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Dasmariñas City, Campus

2nd Semester, Academic Year 2020 – 2021


Physical Education & Health REQUISITE: GRADE 12

February 15-19

Physical Education and Health offers experiential learning for learners to adopt an
active life for fitness and lifelong health. The knowledge, skills and understanding
COURSE DESCRIPTION: which include physical and health literacy competencies support them in accessing,
synthesizing and evaluating information; making informed decisions; enhancing and
advocating their own as well as others’ fitness and health.

The learner…
Demonstrates understanding of recreation in optimizing one’s health as a habit; as requisite for
PA performance, and as a career opportunity
The learner…
Engages in moderate to vigorous physical activities (MVPAs) for at least 60 minutes
COMPETENCIES most days of the week in a variety of settings in- and out-of school
CONTENT Mountaineering (backpacking, hiking, trekking)

Activity: Chart

Description: Based on your given prior knowledge let’s discover the importance of exercise mountaineering through
watching the video. Click the following link.

(Video about different skill and health related fitness exercises) after this, answer the 3-2-1 Chart below.

3 things you’ve learned from the video.




2 desirable things you’ve learned in the video.



1 misconception from the video.


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Using the table graphic organizer, write the difference of hiking, trekking, and mountaineering. Click and watch the video


Hiking Trekking Mountaineering

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Mountaineering (also referred to as ‘mountain climbing’ or ―mainly in Europe― ‘Alpinism’) is the sport of climbing a

Regardless of the length of the trip ―which can range from a few hours to multi-day expeditions―, mountaineering is
more physically demanding than hiking. Mountains often provide a mixed terrain (with the presence of rock, ice and snow),
so climbers need to be able to navigate through a wide variety of conditions. Depending on the case, mountaineering may
involve using technical equipment and combining a series of related skills like scrambling, climbing, and glacier travel, ice
climbing or mixed climbing.

Besides reaching a summit or completing a ridge traverse, the true success (and the main objective) of a
mountaineering trip lies on overcoming safely every hazard along the route.

Most challenges in the mountain derive from the terrain’s characteristics: crevasses, avalanches, rock fall, glaciers, etc.
High altitude (especially when attempting a peak over 4,000 meters) and adverse weather conditions are two other essential
factors that may add difficulty to a mountaineering trip.

Other factors are directly related to mountaineers themselves, including their physical condition and acclimatization,
technical skills, equipment, orientation, resourcefulness and decision-making skills.

Mountaineering is mostly practiced in groups: team-work and support are very important parts of the activity.

When is the best time of the year for a mountaineering trip?

The best conditions for a mountaineering trip are generally during spring, early-Autumn, and summer. These
seasons provide more pleasant and stable weather conditions and allow mountaineers to avoid heavy snowfalls, extremely
cold temperatures, and strong winds.

Many mountains have a specific ‘peak season’: a time of the year when climbing is more popular. During peak
season, all services on the mountain (mountain huts, gondolas) are fully-functional, while most of them close in the off-
season. Some routes are only open during the official climbing season as well. On the downside, climbing a popular
mountain in peak season ―and especially during weekends or holidays― usually also implies more crowds.

Winter mountaineering is considered a more advanced stage in mountaineering, which requires specific equipment
and a more complete technical training. Winter conditions add technical difficulty to all mountain climbs. Besides, the risk of
avalanches is bigger during this time of the year. Winter mountaineering is only recommended for mountaineers with
previous experience.

What equipment do you need for mountaineering?

 Mountaineering rope.
 Harness designed for mountaineering.
 Mountaineering helmet (to protect from rock fall).
 Carabiners.
 Belay devise.
 Crevasse rescue equipment.
 Mountaineering boots.
 Camping items: 4-season tent, sleeping bag (check climate conditions), backpack.
 Crampons.
 Ice axes.
 Mountaineering gloves.

Some guides who lead mountaineering trips include their clients’ necessary equipment in the price. However, in other
cases, you will need to take your own equipment or rent it.

Why hiring a guide for a mountaineering trip?

Going on a mountaineering trip with a certified mountain guide is always recommended, both if you don’t have
much experience in the mountains and if you want to accomplish more challenging goals. A certified guide usually knows
the area very well, can handle the logistics of the trip and above all, is responsible for the group’s safety.

