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Vol. - XXXV, No. - 03, Section-I, pp. 13-22, 2003

© Institutio n of Engineers, Sri Lanka

Cost - Effective Volume Batched Mixes for Grades

C25 and C30

P T R S Sugathadasa 1 and M T R Jayasinghe 2

1. Post Graduate Researcher. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Moratuwa.
2. Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engi neering. University ofMoratuwa.

Abstract : In BS 81 JO: Part I : 1997, the improved durability of concrete was achieved with mixes of
grades such as C25 and CJO. However, a volume batched prescribed mix of 1:2:4 (20 mm), which
generally achieves a characteristic strength of only 20 Nlm11{ is still used in many constrnction sites in Sri
Lanka as found from a recent questionnaire survey. This could be an undesirable situation that should be
corrected with both short and long term solutions. Jn this research, a cost effective short term solution is
suggested to obtain grades 25 and 30 concretes based on a detailed experimental programme. The
questionnaire survey also revealed that many engineers in Sri Lanka are willing to adopt such quality
improvements for concrete.

1.0 Introduction It is also possible to use prescribed mixes where

suitable mix proportions are specified on the
In Sri Lanka, reinforced concrete designs are basis of the materials generally used for concrete
carried out in accordance with BS 8110: Part I : production . In these, compliance is required
1997 which has speci tied higher strength with mix proportions and workability and
concretes in order to achieve adequate durability strength testing with concrete cubes is used for
(Dias, 1991 ). Thus, structural designs should be quality controlling purposes.
carried out for grade C25 or C30 with grade C25
being the minimum. These concrete strengths A survey carried out in 2002 has revealed that
can be easily achieved with ready mix concrete about 45% of the construction sites in Sri Lanka
or with weigh batching at sites. When weight still adopt volume batching with prescribed
batching facilities are available, it is usual to use mixes, such as I :2:4 cement, sand and 20 mm
designed mixes where the performance is coarse aggregates. Dias ( 1994) also has reported
specified by the designer, but the actual mix that volume batching was extensively used in Sri
proportions are determined by the concrete Lanka. The prescribed mixes recommended
producer (BS 5~28: 1981 ). In order to satisfy the such as I : 1.5 :3 and I : I :2 for grades 25 and 30,
strength and durability requirements, limiting respectively, are not used very much at many
values of water/cement ratio, cement content, sites due to the high cost. This may create an
minimum strength, minimum workability and undesirable situation where even the designs
maximum size of aggregates are stipulated. The carried out with grade 25 concrete may be
concrete producer would have the task of constructed with a I :2:4 prescribed mix . If it
developing a suitable mix based on available mix happens, concrete could have a lower
design methods. characteristic strength than envisaged by the
structural engineer. It is also possible that the
use of lower strength concrete could continue at
Manuscript received: 20.01 .2003
Revised manuscript received :26.08.2003 the expense of long term durability which might
Manuscript accepted: 15 . 09.2003

lead to costly rehabilitation work during the 3.0 The usage of volume batched
expected lifespan of the structure. concrete in Sri Lanka
Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop In order to determine the extent to which
prescribed concrete mixes that could be adopted volume batched concrete is used in Sri Lanka, a
economically to obtain grades 25 and 30 detailed questionnaire survey was carried out
concretes. Such a mix would be extremely with the participation of 132 practising
useful in the short term until the Sri Lankan engineers. These engineers included civil
construction industry is developed to adopt either engineers who function as structural design
ready mix or weigh batching at most of the engineers or involved in construction as site
construction sites, irrespective of the scale. This engineers, resident engineers, etc. Some have
Paper describes an experimental research project practised as consultants and project managers.
carried out to develop such economical concrete They represented leading public and private
mixes that cou\d be adopted without significant sector organisations. The average year's or
revision of the concrete rates quoted for experience of these engineers was eight. The
prescribed concrete mixes. Thus, it has a much profile of engineers is given in Table 1.
higher chance [or being adopted immediately.
Table 1: A summary of engineers participated
2.0 The objectives and in the questionnaire survey
methodology Type of Site!
Structural/ Consultin
the Construe Project
Design g
The main objective of the study is to develop organisati non Manager
Engineer Engineer
on Engineer
economical volume batched concrete mixes that
Public 17 08 12 13
could be used to obtain grades 25 and 30 17
Private 15 08 09
concretes. Public &
05 07 10 II
In order to achieve the above objective, the
following methodology was adopted. The questionnaire was structured so as to
encourage practising engineers to participate in
1. The usage of volume batched concrete the study and also help participants to provide
in the Sri Lankan construction industry was the necessary information easily. A sample
assessed with a questionnaire survey. questionnaire survey form is given in Appendix
A. The first part of the questionnaire contained
2. The possibility of improving the the questions seeking information on the type of
compressive strength of concrete by changing the the work performed. The sites were categorized
cement content was investigated experimentally. as small, medium and large scale whereas the
construction type ranged from low and high rise
3. A detailed cost study was carried out to buildings, bridge construction, irrigation work.
determine the cost increments associated with etc. The second part of the questionnaire was to
the proposed mixes when compared with 1:2:4 find the information on the type or concrete used
volume batched concrete. The cost savings whether it is ready mix, designed mixes or
relative to the currently recommended prescribed mixes (volume batching). The
prescribed mixes for grades 25 and 30 mixes participants were given the freedom to select
were also determined. more than one answer. The remaining part of the
questionnaire was to find the information about
volume batching in depth. They included the
reasons for adopting volume batching, where it
was used in a concrete structure and whether
volume batching was used to obtain strengths

