs of the community.

Applications of Moodle

The dissertation of Graf (2007) of Vienna University of Technology entitled "Adaptivity in

Learning Management Systems Focusing on Learning Styles" focused on extending LMSs to

provide adaptivity by incorporating learning styles according to the Felder-Silverman learning style

model. An automated approach for identifying learning styles from the behavior and actions of

learners was designed, implemented, and evaluated, demonstrating that the proposed approach is

suitable for identifying learning styles. Based on this approach, a standalone tool for automatic

detection of learning styles in LMSs was implemented. Furthermore, investigations were conducted
28

on improving the automatic detection of learning styles by using additional information from

cognitive traits. The potential of working memory capacity was investigated. Results of a

comprehensive literature review and two comprehensive evaluation studies showed that

relationships between working memory capacity and learning styles existed and that these

relationships could provide additional information for the detection process of learning styles.

Moreover, a concept for extending LMSs by enabling them to automatically generate and present

courses that fit the students' learning styles were developed, implemented, and evaluated, using

Moodle as a prototype. Results showed that the proposed concept for providing adaptive courses

was successful in supporting students in learning. By extending LMSs with adaptivity, a learning

environment that supports teachers as well as learners was built. In such an adaptive LMS,

teachers can continue using the advantages of LMSs and learners can additionally benefit from

adaptive courses. This research opened ways for advanced learning systems, which incorporated

the needs and characteristics of learners, responded to them immediately, and provided learners

with courses where adaptation is frequently improved and updated to the learners' needs
CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

This chapter discuss the System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) model used in the

development of the proposed system College of Arts and Sciences Learning Management System,

this includes the research methods, system flowcharts, block diagrams and the database schema

of the system.

Research Design

There will be two types of research methods will be implemented in this study; Qualitative

and Quantitative research. Quantitative research is to inquire into some identified problems, that

will be based on a testing theory, can be measured with numerical figures and analyzed using

statistical tools. The objective of the quantitative research method is to determine whether

predictive generalizations of a certain theory is true and qualitative method is a study that will be

based upon a qualitative process of review that will understand a social or human program from

multiple perceptions. Qualitative research is steered in a natural setting and includes a process of

creating a complex and holistic picture of the singularity of interest.

Qualitatively, the approach of the researcher is through conducting data gathering with formal and

informal interview to the Faculties and students of the College of Arts and Science who will be the

end-user on the system that is being develop. Hence, Qualitative approach, selected faculty

members and students, will be asked to answer some survey questionnaires, the result will be

analyze then presented to give justifications on the findings during the data gathering procedure.
30

Figure 2. System Development Life Cycle

The Prototyping Model is a system development method in which a prototype(an early

approximation of a final system or product) is built, tested, and then reworked as necessary until an

acceptable prototype is finally achieved from which the complete system or product can now be

developed. This model works best in scenarios that no existing work flow and where not all the

project requirements are known in detail ahead of time. It is an iterative, trial-and-error process that

takes place between the developers and the users. The researcher starts through looking at the

initial requirements for the system. At this stage the researcher will check if the software and

hardware requirements are available. These include a server, a webhost and internet connection.

In this stage describes what available features of College of Arts and Sciences Learning

Management System. The following are the general features of the system that will be explored.

 Site Management. The site will be managed by an administrator user and will be defined during the

setup using defaults or modification of such. Customization can be made using plug-in “themes” on

size colors, fonts and layout; using plug-in activity modules; using plug-in language packs.
31

 Overview about user management. User management enables the administrator to provide

minimum involvement but ensuring high security. The system should support a range of user

authentication mechanisms through plug-in authentication modules, allowing easy integration with

existing systems such as standard electronic mail (e-mail), account log-ins profile creation and

editing tools, time zone adjustment.

 Enrollment. This will provide the mechanism to enroll students in a course. Enrollment can be by

invitation or by student self-enrollment. User authentication is required before access to the

materials is granted. An “enrollment key” in a course allow only certain students to enter. These

keys can be given out face-to-face or via email and can be changed. Teachers with permissions,

can manually enroll students or un-enroll students in their courses. Each account can have access

to different courses, and the course’s resources and activities.

 Roles. Roles combine specific permission for specific types of participants. A user can be

assigned a different role for each context, such as a specific course. The administrator (admin)

user account controls the creation of courses and creates teachers by assigning users to courses

and giving them role in that context. New rules can be created, applied and edit. Standard roles for

this system include teacher, student and guest.

 Overview on course management. Typically, a teacher will have full control over-all the settings for

a course. This can include Management of forum posts, teacher feedback on student postings,

chatroom and submissions are likewise manage.