The world’s 10 best spots to practice mountaineering

1. French Alps. The cradle of alpinism boasts several classics, including the iconic Mont Blanc.
2. Cordillera Blanca, a stunning mountain range with many 4,000m summits, tucked deep in the Peruvian Andes.
3. Nepal, the ultimate goal for every mountaineer. Mountain expeditions to the summit of the imposing eight-
thousands of the Himalaya take several weeks and are definitely an once-in-a-lifetime experience!
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4. The Swiss Alps: Jungfrau, the Monch, Eiger and, of course, the Matterhorn. These mountains are full of some of the
big names in the mountaineering world.
5. Russia: mountaineering in the Caucasus Mountains should definitely be on your bucket list! Not only do they have
Mt Elbrus, the highest peak in Europe, but also many other exciting mountains to climb.
6. The Kyrgyz Mountains are still under the radar, but deserve a place on this list! From the easiest 7,000 m peak to
climb, Lenin Peak, to the beautiful mountains of Ala Archa, this country is a mountaineering gem.
7. The Ecuadorian Andes provide mountain adventures for all levels! The highlights are the big volcanoes:
Chimborazo (the highest peak in the country) and Cotopaxi.
8. Head to Argentina for two majestic summits that break all the records: Aconcagua, the roof of America and one of
the Seven Summits; and Ojos Del Salado, the highest volcano in the world at 6891 m.
9. The Japan Alps are a great mountaineering destination, especially for beginners or those who want to hone their
skills to pursue bigger challenges.
10. Denali (6190 m), also known as Mount McKinley, is the highest peak in the United States and also one of the Seven
Summits. It’s located in Alaska, very close to the Arctic Circle, so temperatures are below freezing!

5 Spots For Mountaineering In Philippines That Exhibit Exquisite Landscapes!

As already mentioned before the country has rich and diverse geography which leaves an interesting footprint over
the piece of land. These mountain ranges across the country make an apt pair with the blood-curling sport, encouraging
adventure junkies to try them out. Rich diverse flora and fauna the steep slopes are a huge natural abode. Let us now list
out some of these mountain ranges which have given the sport a new dimension.

1. Mount Makiling, Laguna- It is one of the top favorites with the climbers due to a
variety of reasons. Mt Makiling has varied vegetation spread across its hilly terrain.
The summit can be reached by bus in a total of 3 hours from Metro Manila and the
base of the hike is at St Tomas Batangas. While the overall journey can be a lot
excruciating due to the tough challenges posing at every step, this has not deterred
the climbers from trying it out. One of the best places for mountaineering in the
Philippines, the dense foliage of the mountain is a payoff at the end of the road.
Climb Duration: 7 hours-1 day

2. Mount Tapulao, Zambales- It can be rightfully termed as an “Endless trail”, due

to a variety of reasons. The exhilarating and starving journey to the summit is
encountered by uneven, rocky soil of the gradient which has a reddish
appearance. The peak also rewards the climbers with a winding trail that can be
difficult at times. After a few hours of the climb to the pine forests, one can also
soak in the view of the surroundings. The journey to the base point of the mountain
Iba, Zambales can be traversed in 5 hours from Metro Manila.
Climb Duration: 1 day (12-14 hours are consumed in the ascent alone).

3. Mount Apo, Davao Del Sur- This is an old veteran standing upright among all the
other mountains in the country. Looming sternly over Davao city, Mt Apo can be
rightfully hailed as one of the oldest mountain ranges. With so many synonyms to
its name, it does not come as a surprise that conquering the peak is every
climber’s dream. Blessed with Mossy forests along its trail, the peak is also home
to Lake Venado.
Climb Duration: 3-4 days (for both ascent and descent)

4. Mount Pulag, Benguet- It is yet another coldest mountain range in the country
that awaits you! The peak is also regarded as the third highest in the entire nation
and has a chilly atmosphere surrounding it. The journey to the base point will take
you an average of 9 hours (6 hours bus ride from Metro Manila to Baguio city, 3
hours to Ambangeg). The total hike to the campsite can take 5 hours to reach
where one can spend the rest of the night. Mossy forests along with the bed of
clouds wait to embrace you at the peak while sunrise.
Climb Duration: 1-2 days (for both ascent and descent)

5. Mount Maculot, Batangas- This summit is postcard-perfect for people who rely
on a revitalizing hike rather than a weary one. The overall duration to the base
point will take a 2-3 hours bus ride from Metro Manila. Another 2 hours can be
invested in taking a climb up to the “Rockies’ ‘where one can witness Taal lake,
Taal volcano, the nearby town of Batangas, and Tagaytay highlands in full glory.
Also in the distance, a clear shadow of Mt Makiling can be seen adding another
highlight to your trip.

Climb Duration: 5-6 hours (for both ascent and descent) or camping overnight
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Climb is the main activity of mountaineering, therefore a group needs to meet up for a pre-climb activity to discuss
all details of the climb such as the location, terrain, supplies, and roles of all members, joining the climb and the after-climb
activity for assessment and reporting.

Values Develop in Mountaineering

1. Being able to work with others.
2. Being responsible in tasks delegated to one’s person.
3. Being able to appreciate and take care of nature.
4. Being able to practice discipline when involved in an activity that need utmost care.


Many people tend to use the words hiking, trekking, and mountaineering as if they were synonyms. They’re all
similar in that you go out and walk in nature. However, there are important distinctions between them as well.

It’s important to know the difference between hiking, trekking, and mountaineering so that you can choose the right
adventure for you. Safety is also important. You want to choose an activity that suits both your physical abilities and skill
The easiest way to explain how these three activities are different is to distinguish each term and to categorize them
by difficulty.