such as grades 25 or 30. It also examined
whether extra cement was added to nominal
mixes and the reasons for that. It further
o Small scale sites
examined whether corrective measures were
taken to prevent the bulking of sand. Chart 1
• Medium scale
shows the percentage of the respondents sites
involved with small. medium and large scale
sites respectively. 61.71%
o Large scale sites

Chart 1: Percentage of the respondents involved

with different scale sites

Among the respondents, most of them (67.39%)

were involved with building sites. It is interesting
to note that 45% of the respondents generally used
ready mix concrete whereas 45% of the respondents o Ready mix
usually used volume batching (prescribed mixes).
The percentage using designed mixes in the site 10%
level was 10%. The results are shown graphically • Volume batching
in Chart 2. (Nominal mix)

DMix design

Chart 2: Concrete usage in the Sri Lankan

construction industry
There were many reasons for the use of volume willing to adopt guidelines that would lead to the
batching. Volume batching was selected by enhancement of concrete quality. Therefore, there
61.36% due to its practicability and easy adoption is a good chance of adopting any economical
at sites. This is the reason given by many engineers solutions developed in many construction sites.
who were doing construction in rural areas except
those involved with many large construction jobs.
Many other engineers (20.45%) used volume
batching since it is the traditionally used method.
• Easy to adopt and
Some others gave both the above reasons. Even in practicable at sites
large construction sites, volume batching was used
when a small quantity of concrete was required.
9% • Traditionally used method
Somc have used richer mixes such as I: 1.5:3 and
1:1:2 for producing grades 25 and 30, respectively. 20.45% 61.36%
Even at present when volume batching is used, the
addition of extra cement is used sometimes. This is o Both traditionally used
method and easy to
to improve strength,. reduce segregation and adoption
bleeding, and to improve the workability.

Chart 3: The reasons for the usage of the volume

It is interesting to note that out of those usmg
volume batching. the majority (88.64%) were batching

4.0 The experimental investigation degree, For example, the cement content was
increased by 10%, 20%, 30%. Such an increase in
4.1 The background to alternative mixes the cement content is practically possible at sites
since it is possible to make an extra gauge box of
The coarse and fine aggregate used in Sri Lanka has LO%, 20%, or 30% the volume for cement
a bulk density of about 1500-1600 kg/m". The solid depending on the grade of concrete required.
density is about 2600-2700 kg/m '. The water to
cement ratio used with 1:2:4 (20 mm) volume 4, 2 Concrete mixes used for the study
hatched concrete is about 0.55. Thus, it is possible
to convert the 1:2:4 (20 mrn) volume batched The mix proportions used for the study are given in
proportion to weight batched ratios with reasonable Table 2. It can be seen that only the cement
values for densities. This exercise was carried out content is increased as a percentage of the volume.
with bulk densities of 1400 kg/nr', 1550 kg/rn"
1500 kg/nr' for cement, sand and 20 rnm Table 2: The concrete mixes used for the study
aggregates, respectively, The values used for solid Identification % increase
densities were 3150 kg/rrr', 2650 kg/rrr' and 2600 in cement
kg/m", respectively. This indicates that the cement Qy volume
content per m) of concrete is about 310 kg/nr' with Mix No: I 1:2:4 -
1:2:4 (20 mm) volume batched concrete. This is Mix No: 2 1.1:2:4 10%
well above the minimum cement content specified MixNo: 3 1,2:2:4 20%
in BS 8110: Part I: 1997. Mix No: 4 1.3:2:4 30%