 Grade sheet. This includes the grades for many kinds of activities contained in the course.

 Assignment Module. Assignment can be specified with a due date and a maximum grade. Students

can upload their assignments (any file format) to the serve and are date-stamped. Teacher can

provide feedback, notification and updated monitoring of student assignments.

 Chat Module. The Chat Module allows smooth, synchronous text interaction and they are limited to

students in their respective course subject enrolled.


32

 Forum Module. The forum module contains forum posts and discussions board. Group feature

allow option for more entry and viewing limitation for students. The teacher can monitor the

members of the groups and can moderate the discussion.

 Quiz Module. The quiz module contains many types of standard question formats and scoring

methods. Quizzes are automatically graded when a student finishes. An entire quiz or specific

questions may be re-graded at any time. Questions will be stored in categories that a part of a

robust question bank for easy access.

 Resource Module. Resources can display many types of media content files by a single link on the

course page, such as word, powerpoint presentations, video and audio formats, web pages and

files. Files can be uploaded and manage in the course. Folders can be created and managed in the

course and student links to a folder via a resource link.

The design stage will start through the creation of the system flowchart, system database

and graphical user interface (GUI) of the system.

Block Diagram

Figure 3.1: Block Diagram


33

The block diagram shows how the schematic flow structure of the Learning Management

System. The system is accessible via mobile application or over the website. The user can access

the system by creating an account through the front-end of the system (mobile app or website).

Then base on the accessibility level of the user some of the functions will be enable (for instructors

the learning management system module, grades module and assessment module) and the

system will generate reports based from the system database depends on the access level of the

user.
34

System Flowchart

START

New YES Register New


User? Account

NO
SYSTEM
YES DATABASE
ADMIN? B

NO A
YES

INSTRUC
TOR?
C

NO
YES
STUDEN D
T?

NO

YES
NO LOG-
OUT? END

Z
35

ADMINISTRATOR

Option
B YES
[1] Create Option Register New
[2] Update == 1 Account
[3] Report
[4] Log-out

NO
A
YES
A Update Option
Account == 2

NO

A View & Print YES Option


Report == 3

NO

NO
Option Z
A == 4
YES
36

INSTRUCTOR/PROFESSOR

Option
[1] Course A
C [2] Calendar YES
Option E
[3] Message == 1
[4] Requests YES
[5] Log-out
YES
N
NO
O

Option YES
F
== 2

NO

Option YES
G
== 3

NO

Option YES F
== 4

NO

NO
Option YES
B Z
== 5
37

COURSE
Option
[1] Create New YES
E Course Option Create New
[2] Upload == 1 Course
Resource
Materials
[3] Create Online
A
Assessments

YES
Option Upload Resource
== 2 Materials

YES

Option Create Online


== 3 Assessments

CALENDAR

F Update Calendar A

MESSAGE/CHAT
YES
G Compose Send Option Message
Message Message? == Yes Sent

NO C
38
39
40

Most of the concepts of system development is to create a system flowchart that will be

guide to the researcher in developing the system. It will show how the system will behave once it is

implemented. On the homepage of the system the user will have the option to create an account,

sign-in to their account or simply browse the site for information. If the user is new, then he/she is

required to create an account to access modules of the system. The administrator will have full

control in terms of access, security of the system and in creating new accounts. When teachers

were able to sign-in on the system they will be migrated to their dashboard where they can create a

new subject, forums, create online assessments (quizzes, seatwork, homework), upload learning

materials for the class and check the grade sheet of their students. Students can enroll through the

access code that will be given by their teachers, once the registration has been approved by the

subject teacher, they will have access to the learning materials, online assessments and they could

communicate through the chatroom or they can send private message to a certain user.

Research Environment

Organizational Structure
ADMINISTRATOR
(IT UNIT) FACULTY

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES LEARNING MANAGEMENT


SYSTEM (LMS)

STUDENTS
41

Figure 3.2: Organizational Structure

There are three main users in the system; IT Administrator, Faculties of the College of Arts

and Sciences and the Students.

The administrator of the said system is the super user it means that he/she has all the

system privileges to override any commands within the system. The administrator account will be

given to the Information Technology Instructor of the College of Arts and Sciences.

The faculty of the College Arts and Sciences is the user who will monitor the Learning

Management Module, Assessment Module and the grading module of the system. They will be the

one to upload the resource materials to share, create online assessment like quizzes, seat works

and assignments. They can use the grading module and generate reports for the said system.

On the other hand, the students will have the lowest access level in the system, because

they can only download, views the resource materials that has been uploaded by the instructor,

and they can take the online assessment given by the instructor of the said subject.