The easiest of the three is hiking. You walk on well-marked trails of easy to moderate difficulty, although this
depends on where you’re hiking. These are usually half-day to one-day tours, like these hikes in the German Alps. The
terrain varies from relatively flat to steep. It can be on mountains, along a coastline like hiking the Cinque Terre in Italy, or
on a popular trail like the last 100 km of the Camino de Santiago in Spain. Although the latter is a multi-day hike, the hiking
is relatively easy with mild inclines. Hiking is easier than trekking or mountaineering but it can still be challenging.

Most hiking tours usually finish in the same place that you started. Either from hiking a loop or returning the same
way. Some hikes have a different start and end points, so always check before you start. I Hikes usually range between 2 to
8 hours. But having said that, you can also hike as long as you want. I’ve had very long days of 14-hour hikes. Needless to
say, longer hikes are tough physically so you need to ensure that you’re in good shape before embarking on one.

Besides the length, the elevation gain of the hike also plays a huge role in determining how difficult the hike is. A
very general rule of thumb is that you can hike 400 m (~1312 ft.) of elevation gain per hour. That’s dependable on how
steep the slope is and the difficulty of the terrain but it’s a general guideline. For hiking tours, you need minimal equipment
compared to trekking and mountaineering. You can find a list of what you need for a day hike here. Always be sure to bring
lots of water! If you’re new to hiking, start with shorter, flatter hikes and work your way up from there. Also, if you’ve never
hiked before it may seem difficult the first few hikes that you do. But stick with it. It gets easier. And you’ll be surprised at
how quickly you progress, especially if you’re doing additional cardio workouts between hiking. It’s important to find a
balance between challenging yourself and not overdoing it.

The other thing to be aware of is that the first 15-20 minutes of hiking is often the worst until you get into a breathing
rhythm. It can be tempting to think it’s too difficult and to quit when your lungs feel like they’re on fire but commit to hiking for
at least 30 minutes. Then see how you feel. Once you find your breathing rhythm, it gets easier and becomes more

Trekking is between hiking and mountaineering regarding difficulty. Although it’s more similar to hiking. The
difference being that treks are longer than hikes. When I say longer, it doesn’t mean that they take a couple more hours.
These trips usually take two or more days. This means that you will either have to camp (and bring all your food and
equipment). A good example of this is the Trilogy. It’s a series of three volcanoes in Guatemala.

Alternatively, when trekking in some locations, you may have the option to stay at small lodges, mountain huts or
even bed and breakfasts along the way.
For example, accommodations are available when you trek the Dolomites in Italy, Tour du Mont Blanc, and the
Italian Riviera. On other more remote trails like the Jordan Trail, you’ll need someone to set up a camp for you, or be self-
sufficient. Trekking is more challenging than hiking because you will be walking for multiple days in a row.

Treks usually start in one place and end in a different one. The distance can vary anywhere from ~40 km to several
hundred kilometers away. Some of the most popular treks can take a couple of weeks to complete. The Tour du Mont
Blanc, for example, takes you around the second highest mountain in Europe. You’ll trek through France, Italy, and
Switzerland. It’s typically done in 7 to 10 days. When trekking in the Dolomites you have lots of different options but we offer
tours of 7 or 10 days.

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Of the three, mountaineering is by far the most challenging. It’s a more technical variation of trekking that takes you
to higher peaks. Often to ones that are over 5000 meters above sea level. These are also multi-day trips that require a lot of
previous physical and technical training. You need more equipment than with hiking or trekking. And you’ll also need to
know how to use it properly.

For example, you must know how to climb on ice with crampons. You also need to know how to use an ice axe.
And how to safely cross huge cracks on the ice. Not to mention how to survive snowstorms, and how to walk on glaciers.
And if you slip, how to rescue yourself with an ice axe. In addition, in some locations, you need to be strong enough to be
able to endure long hours of ascending with low levels of oxygen.

Answer the following questions:

1. Discuss the nature of different mountaineering activities ;

2. Enumerate the basic equipment needed in mountaineering activities

3. List down the hazards in participating outdoor activities.

4. Why participating in mountaineering activities is so important?

5. How does mountaineering activities improve one’s health?

Quiz– to be uploaded in Edmodo

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A. List down some of the famous mountain destination around the world in;
1. Asia
2. North and South America
3. Europe
4. Africa
5. Australia
6. Antarctica

B. Answer the following questions:

1. How to preserve the beauty of nature.

2. What can you do in order to maintain the cleanliness in our environment?

3. How do you solve climate change?

4. What is your ideas on the Etiquette of hiking: “Leave nothing but footprints. Take nothing but photos. Kill nothing but time.
Keep nothing but memories”.

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Gialogo, R. C. (2016). Fit for life. Phoenix Publishing House

Sources (Web-based):

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