A similar calculation for I: 1.5:3 (20 rnm) concrete 4, 3 The method used for concrete cubes
indicates a cement content of about 375 kg/nr'. The For all the mix proportions, it was decided to
cement content for I: 1:2 (20 rnm) mix is about 485 ensure that the workability remains the same. For
kg/rrr'. This indicates a quite high usage of cement most of the tasks where volume batching is used, a
associated with the mixes recommended for grades workability indicated by a slump of 50 -60 mill
25 and 30 of volume batched concrete. Therefore, would be sufficient. Since the water to cement
it is prudent to develop alternative mixes that ratio that gives such a slump is not known. it is
achieve the required strength with less cement. achieved in the following manner: The constituent
materials were initially fed to a tilting drum mixer
When alternative mixes are suggested, it is essential with a water cement ratio or 0.4. Alter proper
to make them practically adoptable. One of the key mixing, the slump is measured. At this water
features of volume batched concrete is that the ratio cement ratio, the mix generally had almost zero
between the coarse and fine aggregates is slump. Then water was gradually sprinkled and
maintained at 2. This is for the practical purpose then mixed to improve the workability. The slump
that the same batching boxes could be used for was measured at suitable intervals. As soon as the
cement, fine and coarse aggregates. slump' reached 50-60 mm, the mix was used to cast
It was reported by Shackloek (1974) that with a concrete cubes. The additional quantity of water
given set of materials and water cement ratio, the added was used to calculate the water cement ratio.
strength of concrete tends to increase as the From each mix, nine cubes were made. The cubes
aggregate to cement ratio decreases, especially for were also made using the standard method. The
low to medium strength concretes. Thus, eube was filled in three layers. Eaeh layer was
increasing the cement content could be considered given 35 blows with a 1.8 kg hammer. These were
as a strategy for increasing the concrete strength. tested at the ages of 7 days, 28 days, and 2 months.
Therefore, in the present study, the attention was The cubes were de-moulded one day after casting.
placed on obtaining an increase in strength by All the cubes were kept in a water bath until testing,
increasing the cement content by a reasonable after de-moulding.

In order to ensure that the comparison of results obtained as the mean strength under laboratory
would be acceptable, the following controls were conditions. However, it is stated that this current
used for all the cubes: margin could be reduced by about 3.5 N/mm2 when
nine cubes were tested (Bambrook et al. (1975».
• same brand of cement was used for a given
Thus, the current margin required for the results
given in Table 5 could be considered as 10 N/mm2
• The coarse and fine aggregates were the
since those are the average values obtained for 12
same (coarse aggregate is of the well
graded nominal size of 20 mm to 5 mm The results in Table 5 indicates that the use of Mix
and fine aggregate is of the well graded
No: 3, which has 20% extra cement, could give a
medium type of aggregate according to BS current margin in excess of 10 N/mm2 for grade 25
882, 1983)
concrete at 28 days. Thus, Mix No: 3 could be
• The same mixing method was used for all sufficient for grade 25 concrete. Similarly, Mix
the cubes No: 4 could be recommended for grade 30 concrete.
• The same experimental programme was It should be noted that these two mixes have given
repeated with other brands of cement higher current margin than that obtained for 1:2:4
(20mm) volume batched mix that is presently used.
5. Results of the experimental study It has given a margin of only 7. 8 N/mm2 for grade
The results of the experimental programme are 20 concrete.
given below for the four brands of cement with the
mixes given in Table 2. All these results have been obtained with strictly
controlled water cement ratios. However, at site
Table 3: The water cement ratios for a constant conditions, it is difficult to expect such strictly
workability (slump value of 50-60mm) for different controlled situations. Therefore, it is prudent to
brands of cements check the strength with higher slump values such as
those giving collapse. Therefore, another set of
Water cement ratio experiments were carried out by increasing the
Brand slump until collapse only with Brands 3 and 4.
Mix Brand I Brand 2 Brand 3
4 The results of these experiments are given in Table
Mix 6.
0.54 0.57 O. 55 0.57
No: I
Mix Even with collapse slump, Mix No.3, which has
0.51 0.56 0.54 0.55
No: 2 20% extra cement has given an average strength of
Mix 28.8 N/mm2. Mix No.4 has given a strength of
0.50 0.54 O. 53 0.53
No: 3 32.5 N/mm2. The water cement ratio for these
Mix mixes was above 0.7. This indicates that even
0.43 O. 53 0.52 0.51
No: 4 under adverse conditions, these mixes could give a
sufficient strength. However, it should be noted
that this does not mean that such high water cement
Under normal conditions adopted in Sri Lanka, a ratio should be used. Literature on previous
standard deviation of about 8 is usually used for research such as Bambrook et al. (1975), Dias
concrete mixes. This is to allow for average quality (1994) show that a lower water cement ratio will
controlling measures adopted at many construction give higher strengths and lower permeability, thus
sites where semi-or unskilled workers may be leading to higher durability. Hence water cement
associated with the production of concrete. The use ratio should be strictly controlled even for volume
of 8 N/mm2 gives a current margin of about J3 batched concrete based on the proposed prescribed
N/mm2. This means, when grade 20 concrete is mixes.
needed, a strength of about 33 N/mm2 should be