Locale of the Study


42

Figure 3.3: EVSU MAP

The study will be conducted at the College of Arts and Sciences, Eastern Visayas State
University Tacloban City.

HIPO Chart

LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR THE


COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES

ADMINISTRATOR FACULTY STUDENT

Manage and Maintain Create/View/Edit Access Learning


User Accounts /Update Subject Materials

Generate Reports Generate Subject


Access Online
Code
Assessment

Create/View/Edit
/Update Learning View Results of
Materials Assessment

Create/View/Edit
/Update Online
Assessment

Access Grade Sheet

Generate Reports
43

Figure 3.4: Hierarchical Input Process Output

The above figure shows the Hierarchical Input Process Output Diagram. It represents the

different task perform by the authorize user of the system from inputs, processing and output.
44

Database Schematic
45

The College of Arts and Sciences Learning Management System uses MySQL database with a

concept in Relational Database Management. The system database contains of fifteen tables namely;

Students table, Student_Class table, Teacher table, File_Folder table, Class table, File_sharing table,

Attendance_students table, Activity_Shared table, Exam_result table, Message table, Activity_report table,

Exam_Choices, Grading table, Exam table and Activity table. All tables are interrelatedly links with the

other tables in the database. The following tables below shows the characteristics of the tables and fields

inside. It also includes the data types of each field, size/length of data and null type of the field.

The following tables below displays the features of the tables and fields inside. It also contains the

data types of each field names, size/length of data and null type of the field.

Students Table

Field Name Type Null


Student_ID int(20) No
LName varchar(75) No
Fname varchar(75) No
Age Int(10) No
DOB Date No
Email varchar(75) No
Date_CREATE Date No
Date_Updated Date No

Students_Class Table

Field Name Type Null


Class_ID int(20) No
Student_ID Int(20) No
Date_Created Date No
Status varchar(75) No
Teacher Table

Field Name Type Null


Teacher_ID int(20) No
LName varchar(75) No
FName varchar(75) No
DOB Date No
Address varchar(150) No
Contact_No int(20) No
Email varchar(100) No
Educational_Attainment varchar(50) No
Academic_Rank varchar(50) No
Date_CREATE Date No
Date_UPDATE Date No

Message Table
Field Name Type Null
Message_IDNo int(20) No
Message_From varchar(100) No
Message_From_Type varchar(100) No
Message_to varchar(100) No
Message varchar(100) No
Date_CREATE Date No

Grading Table
Field Name Type Null
ExamID int(20) No
StudentID Int(20) No
Score Int(20) No
Remarks varchar(20) No

Files_Folder Table
Field Name Type Null
FolderID int(20) No
File_Name varchar(100) No
Description varchar(100) No
Owner_type varchar(100) No
Owner_ID int(20) No
Icons int(40) No
Date_CREATE Date No
Date_UPDATE Date No
47

File_sharing Table
Field Name Type Null
Owner_type varchar(100) No
Owner_ID int(20) No
Type_shared varchar(50) No
Destination_TYPE varchar(50) No
Destionatiion_ID int(20) No

Exam_Result Table
Field Name Type Null
Owner_type varchar(100) No
Owner_ID int(20) No
Type_shared varchar(50) No
Destination_TYPE varchar(50) No
Destionatiion_ID int(20) No

Exam_Choices Table
Field Name Type Null
Owner_ID int(20) No
Description varchar(100) No

Exam Table
Field Name Type Null
ExamID int(20) No
Exam_Shared varchar(50) No
Result varchar(50) No
StudentID int(20) No
ClassID int(20) No

Class Table
Field Name Type Null
Class_Code varchar(50) No
Class_Name varchar(50) No
Description varchar(50) No
Year_Level varchar(50) No
Section varchar(50) No
Course varchar(50) No
Teacher varchar(50) No
Teacher_ID Int(20) No
48

Attendance_Students Table
Field Name Type Null
StudentID int(20) No
ClassID Int(20) No
Fname varchar(50) No
Lname varchar(50) No
Course varchar(50) No
Status varchar(50) No
Date Date No

Activities_Shared table
Field Name Type Null
ClassID int(20) No
Activity varchar(50) No
Note varchar(50) No
DATE_CREATED Date No

Activity_Report table
Field Name Type Null
ClassID int(20) No
StudentID int(20) No
Activity varchar(50) No
DATE_CREATED Date No

Activity table
Field Name Type Null
Name varchar(100) No
Description varchar(100) No
Type varchar(100) No
Teacher varchar(100) No
Date_CREATE Date No
Date_UPDATE Date No