Table 4: The average compressive strength of concrete at 7 days, 28 days and 60 days for different brands
of cements

Average compressive strength in N/mm

Mix Brand I Brand 2 Brand 3 Brand 4

7 28 7 7 7 28
60 days 28 days 60 days 28 days 60 days 60 days
days days days days days days

Mixl 20. 5 28.9 32.0 19.5 27. 7 29.5 20. I 28. 7 31. 7 18.5 26. I 29.2

Mix2 24. 8 33.8 37.2 23.6 32. I 35.3 24.6 33.6 37. 5 23.5 32.2 35 2

Mix3 27.0 37.0 38. 7 25. 2 36. 2 39. I 28.5 38. 2 40.2 26.3 36.2 38. I

Mix4 29. 7 40.9 41. 4 27.2 38.0 42. I 30. I 42. I 43. I 28. I 38. 7 40. 7

Table 5: The average compressive strength at 7 For these mixes, the cement content was calculated
days, 28 days and 60 days by using the bulk and solid densities given in
Section 3 The cement contents are given in Table
The average compressive strength 7 with the likely extra cost per m3 of concrete. The
lor all cements in N/mm2 price of a 50 kg bag of cement was considered as
Rs 370/=.
Mix 7 days 28 days 60 days
Table 6: The average compressive strength of
concrete at 28 days and 60 days for very high
MixNo I
19.6 27. 8 30.6 workability (almost collapse slump)

Mix No 2 Average compressive strength in N/mm2 for

24.1 32.9 36.3
(10%) almost collapsed slump
Mix No 3 Mix Brand 3 Brand 4 Average
26. 8 36.9 39.0
(20%) 28 60 28 60 28 60
days days days days days days
Mix No 4 41. 7
28. 8 39.9 Mix
No 19.7 21. 4 23.0 23. 7 21. 4 22.6
6. The cost study Mix
Since the same mix is used with additional cement No 24.2 25. 7 24. 7 26. 2 24.4 26.0
such as 10%, 20%, and 30%, the extra cost would 2
be primarily due to the cost of cement. Other costs Mix
such as of aggregates, water and labour would No 28.4 32. 8 29.1 32.4 28. 8 32.6
remain approximately the same. 3
No 31. 7 33.3 33.2 33.6 32.5 33.4

Table 7: The Table showing cement content, However, when this volume batched concrete is
increase in cement content and the extra cost for used for higher strength concretes, the following
different concrete mixes proposed precautions could be suggested based on the
research carried out in Sri Lanka:
Increase of Extra cost
Mix content 1. The strength of concrete could be affected
cement (kg) Rs.
(kg) by the compaction effort. It is proposed by
Mix No: Chandrakeerthy et al., (1986), that
310 - concrete should be compacted with either
Mix No: immersion or shutter vibrators. This
325 15 110/= suggestion should be applied for the
Mix No: proposed mixes since hand compaction
350 40 295/= could give much variability in strength due
Mix No: to poor compaction.
380 70 520/=
2. The strength of concrete and the
Table 8: The Table showing cement content, workability could be improved with well
increase of cement content and extra cost for the graded aggregates. Therefore, the
existing concrete mixes. blending of 20 mm aggregates with small
aggregates was recommended by
Cost Chandrakeerthy, (1987). This could be
Increase savings achieved generally by blending 20 mm
Cement Extra aggregates with 8 mm chips with a ratio of
of with
Mix content cost about 3: 1. This could result in a cost
cement proposed
(kg) Rs. saving as well since 8 mm chips are
(kg) mix per
m cheaper than 20 mm aggregates.
3. The water cement ratio affects strength
20 310 - - -
and durability as described by Dias,
(1 :2:4)
(1994), with a detailed experimental
programme carried out using the sorptvity
375 65 480/= 185/= of concrete. Therefore, the control of
(1:1.5:3) slump to the required level with a slump
cone test at the site will be quite useful as
recommended by Chandrakeerthy, (1987),
30 485 175 1295/= 775/=
even with volume batched concrete. This
will allow varying the water content
depending on the variation of the moisture
The comparison of Tables 7 and 8 indicates the
content in the aggregates such as that
likely cost increase for grades 25 and 30 concretes
occur on rainy days.
with the proposed mix and those generally
recommended. This clearly shows that there is a
4. It is advisable to select a suitable mixing
very good potential to adopt the proposed mixes
time depending on the concrete mixer
immediately as a short term solution to improve the
available at the site so that a concrete mix
strength of concrete used in the Sri Lankan
of uniform colour could be obtained. It
construction industry. This would be extremely
was reported by Chandrakeerthy (1987)
useful in many remote sites where it is not
that the improper mixing of concrete could
practicable to obtain ready mix concrete.
create many problems such as low
workability and honeycombs.

5. As reported by Dias, (1994), curing of 2. It is prudent to use a reasonable quantity of
concrete could affect the durability of water so that the slump will remain in the
concrete very much under Sri Lankan 50 to 60 mm range. However, even with
conditions. Therefore, adequate curing of higher water cement ratios, the above
concrete also should be given sufficient prescribed mixes could give sufficient
attention. It was reported by strength. This will ensure that even with
Chandrakeerthy, (1987), that volume variations that could occur at the site
batched concrete made under careful conditions, these mixes could guarantee
control at the site could reduce the sufficient strength provided that good site
variability of strength. Thus, strict quality practices are adopted for placing and
controlling measures should be adopted curing of concrete.
even with volume batched concrete.
3. The approximate cement content in the
Therefore, it is recommended that the prescribed proposed mixes for grade 25 and 30 are
mixes suggested for volume batched concrete 350 kg/rrr' and 380 kg/rrr', respectively.
mixes based on this experimental study should be However, the cement content of the
used with extra quality control measures identified existing mixes for concrete grades 25 and
by past research work. With such measures, there 30 are 375 kg/rrr' and 485 kg/rrr',
may be a possibility to recommend a lower strength respectively. This indicates a saving of 25
margin for the site work in future that may even kg/m' and lO5 kg/rrr' of cement. Thus,
allow the use of lO% extra cement for Grade 25 there would be cost saving of about Rs
concrete, instead of 20% recommended in this 185/= per mJ and Rs 775/= per mJ of
research, resulting in greater savings. concrete.

7. Conclusions 4. The cement contents for Grades 20, 25, 30

could be approximately given as 310, 350
It is shown that volume batched grade 20 concrete and 380 kg/m', Therefore, the proposed
has been used at many construction sites in Sri mixes will cost about Rs 295/= and Rs
Lanka although BS 8110: Part I: 1997 recommends 520/= per mJ more than Grade 20
higher grades. Therefore, it is useful to develop concrete. Since the cost of I mJ of Grade
cost effective nominal mixes that could be adopted 20 concrete is about Rs 4,500/=, these
at least in the short term. It is shown that the increases will be in the range of 6% and
prescribed mixes presently recommended in Sri II % for Grade 25 and 30 concretes,
Lanka for grades 25 and 30 concretes, use quite respectively. If concrete cost is considered
high amounts of cement and could be considered as to be only 30 -35% of the total structural
expensive for many projects. These values are cost, this would mean only about 2%
approximately 375 kg/rrr' and 485 kg/rrr', increase in the structural costs. Since
Grade 25 concrete is generally
The detailed experimental programme carried out recommended in Sri Lanka, there is a very
has revealed the following: high possibility for adopting the proposed
mix for Grade 25 at many construction
I. It is possible to use 1:2:4 (20 mm) volume sites. If a higher Grade such as 30 is
batched concrete with 20% and 30% extra specified, the proposed mix with 30%
cement to obtain grade 25 and 30 extra cement could be used. When even
concretes, respectively. The extra cement higher grades are specified, it is advisable
could be added by using a gauge box to use weigh batching since it would need
which is either 20% or 30% the volume of greater quality control.
the gauge box used for volume batching.

Acknowledgement Engineer, The Journal of the Institution of
Engineers, Sri Lanka, Volume XX, pp 4-24.
The authors are extremely grateful to the
engineers who participated in the questionnaire 8. Dias, W.P.S., (1994), "Influence of mix
survey. The technical officers of the constituents and workmanship factors on
Department of Civil Engineering, Messes concrete strength and durability", Engineer,
S.P.Madanayake, S.L Kapuruge and H.P. The Journal of the Institution of Engineers, Sri
Nandaweera assisted this detailed experimental Lanka, Volume XX, pp3-17.
programme with enthusiasm and commitment.
The Asian Development Bank funded STPDD 9. Shacklock B.W.(1974), Concrete constituents
Project of the Ministry of Science and and mix proportions, Cement and Concrete
Technology has sponsored the research Association, England, 102 p.
assistantship of the first author.
Biographical Sketches :
1. Barnbrook, G., Dore, E., Jeffery, A.H., Keen, (Moratuwa), M.Sc. (Moratuwa) was a research
R., Parkinson, J.D., Sawtell, D.L., Shacklock, assistant at Department of Civil Engineering,
B.W., Spratt, B.H., (1975), Concrete Practice, University of Moratuwa.
Cement and Concrete Association, England, 63
p. M T R JAY ASING HE, B.Sc. Eng (Moratuwa),
Ph.D. (Cambridge) is an Associate Professor at
2. BS 882: 1983, Aggregates from natural Department of Civil Engineering, University of
sources for concrete, BS1, England. Moratuwa.

3. BS 8110: Part I: 1997, Structural use of

concrete, Part i. Code of practice for design
and construction, BS1, England.

4. Chandrakeerthy, S.R.De.S., Wanigedera,

G.H.U.A, Tissera, P.K.D, Wijeratne,
A.S.(1986) "Influence of compaction on 1:2:4
volume batched concrete", The Institution of
Engineers Sri Lanka Transactions,
Volume:l, pp 87-99.

5. Chandrakeerthy, S.R.De.S.,( 1987),

"Improvements to I :2:4 volume batched
concrete in Sri Lanka", The indian Concrete
Journal, Volume: 61, Number: 5, pp 129-138.

6. Dias, W.P.S.(l991), "Specifying for concrete

durability: Part I - A critical review",
Engineer, The Journal of the Institution of
Engineers, Sri Lanka, Volume XIX, pp 51-63.

7. Dias, W.P.S.,(l992), "Specifying for concrete

durability: Part 2 - The Sri Lankan Context",

Appendix A (Please tick where necessary & specify
the mix as in the order of cement, sand,
Questionnaire survey aggregate for each case)
Project: Development of nominal mixes suitable cement:sand:aggregate
for the construction industry in Sri Lanka Columns 0
Column kiker 0
Researchers: Dr M. T. R. Jayasinghe & Mr P. T. Foundations 0
R. S. Sugathadasa
Funding: Asian Development Bank Funded
S.T.P.D.P project of the Ministry of Science and 6. Do you use volume batched concrete, when
either grade 25 or 30 concrete is needed?
Name: I). Yes 0
Address: 2). No 0
Post & current place of work: 7. If the answer is 'Yes' what are the mixes?
No of years of experience:
Underline your choice or tick where necessary. Grade 25
You may give more than one answer. (Multiple Grade 30
answers are possible)
8. If you rely on ready mix concrete, how do you
I. What is the type of project that you work
achieve the demand for a small quantity of
I). Small Scale 0 I). Nominal mixes (Volume batching) 0
2). Medium Scale 0 2). Mix design 0
3). Large Scale 0
9. Do you add additional cement to the volume
2. What is the type of construction? batched concrete in special circumstances?
I). Buildings up to 3 storeys 0 I). Yes 0
2). Buildings more than 3 storeys ~ 2). No 0
3). Bridges
4). Irrigation works 10. If your answer is 'Yes', it is to
5). Any other (Please specify) I). increase the strength ~
2). increase the workability
3. Concrete types used 3). reduce segregation & bleeding
I). Ready mix 0 4). all of the above
2). Mix design 0 . 0
3). Nominal mix (Volume batching) 1 I. In volume batching what would you do to

4). Combination of above I or 2 with 30
Tfvolume batching is used, then the reason is:
prevent the bulking of fine aggregate?
I). Keep sand away from rain water
2). Account for variation of sand volume
I). it is easy to adopt 0 3). Do not consider it seriously
2). traditionally used method 0
3). both of the above methods 0 12. If a set of guidelines are prepared for the
4). any other (Please specify) 0 . quality improvement of volume batched
5. !fyou are using with volume batching, where concrete, will you accept it?
do you use them? I). Yes 0
2). No 0
3). Maybe 0